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Procedia Engineering

Volume 143, 2016, Pages 445–453

Advances in Transportation Geotechnics 3 . The 3rd


International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics
(ICTG 2016)

In-Situ Monitoring of Side Friction of Drilled Piles


by Different Loading Methods
Liqing Zhang1,2 , Ye Ma1,2, Chunxia Song1,2, Yu Yang1,2 and Lvyin Zhao3
1
Research Institute of Highway, Ministry of Transport, Beijing, China.
2
National Engineering Laboratory for safety technology of bridge structure, Beijing, China.
3
Hangzhou Highway Administration Bureau, Hangzhou, China.
34320409@qq.com,228601028 @qq.com,715235504@qq.com,402051135@qq.com

Abstract
Side frictions of three groups of drilled piles under different loading methods in Xinwan interchange
of Qianjiang Passageway and Connecting Project were monitored. Group 1 was loaded by static
loading test method. The other two groups were loaded by dead load of superstructures, which were
constructed using segmental hanging basket method and overall support cast-in-place method
respectively. Axial forces and Side friction in all the piles increased gradually during the load-adding
procedure. Group 1 was loaded two months after the finish of pile foundation construction, while
group 3 started bearing the action of superstructure dead load six months after the finish of pile
foundation construction. Piles in Group 1 and Group 3 have different repose time. Side frictions
monitored from piles in Group 3, which have longer repose time, were larger than those in Group 1
under the same load. Side frictions monitored from piles in Group 2, which have longer off-time
between two loading stage, were larger than those in Group 1 under the same load.

Keywords: drilled pile; side friction; loading method; repose time

1 Introduction
The use of drilled piles in construction engineering has gradually increased since 1980s.
Researches on the long-term bearing characters of piles after piles are founded were carried out by
more and more engineers and technicians. Yang et al. (2013)’s study showed that axial force of pile
were adjusted and enhancing effect of dynamic side friction were obtained in sand soil under
long-term cyclic loading. In different periods of the same pile static load test, Chen (1987) showed that
pile side resistance increased with time, while resistance at pile end has no obvious change. Static load
tests of two drilled piles in soft soil were carried out for 28 days and 1750 days after they were
constructed. In-situ test showed that the ultimate bearing capacity of these two single piles increased
about 30 % (Zheng et al. 2003). Chen (2006) study indicates that the time-effect can affect more than


Corresponding author

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Programme Committee of ICTG 2016 445
c The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.056
In-Situ Monitoring of Side Friction of Drilled Piles by Different Loading Methods Li-Qing et al.

10 percent of the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile. By a volume of single pile and a volume of 4
piles foundation, tests were carried out under long-term sustained loading individually and by loading
directly, Li (2011) show that under long-term load full consolidation before loading, soil bearing
capacity increase, and the phenomenon of pile groups more obvious than single pile. Through field
monitoring for bearing behavior of drilled pile in the whole bridge construction, side friction increases
gradually in the process of bridge construction (2014). All the researches above indicate that the
bearing capacity of drilled piles changes after the build-up of piles.
At present, a large number of Bridges need to be upgraded in China, and using the existing pile
foundation in bridge upgraded is economic and reasonable. It is required in reference [8] that after the
long-term action of superstructure, vertical bearing capacity of pile can increase by 20% compared
with the original design value when settlement of pile foundation was basically terminated, but the
support materials were not given. If the foundation displacement exceeds the design expectations,
checking and evaluation for bearing capacity of foundation should be conducted, but the method and
requirements not give also in the reference [9]. Although evaluation for bearing capacity of existing
pile foundation are put forward in these code, but there is no field monitoring data to support these
evaluation method.
In conclusion, clear and reasonable methods to evaluate the bearing capacity of pile foundation
need to fully grasp the long-term bearing capacity of pile foundation by monitoring.
In order to analyze the influence of side friction of drilled piles by different load-adding route,
three groups of drilled piles of three bridges constructed by different method in Xinwan interchange of
Qianjiang Passageway and Connecting Project were monitored.
Group 1 has three piles located in the main line viaduct, and loaded by static load test.
Group 2 has two piles located in the main line viaduct, loaded by dead load of superstructures,
which were constructed by segmental hanging basket.
Group 3 has two piles located ramp bridge, loaded by dead load of superstructures, which were
constructed by overall support cast-in-place.

2 Test Overview

2.1 Engineering Geology


Three groups drilled piles located in the alluvial plain region, geological conditions from top to
bottom is mainly composed of silt, silty sand, muddy clay, silty clay, fine sand, gravel and round
gravel. Stratum distribution at the location of piles is shown in table 1.
No. Stratum No. Soil type No. Stratum No. Soil type
1 ķ0 plain fill 9 Ĺ5 muddy clay
2 ķ2 silt 10 Ĺ6 silty clay
3 ķ3 silt 11 ĺ3 silty clay
4 ĸ1 silt 12 Ļ1 silty clay
5 ĸ2 silt sand 13 Ļ3 silt
6 ĸ3 silt 14 Ļ4 silt sand
7 Ĺ2 mucky silty clay 15 ļ6 gravel
8 Ĺ2' clay 16 ļ7 round gravel
Table 1: Stratum distribution in location of piles

2.2 Piles of Group 1


Three piles of Group 1 located in the main line viaduct, pile numbers are G12-2ǃG15-5ǃG17-5,
these piles have the same parameters of 1.60 m, pile top elevation are +2.10 m, pile bottom elevation
are -83.00m, pile length are 85.10m.
Piles in Group 1 loaded by slow maintenance loading method with anchor pile reaction beam, the
Maximum load is 20000kN, and loaded under 10 steps. Group 1 was loaded two months after the

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In-Situ Monitoring of Side Friction of Drilled Piles by Different Loading Methods Li-Qing et al.

finish of pile foundation construction.

2.3 Piles of Group 2


Two piles of Group 2 located in the main line viaduct, pile numbers are G38-3ǃG38-4, both of
them have the same parameters of 2.00 m, pile top elevation are +1.60 m, pile bottom elevation are
-80.00m, pile length are 81.60m.
Piles in Group 2 loaded by dead load of bridge superstructures, which are continuous box-girder
bridge, with span arrangement 40m+60m+40m, the main girder is box section by “1- box and
4-rooms”, and the girder height changed along the vertical direction of bridge, girder height on the
pier is 3.8m, and at mid span is 2.0m. The main girder was divided into 7 segments, which were
constructed by segmental hanging basket. Load at different stage on piles is shown in table 2.
G38-3 G38-4
construction stage
load/kN total load/kN load/kN total load/kN
pile cap poured 1601 1601 1884 1884
pier body poured 1319 2920 1130 3014
0# segment poured 2638 5558 2921 5935
1# segment poured 753 6311 847 6782
2# segment poured 754 7065 848 7630
3# segment poured 754 7819 660 8290
4# segment poured 565 8384 753 9043
5# segment poured 659 9043 660 9703
6# segment poured 754 9797 565 10268
closure poured -942 8855 -1413 8855
Table 2: Load at different stage on piles in Group 2

2.4 Piles of Group 3


Two piles of Group 3 located in Xinwan interchange J ramp bridge, pile number is J2-1ǃJ2-2,
both of them have the same parameters, pile diameter are 1.60 m, pile top elevation are +1.40 m, pile
bottom elevation are -61.60m, pile length are 63.00m.
Piles in Group 3 loaded by dead load of bridge superstructures, which are continuous box-girder
bridge, with span arrangement 4h30m, the main girder is single box single room, girder height is
1.8m, and the girder were constructed by overall support cast-in-place.

2.5 Monitoring Equipment and Method


Load on pile top and pile bottom are monitored by pressure sensor, three pressure sensors are
arranged at each monitoring section symmetrically, which are connected with steel reinforcement cage
by weld.
Pile stress is monitored by steel bar gauge, each test section symmetrically arranged three steel
bar gauges, which are directly welded with the reinforcement.
Piles in Group 1 were monitored by slow maintenance loading method, pile stress was measured
under each stage of loading.
Piles in Group 2 and Group 3 were monitored according to bridge construction progress,
monitoring data was measured in time after each construction stage.

3 Monitoring Results
Calculation equation for pile side friction as follows:
qsi (Qi  Qi 1 ) /(uli ) (1)
Where, qsi is pile side friction between pile section i and i+1 in kPa; Qi is axial force at pile section i

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In-Situ Monitoring of Side Friction of Drilled Piles by Different Loading Methods Li-Qing et al.

in kN; u is thhe perimeter of o pile in m; li is the lenggth between pile m i is


p section i and i+1 in m;
tessting section nnumber of axiial force of pille.
Monitoringg results of Axial
A force and
a side frictiion of piles of
o three grouups are colleccted as
follows:

3.1 Results of Group 1


Piles in G
Group 1 at diffferent load sttages of vertiical static loaad test Q̚s curve,
c s̚lgt curve,
disstribution of ppile axial forcee and side fricction are show
wed in Fig. 1~ Fig. 12.

3.2 Results of Group 2


Design commpressive ultiimate bearing capacity of siingle pile of Group
G 2 is 200000kN, expresssed by
Qmax
m . Piles in Group
G 2 at diffferent load sttages of distriibution of pilee axial force and
a side frictiion are
shhowed in Fig. 13~ Fig. 16.

3.3 Results of Group 3


Design com mpressive ultiimate bearing capacity of siingle pile of Group
G 3 is 160000kN, expresssed by
Qm max. Piles in Group 3 at diifferent load stages
s of distrribution of pille axial force and side frictiion are
shhowed in Fig. 17~ Fig. 20.
0 2000
0 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
0

-2
Q/kN

-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

-14

-16

-18

-20

-22
s/mm
Fig.11: Q~scurve of G12-2
G Fig.2: s~lgt curvee of G12-2

Axial force Qi/kN


N

10
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 22
2000
 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
00 110 120

Pile side frriction qsi/kPa


0 0

-10 -10
1st stage(40000kN)
-20 -20
2nd stage(60000kN)
-30 -30 3rd stage(80000kN)
1st stage(4000kN) 4th stage(100000kN)
2nd stage(6000kN
N) -40 5th stage(120000kN)
-40
3rd stage(8000kN) 6th stage(140000kN)
-50 4th stage(10000kN
N) -50
7th stage(160000kN)
5th stage(12000kN
N) 8th stage(180000kN)
-60 -60
6th stage(14000kN
N) 9th stage(190000kN)
-70 7th stage(16000kN
N) -70 10th stage(200000kN)
8th stage(18000kN
N)
-80 9th stage(19000kN
N) -80

Elevation of sectio
on i/m 10th stage(20000k
kN) -90
Elevattion of sectioni/m
-90

Fig.3: Axial fforce at differennt load stages off G12-2 Fig.4: Side frictionn at different load stages of G112-2

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In-Situ Monitoring of Side Friction of Drilled Piles by Different Loading Methods Li-Qing et al.

0 2000 4000 6000 8


8000 10000 12000
0 14000 16000 180
000 20000
0
Q/kN
-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

-14

-16
s/mm
m
Fig.55: Q~scurve of
o G15-5 Fig.6: s~lgt c
curve of G15-55

 Axial force Qi/kkN


0 2000 4000 6000
0 8000 10000 12000 140
000 16000 18000 20000 22
2000
10  10 0 10 20 30 40 5
50 60 70 80 90 100

0 Pile side friction


f qsi/kPa
0
-10
-10

-2
20 -20 1st stage(40
000kN)
1st stage(4000kN) 2nd stage(6000kN
6 )
-3
30 -30
2nd stage(60000kN) 3rd stage(80000kN)
-4
40 4th stage(100000kN)
3rd stage(80000kN) -40
5th stage(122000kN)
-5
50
4th stage(100000kN)
-50 6th stage(144000kN)
5th stage(120000kN)
7th stage(166000kN)
-6
60 6th stage(140000kN) -60
8th stage(188000kN)
7th stage(160000kN) 9th stage(199000kN)
-7
70 -70
8th stage(180000kN) 10th stage(20000kN
2 )
-8
80 9th stage(190000kN) -80
10th stage(200000kN)
Elevation of sectionni/m on of sectioni/m
Elevatio
-9
90 -90

Fig.7: Axial fforce at differennt load stages off G15-5 Fig.8: Side frictionn at different load stages of G115-5

0 2000 4000 6000 8


8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 1800
00 20000
0

-2 Q/kN
-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

-14

-16

-18

-20

-22

-24
s/mm
m
Fig.99: Q~scurve of
o G17-5 Fig.10: s~lgt c
curve of G17-55

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In-Situ Monitoring of Side Friction of Drilled Piles by Different Loading Methods Li-Qing et al.

Axial force Qi/kN


 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 22000
10  10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

0
Pile side friction qsi/kPa
0

-10 -10
1st stage(4000kN)
-20 -20 2nd stage(6000kN)
-30 1st stage(4000kN) -30
3rd stage(8000kN)
2nd stage(6000kN) 4th stage(10000kN)
-40
3rd stage(8000kN) -40 5th stage(12000kN)
4th stage(10000kN) 6th stage(14000kN)
-50 -50
7th stage(16000kN)
5th stage(12000kN)
-60 -60 8th stage(18000kN)
6th stage(14000kN)
9th stage(19000kN)
7th stage(16000kN)
-70 -70 10th stage(20000kN)
8th stage(18000kN)
-80 9th stage(19000kN) -80
10th stage(20000kN) Elevation of sectioni/m
-90 Elevation of sectioni/m -90

Fig.11: Axial force at different load stages of G17-5 Fig.12: Side friction at different load stages of G17-5

 Axial force Qi/kN  Pile side friction qsi/kPa


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
10
10

0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20
Pile cap poured
-30
Pier body poured -30 Pile cap poured
0# segment poured Pier body poured
-40 1# segment poured -40
0# segment poured
2# segment poured 1# segment poured
-50 -50
3# segment poured 2# segment poured
-60 4# segment poured -60 3# segment poured
5# segment poured 4# segment poured
-70 6# segment poured -70
5# segment poured
Closure segment poured
-80 -80 6# segment poured
Elevation of sectioni/m Closure segment poured
-90
Elevation of sectioni/m -90

Fig.13: Axial force at different load stages of G38-3 Fig.14: Side friction at different load stages of G38-3

Pile side friction qsi/kPa


Axial forceQi/kN 
 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

10
0
0
-10
-10
-20
-20
Pile cap poured Pile cap poured
-30
-30 Pier body poured Pier body poured
0# segment poured -40 0# segment poured
-40
1# segment poured 1# segment poured
2# segment poured -50
-50 2# segment poured
3# segment poured 3# segment poured
-60 -60
4# segment poured 4# segment poured
5# segment poured -70 5# segment poured
-70
6# segment poured 6# segment poured
-80 Closure segment poured -80
Closure segment poured
Elevation of sectioni/m -90 Elevation of sectioni/m
-90

Fig.15: Axial force at different load stages of G38-4 Fig.16: Side friction at different load stages of G38-4

450
In-Situ Monitoring of Side Friction of Drilled Piles by Different Loading Methods Li-Qing et al.

 Axial forceQi/kN Pile side friction qsi/kPa


0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
10 10

0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20
Pile cap poured
-30 Pile cap poured -30
Pier body and girder poured
Pier body and girder poured
-40 -40

-50 -50

-60 -60

-70
Elevation of sectioni/m -70
Elevation of sectioni/m

Fig.17: Axial force at different load stages of J2-1 Fig18: Side friction at different load stages of J2-1

Axial forceQi/kN Pile side friction qsi/kPa


0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
10 10

0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20
Pile cap poured
Pier body and girder poured
-30 Pile cap poured -30
Pier body and girder poured
-40 -40

-50 -50

-60 -60

-70
Elevation of sectioni/m -70
Elevation of sectioni/m

Fig19: Axial force at different load stages of J2-2 Fig.20: Side friction at different load stages of J2-2

4 Results and Analysis


According to the current code requirements, in the calculation of pile bearing capacity, the value
of pile side friction is generally determined based on the test pile result. Therefore, the monitoring
results are analyzed based on the results of test.
Moreover, according to the monitoring results of Group 2 and Group 3, pile side friction change
greatly at silt and silty sand layers, which were located in the upper. Therefore, analysis is mainly
conducted at the silt and silty sand layer of three group piles.

4.1 Analysis of Group 1


The maximum load of three piles in Group 1 are 20000kN, vertical static load test Q̚s curve
and s̚lgt curve drawn by test data. Q̚s curve of three piles in Group 1 have no obvious steep drop
at the maximum load, nor the tail of s̚lgt curve have significant downward bend, and settlement is
convergent. compressive ultimate bearing capacity of single pile of Group 1 is not less than 20000kN.
Axial force of three test piles are gradually increased during the test, and pile side friction also
gradually increased.
Under the maximum load in silt and silty sand layer, pile side friction of pile G12-2 is
49.349.3kPa and 46.1kPa, pile G15-5 is 44.8kPa and 39.8kPa, pile G17-5 is 52.0kPa and 54.1kPa.

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In-Situ Monitoring of Side Friction of Drilled Piles by Different Loading Methods Li-Qing et al.

4.2 Analysis of Group 2


Seen from monitoring results, axial force of pile G38-3 and pile G38-4 are gradually increased
during bridge construction, and pile side friction also gradually increased. Pile side friction of silt and
silty sand layer increased the biggest.
The maximum pile side friction of pile G38-3 in silt and silty sand layer is 61.9kPa and 49.6kPa,
also pile G38-4 is 67.5kPa and 53.4kPa.
When dead load of superstructures in a level is loaded on the pile, monitoring results show that
measured value of pile side friction of Group 2 drilled piles in upper silt and silty sand layer obvious
more than Group 1.

4.3 Analysis of Group 3


Seen from monitoring results, axial force of pile J2-1 and pile J2-2 are gradually increased during
bridge construction, and pile side friction also gradually increased. Pile side friction of silt and silty
sand layer increased the biggest.
The maximum pile side friction of pile J2-1 in silt and silty sand layer is 43.1kPa and 13.7kPa,
also pile J2-2 is 41.5kPa and 12.7kPa.
When dead load of superstructures in a level is loaded on the pile, monitoring results show that
measured value of pile side friction of Group 3 drilled piles in upper silt and silty sand layer obvious
more than Group 1.

5 Conclusions
Side frictions of three groups’ drilled piles (total 7 piles) were monitored during the Xinwan
interchange of Qianjiang Passageway and Connecting Project construction. The following conclusions
were drawn based on the present study.
(1) Axial force and Side friction in all the piles increased step by step during the load-adding
procedure.
(2) Piles in Group 1 and Group 3 have different repose time. Side frictions monitored from piles
in Group 3, which have longer repose time, were larger than those in Group 1 under the same load.
This shows that repose time affects side friction.
(3) Side frictions monitored from piles in Group 2, which have longer off-time between two
loading stage, were larger than those in Group 1 under the same load. It can be seen that load-adding
route also affects side friction.
(4) Pile bearing performance were monitored only in the local area in this paper, more similar
monitoring in different types of engineering geology needed to be conducted so as to accumulate more
data and find the rule.

6 Acknowledgements
The research work presented herein is sponsored by the Construction Technology Funds of the
Ministry of Transport of China.

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