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# TT6705 / Structural Mechanics of Yarn

PART B

1) Explain in detail about the theoretical analysis of tensile behavior of staple fiber yarn.
Theoretical analysis of tensile behavior

 The idealized staple yarn analyzed here is assumed to consists of a very large number of
fibers of limited length, uniformly packed in a uniform circular yarn.
 The fibers are arranged in a helical assembly, following an idealized migration pattern.
 In other words, each fiber follows a helical path, with a constant number of turns per unit
length along the yarn, in which the radial distance from the yarn axis increases and
decreases slowly and regularly between zero and the yarn radius.
 The fibers are assumed to have identical dimensions and properties, to be perfectly
elastic, to have an axis of symmetry, and to follow Hooke’s and Amonton’s law.
 The strain involved are assumed to be small.
 The tranverse stresses between the fibers at any point are assumed to be the same in all
directions perpendicular to the fiber axis.
 Many of these assumptions are analogous to the assumptions made in dealing with
continuous filament yarn.
 First, actual staple fiber yarns are usually rather irregular in mass per unit length, in shape
, in twist distribution, in local fiber arrangements and in the migration paths followed by
individual fibers.
 These irregularities will have a considerable influence on the yarn behavior, so that any
theory based on an idealized uniform structure needs to be modified by a statistical
treatment taking account of irregularities.
 Second, it is assumed that the fiber ends are distributed throughout the yarn without any
bias toward particular positions.
 In practice this is not so, since the trailing ends of fibers are usually displaced to the yarn
surface. This will influence the distribution of stresses through the yarn, due to slippage
near fiber ends.

However, despite the difference between the idealized model and actual yarn, it is useful to have
a knowledge of how an idealized assembly would behave. This gives a basis for explaining the
behavior of actual yarns. The steps needed to analyze the mechanics of such an idealized
assembly are given below.

## 1. Write down the equations of the helical yarn geometry.

2. Define the necessary fiber characteristics.
3. Define the basis distribution of stresses and strains in the extended yarn.
4. Work out the equation for the path followed by the migrating fibres in the yarn.
5. Work out the conditions in which a fiber will slip, and the magnitude of the tensions
which can be developed in slipping fibers.
6. Work out the actual distribution of tensions in gripped and slipping fibers passing
through a particular element in the yarn, and hence the mean tensile stress acting on the
element.
7. Combine the above analysis with the condition for radial equilibrium, under the influence
of tensile and transverse stresses acting in a helical assembly. It turns out that this can
only by a process of successive approximations.
8. Integrate over the whole cross section to obtain the mean yarn stress.
2) Explain in detail about the Stress-strain distribution in yarn – Fibre obliquity

## Structure and Stress-Strain Curves

 Essential features of the structure of cotton and the influence on the stress-strain curve .
Experimental and theoretical studies of deformation and fracture.
 After a thin primary wall has grown to the external dimensions of the final cotton fibre,
microfibrils are laid down in a helical array as a secondary wall until growth is completed
with a small cylindrical lumen left in the centre of the fibre.
 Each microfibril is generated by an enzyme complex as a set of 30 parallel cellulose
molecules, which crystallise in the cellulose I lattice.
 Cotton is close to 100% crystalline.The apparent disorder, which shows up in density
measurements and techniques such as X-ray diffraction, is due to imperfections in the
packing of the microfibrils.
 The helix angle 8 in the secondary wall varies slightly from outside to inside, but is
typically 21".
 At intervals along the fibre, the helix alternates from right-handed to left-handed.
 The fibre is formed in the wet state within the cotton boll, with more than 30% of water
absorbed between the fibrils.
 When the fibre is dried, it collapses into a flattened tube with the cross-section.
 The helical structure with reversals causes the tube to take up a twisted form. A similar
effect can be seen if a twisted rubber tube is evacuated, but in cotton fibres there are
convolutions related to the helix reversals.

 The analysis of the stress-strain curve starts with A, the linear stress-strain curve of
the cellulose crystal, which has a modulus

 . In yam theory, it is assumed that there is free slippage between fibres in the yarn,
whereas in the dry fibre there is hydrogen bonding between micro fibrils. Strictly, the
theory should be modified to take account of shear stress, but, with a shear modulus Sf
calculated by Jawson et al. (1968) to be between 0.36 and 6.72 GPa, the correction is
small. The shear modulus plays a part in another way. Line B is based on the assumption
that yarn extension occurs without rotation. If the ends are free to rotate, then untwisting
under tension increases the extension. In the cotton fibre there is freedom for rotation at
each reversal, against the resistance of the shear stress. This gives line C, with a modulus
E derived by Hearle and Sparrow (1979b) as:
 Experiment has shown that convolutions have a major effect on the initial extension.
compares the load-extension curves of cotton fibres, (a) in the normal state and
(b) after stretching wet and drying
 This was modelled by a stress analysis based on an inverse application of the treatment of
the contraction of a flat ribbon on twisting. The additional extension gives line D, similar
to the experimental. There is reasonable quantitative agreement when appropriate values
of the tensile and shear moduli are used.

Fig. 1. Cotton fibre structure-property relations: (a) structure; (b) mechanics. The modulus of the
crystal lattice A is reduced in the helical assembly B to a greater extent with free rotation at
reversals C. Straightening of the convoluted ribbon D allows additional extension at low stress to
give the stress-strain curve of a dry fibre. Lower shear resistance in the wet state shifts lines to
B', C', D'. From Hearle (1991).

Slippage of fiber

 Considering the fibers passing through the element E, some, whose ends are a long way
from E, will be firmly gripped at E, will be firmly gripped at E by their neightbors and
will thus be subject to an extension given by the general extension level in the yarn.
 Other fibers, with ends near to E, will slip to some extent.

Yarn breakage

 Normal fiber yarn may finally break either because the individual fibers slip completely
over one another or because the individual fibers break. if it is assumed that fiber break.
 If it is assumed that fiber breaking extension is in depended of the nature of the force
causing the extension, then fibers in the yarn will break when any portion of the a fiber
reaches the breaking extension.
 As in continuous filament yarns, the greatest fiber extensions must occur in portions of
fibers following straight paths along the yarn axis, where the fiber extension equals the
yarn extension.
 Fiber breakage will thus occur first at the center of the idealized yarn and at a yarn
extension equal to the fiber breaking extension.
 For filament yarns, analysis shows that after the onset of breakage, the yarn tension must
fall and experience shows that it usually falls abruptly as a result of cumulative
breakdown.
 For condition in which fiber breakage is the cause of yarn breakage, we could therefore
obtain the yarn tenacity by calculating the yarn stress in a yarn subject to the fiber
breaking extension, namely by substituting Xf = Xb, the fiber tenacity.

Thus :

## F = Yarn tenacity ( Fiber Breaking )

Fiber Tenacity
3) Explain in detail about the prediction of breakage in continuous filament yarn.

Prediction of Breakage :

Breakage Extension

 The analysis of the variation of strain through a twisted yarn shows that the most highly
strained fiber is the one following a straight path at the center of the yarn, and that this
fiber has an extension equal to the yarn extension.
 If the assumption os made that the breaking extenstion of the filaments is unaffected by
their presence in the yarn ( For example, is unaffected by the their presence of transverse
forces).
 It follows that the central filament must break first and the start of breakage will this
occur when the yarn extension equals the breaking extension of the filaments.
 Yarn breaking extension will thus be a constant, independent of twist.

## Load Extension curve near Break

 There are two rather simple assumptions which can be made about the tension changes
once break has started.
 One possibility is that the breakage of the central filament immediately leads to a
catastrophic rupture of the whole yarn.

Tenacity

 Whichever the assumption is made about what happens once break has started, the
maximum tension occurs just prior to breakage of the central fiber when v= fthe
breaking extenstion of the fibers.
 The ratio of yarn tenacity equals the ratio of yarn stress to fiber stress
 The ratio of tenacities if the same as the ratio of moduli.

## Analysis of yarn mechanics by energy Method

 Treloar and Riding (1963) have analyzed the mechanics of an extended yarn by
alternative method of calculating the energy of deformation, relating the elastic energu
stored in the deformed filments to the work done in extending the yarn.
 Analusis bu the energy method is simpler because energy is scalar quantity, which can be
summed numerically.
 The energy method however give less information than stress analysis method yielding
only the total yarn tension and not the distribution of stresses through the yarn.

## Assumptions made by Treloar and Riding

1. The unstrained yarn is assumed to have the idealized geometry of a set of coaxial helices,
with uniform density of packing.
2. The filaments are assumed to deform without change of volume, i.e. they are assumed to
be incompressible under hydrostatic pressure.
3. Similarly the yarn as a whole is assumed to deform without change of volume, i.e its
density of packing, as well as the filament volume, remains unchanged.
4. The stress strain properties of the fiber in the yarn are assumed to be the same as they are
in the individual isolated filaments or in zero twist yarns. It is, however possible to use
the actual form of the whole fiber stress-strain curve.
5. The fibers are assumed to be perfectly elastic in the sense that all the workdone on the
yarn is converted into stored elastic energy.

## General Analysis by Energy Method

In this analysis,the relation between specific stress X – in g-wt ( g per cm) and strain f

## in the filaments can be given by the general function :

X = (f)

The work Wf done in straining unit mass of filament ( eg. A specimen 1 cm long of mass
1 g) up to a strain f then given by

Wf = (f) df
This expersion gives the elastic energy stored per unit mass of fiber at a strain (f). In a
cylidraical element of yarn of unit length lying between radil r0 and r0 + d r0 as measured in the
unstrained state, the mass of material will be 2 r0 d r0/v, where v is the yarn specific volume.
We therefore have ,

## Elastic energy stored in element = dW

Total elastic energy Wv stored in the unit length of the yarn is given by

## Where R0 is the yarn radius in the unstrained state.

The only source if work done on the yarn is the tension F facing along the yarn axis. For unit
initial length of yarn, the work dW done when the yarn strain increases by dy will be given by :

dW = F dy

## Theory of extension of continuous filament yarns

 The method of analysis demands first the calculation of the strains due to an imposed deformation
and then a calculation either of the stress distribution and the equilibrium of forces or of the
energy due to the deformation.

##  Variation of fibre extention

The simplest theoretical treatment of yarn mechanics is the calculation of the modulus of a continuous
filament yarn with the idealized heilical structure, taking into account only tensile forces in the fobers and
assuming that there is no change in yarn diameter during extention.

## Where h is the increase of the length h of 1 turn of twist.

The change of l in path length l for a filament at a radial distance r from the yarn axis with a helix angle
 is then shown in the above figure.

We have : l2 = h2 + 4  r2

and thus assuming no change in the radial distance of the filament from the yarn axis :

2ldl = 2h dh

dl/dh = h/l

Consequently :

## Filament extenstion = f = l / l = 1/l ( dl / dh) h

= h2/l2 x h/h

f = v cos2 

This equation shows that the filament extension falls from a value equal to the yarn extension for
a straight filament at the center of the yarn ( with to a value v cos2  at the yarn surface.

## Analysis of Tensile forces

Considering only the forces acting along the filament axes, we have
Specific stress in filament = Ef f

## Where Ef is the fiber modulus.

 It is convenient to express the specific stress and modulus in units of g-wt / g per cm, equal to 10-3
g-wt / tex.
 \This avoid awkward numerical constant and since the final result is derived as a ratio of moduli.
 It causes no difficulty at the end.
 Apart from the fact that it is more commonly used in textile technology.
 The force acting in a given area is given by ( Specific stress X area / Specific Volume )

## Consider the element of area between r and r + dr, as shown in fig.

Equivalent area perpendicular to filament axes = 2 rdr cos

If v is the yarn specific volume, the component of tension parallel to the yarn axis resulting from stresses
in this element

=
=

## Yarn specific stress = Yarn tension X ( v / R2 )

This expression predicts that yarn modulus will fall off as cos2 .

## Stress Stain relation of a filament :

Fibre in the element will be under a tensile stress X and compressive tranverse stresses G in two principal
directions at right angles.

Fiber strain =

## Where = Tensile modulus of fiber

= Transverse modulus of fiber

=Transverse Poisson’s ratio, i.e ( axial strain / transverse strain ) for a transverse stress.

Furthermore if the fiber has an axis of symmetry coinciding with its geometric axis then

And thus :

Where :

## Effect of large extensions

 When the yarn extension becomes large, two additional complications have to be considered.
 First the differential analysis of strain geometry
 Second filament deformation usually deviates considerably from Hooke’s law at large strains.
Filament behavior at Large Extensions

 For many types of fiber at extensions beyond the yield point and approaching the beaking
extension
 It is reasonable to assume that the stress-strain curve is linear though not passing through the
origin.
 Figure given below shows a comparison of such an idealized realtion with an actual stress-strain
curce of viscose rayon.
 Since the primary interest in this region of the curve is related to breakage, it is convenient to
introduce fiber tenacity Xf,b as a normalzing factor and define the linear stress-strain curve by the
equation ;

Work of rupture.

Tenacity

## The value of specific stress at break is so called as tenacity or specific strength.

Breaking extension

The elongation necessary to break the fiber. Fractional increase in length is called as breaking
extension.