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The Invention of Bad Breath

In the 1910s and particularly the 1920s, advertisers focused their attention on
identifying—and often inventing—personal anxieties that could be resolved by the
purchase of specific products. “Advertising,” wrote one commentator in a trade
publication, “helps to keep the masses dissatisfied with their mode of life, discontented
with ugly things around them. Satisfied customers are not as profitable as discontented
ones.”

Listerine mouthwash took this approach. The Lambert Pharmacal Company had
developed the antibacterial liquid back in the 1880s, and it was long sold as a general
antiseptic. After World War I, the company sought to expand its market. Advertising
man Gordon Seagrove recalls being called in by the Lambert Brothers to discuss how
this could be done. The company’s chief chemist was enlisted to describe the product
and its uses. “As he read along in a singsong voice,” Seagrove remembers, “he
mentioned halitosis. Everybody said ‘What’s that?’” Learning that it referred to
“unpleasant breath,” they immediately thought “maybe that’s the peg we can hang our
hat on.”

Although there was some worry about whether such a “delicate subject” could be
handled in magazines and newspapers, Seagrove and his collaborator, Milton Feasley,
launched an ad campaign that played heavily on fears about how others would react to
a halitosis sufferer. The most famous of their ads concerned the “pathetic” case of
“Edna,” who was “often a bridesmaid but never a bride.” She was approaching the
“tragic” thirtieth birthday unmarried because she suffered from halitosis—a disorder
that “you, yourself, rarely know when you have it. And even your closest friends won’t
tell you.”

In response to the ad campaign, Listerine sales went from $100,000 per year in 1921 to
more than $4 million in 1927.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. How do you think adverts during the 1920s were different than today?

2. What emotions did advertisers of the 1920s want to make people feel?

3. What does always a bridesmaid never a bride mean?

4. How much money in sales did Listerine make in 1927?

5. Do advertisements of today appeal to people caring about how they look?


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Prohibition in the United States

In 1919, Americans ratified the 18th


amendment to the Constitution, making it
illegal to manufacture, sell, transport, import,
or export drinking alcohol. Prohibition, as it
was popularly known, proved impossible to
enforce, as tens of millions of normally law-
abiding Americans either broke the law or
abetted those who did. Although the
consumption of alcohol did decline, opponents
of Prohibition argued that it caused crime,
corruption, and a disregard for law. Organized
crime flourished around the profits to be made
from selling illegal alcohol, and politicians and
police were bought off wholesale. Bribery and
corruption, although not always alcohol
related, reached into President Harding’s
cabinet—and then onto the front page. Even
though law enforcement officers spent large
amounts of time busting those who would sell
and distribute alcohol, it still flourished in the
United States

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. Based upon the reading, what does prohibition mean?

2. How do you think these people felt about prohibition?

3. When did alcohol become illegal in the United States?

4. Do you think that Americans generally followed the prohibition laws?

5. Can you think of a modern day example of prohibition?

6. What did people who were against prohibition argue that prohibition did?
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The temperance movement, discouraging the use of alcoholic
beverages, had been active and influential in the United States
since at least the 1830s. Since the use of alcohol was often
associated with such social ills as poverty and insanity,
temperance often went hand in hand with other reform
movements. From the 1850s onward, the temperance
movement focused much of its efforts on Irish and German
immigrants.

Prohibition exhibited many of the characteristics of most


progressive reforms. That is, it was concerned with the moral
fabric of society; it was supported primarily by the middle
classes; and it was aimed at controlling the "interests" (liquor
distillers) and their connections with venal and corrupt
politicians in city, state, and national governments. Still, it was
not until U.S. entry into the Great War that prohibitionists were
able to secure enactment of national legislation. In 1918,
Congress passed the 18th Amendment to the Constitition,
prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, and sale of
alcoholic beverages. States ratified the Amendment the next
year.

Herbert Hoover called prohibition a "noble experiment," but


the effort to regulate people's behavior soon ran into trouble.
Enforcement of prohibition became very difficult. Soon, such
terms as "bootlegger," "bath tub gin," and "speakeasy" became
household words. Gangs of hoodlums became more powerful
as they trafficked in alcohol. By the 1930s, a majority of
Americans had tired of the noble experiment, and the 18th
Amendment was repealed.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. When did the “temperance movement” or the idea of prohibition start?

2. What other things were associated with alcohol?

3. When did alcohol become illegal in the United States?

4. What did president Hoover call prohibition?

5. According to the last paragraph, how did the “experiment” fail?

6. Why do you think that people really voted to repeal the 18th amendment?
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Carry Nation is most famous for


spearheading the Temperance
movement. She came from a
troubled background: her
mother was mentally ill and her
husband was an alcoholic who
drank himself to death. She
remarried a lawyer named David
Nation and soon after moving to
Texas, she began having
frequent visions. She then
settled in Kansas and it was
there that she organized the
local chapter of the Women's

Christian Temperance Union. In 1899, she declared war on liquor and went about
smashing up saloons and liquor selling stores with a hatchet. She was arrested
repeatedly for her actions and others in the organization soon distanced themselves
from her.
Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:

1. What would make Carry Nation personally against alcohol?

2. What did Carry begin doing in 1899?

3. What might John Locke think about her actions?

4. Why do you think that others “distanced” themselves from her?

5. Do you think her actions helped the prohibition movement, or hurt it?
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In the year 1929 the stock market crashed and the United States went into a serious depression.
This means that millions of people lost their jobs and were out of work. The Gangsters and
Bootleggers, however, still made millions of dollars on the sale of illegal alcohol, money from
prostitution, gambling profits, and illegal narcotic sales. Many people thought that Prohibition
only allowed them to get even more rich during this time.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. Based upon the reading, why did many people lose their jobs in 1929?
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2. How do you think this artist felt about prohibition?
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3. How did Gangsters keep making money throughout the depression?
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4. Do some of these same people make lots of money still today?
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5. What do you think about prohibition?
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A Side Affect of Prohibition

During the time of prohibition, federal agents were ruthless in their quest for justice. It was a well known statistic that in the
years between 1920 and 1933 there were at least 1,360 victims of “collateral damage” in the battle against alcohol. That is, at
least 1,360 people were wrongly killed when they were thought they were involved in illegal distribution or people were
caught in the crossfire between gangsters and Federal Agents. When prohibition finally ended, many were thankful that there
would be no more innocent victims of this ill fated law.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:

1. Why do you think some people were accidentally killed?


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2. How do you think this made many in the public feel?
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3. Do similar things happen with the enforcement of the drug prohibition today?
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4. What does the person standing next to the altar represent?
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5. Do you think prohibition had any good side effects?


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The Harlem Renaissance

In the early 1900s, particularly in the


1920s, African-American literature, art,
music, dance, and social commentary
began to flourish in Harlem, a section of
New York City. This African-American
cultural movement became known as "The
New Negro Movement" and later as the
Harlem Renaissance. More than a literary
movement, the Harlem Renaissance
exalted the unique culture of African-
Americans and redefined African-
American expression. African-Americans
were encouraged to celebrate their
heritage.

The main factors contributing to the


development of the Harlem Renaissance
were African-American urban migration,
trends toward experimentation throughout
the country, and the rise of radical
African-American intellectuals.
The Harlem Renaissance transformed
African-American identity and history, but
it also transformed American culture in
general. Never before had so many
Americans read the thoughts of African-
Americans and embraced the African-
American community's productions,
expressions, and style.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. What was the Harlem Renaissance?


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2. How did the Harlem Renaissance change America?
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3. What was another name for the Harlem Renaissance?
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4. Where do you think many artists from the Harlem Renaissance were from?
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5. Who is one artist of the Harlem Renaissance that you know about?
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Jazz is a type of music which was invented in the United States.


Jazz music combines African-American music with European
music.

Jazz started in the United States in the early 20th century. Jazz
music has musical influences from the African slaves who were
taken from Africa to work in the plantations of the southern
United States, such as "call and response" songs and blue notes.
As well, Jazz music has musical styles from European music.

To remember the different periods in jazz, we divide into decades


and their main directions. In the 1920s, there was New Orleans-
style Jazz and Dixieland jazz. In the 1930s, there was swing jazz,
which was also called big band jazz. In the 1940s, there was
Bebop jazz. Large jazz bands, which are called big bands, were
also popular in the 1940s. Big bands usually have several
saxophone players, several trumpet players, several trombone
players, a piano player, a double bass player,a drummer, and
sometimes they might have a singer. In the 1950s, there was hard
bop jazz. In the 1960s, there was modern jazz and free jazz. In the
1970s, there was jazz fusion, which blended jazz music with rock
music. Nowadays, there are many styles at the same time, like
Nu-Jazz, electro-jazz and improv-jazz!

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. What two types of music styles are combined to form jazz?


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2. What are some things that show musical influence from Africa?
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3. List all the different types of jazz in the article
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4. What do you think the man is doing in the picture?
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5. Do you like jazz? Why or why not?


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The Market Crashes
In the late 1920s, it seemed as if everybody was in
the stock market. Estimates vary from 1,000,000 to
25,000,000. Why not? Stock prices just kept going
up and up, making your original investment more
and more valuable. And here was the best part -- you
didn't need a lot of money to get into the market.
You could buy on margin. First you borrow the
money to buy the stock (interest rates were a
phenomenally low 3 1/2%). Then you put up the
stock as collateral for your loan. Simple, easy money
-- if stock prices go up, you collect your dividends. If
the price dips, you raise a little cash to cover your
loss and wait for the market to rise again. In 1929, so
many people were buying on margin that they had
run up a debt of six billion dollars.

The prosperity couldn't last forever. On September 3,


the market dropped sharply only to rise and then
drop again. It was like tremors before a big
earthquake but nobody heeded the warning. The
market had sagged temporarily before, but it always
came back stronger. The market dipped sharply
again on October 4.
Some began to sweat as the market continued to decline, then they panicked. October 21 saw an avalanche of selling as many tried to salvage something
from their loss. On October 24 -- Black Thursday -- the panic took on a life of its own as selling orders overwhelmed the Exchange's ability to keep up with
the transactions.

Some Wall Street financiers tried to inspire confidence by buying as many shares as they could. It worked -- temporarily. Friday and Saturday saw sales
drop and a glimmer of hope return. On Monday the panic started again, and then came Black Tuesday -- October 29. The panic on the Exchange floor
changed to bedlam. According to one observer, "They hollered and screamed, they clawed at one another's collars. It was like a bunch of crazy men. Every
once in a while, when Radio or Steel or Auburn would take another tumble, you'd see some poor devil collapse and fall to the floor." This was the Crash,
although few could see it at the time. The Market continued its decline but never as dramatic. Thirty billion dollars had been lost -- more than twice the
national debt. The nation reeled, and slipped into the depths of the Great Depression.
Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. Based upon the reading, what is one cause of the great depression?
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2. What do you think happened to the owner of the car?
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3. How many people were participating in the stock market in the 1920s?
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4. How did some investors act when the market was crumbling?
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5. What do you think could have been done to prevent the crash?
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The 30s and Bread Lines

The 30"s, as a contrast to the Golden Age of


the Roaring 20's was marked by bread lines
and soup kitchens, homelessness and shanty
town called Hoovervilles, a sarcastic name
because many blamed former President
Hoover for the situation that the country
found itself in. Veterans of World War I
marched on Washington D.C. hoping the
Bonus Bill would be passed by Congress and
they could get the money they were
promised during the war immediately instead
of waiting twenty years. Congress refused to
pass the bill. The veterans ended up in a
Hooverville and the government sent troops
to run them out. These troops were led by
Eisenhower and Mac Arthur, later to be
heroes of World War II.

There were so many foreclosures on farms


and homes that the banks could
not get rid of them because there was no one
who could afford to purchase them. Some
farms sat on the market for 10 - 15 years.
Conditions for African Americans worsened
during this time as they faced additional
prejudice.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. What is the visual irony displayed in this photo?

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2. Based upon this picture what do you think life was like for many people in the 30s?

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3. Why were some WWI veterans upset?

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4. Why do you think African Americans faced increasing prejudice in the 1930s?

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5. If the 1920s were known as a time of great prosperity, what were the 1930s known as?
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The 30s and Bread Lines

The New Deal was the title President


Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of
programs initiated between 1933–1938 with
the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the
United States economy during the Great
Depression.

Dozens of alphabet agencies were created as


a result of the New Deal. Historians
distinguish between the "First New Deal" of
1933, which had something for almost every
group, and the "Second New Deal" (1935–
36), which introduced class conflict,
especially between business and unions.
Opponents of the New Deal, complaining of
the cost and increase in federal power,
stopped its expansion by 1937, and abolished
many of its programs by 1943. The Supreme
Court ruled several programs
unconstitutional (some parts of them were
soon replaced, except for the NRA). The
main New Deal programs still in existence
The W.P.A. or Work progress Administration was an today are Social Security, and the Securities
Organization set up under the “New Deal” that gave and Exchange Commission (SEC), the
primary regulator of Wall Street.[1]
Americans jobs working around the country.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. What is happening in this photograph?

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2. How do you think the W.P.A. changed the lives of many Americans?

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3. What New Deal programs still exist in the United States today?

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4. What was the purpose of the New Deal?
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5. Name 3 causes of the Great Depression?


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The Great Depression changed the lives of people who lived


and farmed on the Great Plains and in turn, changed America.
The government programs that helped them to live through
the 1930s changed the future of agriculture forever. Weather
touched every part of life in the "Dirty 30s": dust, insects,
summer heat and winter cold. Mandy families didn't have
heat, light or indoor bathrooms like people who lived in
towns. Many farm families raised most of their own food –
eggs and chickens, milk and beef from their own cows, and
vegetables from their gardens.

People who grew up during the Depression said, "No one had
any money. We were all in the same boat." Neighbors helped
each other through hard times, sickness, and accidents. Farm
families got together with neighbors at school programs,
church dinners, or dances. Children and adults found ways to
have fun for free – playing board games, listening to the
radio, or going to outdoor movies in town.

When the dryness, heat, and grasshoppers destroyed the crops, farmers were left with no money to buy groceries or
make farm payments. Some people lost hope and moved away. Many young men took government jobs building roads
and bridges. By 1940, normal rainfall returned, and federal programs helped to boost farm prices and improve the soil.
About the same time, a new government program started to hook up farmhouses to electricity, making farm life easier
and safer.
Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.
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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. What is happening in this photograph?

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2. What allowed many people to get through the 1930s?

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3. What types of things made it hard for farmers to get through the 1930s?

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4. When did rainfall return to normal?
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5. What types of things did farm kids do for fun?


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In the hearts of the public, the hard times of the depression had evoked a
deep need for security. By 1936 President Roosevelt saw this need. He
also saw government as an agent for meeting the need. The President sent
to Congress a bill to protect people from the fear of economic disaster.
The bill became the Social Security Act.
The SSA was set up as a kind of insurance plan. It was designed to
protect people from hardships in old age, disability, or unemployment.
SSA awarded monthly benefits to people over 65. It also ensured
incomes for the disabled. To fund these programs, the SSA taxed both
workers and employers. These monies were put into a trust fund to
provide benefits for future generations.
Another part of the SSA granted assistance to those who lost their jobs.
Payroll taxes funded these benefits. SSA offered federal money to states
for various programs. Care for needy mothers and babies as well as help
for orphans and sick children was funded by federal grants. Aid for blind
people was included, too.
SSA was not the only form of security, it was just the most widespread. The New Deal attended to other forms of
security as well. Protection for consumers was the goal of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This law stated that
labels must contain honest and complete information about products. It also banned false advertising. The Civil
Aeronautics Act established rules for aviation. It set up the Civil Aeronautics Board to regulate fares and to look
into plane crashes.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. Based upon what you read, what is happening in this photograph?

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2. Based upon the reading, why did Roosevelt create or promote the SSA?

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3. List two types of individuals assisted by the SSA.

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4. What are two other “safety net” organizations set up to help Americans?
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5. Do you know anyone who collects Social Security today? If so, who?
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The Great Depression was a time when the
economy in the United States and throughout the
world was extremely bad. It began with the Wall
Street Crash of 1929. The prices on the Wall Street
stock market fell a lot from October 24 to October
29, 1929. Many people lost their jobs. They
became homeless and poor. This ended the wealth
of the Roaring Twenties. The day that is said to
have started the Great Depression is called Black
Tuesday.

When the Great Depression started, Herbert


Hoover was the president of the United States.
People voted for a new president in 1932. His name
was Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt got the
government to pass many new laws and programs
to help people who were hurt by the Great
Depression. These programs were called the New
Deal. One of these programs was the Civilian

Conservation Core or CCC. The CCC put many young men to work in the outdoors. Another of these programs was called Social
Security. Social Security gave old people a small income so they had money for things they needed.

Between 1939 and 1944, more people had jobs again because of World War II, and the Great Depression came to an end. The movie
Gone With The Wind was based on it.
Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.
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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. Based upon what you read, what might be happening in this photograph?

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2. Based upon the reading, what triggered the great depression?

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3. What’s a nickname for the day the stock market crashed?

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4. Together, what were Roosevelt’s programs referred to as?
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5. What major world event helped to end the great depression?


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The fireside chats were a series of thirty evening radio speeches


given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between
1933 and 1944.

According to Roosevelt’s principal speechwriter Judge Samuel


Rosenman, he first used "fireside chats" in 1929 during his first
term as Governor of New York. Roosevelt faced a conservative
Republican legislature so during each legislative session he
would occasionally address the citizens of New York directly. He
appealed to them for help getting his agenda passed. Letters
would pour in following each of these "chats," which helped
pressure legislators to pass measures Roosevelt had proposed. He
began making the informal addresses as President on March 12,
1933, during the Great Depression.

Sometimes beginning his talks with "Good evening, friends",


Roosevelt urged listeners to have faith in the banks and to support
his New Deal measures. The "fireside chats" were considered
enormously successful and attracted more listeners than the most
popular radio shows during the "Golden Age of Radio."
Roosevelt continued his broadcasts into the 1940s, as Americans
turned their attention to World War II.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.


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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. Based upon the reading, what do you think Roosevelt is doing in this picture?

2. When did Roosevelt start giving his “chats”? Before or after he became president?

3. What would Roosevelt receive after each chat? How did these help Roosevelt get what
he wanted?

4. What is one piece of evidence from the reading that could prove that FDRs fireside chats
were popular?

5. What is Today’s version of the “Fireside Chat?” Do you think that a president could still
have such a good repertoire with Americans?
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The Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, frequently called the Court-packing Bill,
was a law proposed by United States President Franklin Roosevelt. While the bill
contained many provisions, the most notorious one (which led to the name "Court-
packing Bill") would have allowed the President the power to appoint an extra Supreme
Court Justice for every sitting Justice over the age of 70½. Six additional justices would
have been appointed. This was proposed in response to the Supreme Court overturning
several of his New Deal measures that proponents claim were designed to help the
United States recover from the Great Depression.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt sought a way to ensure his legislative agenda after the
Supreme Court of the United States repeatedly invalidated elements of his New Deal by
decisions finding those elements unconstitutional, including the Agricultural
AdjustmentAct in United States v. Butler et al (1936) and the National Recovery
Administration in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935). Although "inclined
to wait until a vacancy naturally occurred on the Court," Roosevelt's first term passed
without the opportunity to appoint a justice.
Increasingly frustrated, Roosevelt turned to an untraditional means to change the
balance of the Court; namely, to change the number of justices. Article III of the U.S.
Constitution is silent as to how many justices may serve on the Court at any given time.
Instead, the Constitution simply provides that the "judicial Power of the United States
shall be vested in one supreme Court..." without specifying the number of justices on
that Court[1]. Only the office of "Chief Justice" is self-executing, as it alone is
mentioned in the Constitution in Article I, section 3 as the officer responsible for
presiding over presidential impeachments[2]. The size of the court had been set and
changed in the following years, under circumstances suggesting reasons for the changes
as indicated:
Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.
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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:

1. Based upon the reading, what is happening in this editorial cartoon?

2. What would the “Court Packing Bill” have allowed Roosevelt to do to the Supreme
Court?

3. What did the Supreme Court do to make FDR angry?

4. What evidence is there to suggest that Roosevelt ignored or didn’t fully appreciate the
separation of powers?

5. What is absent from the constitution that might make Roosevelt think that he can change
the number of Justices?