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RÉPUBLIQUE DU CAMEROUN REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON

Paix – Travail - Patrie Peace – Work – Fatherland


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UNIVERSITÉ DE DSCHANG THE UNIVERSITY OF DSCHANG
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ÉCOLE DOCTORALE POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

DSCHANG SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

A CURRICULUM FOR TEACHING


ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
TO FRANCOPHONE STUDENTS
IN FINE ARTS INSTITUTES IN CAMEROON

A thesis presented and defended publicly in fulfilment of the requirement for the
award of a Doctorat/PhD in Language Sciences, Literatures, and Cultures.
OPTION: ENGLISH AND COMMONWEALTH STUDIES

by

MARTIN BOLIVAR SIÉWOUÉ


B.A. - Bilingual Letters (UDs)
DIPES II - Bilingual Letters (UBa)
M.A. - English Language and Linguistics (UDs)
Registration number: CM04-07LSH0800

Before the following panel


President: Edmond Biloa, Professor, University of Yaounde II
Rapporteur: Emmanuel Nforbi, Associate professor, University of
Dschang
Examiners: Kizitus Mpoche Mformi, Professor, University of Douala
Louis Bertin Amougou, Associate Professor, University
of Dschang
John Niba Ndongmanji, Associate Professor, University
of Bamenda
12th December 2018

1
CERTIFICATION

I hereby certify that this work is the fruit of my labour. It has not been defended
elsewhere for the award of a degree.

Dschang,.....................................
The candidate

Martin Bolivar Siéwoué

i
DEDICATION

To the memory of Prof. Zacharias Tanee Fomum (D.Sc.),


with deep gratitude for challenging me to do something very big within a decade, in 2005,
so that your words will not fall away.

ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
It is always a privilege to have one’s needs provided with and to receive inspiration and
guidance from a true Father, whose heart beat is “May this son of Mine succeed!”, when
one eventually realises that it could not be possible without His support. I thank God for
His steadfast love and unfailing support.
From the DIPES II dissertation through the Master of Arts dissertation and now this
PhD thesis, Prof. Emmanuel Nforbi, my academic mentor, has maintained a fatherly
attitude and has remained a friendly mentor indeed all along my research journey so far.
His patience, personal commitment and constant encouragements have been a significant
impetus in my research endeavours. This work is the fruit of this all. I also thank all the
scholars in the department of Applied Foreign Languages (LEA) who got me trained and
helped to do quality research, directly or indirectly.
Prof. Jean Benoît Tsofack, Head of Department of General Studies at the Foumban
Fine Arts Institute, gave me an unprecedented opportunity to carry out research from the
said department. Dr Jean Robert Tchamba was the first to invite me to teach at the Institute
of Fine Arts Foumban, in his capacity as Head of Department of Performing Arts and
Cinematography, then, I started putting a finger on learners’ language difficulties in this
department, and the topic of this work was coined. Dear Doctor, I am grateful for your
destiny-changing invitation and all your friendly encouragement and remarkable
contribution. Mr. Patrice Medjo and Mr Olivier Timma’s contribution in data collection
and their critique on the proposed curriculum cannot be ignored. Dr Mireille Chamba
found time to provide much data at the Institute of Fine Arts Foumban. Likewise, the
Deputy Director of the Institute of Fine Arts at Nkongsamba welcomed me very warmly
and personally mustered his colleagues to help me out. God bless you, Sir, and bless all
your colleagues.
My gratitude also goes to my colleagues, primary and secondary level teachers, the
Bilingual Training course facilitators and all the administrators who helped with data
(course outlines, syllabi at the different levels, and other data) and ideas, to my co-
disciples, for the riches of their input at various levels. I am grateful to Giresse Gamegne
and Freddy Kwemo, Patrice Adaroung and Oswald Kamga who helped me with their
computers when I lost my laptop, and many other friends who assisted in data analysis. My
junior one, Julio Rostan Siéwé, for whom I strive to be a model, sacrificed quite some time
for typing, part of field work, and helping out with many distracting chores.
I thank my loved one for actually putting in much energy to provide quality help in
typing, data analysis and final editing, in the nick of time. I thank everyone for their
manifold sacrifices so that this study be seen to fruition. May the Lord Himself reward you
all.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION ........................................................................................................................ i
DEDICATION ........................................................................................................................... ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................................... iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..............................................................................................................iv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................xi
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................... xiii
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................... xiv
ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................... xv
RÉSUMÉ ......................................................................................................................... xvi
GENERAL INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1
0.1. Background to the study ................................................................................................... 2
0.2. Motivation ........................................................................................................................ 3
0.3. Definition of key terms ..................................................................................................... 4
0.3.1. Curriculum ....................................................................................................................... 4
0.3.2. Language teaching for specific purposes .......................................................................... 7
0.3.3. Francophone students ....................................................................................................... 8
0.4. Research problem ............................................................................................................. 8
0.5. Research questions ........................................................................................................... 9
0.6. Research hypotheses ......................................................................................................... 9
0.7. Objectives of the study ................................................................................................... 10
0.8. Scope of the study .......................................................................................................... 10
0.9. Significance of the study: a national, commonwealth and global issue ........................... 11
0.10. Structure of the work ...................................................................................................... 11
Chapter 1: LITERATURE REVIEW AND ISSUES IN CURRICULUM DESIGN ............. 13
Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 13
1.1. The growing interest for English today ........................................................................... 13
1.2. Problems in English language learning ........................................................................... 17
1.2.1. Learners’ proficiency in English after the Baccalauréat certificate ................................. 17
1.2.2. Bilingual Training in English in Cameroon tertiary education ........................................ 20
1.2.3. Students’ structural language problems .......................................................................... 22

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1.3. Some language teaching theories .................................................................................... 25
1.3.1. Competency-based language teaching............................................................................. 25
1.3.2. English for Specific Purposes ......................................................................................... 27
1.3.3. Language and the fine arts .............................................................................................. 32
1.4. Curriculum Design.......................................................................................................... 34
1.4.1. Needs analysis ................................................................................................................ 34
1.4.1.1. Data sources ...................................................................................................... 36
1.4.2. Curriculum ideologies .................................................................................................... 40
1.4.3. Curriculum outcomes ...................................................................................................... 41
1.4.4. Course planning .............................................................................................................. 42
1.4.4.1. Syllabus frameworks .......................................................................................... 44
1.4.4.2. Product-oriented syllabi .................................................................................... 46
1.4.4.3. Process-oriented syllabi .................................................................................... 47
1.4.4.4. Syllabus objectives ............................................................................................ 49
1.4.4.5. Syllabus limitations ........................................................................................... 50
1.4.5. The institutional factor .................................................................................................... 51
1.4.6. Materials ......................................................................................................................... 53
1.4.7. Curriculum evaluation .................................................................................................... 55
1.5. Course design in English for Specific Purposes .............................................................. 56
1.6. An ideal curriculum for fine arts university students ...................................................... 59
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 59
Chapter 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .......................................................................... 61
Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 61
2.1. Research theory: Ethnography ........................................................................................ 61
2.2. Methodological framework ............................................................................................. 62
2.2.1. Case study ...................................................................................................................... 62
2.2.2. Informants ...................................................................................................................... 62
2.2.3. Data for learner language ................................................................................................ 63
2.2.4. Learner variables ............................................................................................................ 64
2.2.5. Data sources ................................................................................................................... 64
2.2.6. Data collection ................................................................................................................ 65
2.2.6.1. Samples ............................................................................................................. 65
2.2.6.2. Instruments ........................................................................................................ 66

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2.2.6.3. Difficulties encountered in data collection ........................................................ 67
2.2.7. Data analysis and validity ............................................................................................... 67
2.2.7.1. Qualitative analysis ........................................................................................... 68
2.2.7.1.1. Ethnographic contents analysis ......................................................................... 68
2.2.7.1.2. Comparative analysis ........................................................................................ 69
2.2.7.2. Quantitative analysis ......................................................................................... 69
2.2.7.3. Validity .............................................................................................................. 69
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 70
Chapter 3: PRE-TERTIARY LEVEL ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN FRANCOPHONE
EDUCATION ................................................................................................... 71
Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 71
3.1. English at the Francophone primary level ....................................................................... 72
3.1.1. The programmes of study ............................................................................................... 72
3.1.2. General objectives .......................................................................................................... 72
3.1.3. Specific objectives and materials .................................................................................... 73
3.1.3.1. The case of the first class: SIL (Class One) ....................................................... 74
3.1.3.2. Cours Préparatoire (Class Two) ........................................................................ 76
3.1.3.3. Cours élémentaire Première année – CE1 (Class Three) ................................... 77
3.1.3.4. Cours élémentaire Deuxième année – CE2 (Class Four) : weekly workload 4h –
4h30 .................................................................................................................. 77
3.1.3.5. Cours moyen Première année – CM1 (Class Five) ............................................ 78
3.1.3.6. Cours moyen Deuxième année – CM2 (Class Six) ............................................. 79
3.1.4. Weaknesses of primary level English.............................................................................. 80
3.2. English language in French-speaking secondary education ............................................. 80
3.2.1. General education ........................................................................................................... 81
3.2.1.1. Comparing the 2012 and the 2014 curricula ..................................................... 82
3.2.1.1.1. General structure of the programmes ................................................................ 82
3.2.1.1.2. The module ........................................................................................................ 87
3.2.1.1.3. Evaluation ......................................................................................................... 89
3.2.1.1.4. The pedagogic guide .......................................................................................... 89
3.2.1.2. Learning contents .............................................................................................. 90
3.2.1.3. The Special Bilingual Education Programme .................................................... 95
3.2.2. Technical education ........................................................................................................ 96
3.2.3. Appraisal of student’s exit profile ................................................................................... 99

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3.2.4. The pronunciation component ......................................................................................... 99
3.2.4.1. Recordings and audio-visual materials, an asset ............................................. 106
3.3. Implementation of the competency based approach at the secondary level ................... 109
3.3.1. Sample scheme of work ................................................................................................ 109
3.3.2. Analysis of the sample scheme of work ........................................................................ 144
3.3.3. Influence on the proposed curriculum ........................................................................... 144
3.3.3.1. Objective ......................................................................................................... 145
3.3.3.2. Syllabus ........................................................................................................... 145
3.3.3.3. Course structure ............................................................................................... 145
3.3.3.4. Teaching method ............................................................................................. 146
3.3.3.5. Materials.......................................................................................................... 146
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 147
CHAPTER 4 : THE TEACHING/LEARNING OF ENGLISH IN FINE ARTS
INSTITUTES IN CAMEROON .................................................................... 149
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 149
4.1. The state of the art ........................................................................................................ 149
4.1.1. Course descriptions ....................................................................................................... 149
4.1.2. Syllabi ........................................................................................................................ 160
4.1.3. Course structuring ........................................................................................................ 178
4.1.4. Teaching methods ......................................................................................................... 178
4.1.5. Materials ....................................................................................................................... 185
4.1.6. Testing ........................................................................................................................ 185
4.1.6.1. Analysis of test papers ..................................................................................... 221
4.1.6.1.1. Format ............................................................................................................. 221
4.1.6.1.2. Focus ............................................................................................................... 221
4.1.6.2. Discussion of findings on test papers ............................................................... 224
4.1.6.2.1. Main concerns in test papers ........................................................................... 224
4.1.6.2.2. Co-ordination of testing contents ..................................................................... 225
4.1.6.2.3. Selection and grading of test contents ............................................................. 226
4.1.6.2.4. English for Academic Purposes ....................................................................... 226
4.2. English language programmes in professional university colleges abroad: the case of
New Zealand ................................................................................................... 227
4.2.1. English for police ......................................................................................................... 228
4.2.2. English for Medical Doctors ......................................................................................... 230

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4.2.3. ESP for visual communication (in the visual arts) ........................................................ 232
4.3. Comparing Bilingual Training in English in Cameroon’s fine arts institutes and ESP in
New Zealand ................................................................................................... 233
4.3.1. Status of the English language ...................................................................................... 233
4.3.2. Statement of course purpose ......................................................................................... 234
4.3.3. Course design ............................................................................................................... 235
4.3.4. Course participants disciplinary knowledge .................................................................. 235
4.3.5. Course evaluation ......................................................................................................... 236
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 236
CHAPTER 5: ENGLISH LANGUAGE NEEDS OF FINE ARTS STUDENTS ................. 238
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 238
5.1. Background information on learners ............................................................................. 238
5.1.1. Learners’ age groups and gender .................................................................................. 238
5.1.2. Respondents’ regions of residence during pre-tertiary education .................................. 241
5.1.3. Time spent and English language learning at the secondary level ................................. 242
5.1.4. Attitude towards an interlocutor speaking English ........................................................ 245
5.2. Thematic foci for fine arts BTE. ................................................................................... 248
5.2.1. Thematic contents for academic life ............................................................................. 248
5.2.2. Thematic contents for the learners’ disciplines ............................................................. 248
5.2.3. Students’ learning needs ............................................................................................... 252
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 256
CHAPTER 6: THE PROPOSED ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FOR FINE
ARTS INSTITUTES IN CAMEROON ......................................................... 257
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 257
6.1. Summary of needs analysis results ................................................................................ 257
6.2. Nforbi’s summary programme for bilingual training in English .................................... 259
6.3. Curriculum approach .................................................................................................... 260
6.3.1. Course structuring ........................................................................................................ 262
6.3.1.1. Breakdown of the modules ............................................................................... 262
6.4. Syllabus design ............................................................................................................. 264
6.4.1. Syllabus objective ......................................................................................................... 266
6.4.2. Training contents .......................................................................................................... 266
6.4.3. Students’ exit profile .................................................................................................... 269
6.4.4. Workload per level ....................................................................................................... 269

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6.4.5. The syllabus .................................................................................................................. 272
6.4.5.1. Syllabus for Year I ........................................................................................... 273
6.4.5.1.1. Module 1: Common ......................................................................................... 273
6.4.5.2. Syllabus for Year II.......................................................................................... 286
6.4.5.2.1. Module 1: Common ......................................................................................... 286
6.4.5.2.2. Module 2 by department .................................................................................. 288
6.4.5.3. Syllabus for Year III ........................................................................................ 300
6.4.5.3.1. Module 1: Common ......................................................................................... 300
6.4.5.3.2. Modules 2: general .......................................................................................... 302
6.5. Materials ....................................................................................................................... 305
6.5.1. Materials’ sources ......................................................................................................... 306
6.5.2. Materials adaptation ..................................................................................................... 309
6.5.3. Using materials ............................................................................................................. 310
6.5.4. Materials evaluation ..................................................................................................... 311
6.6. Adapting the curriculum for bilingual training in French .............................................. 311
6.7. Curriculum implementation .......................................................................................... 312
6.7.1. The scheme of work ...................................................................................................... 312
6.7.2. Sample scheme of work ................................................................................................ 313
6.7.3. Classroom techniques ................................................................................................... 318
6.7.3.1. Handling reading tasks .................................................................................... 318
6.7.3.2. Handling listening tasks................................................................................... 319
6.7.3.3. Teaching essential knowledge ......................................................................... 320
6.7.3.4. Handling speaking and writing ........................................................................ 322
6.7.3.5. Motivational strategies .................................................................................... 323
6.7.3.6. Lessons ............................................................................................................ 324
6.7.4. Evaluation and testing................................................................................................... 324
6.7.4.1. Evaluation typology......................................................................................... 324
6.7.4.2. The continuous assessment .............................................................................. 326
6.7.4.3. The end of semester exam ............................................................................... 326
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 328
GENERAL CONCLUSION................................................................................................... 329
Summary of the work .............................................................................................................. 329
Summary of findings ............................................................................................................... 332

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Proposal ........................................................................................................................ 339
Summary of recommendations ................................................................................................. 340
Contribution to knowledge ...................................................................................................... 342
Further research ....................................................................................................................... 343
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 346
APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................ 358

x
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
§: Paragraph
BEPC: Brevet des Études du Premier Cycle
BrE: British English
BTE: Bilingual Training in English
CBA: Competence-Based Approach
CBA-RLS : Competence-Based Approach with entry through Real Life Situations.
CBLT: Competence-Based Language Teaching.
CDA: Critical Discourse Analysis
CE1 : Cours élémentaire, première année.
CE2 : Cours élémentaire, deuxième année
CLT: Communicative Language Teaching
CM1 : Cours moyen, première année
CM2: Cours moyen, deuxième année
CP : Cours préparatoire
EAP: English for Academic Purposes
ECA: Ethnographic Contents Analysis
EFL: English as a Foreign Language
EGAP: English for General Academic purposes
EPP: English for Professional Purposes
ESAP: English for Specific Academic Purposes
ESP: English for Specific Purposes
F.O.L.: First Official Language
Fbn: Foumban
i.e. : (Latin id est.) that is.
ibid: Same as above
IFAF: Institute of Fine Arts Foumban
L1: First language
L2: Second language

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NA: Needs analysis
Nkong.: Nkongsamba
OBA: Objective-Based Approach
op.cit. (Latin opus citatum): quoted faithfully.
p. : Page
PhD: Doctor of Philosophy degree.
pp. : Pages
S.O.L. : Second Official Language
SIL: Section d’initiation à la langue
TEFL: Teaching English as a Foreign Language
TESOL: Teaching English to speakers of other languages
TL: Target language
UK: United Kingdom
USA: United States of America

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 : Enrolments in Year I and Year III in both............................................................ 65


Table 2 : Numbers of informants ......................................................................................... 66
Table 3 : Comparison of general presentations of study programme (2012 and 2014) ...... 84
Table 4 : Comparison of places of study programme in the new curriculum2012 and 2014
.......................................................................................................................... 84
Table 5 : Domains of life (2012), or Areas of life broadly covered (2014a)....................... 85
Table 6 : Synoptic table of the modules (2012) or Breakdown of the modules (2014) ...... 86
Table 7 : Graded contents of modules ................................................................................. 91
Table 8 : End of first cycle learner’s exit profile................................................................. 95
Table 9 : Synoptic table of the modules in secondary technical education (MINESEC
2014e:18-19) ..................................................................................................... 97
Table 10 : Speech work on the programme of study ......................................................... 100
Table 11 : Parallel between two components of spoken English: speech production and
speech performance ........................................................................................ 106
Table 12 : Summary of Bilingual Training course description by department (IBAF) .... 158
Table 13 : Aspects of Methodology .................................................................................. 178
Table 14 : Learners’ identification of methodological items used in the course............... 182
Table 15 : Exam foci at the Institute of Fine Arts Foumban ............................................. 222
Table 16 : Lesson format in the English for Police course (Basturkmen, 2010: 78)......... 230
Table 17 : Learners background information .................................................................... 240
Table 18 : Learners’ experience with English ................................................................... 244
Table 19 : Learners’ attitude and difficulties in responding to an English-speaking
interlocutor...................................................................................................... 247
Table 20 : Learners’ needs in Bilingual Training in English ............................................ 249
Table 21 : Summary percentages for the grading of themes according to their degrees of
importance ...................................................................................................... 252
Table 22 : Students learning needs .................................................................................... 253
Table 23 : Breakdown of the module ................................................................................ 264
Table 24 : Workload per level ........................................................................................... 270

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 : Subdivisions of English for Specific Purposes................................................................. 30

Figure 2: Syllabus between Educational Policy and Pedagogic Methodology. ................................ 50

Figure 3 : Dimensions of a curriculum........................................................................................... 260

Figure 4 : The Forward Design Process ......................................................................................... 261

Figure 5 : The Central Design Process ........................................................................................... 261

Figure 6 : The Backward Design Process ...................................................................................... 261

Figure 7 : The wide- and narrow-angled continuum ...................................................................... 264

xiv
ABSTRACT

This thesis entitled A Curriculum for Teaching English for Specific Purposes to
Francophone Students in Fine Arts Institutes in Cameroon proposes a curriculum for the
teaching of English to Francophone Fine Arts students. The proposal springs from the
remark that there is no adequately designed curriculum for Bilingual Training in English
(BTE) in these recently opened institutions: teachers decide on what to teach and how to
teach it unilaterally, no precaution is made to ensure curriculum continuity so that the
learners would not be lost in the teaching, and learners’ needs seem not to be thoroughly
analysed. In order to build up an adequate curriculum that fosters English Language
Teaching at the secondary level and clearly meets the needs of Fine Arts university
students, we carried out a survey of the teaching of English to Francophones at the pre-
tertiary (primary and secondary) level and in both Fine Arts Institutes in Cameroon found
in Foumban and Nkongsamba. Ethnography was the guiding theory for the research. The
student-researcher spent some time on the field first of all as a teacher of the course
himself at the Institute of Fine Arts Foumban and a visiting lecturer to the one in
Nkongsamba. Research instruments included questionnaires to 4 BTE teachers and 158
students, interviews with 4 Fine arts teachers in both institutes. These instruments helped
collect information on learners’ needs. For the state of the art of English for Francophones,
we went through archives including teaching programmes, log books, manuals, test papers,
but also through the first two instruments for an evaluative perspective. Quantitative data
was analysed and presented in the form of statistical tables of frequencies and percentages,
and content analysis was applied to qualitative data. Findings show that English language
programmes for francophone students at the pre-tertiary level are excellent and backed by
good manuals. Yet, the problem lies on teaching, either teacher training or adequate
teacher student ratio. In Fine Arts institutes, no satisfactory pre-course needs analysis is
carried out and no formal curriculum is designed. Consistently, over 80 % of the learners
still face difficulties in general English. They acknowledge the importance of building up
their course on themes in two broad fields: academic life and specialty study fields, as well
as the learning needs identified in the work. A curriculum was then proposed with four
characteristics: (1) following Richards’ (2001) seven-item model, (2) addressing the
learners’ identified needs, (3) continuing the curriculum in force at the secondary level and
(4) espousing fine arts training contents as the learners progress from Year I to Year III.
Key words: Curriculum – English for Specific Purposes – Needs analysis - Fine Arts –
Tertiary education

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RÉSUMÉ
Cette thèse intitulée Towards a Curriculum for English Language Teaching for Specific
Purposes in Cameroon’s Fine Arts Institutes veut proposer un programme d’enseignement
de l’anglais aux étudiants francophones des instituts des beaux-arts du Cameroun. Cette
ambition nait du constat que dans ces établissements récemment ouverts (en 2009), il
n’existe pas un programme dûment conçu pour la formation bilingue en anglais : les
enseignants choisissent eux-mêmes le contenu et la méthode de leurs enseignements, la
continuité des programmes entre le secondaire et le tertiaire est mise en jeu et les besoins
réels des étudiants ne sont pas pris en compte. Pour bâtir un curriculum qui tienne compte
de tous ces paramètres, l’étudiant chercheur a dû établir l’état des lieux de l’enseignement
de l’anglais aux francophones avant l’université, de même que dans les deux
établissements en étude, l’un à Foumban et l’autre à Nkongsamba. L’ethnographie a été
retenue pour diriger la recherche. L’étudiant chercheur, lui-même enseignant le cours de
formation bilingue à Foumban, a aussi été à Nkongsamba pour la collecte des données. Les
questionnaires ont été adressés à 4 enseignants de ce cours et 158 étudiants, appuyés
d’interviews à 4 enseignants de spécialité pour l’analyse des besoins des apprenants. Pour
établir l’état des lieux mentionné plus haut, c’est majoritairement les archives qui ont été
exploitées : les programmes d’enseignement, les cahiers de textes, les manuels et les
anciennes épreuves. Les données quantitatives sont présentées sous formes de tableau
statistiques avec des pourcentages, et les données qualitatives ont surtout subi une analyse
des contenus. La recherche établit qu’au niveau pré-tertiaire, les programmes sont
excellents, appuyés de manuels adéquats. Seulement, la formation et la présence
d’enseignants sur le terrain sont très inadéquats. D’autres parts, les cours sont
effectivement faits dans les deux instituts sans une véritable analyse des besoins a priori, et
sans un programme formel dans le cas d’étude. Constamment, près de 80% des étudiants
interrogés ont encore des difficultés avec l’anglais général et reconnaissent presque à
l’unanimité la place de deux grands domaines dans un bon cours de formation bilingue à
eux destiné : la vie universitaire et le domaine spécifique d’étude, aussi bien que des
besoins d’apprentissages identifiés. Le programme proposé est bâti sur quatre piliers : (1)
le modèle de programme de Richards (2001), (2) les besoins identifiés des apprenants, (3)
la continuité entre le secondaire et le tertiaire et (4) la progression avec le contenu de la
formation professionnelle des étudiants, du niveau 1 au niveau 3.
Mots clés: Programme d’étude – anglais de spécialité – analyse des besoins – Beaux-arts –
enseignement supérieur

xvi
GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Two institutes of Fine Arts were opened in Cameroon recently, in 2009: the Institute of
Fine Arts in Foumban, under the University of Dschang, and the one in Nkongsamba,
under the University of Douala. They are found respectively in the West and the Littoral
Regions, French-speaking regions. These institutes seem to be timely opened, as their main
mission is to work for the development of the nation’s cultural industry which, in turn,
brings its own contribution into national economy. Yet, the French language alone cannot
take up the related challenges, whether within the nation with its official bilingualism in
English and French, or without, on the international scale. There is no doubt today on the
very prestigious role of English in almost all spheres of activity in the Global Village.
Hence, English must be taught to the Francophone learners in these institutes, not only
General English - that they would have been learning since the primary level, but English
for the Specific Purposes of their studies and prospective professional careers. The English
speaking learners will also need to study French. No curriculum exists to this end.
Therefore, this study entitled Towards a Curriculum for English Language Teaching for
Specific Purposes in Cameroon’s Fine Arts Institutes uses English for Specific purposes to
illustrate a model of language teaching to meet the specific needs of university learners.

The proposed curriculum at the end of the study is grounded on the research
findings herein, Nforbi’s (2012a) proposals and Richard’s (2001) curriculum development
for language teaching guidelines. It espouses the competence-based approach for the sake
of continuity from secondary to tertiary level, and English for Specific Purposes to address
the learners’ specific needs in Fine Arts Institutes. Actually, as they are still at the
university, learning to be professional fine artists, and not yet in the field practising the
craft, the English for Specific Purposes approach reduces to English for Academic
Purposes: they are taught English to address general university issues (English for General
Academic Purposes), and English to express themselves in the fine arts they are learning
(English for Specific Academic Purposes). Two situations were considered. In one of the
establishments in the case study, Bilingual Training is taught as a joint course - that is the
same course with the same lecturer at the same time for every one – and in the other, it is
taught separately in the various departments. We consider the latter case the ideal, but the
syllabus proposed in this study is built on two principles: (1) it should be possible to use

1
the syllabus and teach Bilingual Training in English either as a joint course or as a separate
course in the various areas of study; (2) in these areas of study in the fine arts, teaching
should be done in a parallel way, so that learners acquire similar skills at the same time,
each in their domain. The study also makes recommendations at different levels for
facilitating the implementation of the proposed programme.

0.1. Background to the study


English language, in Cameroon, shares equal status with French as official languages
(Constitution). These two languages are inherited from the national history with France
and Britain who got the United Nations’ trusteeship over East Cameroon and West
Cameroon, respectively. Besides these two official languages, there are about 280 local
languages (Kouega 2006). Pidgin English is broadly used as a lingua franca nationwide.
There is also the more recent Camfranglais, “a mixture of Cameroonian indigenous
languages, Pidgin-English, French and English […] this ‘language’ is spreading rapidly
and is a speech peculiar to the Cameroonian urban youths…”1 (Biloa, 2008: p. 19, quoted
by Nzessé, 2009: p. 32)
English language has been taught to both the Anglophone and the Francophone
Cameroonians for many years now since independence in 1961, from the primary through
the secondary and the tertiary levels. Whereas it is the language of instruction for the
English speaking students, French-speaking students learn it as a subject, as the second
official language, as English is a foreign language. More recently, a special bilingual
education programme was launched in some pilot schools nationwide. Here, the learner’s
second official language (SOL) is taught more intensely from the first class in the
secondary school (Sixième and Form One), and three other subjects, sports, history and
citizenship, are taught in the SOL. This leads to a Bilingual Series BEPC and GCE
Ordinary Level and Bilingual Baccalaureate and GCE Advanced levels.

At the university level, the State’s official bilingualism policy is maintained. Apart
from the University of Buea, and the University of Bamenda which follow the Anglo-
Saxon tradition and thus give lectures exclusively in English2, the Bilingual training course

1
Original French version : « Le camfranglais est un mélange de langues autochtones camerounaises, de
pidgin English, de français et d’anglais […] Cette parlure évolue très vite et est une manière particulière de
s’exprimer de la jeunesse urbaine camerounaise… »
22
At least officially. In some Training colleges under the university of Bamenda where some specialty course
lecturers are from a French-speaking background, they deliver their lectures in French, while they struggle –
again, at least for a few – to acquire the English language proficiency necessary to deliver lectures in English.

2
is a French language course. Very interestingly, even the French-speaking students,
Baccalaureate holders who obtain admission into the University of Bamenda do take the
Bilingual Training course in French. The other State universities are meant to be bilingual.
That is, the official language used to teach a course depends on the lecturer. French-
speaking lecturers tend to teach their courses in French while English-speaking lecturers
teach in English. The students are therefore expected to move from one language to the
other with adequate nimbleness. This is because, as Mbangwana (2004) quoted in Atechi
(2015) underlines, the constitutional policy of official bilingualism with English and
French as the two official languages having equal status was meant to maintain the
identities of English-speaking and French-speaking learners during their primary and
secondary education, then bring them together at the university level, so that they could
exchange with each other and follow the same lectures in either language without much
difficulty.

This endeavour bespeaks of the Government’s ambition to promote official


bilingualism in general and English for Francophones in particular. Yet, in spite of the
different reforms in the pedagogy of this subject, the high school graduates performances
and proficiencies remain low (Mangong 2009: p. 3; Nforbi 2013: P. 166, Sokeng 2011,
Siéwoué 2015: pp. 2-4). Moreover, Afutendem (2013) regrets that many English language
teachers at the secondary level do not realise that it is their job to prepare the learners for
university studies. Consequently, the Bilingual Training in English course has a double
mission of filling the gap in the learner’s background and instilling in them the language
skills they need in their specific fields of study and professional openings.

0.2. Motivation
As we were going through Nforbi’s (2012) PhD thesis during the literature review phase of
my Master of Arts (M.A.) dissertation, we read the following:

If we take Form One or Sixième as the starting point for the acquisition of the second
official language (English for Francophones and French for Anglophones), then a
student is supposed to have a seven-year exposure to this second language before
reaching the university. However, their performance in the university leaves much to
be desired3. (Nforbi 2012a : p. 2)

This occurs especially in very technical schools like the Advanced Technical Teacher Training College
Bambili, in the engineering departments.
3
My emphasis

3
We received this as a verdict on the craft we share with many other EFL teachers
nationwide. So we decided to address the issue. While our Master of Arts dissertation
addresses the most recent approach effected by the government in secondary education to
help make it more accessible for the English language teachers, we decided to consecrate
our PhD thesis to improving the quality of the Bilingual training content and method,
incorporating the two aspects mentioned in the previous paragraph, that is filling the gap
and meeting the learners’ specific needs in English language learning at the tertiary level.
Later on, the motivation was further stirred with Sokeng’s (2010: pp. 307-308) finding
about these Baccalaureate holders that “the performance in English of our informants
when they leave secondary school is very poor in almost all the skills; with the success rate
of students having schooled in regions like the Far North and East regions being extremely
low”.
Being a part time teacher of French and English at the Institute of Fine Arts
Foumban, and taken note of the language problems of my students, we could only agree
with Brumfit (1995) that the problems classroom teachers face are theirs to solve, for no
one will do it for them. Looking into the problem and bringing in our own touch is, for me,
an expression of patriotism and a distinct contribution in the government’s bilingualism
project. But at this point, it is necessary to define the term ‘curriculum’, the main key word
of this study and at the same time trace its scope.

0.3. Definition of key terms


The topic of this thesis contains two major key terms that ought to be defined from the
onset. They are ‘curriculum’ and ‘language teaching for specific purposes’.

0.3.1. Curriculum

The term ‘curriculum’ has often been confused with the term ‘syllabus’ and this has raised
much discussion in the field of language teaching. Distinguishing them will eventually
help us understand curriculum design (or curriculum development) because it is broader
than syllabus design.

For many, a ‘curriculum’ comprises all the contents of subjects to be taught in an


educational system. White (1988: p. 4), quoted in Johnson & Johnson’s (1999), defines it
as “the totality of content to be taught and aims to be realised within one school or

4
educational system”4, differentiating it from syllabus which is the logically organised
content of a single subject (or course, at the university level). In this regard, one could
consider all the courses (and their contents) that a Performing Arts university student takes
for three years so as to earn a First Degree as a curriculum. An amendment in the
description and contents of some of the courses will give rise to a new curriculum, in this
sense.

Other researchers consider the term “syllabus” as synonymous to “curriculum” and


tend to include not only content but also materials and methodology in the syllabus. For
instance, Janice Yalden (1984) says that “a syllabus should, in the first instance, be a
specification of content, and only in a later stage of development a statement about
methodology and materials to be used in a specific instance”. But Allen (1984) states the
difference between ‘syllabus’ and its North American counterpart ‘curriculum’ when he
says:

Curriculum is a very general concept which involves consideration of the


whole complex of philosophical, social and administrative factors which
contribute to the planning of an educational programme. Syllabus, on the other
hand, refers to that subpart of curriculum which is concerned with a
specification of what units will be taught (as distinct from how they will be
taught, which is a matter for methodology).
Like Allen (1984), many others see the notion of curriculum as reflecting, for one
subject (or course), something wider than the syllabus. Brumfit (1984) thinks that a
syllabus is “limited externally by the broader curriculum within which it operates”, Allen
(1984) places syllabus planning as the level of curriculum development that comes after
concept formation, administrative decision making, and precedes materials design,
classroom activity, and evaluation. It encompasses, in addition to contents, the goals and
prescribed method that should be implemented to achieve this goal. This is Jack C.
Richards’ (2010) point of view. He defines curriculum as “the overall plan or design for a
course and how the content for a course is transformed into a blueprint for teaching and
learning which enables the desired learning outcomes to be achieved.”, this curriculum
includes the input (the language items are going to be taught), which, when sequentially
organised, leads to a syllabus, the process (classroom activities, teacher’s role, learner’s
role, principles, materials, etc.) which “constitutes the domain of methodology in language
teaching” (ibid), and the output, that is what the learners become able to do as a result of a

4
White, R. V. (1988): The ELT Curriculum, Oxford, Blackwell.

5
period of instruction, otherwise called learning outcomes. The new competence based
curricula effected by Ministerial order in Cameroon secondary education are good
examples. For one subject, say English language, the contents are organised with clearly
defined outcomes, and suggestions as to how to evaluate, etc.5. The syllabus will remain a
mere “specification of the content of a course of instruction and lists what will be taught
and tested”. (Richards, 2001: p. 2)

In addition to simple selection of content, Widdowson adds ordering to the notion


of syllabus. The syllabus is “a specification of a teaching programme or pedagogic agenda
which defines a particular subject for a particular group of learners […] A syllabus
specification then is concerned with both the selection and the ordering of what is to be
taught6” (1990: p. 127).

Syllabus design will therefore be “the process of developing a syllabus” (ibid),


whereas curriculum design embraces a larger spectrum.
It includes the processes that are used to determine the needs of a group of learners, to
develop aims or objectives for a program to address those needs, to determine an
appropriate syllabus, course structure, teaching methods, and materials, and to carry
out an evaluation of the language program that results from these processes. (Richards,
2001. op. cit.)

This definition outlines seven crucial components of curriculum design:


01. Learners' needs
02. Aims/objectives of²& programme
03. Syllabus
04. Course structure
05. Teaching methods
06. Materials
07. Programme evaluation
Curriculum design will therefore be denoted to the conception of a curriculum: a reflection
on the selection and planning of course content to meet the students’ needs and equip them
with defined skills for academic research and employability. The expression syllabus
design will thus be used in the sense of David Nunan (1988), “as being concerned
essentially with the selection and grading of content”. Other elements like methodology
and outcome, though they are related to the content, escape from its scope, and add to
content to form the macro element referred to as curriculum. Thus, a syllabus is only a part

5
For more detailed discussion on this curriculum, see my Master of Arts dissertation titled Competence-based
English language teaching in the Menoua Division: a teacher’s perspective.
6
My emphasis

6
of the curriculum, and “syllabus design is one aspect of curriculum development [or
curriculum design] and not identical with it” (Richards, ibid).

This thesis takes the stance of Allen (1984), Brumfit (1984), Nunan (1988),
Widdowson (1990) and Richards (2001) cited earlier, whereby a syllabus is only
concerned by the selection and ordering (which ordering includes grading and sequencing)
of teaching content at the exclusion of methodology, materials, ideological backing and the
like, the constituents of the broader curriculum. This choice is made simply so that the
readership as well as the author himself may be able to keep the big picture of the
curriculum and the narrower picture of one of its constituents called ‘syllabus’.

0.3.2. Language teaching for specific purposes

Ken Hyland (2011) gives a definition of ‘specific purpose teaching’ which helps us
understand the concept of language teaching for specific purposes. She says

specific purpose teaching is an approach to language education based on identification


of the specific language features, discourse practices and communicative skills of
target groups, and on teaching practices that recognise the particular subject-matter
needs and expertise of learners.

At least three important features of specific purpose language teaching can be


derived from this definition. First, it focuses on very specific language features,
discourse practices and communicative skills of a target group. These could be
learners of a given discipline or professionals of a distinct domain of activity in a
particular context. Second, teaching a specific purpose language course considers the
specific needs of that subject matter. Last, learners are not considered as tabula rasa,
they possess content knowledge of that subject matter; their only need is to be able to
use language to express and make use of that knowledge. Specific purpose language
teaching is therefore different from general literacy.

If the language being taught is English, the course will be called ‘English for
Specific Purposes’ (ESP). It is different from General English (GE) which teaches
English for the learners to have a better knowledge of the language and to use it is to
communicate in their day-to-day lives. Holme (1996: p. 3), quoted by Basturkmen
(2010: p. 2), observes that: “A General English course for teenagers will probably be
written around the language-based activities of a stereotypical teenager”.

7
In this study, the proposed course is a specific purpose course design in that it
focuses on language features and discourse practices in university studies and fine
arts studies, it considers the language needs of learners in the two institutes of Fine
Arts in Cameroon, considering that these learners need the kind of English that
enables them to discuss studies and fine arts issues.

0.3.3. Francophone students

It is important not to end this section without stipulating our understanding of


a ‘Francophone student’ in this study. The Frenacophone student here refers to a
university learner who has previously gone through the French-speaking sub-system
of education, from SIL to CM2 at the primary level and from Sixième to Terminale in
general education or Première année to Terminale in technical education, and
justifies this course of learning with the corresponding certificates: the CEP
(Certificat d’études primaire) for primary education, the BEPC (Brevet d’études du
premier cycle) or CAP (Certificat d’aptitude pratique) the Probatoire, the
Baccalaureat, the Brevet de Technicien or Brevet professionnel. French has been
their main language of instruction through their pretertiary education. They may or
may not have studied English over these pretertiary years as a subject. Thus, whether
they lived in English-speaking areas or come from English-speaking families and
have a good command of English as a consequence, we limit the ‘French’ element in
‘Francophone students’ to their main language of instruction at the pretertiary level.

0.4. Research problem


As I was invited to teach English and French at the institute of Fine Arts Foumban
(IFAF) in September 2015, I observed that IFAF Francophone students had serious
difficulties communicating in English, whether for day-to-day situations or issues in their
subject areas. Their level of proficiency seemed to be just the same from year 1 to year 3.
From informal conversations with lecturers of the institute of Fine Arts Nkongsamba, the
same tendency hovered over them. All this points out to a curriculum problem in these
institutes. Also, since these learners do not encounter English only at the university, they
may have inherited the poor learning from the pre-tertiary level. Ayafor (2015: p. 51)
identifies a thorny problem which also results significantly in learners’ poor mastery of
language: “no suitable coherent co-ordinated programme from nursery to university”
(ibid). She further explains that

8
In some countries of the world, language educational policy has been so clearly
defined that there is a clear programme of language learning from kindergarten
through primary to secondary and finally to tertiary education. However, this is not
the case in Cameroon where there is no clear-cut national curriculum. Every level of
learning has its own curriculum drawn by officials of that level, without
necessarily consulting their counterparts in other levels of education7.

There are three ministries directly connected to classroom teaching/learning. The


Ministry of Basic Education (MINEDUB) in charge of kindergarten and primary levels,
the Ministry of Secondary Education (MINESEC) and the Ministry of Higher Education
(MINESUP) in charge of the tertiary level, each running their own affairs. Given the
prominence of the promotion of official bilingualism as provided by the constitution and
directly affiliated to the Presidency of the Republic, these three ministries were to think as
one and bring out joint ‘national inter-dependent’ curricula for second official language
(English/French) teaching in general and English for Francophones in particular. In the
absence of this, it becomes very tedious to assess the levels of students from one
educational level to another. This commands us to look into the English taught at all three
levels so as to put a finger on the crux of the matter with our Francophone fine arts
students and make adequate proposals. From this research problem, the following
questions could be asked, to guide the study.

0.5. Research questions


1. How is English language teaching handled at the primary and secondary levels of
francophone education?
2. What English is taught in the Bilingual Training course in the Fine Arts institutes in
particular?
3. What are the Fine Arts learners’ real needs in the framework of Bilingual Training
in English?
4. What curriculum could more likely expedite the learning of English for Specific
Purposes for Francophone Fine Arts students?

0.6. Research hypotheses


If the students’ actual needs should be met in the Bilingual training in English course, then
the teaching/learning process should start by the design of proper curricula. These curricula

7
My emphasis

9
will in turn spring up from proper needs analysis. Textbooks and other didactic materials
will only be secondary needs. This central hypothesis can be broken down as follows:

1. The English language curricula at the primary and secondary levels are good, but
their exploitation remains a difficulty.
2. The English language taught in the Fine Arts Institutes does not tally with pre-
tertiary English; and though it may seek to focus on the learners’ specific training
field, it does not follow an adequately designed curriculum.
3. Students’ real needs include not only general English but also the specific English
that will equip them for studies, research, and probably employability in their
specific disciplines.
4. A curriculum that provides continuity between the secondary and the tertiary level
and, at the same time, addresses issues in fine arts study specific language needs
will more likely produce the language proficiency required for fine art students who
are truly bilingual in English and French.

0.7. Objectives of the study


We intend to design and present an adequate curriculum for Bilingual Training in
Cameroon’s Fine Arts Institutes that is to be implemented in continuity with language
teaching at the previous levels, based on the case of English to Francophone students. This
main objective will be reached through:
1. a description of English language teaching to Francophone learners at the primary
and secondary levels,
2. a description and analysis of the practice of Bilingual Training in English in the two
institutes of Fine Arts (Foumban and Nkongsamba) in the nation,
3. the identification of the English language needs of Francophone learners’ as well as
their learning needs in these university colleges,
4. a pedagogic guide for the implementation of the designed curriculum.

0.8. Scope of the study


The present study focuses on Bilingual Training in English, a language course taught to
Francophone students in tertiary education in Cameroon. It starts with a review of English
language programmes and practice in the French-speaking subsystems of basic and
secondary education studying their potential for the development of desired language

10
proficiency in the learners upon graduation. The work is also a report of Fine Arts students
needs analysis in Bilingual Training in English in general, with focus on the case of two
establishments which offer training in the fine arts: the Foumban Fine arts institute
(Dschang University) and the Nkongsamba Fine Arts Institute (Douala University). It ends
up proposing a curriculum for this specific course, though some of the parameters may as
well be applied to Bilingual Training in French.

0.9. Significance of the study: a national, commonwealth and global


issue
Nforbi (2012: p. 10) remarks that “problems created elsewhere in national life are always
thought to have their solutions through an educational system”. This study faces the current
globalisation situation and seeks to equip the Cameroonian university student with
language skills needed to survive in the global village. If the French-speaking students gain
an acceptable proficiency in English upon graduation, not only will they be bilingual in the
official languages, therefore accomplishing the government’s goal, but also, they will gain
access to science in English in their postgraduate studies: documentation, research
supervision and cooperation, integration of universities with Anglo-Saxon traditions. Their
employability spectrum will be widened. Also, Cameroon’s ambition to attain emergence
by 2035 can only be more accessible if a large number of teachers exploit, directly or
indirectly, the contents of this thesis, viewing the massive dominance of English language
in the world of science and engineering. Bilateral and multilateral cooperation and
collaboration of Cameroon with other countries will be highly enhanced. The learners will
therefore not only be open to the whole commonwealth world, but also to many other
countries in the expanding circle of Krachkru’s classification of the countries in the
English world. It is worth noting that many of these countries are joining the
Commonwealth.

0.10. Structure of the work


The study is built upon six chapters, besides this general introduction and the general
conclusion at the end. Chapter One reviews studies related to this topic and dwells on
theoretical issues related to curriculum design, and some relevant language teaching
theories. While Chapter Two presents the research methodology, Chapter surveys the
teaching of English at the primary and secondary level, in order to draw useful parameters
for curriculum continuity with the tertiary level. The next chapter is on the state of the art

11
on bilingual training in the fine arts establishments as well as a comparison of the course
with ESP practice in a foreign country. In Chapter Five, the language needs of the fine arts
learners are addressed. Finally, Chapter Six presents the proposed curriculum and hints
unto its implementation.

12
Chapter 1: LITERATURE REVIEW AND ISSUES IN CURRICULUM DESIGN
CHAPTER 1

LITERATURE REVIEW AND ISSUES


IN CURRICULUM DESIGN

Introduction
English has commanded much study nowadays. It is one of the world’s most prominent
languages. It is also an official legacy from Cameroon’s history. Thus, it was adopted in
the educational system of the country. The teaching/learning of English has not gone
problem-free so far. This thesis could not possibly assume to be the first ever to address the
didactics of English in Cameroon in general and Bilingual Training in English at the
tertiary level in particular. Much research has already been carried out in this field. The
purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to shed lights on some key theoretical issues that
shape the research work, and show how the study fits into science, where it takes from. In
this regard, we shall start by reviewing studies on the growing interest for English.
Secondly, we shall look into the French-speaking high school graduates proficiencies in
English. Thirdly, we shall look into Bilingual Training in English at the university. After a
review of these applied studies, we shall get into theories on curriculum design,
competency-based approach and English for Specific Purposes.

1.1. The growing interest for English today


In their report presented at African Studies Association Annual Conference, November 23,
2013, “Why Are More African Countries Adopting English as an Official Language?”, in
Baltimore, Maryland, Plonski et al (2013) study how English, ‘the language of
globalisation’, manifests itself on the African continent. They look into the economic and
political reasons why some African countries are now shifting to English, adopting it as
their chief foreign language, their language of instruction8 or even (one of) their official
language(s). They record 26 African countries that use English at least as one of their
official languages and 53 African countries that use it for communicative purposes, as the

8
UNESCO (2013), quoted by the authors, defines ‘language of instruction’ as “language(s) used to convey a
specified curriculum in a formal or non-formal educational setting”

13
Gabonese President recognised it as a ‘necessary working language’ for the diversification
of partnerships. They argue that more African countries with no history with Britain are
now placing emphasis on the need for English in their political, economic and educational
policies.

According to them, while highlighting the increasing role of English in Africa, “it is
also important to note that French is on the decline”. They argue that French and
Portuguese are being replaced in Western Africa by English and that in countries like
Rwanda where only a minority of the population speak passable French and English is
being emphasised as in political and educational issues , French might not be spoken at all
after two decades. Other countries like South Sudan, Ethiopia and Burundi, are developing
strong interest in the English language, for its prominence both geographically (the
language of the neighbouring countries and many other countries in the world) and
strategically (the language of scientific, political, educational, economic and working
opportunities). Ethiopia has even made English alongside Amharic an official working
language. This can be seen as breaking up with the colonial past and ties with former
colonial masters and developing a new identity and a means to break tribal differences.

Education wise, in some former French colonies like Senegal, Mali, Cote d’Ivoire,
English, if not given the status of official language, is adopted as the first compulsory
foreign language to be taught at all levels of education. In Ethiopia, it is taught as a subject
as early as in the primary years and used as the teaching medium in universities. They
conclude that the presence of English in African educational systems is but an advantage
since most didactic materials that they import are in English. This situation is not only a
general issue in Africa. The place and worth of English seem to have improved in the mind
of French-speaking Cameroonians in general and learners in particular.

In “English and French in Cameroon today: Revisiting a previous statement”, Atechi


(2015) argues that though Ze Amvela (1999) had proven that “the shift in language
use/learning was towards the majority official language, French”, most parents have been
sending their children to English schools lately, some of them have been struggling to learn
the language themselves. In those days, the predominant language used in the single State
university of Yaoundé was 99% French, at the exception of the English unit, most of the
teaching was done in French. Similarly, training in prestigious schools such as ENAM9 and

9
École Nationale de l’Administration et de la Magistrature

14
EMIA10 was mostly done in French. So, English speaking citizens who had aspiration for
higher education had to learn French as a prerequisite. Unwilling to see their children
through the same ordeal, they send them into the French-speaking subsystem of education
not for integrative reasons but they do so for instrumental reasons. Yet they struggled to
maintain English as an identity symbol. Thanks to the economic crisis that struck
Cameroon and diverted many young Cameroonians towards job opportunities in countries
like North America, Canada and South Africa, the hostile immigration laws of France, and
the established international status of English as lingua franca favoured by science and
technology, the curve seems to turn the other way round (Simo Bobda 2001) when one
looks at critical factors such as status related factors, demographic factors, institutional
support factors, cultural (dis)similarity, and language attitude, the very factors cited by Ze
Amvela (ibid) to demonstrate the shift from English to French. English-speaking schools in
the cities are now flooded with Francophones (Cameroon Tribune11, March 21, p.4), they
are now passionately rushing to learn English (Ngefac, 2009). This attitude is only
favoured by the world of opportunities that English brings in the global village. Atechi
identifies the different means through which French-speaking Cameroonians are learning
English today: a private home teacher, taking courses in linguistic centres, sending children
to English medium schools. This movement towards English should now be taken up in
English language teaching to Francophones. Also, the official bilingualism policy may see
its brightest days, yet, return to imbalance with a rush from French to English, in the long
run. The learners themselves increasingly understand the significant role English plays in
the world today. Mforteh (200612), quoted by Moko (2017: p.11), concludes that “English
is no more considered as the identity marker of les anglos là or les anglofou but it is that
bridge to international success that everyone, irrespective official language background
wants to cross. Francophone children have literally invaded English-speaking schools at all
levels”
In Language Ideologies and Attitudes of Francophone Learners towards English in
Yaounde, Cameroon, Abongdia (2009) quests to grasp the motivations and individual
language attitudes held by Francophone secondary education learners of English towards
the language, the key factors that account for them and the influence of prevailing

10
École Militaire Inter Armée.
11
The author does not state the year.
12
Mforteh, S.A (2006). “Cultural innovations in Cameroon’s linguistic Tower of Babel”, In Internet –
Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, Achimbe, A. (ed), University of Beirut. Available at
http://www.postnewsline.com/2008/02/snapshotbilingu.html

15
language ideologies in the country thereupon. She finds that only 33% of her respondents
(students) display positive attitude towards, English, with 12% showing deep intrinsic
integrative and also instrumental motivation to learn the language. The rest acknowledge
the importance of English worldwide, but the socio-political configuration of the country
would have them consider French dominant within the country (an opinion echoed by
Kouega 2005), seeing the Anglophone as a minority and, ipso facto, they think
Anglophones are the ones who need to know the majority language, French, and not the
reverse. Again, they blamed their teachers for using poor techniques that the students, as
well as the author, found unconducive for language learning. Mangong (2009) and
Siéwoué (2013) are united in opinion with this point of view. This also has a direct impact
on the time the students spend studying English, as proportional to the extent of their
motivation. A few of them do express interest for the language but this is purely for
instrumental reasons.
Therefore, the need to develop positive motivation in the Francophone students is
felt, showing the students the need to know English for its manifold roles and developing a
student-centred pedagogy with classroom activities that will foster their desire to use
English more frequently. This point is even more emphatically re-echoed by Focho (2011)
who insists that it is in the place of the teacher to produce this awareness-raising. Again,
she recommends that English be taught from nursery school, so that the students would
have more years to study the language. She encourages the creation of more English clubs,
with bilingualism prizes, teachers, should see themselves as models and share their
personal interests and perspectives with the learners; they should foster self-confidence in
the learners; moreover, the government should make the implementation of their language
policies clear, with consistent follow-up, amongst other recommendations.
The issue of clarity on official language policy is being addressed at the secondary
level, especially the advent of the special bilingualism programmes and the Competency-
based approach with entry through real life situations (CBA-RLS), discussed further in the
work. At the university level, the weakness remains. No curricula are designed for the
teaching of English to Francophones. Actually, when one moves around in the universities,
the main trend is to see each teacher, as it is the case in the other course, develop their
syllabi on their own, and, more importantly, some of these teachers are not even language
teachers (Nforbi, 2012a: pp. 332-333).

16
In Hywel Coleman’s (2011) edition Dreams and Realities: Developing Countries
and the English Language, and the seventh chapter, “Student perceptions of English as a
developmental tool in Cameroon”, Focho shows that the learners’ motivation can be well
enhanced if the teacher lays enough emphasis on it. She analyses the way French-speaking
students look at English in Cameroon as a tool for development. Seeing development as
implying “the general wellbeing of the individual, economically, physically, socially and
psychologically”, agreeing with Ekpoki (2009) that English enables nations to be involved
in the Millennium Goals for Development, and observing that English is the language of
science, technology, economics, medicine, aviation, banking, international studies, the
language of international communication, collaboration and cooperation, she underlines
the fact that governments, corporations, international organisations need it to progress. In
development, she identifies with Coleman (2010) that English is needed for development
in the following sectors: employability, international collaboration and cooperation, access
to research and information, international jobs and tourism. Though she points to the fact
that “Francophones in general and Francophone students in particular have no intrinsic
motivation to be proficient in English” and that the lack of oral test in the English paper
further weakens this motivation, a very large majority of her respondents acknowledge that
English is of utmost importance in university and international studies. With regards to
employability and global education, they only see English as averagely important.
However, significant increase in students’ perceptions occurred in the post-test after the
awareness-raising exercise.
Though high school graduates acknowledge the importance of English for studies
and employability, they do not receive adequate training in the language during their
undergraduate studies. This may sound as defeated expectancy. The Bilingual training
course, far from being any neutral course, needs to be strengthened and standardised
through scientifically designed curricula, so as to meet the needs of the students and
actually equip them for the language challenges of the twenty-first century.

1.2. Problems in English language learning

1.2.1. Learners’ proficiency in English after the Baccalauréat certificate


In The English Language Proficiency of Francophone Secondary School Leavers in
Cameroon, Sokeng (2010) discovered that many French-speaking students leave the high-school
without a clear knowledge of their actual English language proficiency. She set out to evaluate the

17
learners overall proficiency, nonetheless including details such as how they do in listening
comprehension, reading comprehension, structure (grammar and vocabulary), writing, the factors
that contribute to their poor or good performance, and the effectiveness of the testing tool used in
the Baccalaureate exam. Upon graduation, the learners should have achieved confident fluency and
accuracy to carry out listening, speaking, reading and writing tasks, and match style and response
to audience and purpose, as stated in the general objective of the syllabus for Première and
Terminale.

Defining proficiency as “the degree to which an individual is skilled in a language;


the level of competence at which an individual is able to use language for both basic
communicative tasks and academic purposes”, and pointing out to the fact that the
Baccalaureate exam gives too little attention to oral skills, Sokeng decides to test the
learners’ proficiency with a TOEFL pattern of testing. She selects informants from the ten
regions of the country and classifies the results of her informants in three categories:
- Category 1: scores between 0-24 out of 50
- Category 2: scores between 25-36 out of 50
- Category 3: scores between 37-50 out of 50

Here, category 1 is those who could not make it in the test, category 2 is for those
who display an average proficiency and category 3 for those who did well in the test. In the
overall assessment, she finds that 299 out of 430 informants (69.5%) fell under category 1,
thus a success rate of 30.5%, with informants from the south-west being the best(with 70
%), those from the north west the second (with 67.5%), the Centre the third (with 44.2%) ,
the Littoral the fourth (with 38.5%), the West the fifth (with 20.62%), the South the sixth
(with 18.75%), the North the seventh (with 16.25%), the Adamawa the eight (with 15%),
the East the ninth (with 7.5%) and the Far North the tenth, the last (with 6.25%). But to
what extent can these figures be risklessly generalised.

In listening comprehension, 403/430 respondents (93.7%) fall under category 1,


23/430 (5.34%) fall under category 2, 4/430 (0.93%) under category 1. She identified this
skill as the one in which the learners are most wanting.

The informants did a little better in structure, 63.7% fell in Category 1 that is their
score falls and 36.2% in Categories 2 and 3. The performance of students in Structure was
poor.

18
The performances in reading comprehension were quite better: 58.3% of the
informants fell in Category 1 and 41.6% fell in Categories 2 and 3. Although they did
better in this skill, more than 50% of them still failed.

In writing, the tendency remained the same: 52% of 430 informants fell under
Category 1, and 47.9% fell under Categories 2 and 3.

Her general interpretation was therefore that French-speaking students leave the high
school with a very poor proficiency in English, with the best proficiencies in the South-
West and North-West regions, and the lowest proficiencies in the East and Far-North
regions. Her informants observe that this poor proficiency is the account of factors such as
absences of teachers, poor teaching methods that do not allow the students to use the
language in the classroom, unqualified teachers, absence of resource centres like libraries
or language centres or access to newspapers in English, neglect of oral skills in the
classroom and on the Baccalaureate examination paper, lack of didactic materials, and
lack of familiarity with proficiency tests.

Sokeng’s perspective is that the government should implement a TOEFL-like


English language paper at the Baccalaureate exam, and students’ results should be
returned to them for consideration, with implication on the English language pedagogy.
And the consequence should be that a pass in the English paper should be credited for
Bilingual Training at the university, so that this university student who has already proven
to be bilingual would not need to take the Bilingual training course any more. This point is
a matter for debate, in my opinion. However, her study gives insight into the general state
of the learners’ proficiencies upon admission into the university.

Sokeng’s thesis lays emphasis on pre-tertiary English language, studying the


proficiencies of high school graduates. However, it does not handle the problem of
curriculum. Testing and evaluation could be right but remain unproductive if curriculum
design is neglected. The competence-based approach with entry through real life situations
(CBA-RLS) has come up at the secondary level to address the curriculum problem.
Sokeng’s study was done in the absence of this approach at that level. We take it into
consideration in this thesis, and it even becomes a major theoretical source for the
curriculum design we suggest.

19
In “Tense and aspect in the era of competence-based English language teaching in
Cameroon’s secondary schools” by Nforbi & Siéwoué (2016 a), as we rightly point out,
concerning this curricular amendment at the secondary level, that is, the adoption of the
new CBA-RLS approach that replaces the former objective-based approach which clearly
had a penchant for communicative language teaching – teaching both structures and
notions/functions, that it tends to neglect some determinant structural learner problems. We
carried out a comparative study of Troisième and Terminale students’ mastery of tense and
aspect in English. After an error analysis of learners’ language through two tests – writing
a narrative passage and providing answers in exercises - we submit that “the present
situation of most learners is the very poor mastery of English tense and aspect that make
their speech and writing clumsy to a very great extent” (ibid). We analyse this poor
mastery of tense and aspect in English as resulting from a very shallow and/or inadequate
tackling of English language teaching in general and most particularly of tense and aspect
by their teachers. The paper expresses the fear that, with the already-difficult-to-
understand-and-implement new method (see Nforbi and Siéwoué (2016b)), tense and
aspect, though crucial in communication, whether problem-solving or professional or even
just academic communication, may be overlooked in the new era of problem-solving
pedagogy. Thus, “in the era of Competence-Based English language teaching, it would be
wise to lay even more emphasis on these grammatical structures in the early classes”
(ibid).

So, Bilingual Training in English (BTE) will have, inter alia, the mission of “filling
the gap” in the high school leavers profiles. This further stresses the need for a curriculum
design for the course, the mission of this study.

1.2.2. Bilingual Training in English in Cameroon tertiary education

In Nforbi’s (2012a) PhD thesis, Bilingual Training in English in Tertiary Education in


Cameroon, he observes many problems in Bilingual Training in English (BTE) as it is
practised at the university level: learners come with varying proficiencies in English and
appreciation of the course, teaching content and methods vary without always meeting the
needs of the learners, materials and methods are generally wanting, and the course does not
receive adequate time allocation. He sets out to understand why the teaching of English to
Francophones in general, and bilingual training could be such a failure over the years.

20
He reviews the English language programmes of basic and secondary education,
and submits that the programmes are quite rich in content, even though they are not
perfect, and one will expect learners who go through it to master the English language.
Yet, a few difficulties explain the defeated expectancy. At the level of the parents, their
poverty and illiteracy –for many of them – blur their children’s need to study and master
English. They will therefore not afford money to buy didactic materials for their offspring.
The teachers lack didactic materials, psychological and material motivation, and are unable
to optimise their teaching in very large classes. At the level of the syllabus, the skills are
enumerated but the pedagogic strategies to attain these skills are not mentioned. The acute
shortage of staff at the basic and secondary levels, the inappropriate sociolinguistic
environment and the lack of adapted materials are responsible for the insignificant success
rate of learners in English.

At the tertiary level, he remarks that most of the tests focus on verbs and verb
tenses in grammar; vocabulary deals mostly with gap filling, synonyms, derivatives; in
comprehension, “learners cannot write their own ideas because they do not master sentence
construction” (Nforbi ibid:253), neither can they aptly write an essay. Spoken English is
the least taught and evaluated aspect of testing, whereas it is a key element in academics.
Also, the lecturers are recruited to teach the subject by the deans of faculties on no
scientifically approved basis. Though there are coordinators in the different faculties, the
syllabi differ and are traced out on no research basis. Our thesis shows that this practice
remains current. He proposes that the language laboratory should be equipped and
enhanced, with a Director heading it, to control Bilingual Training at the level of the
university, teachers should be recruited by a qualified constituted jury, each faculty should
have a Bilingual Training office with a coordinator who will animate the department and
organise frequent in-service training, class size should be reduced to a maximum of 50
students.

In his proposal for a model of bilingual training programme (see §7.2.), he suggests
that the universities should use an intensive and remedial approach in level one where the
course will be taught in more than sixty hours, to fill the students’ lacks, after a placement
test. This could then be done during the summer holiday. Furthermore, in year 2 and year
3, a functional approach should be increasingly adopted to equip learners for research,
employability and international communication. Again, he observes that “the greatest

21
difficulties of Francophone students is spoken English. From all indications, the spoken
form which is communicative is deficient in the programme.” (pp.198-199). He suggests
hints for learner development of speaking skills. In proposing a guiding summary
programme for Bilingual Training, he advises that the Pareto principle of 80/20 to
language teaching be applied, whereby more time and energy should be invested for the
important 20% of the syllabus to save time and energy. The speaking skills development
needs to be given proper significance in any curriculum that is current, with suggestions on
taking up the challenge of large class size and insufficient time allocation.

We treat a similar problem to Nforbi’s, with teaching contents and methods that
vary without necessarily meeting the needs of learners and inadequate time allocation,
materials and methods. However, Nforbi’s case study are the faculties of arts, letters and
social sciences and faculties of science of the universities of Dschang and Yaounde I. we
use his study as a background description of the practice of Bilingual Training in English
in faculties, but we focus on two university institutes offering professional training in the
arts as case study here. Again, Nforbi does not really address the problem of curriculum
continuity through the three principal levels of education in the nation. We design a
curriculum which serves this purpose in its methodology.

1.2.3. Students’ structural language problems

The Grammar Problem in Higher Education in Cameroon by Ayafor (2015) is an error


analysis based study of the English language of the students of the Department of English
at the university of Yaounde 1. She analyses 82 letters of complaint, 154 continuous
assessment scripts and 50 examination scripts all written by undergraduate students of this
department. The author finds that these students are still paralysed by their non-mastery of
manifold aspects of the structure of English language. Their errors are classified as
follows:

At the level of lexical skills

- Lexical errors including the learners’ inappropriate vocabulary, indicating their low
lexical skills
- Poor word choice, the use of wrong words or the use of words in the wrong
contexts
- Poor knowledge of idiomatic expressions

22
At the level of syntactic structures, concerning the arrangement of words in a sentence

- The conditional wrongly conjugated in if- sentences,


- Badly constructed relative clauses
- Omissions of words from their collocational contexts,
- Sentence fragments,
- Unnecessary repetitions of words
- Inappropriate style

At the level of grammar, which the author chose to define as dealing “with things such as
verb conjugation, shift in tense, distinction between active and passive voice, case, mood,
aspect, and the like” (Ayafor 2015: p. 27):
- Non mastery of verb tense, mood and aspect
- Faulty prepositional use
- Omission of verb + en in passive forms (they tend to use the base form)
- Subject verb disagreement in number (third person –s in the present simple is used
at random)

At the level of mechanics, spelling errors and punctuation errors abound in the study, the
last two having the most occurrences in the whole error analysis. “Errors of punctuation
and spelling are on the rise with time” (p. 36), as her figures show.

Ayafor’s general remark is that “as we move from Level One to Level Two to
Level Three of the undergraduate programme of the department of English in the
university of Yaounde 1, students do not show any sign of improvement in their general
English writing skills” (ibid: 31). Instead, “contrary to expectation, students’ performance
in all domains generally dropped as they progressed from Level One to Level Three” (ibid:
pp. 38-39). She therefore moves to an exploration of the possible causes of student errors,
first from the perspective of error analysis, before any other sociolinguistic parameters.

The analysis shows that students, even at the university level, tend to over
generalise some grammatical features. Also, the spelling / sound disparities of English –
the same letter or cluster of letters can be pronounced differently – remains a problem for
these learners. The problem is even more serious for those who do not give themselves to
the general reading of good materials in English, one of whose virtues is to polish the
language of the reader. Mother tongue interferes in their English both at the level of

23
structure and of pronunciation. These pronunciation interferences lead to erroneous word
spelling (rule for role, for instance). Actually, her investigation through interviews shows
that many Anglophones presume that they know the English language, as it has been their
language of instruction over the years. It also shows that as students lack textbooks for
English language at the secondary level, as the teaching of English stops too early (at the
GCE Ordinary Level) – though English was taken up to the high school lately but remains
an optional subject, their proficiencies are inadequate. The researcher still records that in
the field, untrained English language teachers have handled English language at all levels
of education, and the use of “unsuccessful teaching methods”, using her own words, has
worsened the situation. The communicative approach, as she thinks, is best for people who
study English as first language, not for ESL13 learners. Its focus on communicative
competence and little consideration for the structure of the language has degraded the
students’ language a great deal. This explains why Professor Samy Beban Chumbow’s
comments that the “bold position [of the author] is patently at variance with the principal
tenets of the popular communicative competence approach, but is informed by putative
empirical evidence from the study14”. Moreover, grammar is inadequately tested at the
official examinations, though there are very few multiple choice questions in English
language paper one. If grammar can be likened to the mathematics of language, it is
important that teachers multiply drills to help consolidate learners’ mastery of the
structures in the classroom, a point of view that Nforbi & Siéwoué (2016a) are strongly in
tune with, as well as at the official examinations. She identifies many other reasons for
such inadequate learner grammar as the negative influence of Cameroon Pidgin English
and Franglais on learners’ language, no general reading habit on their part, and the lack of
concentration: as the students write and speak, they do not monitor their speech
adequately, lack of involvement of teachers of other subjects. The Cameroonian
Government recently thought that the Objective-Based Approach (OBA) that used to be in
force at the secondary level could be held responsible for all these structural problems that
learners displayed, an approach in which the learner was simply expected to master
whatever structure, function or notion, and be able to use it when he has the opportunity. In
2014, a new approach was effected in secondary education, the Competence-Based
Approach with entry through Real Life Situations (CBA-RLS).

13
English as a second language
14
This comment features on the back of the book

24
1.3. Some language teaching theories
1.3.1. Competency-based language teaching
There exist quite a good number of language teaching methods each with their distinct
peculiarities. In their book Approaches and Methods of Language Teaching: a Description
and Analysis, Richards and Rogers (1995) provide an in-depth study of different methods
and approaches in language teaching including the grammar translation method, the direct
method, Total physical response, the audiolingual method, situational language teaching,
and Competence-based language teaching in their 2001 edition. Widdowson (1991, 2006)
has provided elaborate discussions on communicative language teaching, whose main
concern is fostering real life communication in the learners. Competence-based language
teaching is a more recent method. We had already culled elements of this approach from
various textbooks, in our M.A. dissertation (Siéwoué, 2014). However, we shall outline its
main features.

Competence-based language teaching (CBLT) as a language teaching method,


infuses the term ‘competence’ with more conceptual elements than there used to exist
before. Chomsky considered ‘competence’ as the speaker/hearer’s knowledge of a
language, and dichotomised the term with ‘performance’ as the actual use of language in
concrete situations (Crystal, 2004: pp. 87- 88). Hymes (1972), quoted by Hedge (2008:
p.45) added the ‘communicative’ element to competence to refer to “the [social] rules of
use without which the rules of grammar would be useless”, that is, using language in a
social context.

Hedge (2008) ascribed five main components to the notion of communicative


competence:

- linguistic competence, i.e. knowledge of language structures,


- pragmatic competence, i.e. using language to achieve meaning,
- discourse competence, i.e. the various abilities needed to create coherent written texts
or conversation and to understand them,
- strategic competence, i.e. the ability to achieve meaning using other means (resources
for expression) different from those necessary to express what they originally wanted
to say, and
- fluency, i.e. the ability to speak smoothly without strain or inappropriate slowness or
hesitation.

25
CBLT begins by referring to competence as ‘survival skills’ (Grognet and Grandall
1982: p. 3) i.e. language skills “that are necessary for individuals to function proficiently
[or survive] in the society in which [immigrants into the USA] live” in the 1970s.
For Perrenoud (2000), these skills were necessary at work as well. Roegiers (2004) shifts
the learner from the position of subjection to that of a social actor, a problem-solver. He
sees competence as “[la] possibilité, pour un individu, de mobiliser de
manière intériorisée un ensemble intégré de ressources en vue de résoudre une famille de
situations-problèmes”. Mahamat (2011) spices up the concept with an element of
efficiency, defining it as “une réponse originale et efficace15 face à une situation.”

The main practical difference between this method and the others is this: whereas
the other methods in general teach a lesson and evaluate objective achievement pertaining
to that lesson, CBLT targets a real life problem and evaluates if the learner can muster
various language resources (grammar, vocabulary, speech, attitudes, writing, knowledge
of various domains of life, etc.) to solve that problem efficiently. The other approaches
evaluate objectives (they are objective-based), but CBLT evaluates problem-solving (it is
competence-based).

Richards and Rogers (ibid) spell out seven key features of CBLT. We summarised them as
follows.

1. The students are taught/prepared for the various demands of the world. Language
should
therefore be taught essentially as a medium of communication and interaction.
2. Outcomes are public knowledge and skills, known and agreed upon by both the teacher
and the students.
3. It adopts a performance orientation. Focus is not primarily on the knowledge of the
language, but on behaviours, attitudes, and what the learners can do with the language.
4. Teaching/learning content should be modularised to help the teacher and his students
realise their progress.
5. Assessment is continuous and ongoing.
6. Students should eventually demonstrate mastery of performance objectives. Here,
assessment is based on the students’ performance of specific behaviours instead of
traditional paper-and-pencil tests.

15
My emphasis

26
7. Instruction is individualised and student-centred. The teacher will therefore concentrate
on each individual to support them in those areas where they lack competence

CBLT is the method in force in Cameroon’s primary education (Mahamat 2011), it has
been in force at the secondary level since 2012. We shall adopt for the curriculum we
propose for the Bilingual Training Course in Cameroon’s Fine Arts institutes, thus
providing continuation in EFL language curricula, in response to Ayafor’s (2015) worry
mentioned in the problem statement earlier. We intend to produce students and prospective
professionals who can use English effectively and efficiently to addressing academic and
professional situations they will get into. CBLT will therefore serve as a practical method
for the English for Specific Purposes course we design for French-speaking fine arts
university students in Cameroon.

1.3.2. English for Specific Purposes

In their book Teaching English for Specific Purposes: An Introduction, Day and
Krzanowski (2011), as they define English for Specific Purposes (ESP), emphasise that the
P always stands for professional Purposes, “a set of skills that learners currently need in
their work or will need in their professional careers16” (2011: p.5). This definition
underlies two sets of needs: the learners’ needs in their work as learners (academic needs),
that is, their present needs, and the needs that will arise in the future, as they embrace their
professional careers, their future needs. Therefore, English for Specific Purposes is
designed on two principles: (1) their specific future career(s) should be well known; (2) the
learners’ specific needs, present and future, should be met in the teaching-learning process.
Consequently, in a normal English for Specific Purposes exam, emphasis is laid “on their
ability to function properly at work17, rather than purely English” (ibid).

Jack C. Richards (2001: p.28) outlines the practical concerns that needed to be
addressed during the emergence of ESP:

-“the need to prepare growing numbers of non-English background students for study at
American and British universities from the 1950s [English for international studies]
-the need to prepare materials to teach students who had already mastered general English,
but now needed English for use in employment, such as non-English background
doctors, nurses, engineers, and scientists [Professional English]

16
Their emphasis
17
Their emphasis

27
-the need for materials for people needing English for business purposes [materials in
business English]
-the need to teach immigrants the language needed to deal with job situations” [Survival
English]

These ‘practical concerns’ also unveil the importance of proper needs analysis at the
start of the English for Specific Purposes course and materials designed to support the
endeavour. If this needs analysis is well conducted, the chances to have the learners judge
the English for Specific Purposes class as successful eventually are high, and the teacher
will be able to produce and update an Individual Learning Profile for each learner in the
process.

Hence, Richards (ibid:28) eventually presents the major difference between general
English and English for specific purposes in the following words:

In contrast to students learning English for general purposes for whom mastery of
the language for its own sake or in order to pass a general examination is the primary
goal, the English for Specific Purposes student is usually studying English in order
to carry out a particular role, such as that of foreign student in an English-medium
university, flight attendant, mechanic, or doctor.

On their part, Dudley Evans and St John (1998), insist on the practical outcomes
considered as skills in playing the role of an effective language user. The main concern of
English for Specific Purposes include “needs analysis, text analysis, and preparing the
learner to communicate effectively in the task prescribed by their study or work situation”
(p. 1)

In one word, General English (GE) is geared toward knowing the language for
everyday life and passing general examinations, whereas English for Specific Purposes
seeks to equip the learner with English skills needed for the specific study and/or
professional field which they embrace (see also Otilia 2015, Nunan 1988: p. 24). English
for Specific Purposes “is narrower in focus than ELT18 courses” (Basturkmen, 2010: p. 3).
In English for specific Purposes, the tasks are dictated by learners’ work or study roles, the
spectrum is limited to their work or study needs, and the range of topics derive from course
outcomes and learners roles and concerns.

At the tertiary level, Effective English for Specific Purposes teaching therefore
entails good command of the learners’ specific subject area. We shall not ignore the
English for general academic purposes aspect of the enterprise, for the learners must

18
English language Teaching

28
communicate effectively at the university as well, addressing the various situations they
face daily. The learners at stake here are non-English background students, studying the
Fine Arts. The course we design intends to prepare them to meet the requirements at a
relative level in carrying out further studies in English-medium universities, whether in
Cameroon or internationally. This will be done through proper needs analysis (Chapter
Five), text analysis on all the passages and documents to feature as didactic material, that
is, each time the learner faces a passage as a resource for language learning. There will also
be room for outcome evaluation. In this way, we shall ensure that we do not depart from
the main and practical concerns of English for Specific Purposes.

Day and Krzanowski’s (2011) book provides guidance for many other issues such
as where to find suitable course materials, course book selection, lesson planning, teaching
professional communication skills, dealing with low level of English in the classroom,
evaluation, hints that are beneficial for language curriculum design, the specific task in this
study.

In his evaluation of English for Academic purposes in Cameroon, Safotso’s (2011)


paper “Evaluating English for Academic Purposes in some Cameroonian Universities”
investigates into the students’ appreciation and expectations from the EAP course. He
proves that, “Indeed, the courses do not seem to be viewed and treated as a necessary and
indispensable component of university studies” (Experts Group Meeting Report, p.483,
quoted by Safotso (2011)). He finds out that the courses are taught without proper needs
analysis, classes are overcrowded (100 to 2,500 students in a class) with no possibility to
address learners’ individual problems, teachers are not trained EAP/ESP teachers, the
English taught is hardly related to the students’ study fields, though the investigation
shows that they expect the reverse. Close to 87 per cent of the respondents prescribed an
amelioration of subject content.

Safotso’s study which was carried out in two phases (2007 and 2010), led to the very
results of the Experts Group Meeting of 1999 and the findings of Biloa (1999) and Kouega
(2006), which bespeak of a stagnant situation over the years. He therefore re-echoes the
recommendations of the Experts Group Meeting:

(a) The design of a national programme for all State universities to help avoid
confusion
(b) The reduction of tutorial groups to a maximum of 25 members

29
(c) The training of EAP/ESP teachers
(d) Encouraging the universities to solicit the expertise of linguistic centres, cultural
centres, and the like.

Safotso adds a few other recommendations:

(e) Trained EAP lecturers should be recruited to teach and coordinate the teaching of
the subject.
(f) Encouraging the production of local textbooks for the course
(g) Associating subject matter specialists to EAP/ESP teaching in a sort of team
teacher.
(h) In-service seminars
(i) Equipping the libraries with English for Specific Purposes textbooks,
(j) Regular evaluation of the programme by both national and international experts.
Kouega’s (2008) findings in “Bilingualism at Tertiary Level Education in Cameroon:
the Case of the University of Yaounde II (Soa)” are very similar to the ones mentioned
earlier, in that the students lack qualified teachers, classrooms are too large for a language
course, and there is absence of a clear language policy for the country. Moreover, teaching
method as well as student and teacher motivation are very inadequate. Also, the fact that
both lecturers and students do not always possess sufficient proficiency in both French and
English affects the learning negatively. Kouega suggests the following, for a real take-off
of official bilingualism at the tertiary level in Cameroon: The creation of a language board
to help develop bilingualism, promote bilingual education and evaluate the official
bilingualism policy in the country. However, our thesis aims at producing a curriculum
which clearly seeks to improve the teaching method and, ipso facto, students’ motivation.

Figure 1 : Subdivisions of English for Specific Purposes

30
These works show that the French-speaking English language learners in general,
and the university students in particular develop a growing interest – whether intrinsic,
instrumental or integrative motivations – in knowing the English language. They are not
only to learn general English, but they should, by the third year, learn English that is
relevant to them in their different fields of study as well as their future professions, to
reflect what Nforbi (2012a) and Safotso (2011) propose, English for Specific purposes.
However, Safotso seems to use the words English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and
English for Specific Purposes (ESP) without specifying the difference between the two.
Albassri (2016: p.40) adapts Jordan’s (1995) distinctions in the form of a chart.

English for Academic Purposes is a face of English for Occupational Purposes, in


Jordan’s nomenclature is the other. The former deals with learner’s direct academic
language needs whereas the latter dwells on the English they will need in future to work
effectively.

In “English for Specific Purposes: Past and Present”, Otilia (2015) summarises the
main features of English for Specific Purposes from a diachronic analysis. The factors that
led to its appearance include the introduction of governmental mass education with English
as the second and only foreign language, the need of English as a common medium of
communication and its facilitation of access to scientific and technical literature. The
English taught in this framework is mostly the jargons used in different professions.
Meeting the learner’s specific needs is not its only peculiarity, it is also related to content
(particular descriptions, occupations and activities) and the syntax, lexis, discourse and
semantics taught is directly related to the aforementioned content. English for Specific
Purposes is further likely designed for adult-learners at the tertiary level or in a given job,
and it assumes basic knowledge of English: the learners in an English for Specific
Purposes class should be either intermediate or advanced learners.

In this light, the English for Specific Purposes practitioner performs five different
roles: a teacher (facilitator of learning), a collaborator with other English for Specific
Purposes practitioners and subject specialists, a course designer and materials provider, a
researcher delving not only into the learners’ needs but also into the subject matter per se
to gather relevant knowledge for the course and getting useful materials, and an evaluator
of students’ needs, students’ response to the teaching method and of learning outcomes, at
the end of the course. For, ESP targets a smooth linguistic integration of learners into

31
“academic, professional or workplace environments […] Thus, in ESP, language is learnt
not for its own sake or for the sake of gaining a general education but to smooth the path to
entry or greater linguistic efficiency in these environments” Basturkmen (2006: pp. 17 –
18).

The discussion of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) troubles one’s mind with one
question: What English is taught in Cameroonian universities, General English (GE),
English for general academic purposes (EGAP), English for Specific Academic Purposes
(ESAP), or English for Professional Purposes (EPP)? Do the teachers match the variety of
English for Specific Purposes they teach with the needs of the learners? What are the
difficulties they face in that endeavour? These questions deserve to be addressed in the
third chapter of the thesis on the state of the art. The centrality of the learners’ needs and
the necessity to have those very needs met as the ultimate goal of instruction tacitly
demands a well-designed curriculum.

1.3.3. Language and the fine arts


In Chartier ‘s (1931) old text on the Fine Arts titled Vingt leçons sur les Beaux-Arts,
he defines the fine arts as chiefly guided by imagination, “the power to bring the absent
into existence”19 (ibid: p.112). Imagination is not in the image or outer object, rather, it is
in the emotion which produces real description of (real-world) images and objects through
the voice of natural feelings and instincts. Imagination is therefore not what is seen with
the eyes, but what is seen with the mind, the emotions, the artist’s genius. This is Chartier’s
main parameter in his classification of the Fine Arts.

There are at least two classes of Fine Arts, from Chartier point of view, depending on
whether or not the outer object of the art (human or non-human) is reshaped. First, there
are arts which do not change the human body – as the human body itself is the main object
for the art, nor reshape any outer object. They include dancing, singing, poetry and music.
Second, the arts that reshape the outer object include architecture, sculpture, painting,
drawing and we may add fashion and design. In either group, the artist’s role remains
constant. With an understanding of arts as a constant quest for expression beyond linguistic
discourse, the artist must put their imagination down to work for expression achievement,
their invisible reward.

19
Original French version: “Le pouvoir de rendre présents les objets absents.”

32
Chartier points that “the artist’s thinking is like an interaction with their own
genius”20 (1931: p.112). They are by no means seekers of rare ideas, but of rare manners of
producing common ideas. The unique manner of producing these well-known ideas is what
people do admire, what is ‘fine’ in the art. Now, what is the place of language in the fine
arts?

Language is to be seen here in its classical role: a communication tool. Very few are
the arts that can be fully admired without talk. Classical music and dancing could be, but
for painting, architecture, and the others, it is difficult. When an artist has produced a
saleable work of art, they should be able convert their ‘interaction with their own genius’
into words, and most importantly, clearly put out what is fine in their arts, to appeal to the
potential buyers. So the artist’s (or their manager’s) language proficiency could sell the
(work of) art, or keep it. .

Language also serves the purpose of doing the art. In singing, drama,
cinematography, for instance, language is inherent to the art, and language – and all its
components from phonetics to pragmatics - will be manipulated, to produce the desired
effect on the hearer/admirer. Moreover, in each of these arts, there exists a specific jargon
which the artist and the critic of arts should master. If they should be trained or train others
or even do some critique with an English-speaking audience in view, they must know the
jargon, which most importantly consists of communicational skills, vocabulary, lexical
items for concepts, objects and processes in the specific domain of the art, for both
academic and professional undertakings. Wherefore, our interest in designing a curriculum
and eventually producing manuals for fine arts students who are almost completely trained
in French, but live in a country where English is an official language, and in a global
village where English language holds a very prestigious status.

In the design of a curriculum presented further, the various instances for English
language used in the four basic language skills – listening, speaking, reading and writing –
shall be explored with fine arts students and professionals. These instances shall be
referred to as Real Academic / Professional Situations (RPS) for the Competence-based
curriculum with entry through real academic / professional situations, a continuation of the
CBA-RLS that currently guides education at the secondary level.

20
Original French version: “La pensée de l’artiste est comme un entretien avec son propre génie.”

33
1.4. Curriculum Design
Richards (2001) in Curriculum Development in English Language Teaching points out that
an English for Specific Purposes curriculum development begins with an analysis of
learners’ needs, so the curriculum will be built on students real needs profile (p. 42).

1.4.1. Needs analysis

According to Richards (ibid), what students are taught should match their specific needs.
This makes the teaching/learning process meaningful for them. The basic skills (listening,
speaking, etc.) should be restricted, the language structures be selected, themes and topic
and the communicative skills be narrowed down to the ones that will help the learners
attain the goals that match their specific needs, most often described in terms of convincing
performance. The information got from this analysis serves for planning training
programmes. These needs could be interpreted as:

- A linguistic deficiency, a difference between what a learner can presently do with


language (Present situation) and what they should be able to do with it (target
situation);
- the language skills needed to survive in an English-dominant society (in the context
of immigrants English)

The identification of needs will therefore be useful for many actors in the
educational spectrum:

- curriculum officers in the ministries


- classroom teachers
- learners
- textbook writers,
- testing personnels
- tertiary institutions staff, who will need to know the level of proficiency on
incoming high school graduates.

Johnson and Johnson (1999 : p. 117) in Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied


Linguistics : A Handbook for Language Teaching, after recognizing needs analysis as an
inescapable aspect of English for Specific Purposes, they stress individualisation as one of
the goals of needs analysis:

34
The procedures associated with the analysis of needs offer the course designer a
framework for the selection of language content according to the goals of particular
learners […]and therefore the possibility of creating tailor-made programmes, rather
than starting with a ready-made syllabus that does not of itself discriminate between
differing objectives (Johnson and Johnson ibid : 228)

In addition to the ultimate target situation needs, learners have expectations, demands and
wishes. If these are not met, they may be uncomfortable in a programme focusing on the
final objective. Therefore, they necessarily have a say determining the needs21. It is in this
light that David Nunan (1988) in The learner-centred curriculum: A study in second
language teaching argues that with once the learners needs are identified, syllabus
designers must also carry out a tasks analysis, “employed to specify and categorise the
language skills required to carry out real-world communicative tasks” (Nunan 1988: p. 18),
that is the communicative events in the course. Alongside this communicative event,
Nunan extracts from Communicative Syllabus Design eight other elements that John
Munby’s (1978) model proposes for all syllabus designer’s needs analysis data collection.

- The participant: learner’s identity (+ background language) and target language


present skills
- The purposive domain: purposes for which target language is learnt (occupational,
educational, survival, etc., with specific statement of learner’s goal)
- The setting: the environment in which the target language will be used.
- Interaction: the people with whom the learner will interact are considered.
- Instrumentality: the medium (written, spoken, receptive or productive language),
the mode (monologue, dialogue, written/spoken, heard/read) and the channel
(indirect communication or face-to-face).
- Dialect: the variety of the target language to learn must be specified.
- Target level (of language mastery)
- Communicative event: the productive and receptive skills the learner will need.
- Communicative key: interpersonal attitudes and tones to be mastered.

These elements provide the curriculum and syllabus designer with useful information for
restriction and guidance. The teacher and curriculum designer reach an orientation to the
syllabus they design to meet the identified needs.

21
Therefore, in ESP, the target situation analysis could be done once every three years or so to fit the
demands of employers and field of study, but room should be left for these students expectations, demands
and wishes in the syllabus every year, at the beginning of the course, so that the teaching will be both
effective and fulfilling. Johnson and Johnson give the example of a postgraduate student arriving in Britain
who might be preoccupied with social interaction skills prior to the English they need for their studies.

35
1.4.1.1. Data sources

One identifies five levels of data collection in Richards (ibid: 59) theory:
i. The existing literature : Writings on needs analysis and the context, analysis of
textbooks teaching academic writing,
ii. The learner : Samples of learner writing; test data on learner performance -
performance tests; information from learners via interviews and questionnaires
which could seek to know learner’s experience with the target language such as
“current proficiency level, age, educational background, previous learning
experiences, time in the target culture and previous and current occupation”
(Nunan 1988: p. 4). Nunan adds that in addition to these ‘objective data’,
learners ‘subjective data’ – learning styles, perceptions, etc. must be considered
so as to get them truly motivated and involved in exchanging information with
teacher (ibid: p. 76).
iii. The practitioners: Opinions of experts; reports by teachers on typical problems
learners face; examples of writing assignments given to first-year university
learners.
iv. The academic institutions: Examples of writing programmes from other
institutions
v. The employers and professionals: what the companies and employers expect the
recruits to be able to do in the target language, observation of professionals in
target situations. It is important here to decide what to look for and how to get
the data needed.
The needs identified do not have the same importance for the group of learners to
be trained: they need to be ascribed different degrees of priority and reduced to the
minimal amount of needs to be addressed, because of time constraints, learning speed and
the demands of the course. This is where Pareto’s 80/20 principle helps.
The researcher will then need to examine the existing curriculum to see which
needs may have been taken into account therein. Any amendment should consider many
views. The learners want more support for learning, everything that facilitates learning,
academic’s view in terms of better preparation for tertiary education, and employer’s view,
mostly in terms of communicational skills, and the teachers who want their learners to get
a grasp of English grammar.

36
Lastly, the researcher(s) should differentiate the immediate needs from the long-
term needs. The understanding of these short-term and long-term needs of both the learners
and the society and the planners’ ideologies about school teachers and learners help
understand the philosophical underpinnings of a curriculum. The curriculum ideologies
reflect the context in which the curriculum emerges.
In The Handbook of Language Teaching edited by Long and Doughty (2011),
James Dean Brown, in his chapter entitled “Foreign and Second Language Needs
Analysis” compares the proposals of other authors (Schutz & Derwing 1981; Jordan 1997;
Graves 2000) and combines them into more comprehensive, down-to-earth and well-
explained steps in doing a successful needs analysis. Brown specifies that needs analysis
should be carried out in three major stages which in turn are subdivided into sub-stages, ten
in all. The major stages include: Getting ready to do needs analysis (‘NA’ hereafter), doing
the needs analysis and using the needs analysis results.
A. Get ready to do NA
i. Define the purpose of the NA
ii. Delimit the student population
iii. Decide upon approach(es) and syllabus(es)
iv. Recognize constraints
v. Select data collection procedures
B. Do the NA research
vi. Collect data
vii. Analyse data
viii. Interpret results
C. Use the NA results
ix. Determine objectives [implement decisions (assessment, materials, teaching
strategies]
x. Evaluate and report on the NA project [decide on further information to
gather (for ongoing curriculum evaluation)]
In this study, we shall follow Brown’s (2011) lead the needs analysis methodology. The
needs analysis data collection per se will follow Munby’s (1978) model presented in the
previous pages.

37
In Albaasri’s (2016) Needs-Analysis-Informed Teaching for English for Specific
Purposes, the author is also in line with Belcher (200522) and Songhori (200723) that
“needs analysis is the groundwork for any ESP or general English program” (Albaasri
2016 : p. 31). He explores the English for Specific Purposes needs of international students
in the College of Business and Public Administration at California State University, San
Bernardino in a bid to discover their felt strengths and needs for success in their studies.
He places his study in the context of the ecological approach to teaching which
supposes that the learning process occur in a social environment in which learners have
developed a behaviour that (may) needs to be amended to fit the target social environment.
This approach therefore seeks to meet learners local and personal needs. He uses the well-
known needs analysis instrument, the questionnaire to find answers to his three research
questions: (1) what business English do students need help with? (2) What are their
strategies in learning English as a foreign language that lead them to success in business?
and (3) Do students need help with vocabulary or consider it more important than other
language skills?

The questionnaire was designed to get information on student’s major and level of
study, the skills they deem important for their study by order of importance, their learning
strategies they use, need help with or think will be needed in future, their biographical
information and their evaluating their language skills in Business English. After this data
collection, he and a few TESOL Master’s students provide volunteers with tutoring aimed
through reading passages got from business magazines, news papers and online articles, in
a personalised vocabulary skill-building approach.

Most students offered Accounting and finance as major and gave priority to
textbooks (not magazines or articles) for reading and vocabulary skills – probably relatedly
to their occupation as students who spend much time reading, writing business emails,
listening to lectures. They gave importance to all areas of speaking and needed help with
lectures, vocabulary and other skills. The speaking domains were interacting with
colleagues, talking over the phone, small talk, taking part in meetings and conferences. The
researcher interpreted this as due to the great need for persuasive speech in the business
world. For writing, the respondents selected writing emails, reports and business letters as

22
Belcher, D. (2006): “English for specific purposes: Teaching to perceived needs and imagined futures in
worlds of work, study and everyday life”, in TESOL Quarterly, Vol 40 N°1, pp 133-156.
23
Songhori, M. H. (2007): “Two models compared: Problem-based learning and task-based learning”, in
English for Specific Purposes Word Online Journal for Teachers. Online at: http://esp-world.info.

38
more important than summarising academic articles and writing academic papers. The help
they needed with lectures was in terms of note taking, making sense out of lecture content
and preparing for lectures and for tests. Though almost all the respondents had good
command of general English – international students must have passed IELTS or TOEFL
exams – they still needed help with business vocabulary. The researcher concludes that
“vocabulary is the main component of all language skills and sufficient knowledge of
vocabulary enables learners to develop a high level of comprehension. On the contrary,
insufficient knowledge of vocabulary will lead students to lose coherence in context”
(Albassri 2016: p. 107), thus recommending business vocabulary for intensive teaching
with these students.

Although much is gained from Albassri’s work as a current needs analysis research,
and though both his respondents and the Cameroonian students in this study have a first
language different from English and have studied (for the first group) or study English as a
foreign language, there are two very significant differences between his respondents and
the students in our case study. First, the former are holders of TOEFL or IELTS
certificates, that is, their proficiency levels in General English was already acceptable for
insertion into a purely English speaking society, in this case, California, United States of
America. The English language of Cameroonian French-speaking university students
leaves much to be desired, as already mentioned in the problem statement. They still need
general English skills. Second, the international students in Albassri study live in a native
speaker’s environment, with easier access to business practice in English. Cameroonian
students have very little if not limited access to English, apart from textbooks and the
teacher. Though they have English-speaking lecturers for some of their courses, they are
allowed to write their exams in the language they master better, that is French. In the
classroom, they ask questions in French or in English for those who are courageous and are
free to answer the teacher in either language. Even as they go on internship, most students
choose to go to French speaking zones, amongst other reasons being the fact that they want
to escape language barriers. It is granted that both the government and the employers are
making tangible efforts towards national integration so that, whether of English or French
expression, every Cameroonian may feel at home in public settings. But the students’
mentalities seem unaffected so far. They know the theory but remain apathetical.

From this analysis, the students here need all sub-constituents of English for
Specific Purposes in Jordan (1997) nomenclature. On the one hand, English for Academic

39
Purposes subdivided into English for General academic purposes (note taking, listening,
academic writing, etc.) and English for Specific Academic Purposes related to the student’s
field of study; and, on the other hand, English for Professional Purposes (Cinematography,
Civil Engineering, etc.).

Ayafor’s (2015) study reviewed earlier is also an analysis of her respondents


(university students of English Modern Letters) of language needs, though it matches more
with English for general purposes.

From this discussion of needs analysis, the challenge of attaining a well thought,
well planned and well-structured curriculum, based on the most adequate curriculum
ideology becomes a reality.

1.4.2. Curriculum ideologies

Richards outlines five curriculum approaches:


01. Academic rationalism focuses on developing the learners’ intellect, humanistic
values and rationality. Mastery of subject content is an end in itself, not a means to
social problem-solving. Clark (1987: p. 6), quoted by Richards (ibid: p. 115),
reports that in the United Kingdom for example, academic rationalism was
concerned with maintaining and transmitting the wisdom and culture of the
previous generations, the development of generalisable intellectual capacities and
critical faculties, and the maintenance of stands through bodies controlled by the
university.
02. Social and economic efficiency: Educational programmes should produce learners
who are economically productive. It is an end-means approach that plans for the
social, economic and other needs of the society by analysing the tasks and teaching
them as discrete units. Here, the total range of habits, skills, forms of thought and
abilities that the learners need for their vocational labours to come. English in the
light of this approach plays a role in the well-being of the Globe’s economies in the
twenty-first century.
03. Learner centeredness rejects teaching-directed learning and focuses on learner
differences, strategies and learner self-direction and autonomy. Educational
programmes are therefore built in the purpose of helping each learner become what
they want, focussing on their needs and involving them in the teaching process.

40
04. Social reconstructionism: This perspective emphasises the role of schools and
learners in addressing social injustice, social inequality and personal
problems, and seeking ways of solving them. This is called “empowerment”,
as the learners are empowered to challenge unjust situations related to race,
gender, class systems, etc. For Freire24 (1972), a famous critical pedagogy
proponent, learners do not represent the object of knowledge; they should
participate in challenging the existing power relations and resist forms of
control. Richards (2001: p. 118) quotes Morris (1995: p. 10) who explains
that
The curriculum derived from this perspective focuses on developing
knowledge, skills and attitudes which would create a world where people care
about each other, the environment, and the distribution of wealth. Tolerance, the
acceptance of diversity and peace would be encouraged. Social injustices and
inequality would be central issues in the curriculum.

05. Cultural pluralism: cross cultural competency is central to this approach. It trains the
learners to raise the self-esteem of minority groups and appreciate the viewpoints of
other cultural groups, not only the dominant group’s. For example, a bilingual
approach has been demanded in English language teaching in such multicultural
countries as the United States of America, Canada and Australia. The learner’s
language knowledge could not be ignored. It was even argued that “literacy in the
first language is a significant factor in the learning of a second language” (Richards
ibid; paraphrasing Auerbach 199525: p. 25). Valuing the language and language
knowledge of the learner is already an attempt to challenge power relationships in
second language education.

1.4.3. Curriculum outcomes

In Richards’ discussion, when the curriculum approach is adopted, its outcome has to be
stated with ample precision. The terms ‘aim’ and ‘goal’ refer to the general objectives of
the curriculum. They are used interchangeably to describe the general change that a
curriculum is to bring about in the learners, therefore providing guidelines for materials
designers and other partakers in the educational process. But ‘objective’ is a more specific
purpose in the curriculum, a more specific change that is to be brought about in the learner.
Aims could therefore be subdivided into (more specific) teaching objectives. These

24
Freire, P. (1972): Pedagogy of the oppressed, New York, Herder and Herder.
25
Auerbach, E. R. (1995): “The politics of the ESL classroom: Issues of power in pedagogical
choices” in Tollefson (1995) 9-33.

41
objectives facilitate course planning and accountability. Richards prescribes that sample
objectives be written by a group of teachers who will ‘revise and refine’ them over time. In
competence based curricula, there are many types of objectives: language objectives, non-
language objectives and process objectives. The latter are linked to learning experiences.
“Objectives in these domains relate to the personal, social, cultural, and political needs and
rights of learners” (ibid: p. 134). These outcomes are designed through an understanding of
the different language components that the learners need to acquire so as to have those
needs met. After the outcomes have been designed, the next consideration is given to
course planning and syllabus design.

1.4.4. Course planning

In Richards’ theory, course planning is built upon five important components: the course
rationale, entry and exit level, course content, the scope and sequence and course structure.

- The course rationale states “the reasons for the course and the nature of it”,
precising (1) who the course is designed for, (2) what the course is about and (3)
the kind of teaching learning that is to take place in the course (p. 145). The
rationale is therefore to describe the beliefs, values and goals that underlie the
course.
- Entry and exit level: Information on learner’s entry level, generally evaluated as
elementary, intermediate or advanced, is often got from international proficiency
tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. It is also possible to design a special test26 so as to
determine the entry level of learners. Once the learners’ entry levels are
determined, the objectives of the course could be judged as adequate, too high or
low.
- Content selection is guided by needs analysis results, subject matter knowledge,
learners’ proficiency levels, convenience, etc. Additional ideas can be got from the
review of similar courses offered elsewhere, available materials and literature on
the topic or consultation with teachers and specialists in the area. When the
different suggested topics to be covered in the course have been listed, Richards

26
Examples of such tests include: the Australian Second Language Proficiency Ratings (ASLPR) describe
nine to twelve levels of second language proficiency from zero to native-like proficiency with descriptions of
language behaviour for listening, speaking, reading and writing; the American Council on the Teaching
of Foreign Languages also developed the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines with descriptions of language
behaviour both for the four macro skills and culture in the foreign language.

42
suggests that the following six questions be asked so as to do a realistic content
selection:
o Are all the suggested topics necessary?
o Have any important topics been omitted?
o Is there sufficient time to cover them?
o Has sufficient priority been given to the most important areas?
o Has enough emphasis been put on the different aspects of the areas
identified?
o Will the areas covered enable learners to attain the learning outcomes?
(p.149)
As the group of teachers answer these questions, the content selected will be fine-tuned
and optimised.
- Scope and sequence: Scope refers to a definition of the extent to which a topic will
be tackled in a course, that is, how much will be included in relation to the topic,
how deeply the topic should be studied and how many periods should be set apart
for it. Sequencing has to do with deciding which topics are to be taught early in the
course so as to provide a basis for tackling more complex topics to be dealt with
later on. Sequencing can therefore be done following one of these approaches:
o Simple to complex,
o Chronology, i.e. the order in which the topics dealt with occur in real world,
for example “(1) brainstorming; (2) drafting; (3) revising; (4) editing” for a
writing course.
o Need: in certain circumstances, the topics will have to be arranged to match
the needs of the learners outside the classroom.
o Prerequisite learning: from known to unknown
o Whole to part or part to whole: that is, either considering the whole before
studying its different components, or the reverse. In a writing class, learners
may be led to give thought to a narrative passage as a whole, before
studying its different parts: the corresponding vocabulary, the cohesive
devices, transitions, structuring, etc. or just the reverse.
o Spiral sequencing: this approach consists in recycling the items studied, thus
giving the learners repeated opportunities for practice and internalisation.

43
The scope and sequence plan is a description of the planning and organization of
the course. The instructional blocks could therefore be listed as well as a summary of
content.
- Course structure: Course structuring involves two aspects: selecting a syllabus
framework and developing instructional blocks.

1.4.4.1. Syllabus frameworks

With regards to selecting a syllabus framework, Richards (2001) differentiates the


following types of syllabi:
o Grammatical or structural syllabi mostly used for general English and
learners at the beginner’s level, gives a place of choice to grammar as a core
component of the syllabus, communicative competence also. It is easy to
use many language teaching methods with a grammatical syllabus.
o Lexical syllabi word frequency determines the content of the course. The
words learnt are to be recycled frequently for internalisation. According to
Hindmarsh (1980) and Nation (1990), quoted by Richards (2001), Typical
vocabulary targets for a general English course are
 Elementary level: 1,000 words
 Intermediate level: the previous 1,000 words plus 2,000 new words
 Upper Intermediate level: the first 3,000 words plus 2,000 new
words
 Advanced level: the previous 3,000 words plus 2,000 and other new
words
o Functional syllabi organise the teaching of communicative functions such as
agreeing, requesting, suggesting, etc. mastery of individual communicative
functions here contribute to building up the overall communicative
competence. This approach to syllabus design is fruitful in courses designed
for listening and speaking skills.
o Situational syllabi are organised around the language needed in different
real world situations (at the physician’s, at the airport) in which typical
speech acts occur. This is the main approach used in travel books. Its
advantage is teaching language for immediate and practical use.

44
o Topical or content-based syllabi are built around topics, themes. Here,
content is the starting point in syllabus design, and little or no effort is made
to teach language structures. However, unlike the previous approaches,
content serves here as the main vehicle for presenting language structure
and not the other way round whereby content is incidentally used to elicit
language and practise language structures where necessary, especially in
ESL courses. This approach facilitates comprehension, motivates the
learners, makes linguistic forms more meaningful and allows for use of
authentic materials.
o Competency-based syllabi : With competencies defined as “a description of
the essential skills, knowledge, and attitudes required for effective
performance of particular tasks and activities”, this approach specifies the
competencies the learners are expected to have achieved at the end of the
course, teaching them within real life contexts called topics. Richards gives
the example of “Housing” as a topic and "Report basic household
problems" as a competence or competency. This approach is widely used in
social survival and work oriented programmes.
o Skills syllabi: a skills syllabus organises the abilities that a given group of
learners need with regards to using language for such purposes as listening,
speaking, reading and writing. Examples of skills taught here include
“listening to a lecture”, “introducing a topic” in speech or writing, “reading
for a gist” and “note-taking”. This approach focuses on behaviour and
performance, identifying teachable and learnable units, and provide
practical framework for designing courses and materials.
o Task-based syllabi: with a task being a pedagogical or real world activity
that is carried out using language such as doing simple arithmetic (addition,
multiplication, subtraction, and division), reading a map and giving
directions, the task-based approach organises tasks specially designed to
facilitate language learning that the learners will accomplish in the language
learning process. Consequently, the learners receive comprehensible input
and modified (reshaped) output in the process. Grammar is not central in
this approach; the learners acquire grammar as a by-product.
o Text-based syllabi are built around texts and samples of extended discourse.
The text provides a situation or context from which language learning will

45
evolve and which reflect the target contexts wherein the learners will use
the language. With this approach, learners and teacher deconstruct the text
into the different structural and meaningful units and reconstruct it for
comprehension. It has the main advantages of teaching language structure
and grammar explicitly, and linking spoken and written text to sociocultural
context, developing various skills for effective verbal communication.
o Integrated syllabi: In designing a course, grammar may need to be linked to
skills and texts, tasks linked to topics and functions, or skills linked to
topics and texts. The syllabus will require an integration of various syllabus
strands so that it combines many of the approaches described above. This is
the framework which we shall adopt for the proposed syllabus.

In Syllabus design, Nunan (1988) uses the term ‘orientation’, meaning ‘focus’ to
distinguish between types of syllabi. He distinguishes two main syllabus orientations:
product-oriented syllabus and process-oriented syllabi. A product-oriented syllabus focuses
on knowledge and skill gained as a result of instruction whereas a process-oriented
syllabus focuses on the learning experiences themselves.

1.4.4.2. Product-oriented syllabi

They include the grammatical syllabus and the functional-notional syllabus.

01. Grammatical syllabi: This approach selects and grades language items
structurally, but it does not determine the language to which the learners will be
exposed, or learnt. The language presented to the learners contains the structure
under study but much more of real world language use, that is, naturalistic samples.
Nunan uses the structure ‘demonstrative + be + NP’ (This is a book) that begins
most structural syllabi to show that it could also be used for other communicative
needs, introducing others, for example. In the grammatical approach, learning the
names of new entities seems more important. “A major task for syllabus designers
is to identify those aspects of the grammatical system from which learners can
generate the most powerful generalizations” (1988: p. 35).
02. Functional-notional syllabi: Here, functions refer to the communicative purposes
in language use (for example agreeing, offering to help, apologising) and notions
refer to concepts (for instance time, objects, logical relationships). A big advantage

46
of the approach is to place the learners and their communicative needs at the centre
of the curriculum. It has manifold benefits: setting realistic learning tasks,
providing for the teaching of authentic everyday language, fosters receptive
(reading, listening) activities before performance, recognising real purpose in
speech, enables teachers to exploit sound psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic,
linguistic and educational principles, enabling the introduction of grammatical,
topical and cultural materials in the teaching process and providing for a wide-
spread teaching of foreign language (Finocchiaro and Brumfit 1983: p. 17, quoted
by Nunan 1988: p. 36). However, the main difficulty in this orientation lies in
grading the items on the syllabus, which grading would be easier in the structural
approach. There are extra-linguistic aspects such as context and topic that should be
factored in. Grammatical criteria are often added as a second order activity.

According to Nunan (1998), there is clearly a need to combine linguistic knowledge


with the purposes for language learning as expressed by the learners. Combining form and
function in syllabus design is simpler than producing a grammatical syllabus as separate
from a functional one. “The form/function disjunction makes the process of syllabus
design much more complex than it would have been had there been a neat one-to-one
form/function relationship” (p. 32)

1.4.4.3. Process-oriented syllabi

They include the procedural syllabus, task-based syllabus and content-based syllabus.

01. Procedural syllabi: This approach presents three major types of tasks to be
incorporated in the syllabus.
a. Information-gap activity which consists in transferring information from one person,
form or place to another, as well as decoding and encoding information from and into
language;
b. Reasoning-gap activity consisting in deriving new information from given information
by inference, deduction, logical reasoning, etc.
c. Opinion-gap activity involves presenting one’s opinion, preferences, feeling or
attitude in a given situation.

One major criticism about this approach is its emphasising processes without
always relating it to outcomes.

47
02. Task-based syllabi: Here, ‘task’ refers to “the hundred and one things people do
in everyday life” such as filling out a form or dressing a child (Long 198527: p. 89).
The selection of tasks as basic building blocks has pedagogic and psycholinguistic
grounds, in that it seems easier for teachers to plan for tasks than planning for
objectives. For each task, the product (or goal), the operations (or teacher’s and
learners’ activities) required and the resources available (materials for observation
and manipulation) must be specified (Doyle 1983: p. 161); to these, Shavelson and
Stern (1981) add subject matter, abilities, needs and interests of the learners, and
the sociocultural context of instruction. Long (1985: p. 91) proposes the following
steps in designing a task-based syllabus:
2. Conduct a needs analysis to obtain an inventory of target tasks.
3. Classify the target tasks into task types.
4. From the task types, derive pedagogical tasks.
5. Select and sequence the pedagogical tasks to form a task syllabus.
The issue of grading raised by the fourth stage should be done following well stated
criteria. These criteria could include background knowledge, degree of contextual
support for the learner, degree of cognitive stress, complexity of the language used,
degree of assistance to the learner, to name just a few.

03. Content syllabi: Here, experiential content provides the point of departure for the
syllabus and it is drawn from a well-defined area of knowledge, relating to an
academic or technical field. Subject matter logic provides rationale for selection
and grading, thus facilitating learning not only through language but also with
language (Mohan, 1986)

Selection, grading and sequencing are the bedrock of syllabus design. The language
teaching literature suggests that syllabus items be graded according to their demands on the
learner. For instance, receptive skills must precede production skills which in turn precede
interaction. For example, a group of learners may listen to the same dialogue and carry out
the following actions, in the given order: put up their hands each time they hear a given
word or specific words, tick the words in a grid each time they hear them, repeat words,
phrases or sentences, fill in the gaps, role play, discussion and problem solving.
Conceptual grading is prominent in ESP and content-based syllabi. Listening tasks can be
graded with reference to the number of speakers, intended listener and familiarity with

27
Long, (1985) :

48
content, type and scope of task to be carried out. Speaking tasks are graded according to
length, familiarity with listener, supporting materials, etc.

1.4.4.4. Syllabus objectives

Nunan (ibid) describes five types of objectives in syllabus design.

Performance objectives specify actions that learners should carry out as a result of
instruction. If these objectives must be precise, they should contain three components: the
performance component, the conditions component (under which the learner carries out
action) component and the standards component (how well the learner should perform).
Nunan provides the following example:

In a classroom simulation, learners will exchange personal details. All utterances will
be comprehensible to someone unused to dealing with non-native speakers.
The different components of the objective are as follows:
Performance: exchange personal details
Conditions: in a classroom simulation
Standard: all utterances to be comprehensible to someone unused to dealing with non-
native speakers. (p. 64)

An argument against this approach is that it is “undemocratic to plan in advance precisely


how the learner should behave after instruction” (Nunan, p. 67); but also, it is rather
“undemocratic not to let a learner know what he is going to get out of the educational
system” (p. 68).

Real world objectives describe tasks that learners will likely carry out outside the
classroom, for instance explaining a woodcarving procedure, explaining an estimate to a
customer or doing a successful job interview.

Pedagogic objectives include those that describe classroom tasks like identifying which
shopping list is more economical or listening to a conversation between two people talking
about their shopping lists and deciding which is cheaper.

Product objectives describe what the learners will be able to do as a result of instruction.

Process objectives describe the activities that the learners will be required to carry out so
as to develop the skills needed to perform the product objective, they are mostly
experiential.

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“It could be argued that any comprehensive syllabus needs to specify both process and
product objectives”, Nunan (1988: p. 71) concludes.

1.4.4.5. Syllabus limitations

In Aspects of Language Teaching, Widdowson (1990) intimates that a syllabus fits into an
educational policy. This educational policy may focus on learners’ personal development.
The syllabus would be said to be person-oriented. The policy could be more concerned
with the learner’s future social role and develop a curriculum in which teaching content
provides for the future manpower. Such a syllabus would be position-oriented. ESP syllabi
follow this orientation. For Widdowson, an educational policy is realised by syllabus
which in turn is realised by pedagogic methodology, hence the following sketch.

Educational Policy

is realised by

Syllabus

Pedagogic
methodology

Figure 2: Syllabus between Educational Policy and Pedagogic Methodology. Adapted from
Widdowson (1990: p. 128)
However, it is not wary for pedagogy to adopt solely either of these policies.
“Whatever good reasons there may be for adopting a pedagogy of person-orientation, one
has to recognise that there are societies, and educational systems which serve them, for
which this is a very dangerous doctrine” (ibid).

According to Widdowson, syllabus designers must make the principles underlying


their syllabus explicit so that appraisal and application will be possible. They should
specify whether the syllabus is built on language structures, notions and functions, topics,
and whether the syllabus is goal oriented, that is, relating to eventual proficiency, or
process-oriented, more concerned with achievement, that is, progressive departure from
interlanguage to target language. When the principle is made plain, the teachers can refer
to them so as to adjust classroom methodology and circumstances. In one word, the
syllabus orientation, the principle of selection, the principle of gradation and sequencing

50
must be made known. In Widdowson’s opinion, the essential purpose of a syllabus is to
provide limits in which the teacher can define their own enterprise (p. 155).

In Brumfit’s collection General English Syllabus Design: Curriculum and syllabus


design for the General English Classroom, in his last chapter, he continues with more
limitations of a syllabus. Besides the broader curriculum and the administrative constraints
mentioned earlier, a syllabus is linked to time, whether terms or semesters, but it should
provide a starting point and an ultimate goal, Class-size, materials and space available
(1984: pp. 76-77)

This discussion of syllabus design, as stated earlier, is the first aspect of course
structure. The other and easier aspect is instructional block development.

An instructional block is “a self-contained learning sequence that has its own goals
and objectives and that also reflects the overall objectives for the course” (Richards 2001:
p. 165). An instructional block could be a module – covering a fraction of the teaching
hours, with interrelated lessons geared towards producing a more immediate, observable an
specific objective, with a test at the end of the module – or a unit – generally shorter than a
module and longer than a single lesson, it is planned around a specific focus, a learning
outcome. Units are generally built on themes or topics stated as unit title and the lessons in
the unit all reflect the theme. Instructional blocks development seeks to achieve three
goals: (1) making the course more teachable and learnable, (2) providing progression in
level of difficulty, and (3) creating overall coherence and structure for the course. When
the course has been planned, provision needs to be made as to ensuring the achievement
and maintenance of quality teaching. The institution in which English is taught is a very
factor in this regard.

1.4.5. The institutional factor

It has its organisational culture and policy that can be grasped by answering the following
ten questions:
- What are the school's goals and mission?
- What is the school's management style?
- What shared values do staff have?
- What are the decision-making characteristics of the school?
- What roles do teachers perform?
- How are teaching and other work planned and monitored?
- What provision is made for staff development?

51
- How are courses and curriculum planned?
- How receptive is the school to change and innovation?
- How open are communication channels?

Therefore, the organisational policy of an institution could be either after the


mechanistic model or the organic model. The mechanistic model is a bureaucratic model
based on an explicit chain of command, whereby communication moves vertically and
uniformity in teaching the different learner groups is highly provided for through detailed
syllabi. Contrariwise, the organic model is more open and cooperative, content
specification is seen as a limitation because not every teacher who would like to teach a
group would be the expert, they will need professional growth as well. The organic model
values flexibility and adaptability, it provides opportunities for professional in-service
training, encourages research, publications and grant proposal writing. In this model,
communication is both lateral through cooperative teaching, joint piloting of new
materials, peer coaching and observation, and vertical, and committee recommendations
may be advisory or binding.

Richards (ibid: p.199) quotes (Morris 1994) who identifies quality indicators in an
institution, indicators which are most consistent with the organic model of organizational
culture:
- There are clearly stated educational goals.
- There is a well-planned, balanced, and organized program that meets the needs of
its learners.
- Systematic and identifiable processes exist for determining educational needs in the
school and placing them in order of priority.
- There is a commitment to learning, and an expectation that learners will do well.
- There is a high degree of staff involvement in developing goals and making
decisions.
- There is a motivated and cohesive teaching force with good team spirit,
- Administrators are concerned with the teachers' professional development and are
able to make the best use of their skills and experience.
- The school's programs are regularly reviewed and progress toward their goals is
evaluated.

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1.4.6. Materials

Another aspect of Curriculum development is the design of materials to support teaching


and learning. Richards quotes Cunningsworth28 (1995: p. 7) who summarises the roles of
these materials as follows:
- a resource for presentation materials (spoken and written)
- a source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction
- a reference source for learners on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and so on
- a source of stimulation and ideas for classroom activities
- a syllabus (where they reflect learning objectives that have already been
determined)
- a support for less experienced teachers who have yet to gain in confidence

Materials may represent the major contact learners have with the language besides
the teacher, and for most teachers they provide lesson contents, balance of skills taught and
language practice activities. They exist in two kinds: authentic and created materials, the
first referring to “the use in teaching of texts, photographs, video selections, and other
teaching resources that were not specially prepared for pedagogical purposes” and the
latter as referring to “textbooks and other specially developed instructional resources”.
Both types of materials have advantages and disadvantages.
Authentic materials reflect real world language use, or real language, thus a
motivational factor for the learners, they provide authentic information about the target
culture (one can also add target professional career, field of study and research, in the
English for Specific Purposes framework), they relate more closely to learners needs in the
target language, thus providing a bridge between classroom and real world learner’s needs
and they support a more creative approach to teaching. The main disadvantage with
authentic materials is that it often contains difficult language, that is, language that may be
beyond the learner’s abilities, and unneeded vocabulary items that can be a distraction for
the learners and in the course of teaching. Therefore, it becomes a burden as they need
more time to make the material didactically exploitable.
Created materials on their part provide language that matches the learner’s level
and illustrates language rules for the study; they are also more helpful in teaching/learning

28
Cunningsworth, A. (1995). Choosing your coursebook, Oxford, Heinemann

53
because they are generally built around a graded syllabus, thus more helpful in assessing
learner achievement.
When an institution decides to design and produce its own materials, these
materials can be more relevant to the needs of both learners and institution, the production
process itself develops expertise in the staff, the reputation of the institution is pronounced
as they are committed in their endeavour, and these materials can be made with flexibility,
to adapt to the needs that evolve. However, a budget will need to be allocated to such a
project, its quality will not be as good as that of commercial materials and time and
expertise will be needed to train the teachers in materials development skills. This study
will eventually result in the design of a manual for Bilingual Training in English geared
towards ESP for fine arts students. Cunningsworth’s six roles of materials recorded above
is the compass in the design of this manual.

Good materials should help the learners remember previous learning, they should
link this previous learning to new relevant content, help the learners get feedback and
enable them to check their progress. Materials development should be guided by a sense of
achievement, whereby learners feel that they have gained something new from each lesson
and that they have developed new skills eventually.

In materials design, decisions need to be taken about input and sources on the one
hand, and types of exercises on the other hand. Both are to reflect the principles adopted
for the materials design. Input is to be chosen from various sources such as radio,
television, newspapers, the internet, existing textbooks, recordings including interviews, to
name just a few. Much is available on the Internet and much can be used free of charge,
but some may require copyright permission. Input and sources will need to be selected for
grammar, vocabulary, listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

A team will be needed for the project, including a project director who ensures that
the aims are met, writers, media specialists who help with computer issues and audiovisual
materials, an editor who reviews everything and produces a publishable version, an
illustrator and a designer whose job is on layout, style, format, and the like. These
materials need to be reviewed and corrected at least three times before their publication.
Once they have entered the classrooms, materials designers will have to get feedback from
the field. Teachers may find some parts needless, they may approve the approach but still
make further suggestions, they may need supplementary materials, etc. Materials designers

54
need to consider this feedback as well as the learners’ comments, if possible in a feedback
session where they meet and produce a written report that would be useful in the review
and production of a better and more appropriate version.

When all the components of the curriculum mentioned above have been decided
upon, the curriculum itself would need to be evaluated.

1.4.7. Curriculum evaluation

Once a curriculum has been adopted and is in use, curriculum designers need to check
whether the curriculum is achieving its goal and whether the people involved (learners,
teachers, parents, institution managers and employers) are satisfied. Curriculum evaluation
can be done at all the levels, Richards (2001: p. 287) present some evaluation foci from
Sanders (1992) and Weir & Roberts (1994). They are:
- The syllabus and programme content: relevance, ease or difficulty, successfulness
of procedures.
- The classroom processes: extent of programme implementation;
- The materials of instruction: relevance and successfulness;
- The teachers: their perception of the programme;
- Teacher training: are teachers adequately trained for the programme?
- The students: achievements, perception and participation;
- Learner motivation: insight into teachers’ effectiveness
- The institution, :administrative support, resources provided and communication
networks)
- Pupils progress :through formative evaluation of their learning,
- Learning environment: how responsive is the provided environment to the learners’
needs?
- Staff development: the efforts made towards teacher skills development.
- Decision making: how well do decisions serve the ultimate benefit of learners?

Three types of evaluation are considered here: formative evaluation carried out during the
course to find out what is working well, what is not working well and the problems that
need to be addressed, illuminative evaluation which finds out how the different aspects of
the programme work without always trying to effect amendments, and summative
evaluation, “concerned with determining the effectiveness of a program, its efficiency, and
to some extent with its acceptability”, it is carried out after the programme has been
implemented.

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1.5. Course design in English for Specific Purposes
In Developing courses in English for Specific Purposes, Helen Basturkmen (2010),
narrows the scope of her course design to English for Specific Purposes. She discusses
needs analysis as to intervene before the course but also as a course design revision
process. She addresses the problem on incorporating ‘specialist discourse’, that is, the
language structures and language use in specific target domains – whether workplace or
subject area, into the English for Specific Purposes course. She provides three approaches
to investigating specialist discourse, including ethnography, genre analysis and corpus
analysis. In our curriculum design, we choose to start with corpus analysis in proposing a
syllabus, ethnography and genre analysis will be used with time, still alongside corpus
analysis, in revising the course. She also provides much guidance in course development
including focusing the course, determining its content, developing accompanying materials
and evaluating the course. Though Richards (2001) helps with guidance on general
language curriculum design and though we follow his lead in this study, the English for
Specific Purposes aspect of the study will include Basturkmen’s (ibid) guidance in the four
aspects named above. Her textbook is a theory-and-practice study.

The author continues her volume with case studies in course design: She handles four
cases, namely English for the Police, English for medical doctors, English for literacies in
visual communication and English for thesis writing, in New Zealand. We shall use these
courses and some others in different countries for a comparative analysis of English
language teaching in the case study. Consistently, the process starts by clearly specifying
the context, then needs are investigated, specialist discourse as well. After these three
stages, course and material designs continue, and difficulties and constraints are addressed
at the end. In the English for literacies in visual communication, which is an English for
visual arts studies course, the learners are all international learners whose English is only a
second language. The course focuses on expressing the interaction between theory and
practice in the visual arts in particular, but this interaction is depicted as the crux of the
matter in the Fine arts. She puts it this way:

It is expected that writers will articulate how practice (such as an existing painting or
sculpture, or a student’s work of art) relates to theory (such as post-structuralist or
feminist theory). In the case of an existing work of art, theory is often used to explain
features of the work (the practice) and in the case of the student’s own art work, theory
is often called on to justify features. (p. 111)

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Again, the ability to express the interplay between theory and practice seems to be
what sells a work of art. The second module in the syllabus we suggest here, titled ‘Design
and Creation’, centres on this aspect of the fine arts. In this module, the learners will not be
expected only to explain how a work of art is created, but more importantly, why it is thus
created and how its features could be interpreted.

Alfehaid’s (2011) PhD thesis titled “Developing an ESP Curriculum for Students of
Health Sciences through Needs Analysis and Course Evaluation in Saudi Arabia”,
evaluates the English for Specific Purposes course in Health Sciences Colleges in Saudi
Arabia. He starts by a survey of students and health professionals language needs analysis,
using questionnaires and an interview.

In “Towards a Syllabus for Business English in Cameroon”, Mbe (2016) proposes a


Bilingual Training in English Programme for Business English in Cameroon. He carries
out a psychometric study where he proposes a syllabus from needs analysis and
experiments it in five higher institutes issuing the Higher National Diploma in Business in
Cameroon, alongside the existing programme. Eventually, he discovers that his programme
works better than the existing one. The similarity between his thesis and this work is its
objective, proposing a programme for ESP for Francophone university students, but he
works on business English whereas we work on English for Fine Arts. His syllabus covers
the two years of the HND programme; ours goes beyond and embraces the third and final
year for the first degree.

In “Enhancing the Competence-Based Approach in English Language Learning for


Specific Purpose: the Case of Francophones of Tertiary Education in Cameroon”, Moko
(2017) sets out to evaluate the teaching learning of English at the university of Dschang
and makes proposals for a programme that runs from year one to year three of the
Bachelor’s cycle, and which is standard across the universities in the nation. His proposal
springs from an evaluation of the teaching methods and classroom practices, the syllabi
used by Bilingual Training in English course facilitators, and a survey of students’
attitudes, motivations and responses to the course. His research is guided by Pragmatics,
and Transformative learning backs his curriculum proposal. Using such instruments as
questionnaires, interviews, and various archives, he shows that the learners are well
interested in knowing the English language but the methods used by course facilitators do
not expedite learning and proficiency development. He therefore suggests a curriculum

57
backed by the Competence-based approach for Bilingual Training in English at the
University level in Cameroon. We also borrow from the competence-based approach in
this study but Moko’s (2017) work and ours differ in many regards:

- His research is guided by pragmatics while ours deals with critical ethnography
- His case study is two establishments of the University of Dschang: the faculty of
Letters and Social Sciences and the Fotso Victor Institute of Technology,
Bandjoun. The first is a faculty of general education and the second offers
professional training in technology. Our case study is the two fine arts institutes
that exist in the nation, one under the University of Dschang (in Foumban) and the
other under the University of Douala (in Nkongsamba). These institutes are
specialised in professional training in the Fine Arts.
- He uses the competence-based approach with entry through real life situations even
at the university level, following the same module titles at the secondary level, that
is: Family and social life, Economic life and occupations, Environment, health and
well-being, and Media and communication. He prescribes functions to be studied
such as greeting people, making future plans, introductions, and spells the
grammatical structures that must be studied, and these are features of general
English (See Chapter 3). In this study, we use the competency-based approach as
well but we have only two modules, not five as in secondary schools, with new
titles. These titles differ precisely because we are not designing a curriculum for
General English but one for English for Academic Purposes, the direct implication
being that the course is to stick to the learners’ interests in their studies, outside the
English language classroom. Thus, while Moko sees curriculum continuity chiefly
in terms of teaching contents (teaching topics) and method (CBLT), we major on
the method for continuity, but redefine the teaching contents, shifting from General
English to English for Specific Purposes, so as to make every French-speaking
tertiary level learner able to use English aptly at the university and in their study
fields.

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1.6. An ideal curriculum for fine arts university students
English and French are taught in the framework of Bilingual Training in all university
institutions as a national policy. With training offers in diverse fields such as arts, letters,
technology, science, pedagogy, diplomacy, administration, business, management and
agriculture, no one would expect the contents of this course to be the same across the
various areas of study. There may be general needs for all university students, but there are
needs that are specific to each area of study. The ideal curriculum is one that takes into
consideration both the general needs of learners and their specific needs, and actually
prepares the learners to be fluent in English in general and in the English of their specific
trade in particular.

Jack Richards’ seven-item curriculum discussed earlier evolves from an


investigation into the needs of the learner and a very clear definition of objectives.
Syllabus design, course structure, teaching methods and materials are grounded on those
two elements. His model is adopted for this study. But there are two practical aspects to be
considered in our model curriculum. The said curriculum development must provide
continuity between the secondary and the tertiary level. Matching up with the jargon of the
Fine Arts is a third peculiarity of an ideal curriculum for Fine arts English. For, a French-
speaking Fine Arts university graduate should be able to discuss Fine Arts issues with ease
in both French and English, only then will the yearning for official bilingualism be
satisfied at their individual levels. In the work, we judge the practice of Bilingual Training
in English through these three parameters: the clarity of Richards’ curriculum items,
continuity between the secondary level and the tertiary level, and the specificity of
teaching/learning contents to Fine Arts studies. We also endeavour to match our own
proposed curriculum to this model.

Conclusion
Acknowledging the very significant role English plays in today’s global village in
international relations, travels and studies and professionalism from the onset, this chapter
has surveyed the proficiencies of high school graduates who engage in university studies to
show that they are very wanting in all four language skills, even the Anglophone speakers
in Ayafor’s study seem to display a poorer and poorer performance in English with time,
and from year one to year three. English for Specific Purposes, if it is well taught, may be
very motivational for these learners and equip them not only with everyday English but

59
also English for their studies, crafts and prospective careers. In order to understand
curriculum design in this regard, Richards’ (2001) Curriculum Development in Language
Teaching is given a special attention, being very closely linked to this study. Basturkmen’s
(2010) volume, Developing courses in English for Specific Purposes, in turn gives our
study a more specific connotation. The next chapter will concern itself with answering
elaborating on the research methodology.

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Chapter 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction
This chapter purposes to discuss the theoretical underpinnings of the study, and also
presents the methodology that we use in the thesis. Critical ethnography will be the main
research theory. Critical ethnography guides the various stages of research. But many
approaches will be used, especially in qualitative data analysis: error analysis, comparative
analysis, contents analysis. This framework will be related to the various aspects and
stages of the study. The competence-based approach to language teaching will be
discussed as well, for it supports the curriculum we propose, thereby providing continuity
from the secondary level to the tertiary level. Then, details about data collection and data
analysis will be provided.

2.1. Research theory: Ethnography


In Given’s (2003) The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods, David
Fetterman defines ethnography as “the art and science of describing a group or culture
[whereby] the research describes what he or she has heard and seen within the framework
of the social group’s view of reality” (p. 288). This definition highlights the uttermost
importance of considering the social groups’ point of view of their own realities, how they
understand and can explain it. “Ideally, he continues, the ethnographer lives and works in
the community for 6 months to a year or more, […] seeing patterns and behaviours over
time” (p. 290). This is referred to as ‘fieldwork’, in which the researcher uses such
ethnographic instruments as: participant observation, interviews (formal and informal
interviews) and questionnaires. Archives could also be very useful in this approach. When
information has been gathered and analysed, triangulation should be applied to the results,
comparing one group to the other, to establish reliability and validity.

Our target community in this study is the students, teachers and administrators in
both institutes of Fine Arts, already mentioned. We will use all the instuments of

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ethnographic research mentioned in the previous paragraph, and apply triangulation as
developed in §2.2. It is from there that we shall make sensible proposals.

2.2. Methodological framework


The data for this study was collected and analysed following the description below.

2.2.1. Case study

Two recently created (in 2009) Institutes of Fine Arts, and the only such institutes, have
been selected for this study: the Foumban Fine Arts Institute under the University of
Dschang, and the Fine Arts Institute in Nkongsamba under the University of Douala. These
institutes are not only recent, but they also come to fill the specific gap of the cultural
industries’ touch in national economy. These institutes are under universities that do not
follow the Anglo-Saxon tradition. This means that, according to university policy in
Cameroon, the academic staff here are free to give lectures either in English or in French,
depending totally on them and the language they master the better. However, in most
establishments in francophone zones, there are more French-speaking staff than the
English-speaking ones. The latter may even be almost non-existent. This implies that the
students will have almost all their courses in French only, in an English-tropist world and
in a Nation officially Bilingual in English and French. These learners need English for
Specific Purposes most desperately, so that, in spite of the monolingual training received,
they will not be left aback in their careers in an age of globalisation marked by English-
tropism.

2.2.2. Informants

The participants to this study include Year III undergraduate students, bilingual training in
English course facilitators, and specialty lecturers in Fine Arts Institutes.
Year III students, at the end of the first semester, have taken the BTE course three
times, and have gone through the curriculum whether formal or informal. Their memory is
still fresh on their entire journey with BTE. They take a critical look back on the course
and assess whether it has been profitable to them or not. Also, Year three is the last Year in
fine arts institute, unlike in a very small number of professional programmes in other
establishments like the faculty of science of the University of Dschang where English is
taught in the Master’s cycle and to French-speaking students. The English language that
they speak and write will be what they have achieved through formal education. Their

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evaluation of the English course received at the tertiary level is considered most valuable
for this study.
BTE course facilitators are actually the ones who have much to say on the course,
since they are the final implementers of policies and directly in touch with the learners.
They can have a say on aspects such as motivation (both teacher and learners), policies,
materials, methods, and the overall implementation difficulties.
Specialty lecturers were needed for external expertise on BTE. They were
interviewed on their own experience with English, whether it was an advantage for them in
their art and/or research or a disadvantage not to be proficient enough in the language, their
expectations on BTE and their recommendations. Some of the lecturers, directly involved
with the arts and art theory, actually helped the student researcher understand some of the
intricacies of the domain. They also commented on the curriculum prepared in this work,
for the student researcher presented it to them for appraisal.
A few francophone primary level teachers were consulted through questionnaires
on the implementation of the English language programme at their level. The weaknesses
of the curriculum will therefore be recorded for recommendations. At the secondary level,
there was no need carrying out a survey on the implementation of the English language
programme again since the student-researcher and his mentor had previously and recently
published two articles on the difficulties on the field and suggested perspectives for
amelioration. The research results served the purpose of identifying curriculum strengths
and weaknesses at this level.

2.2.3. Data for learner language

The data include:


- Students’ answers on questionnaires,
- BTE teachers’ answers on questionnaires,
- Fine arts specialty lecturers answers to interview questions,
- Primary level teachers answers to interviews,
- Information from archives : log books (Fine Arts Institutes), past questions, English
language programmes at the primary and secondary levels of Francophone
education,
- Textbooks and Internet materials for specialist language, especially used in syllabus
design

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2.2.4. Learner variables

Learner variables include objective and subjective variables. Nunan uses the terms
‘objective’ data including “age, educational background, previous learning experiences,
time in the target culture and previous and current occupation” and ‘subjective data’
including learning styles, perceptions, etc. (1988: p. 71). To the subjective variables can be
added wishes and expectations. Entrance into the Fine Arts institutes is obtained upon
passing the competitive exam organised by the ministry of higher education each year to
this end. The said exam is open to all Cameroonians and foreigners of both sexes, holders
of a Baccalaureate or a GCE A/L. A student who starts primary education at five and goes
through it without repeating classes will graduate at 11. Adding the seven years of
secondary education, these learners will be 18. So 18 years old is the average age for
entrance into tertiary education. So, the learners here are not children at all, but averagely
teenagers upon entrance and adult at graduation.
Learners in the Fine Arts Institutes are likely to come from various regions and tribes in
Cameroon. Thus, if we use a whole-class sampling technique, the sample will be representative of
the nation and of the establishments.

2.2.5. Data sources

The data sources exploited here include:


- Questionnaires to students
- Questionnaires to Bilingual Training in English course facilitators
- Students’ writings in English : A test that was given them
- Videos of students’ debate
- Archives (Course outlines, administrative correspondences,
- Past questions
- Newspapers and other authentic materials
- Participant observation
All these sources need to be exploited so as to establish a report of what is done and
why it is done. They are also needed to make solid proposals for what should be done, why
and how it should be done. The questionnaires, oral interviews previous needs analysis
reports will serve the purpose of getting insight into the real needs of the learners and their
appreciation of the course. Participant observation and the archives will give a picture of
the state of the art. The archives will give more insight into the policies that surround
Bilingual Training in English (BTE). The textbooks, newspapers and other authentic

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materials will help the student-researcher get in touch with the specialised jargons and
develop a pertinent curriculum.

2.2.6. Data collection

2.2.6.1. Samples

Students’ enrolment in these institutes is quite insignificant compared to the faculties


where hundreds of students are found in a classroom. Over the years 2014/2015,
2015/2016 and 2016/2017, enrolments in Year I, Year II and Year III at the Institute of
Fine Arts Foumban (IBAF) and the Institute of Fine Arts (IBA) at Nkongsamba were as
follows.

Table 1 : Enrolments in Year I and Year III in both


Performing Museology
Areas Decorative
Architecture arts Visual arts and cultural
of study arts
and cinema heritage
Institute IBAF IBA IBAF IBA IBAF IBA IBAF IBA IBAF
Year I 52 63 11 42 35 26 21 5 36
2014
Year II 47 29 16 0 37
2015
Year III 48 19 16 40 12 0 32
Year I 55 56 12 32 11 15 23 9 37
2015
Year II 49 68 8 38 12 18 13 5 38
2016
Year III 54 46 10 19 7 11 14 0 36
Year I 55 63 10 30 11 16 26 9 51
2016
Year II 70 48 14 34 10 18 29 9 34
2017
Year III 49 42 14 17 22 15 11 5 40
Source: Archives of the Admissions offices in both institutes
With these figures, it becomes impossible to think of having hundreds of
informants from the two establishments. So, amongst the students, we designed a sample
of 100 students per establishment, that is, 20 students randomly selected per area of study.
At Nkongsamba, the Decorative Arts do not exist as an area of study, and this reduced the
figures from Nkongsamba to 80. Therefore, we targeted a number of 180 informants
amongst the students. However the number of informants per area of study and per school
finally obtained is presented in table 2.
With the double face of this study – a course evaluation and a needs analysis
towards curriculum design, there is a necessity to have students who were taught the
course for the three years of the bachelor’s cycle to reflect on it, and say what was included
in it and what was not, then, what could serve best in a Bilingual training in English
course. Year I and Year II students, who have not yet grasped the whole concept of the fine

65
arts in their training, could not really be expected to tell what is good for them. This is why
the 20 students randomly selected in each area of study were Year III students. They
received questionnaires during the period of defences, when all teaching was over. Where
we could not have up to 20 Year III students in an area of study, we stretched a hand to
students at the Master’s level so as to get the expected number. Still, we could not get up to
20 students in some areas.

Table 2 : Numbers of informants


Institute
Areas of study Foumban Nkongsamba Totals
Architecture 20 20 40
Performing arts 20 20 40
Visual arts 16 20 36
Cultural heritage 13 9 22
Decorative arts 20 0 20
Totals 89 69 158

As for the course facilitators, the policy was to have them all as respondents. They
were only two at Foumban, and only two could be found at Nkongsamba.
A pre-survey was done at the institute of Fine Arts Foumban, with a total number of
96 Year III students towards the end of the first semester 2016/2017, when the course had
been taught already, since it is a first semester course in that institute. Appendix 3 shows
the questionnaire used to that effect.

2.2.6.2. Instruments

The instrument used at the higher level in this study is basically the questionnaire for
students and BTE teachers, and the interview for specialty course lecturers. It helped
capture the minds of both students on their needs, criticisms and expectations from BTE as
well as suggestions for better days ahead. The questionnaire and the interview were
designed in the French language, because it is the language that they master better, and
because insufficient understanding of the questions in English by the French-speaking
students would impinge on the credibility of their answers. However, the student-
researcher was present to provide further explanation where necessary. On the contents of
the course over the three years covered by this study, that is 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and
2016/2017, log books were consulted where course outline were not available, or used to
check the coverage of the outline.

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Information on English language teaching to Francophones at the primary and
secondary levels was mostly drawn from archives: the study programmes, the textbooks in
use and other information from previous research.

2.2.6.3. Difficulties encountered in data collection

The first difficulty encountered during data collection, especially with the questionnaire,
was the learners’ reluctance to read and write, because they hate reading. The student-
researcher knew this, but he was surprised that many had attempted to hand empty
questionnaires because they claimed to have no time to read. He had to encourage them
patiently to fill in the questionnaires, especially in Foumban.

There was another difficulty with regards to the availability of the Bilingual
Training in English Teachers in the field. Most of them are part-time teachers. Again,
some teachers who taught the course were no longer teaching it, they had been replaced.
So it became difficult to lay hands on all the teachers who had been involved in the course
over the years. Again, even those who are still teaching the course in the field were for
most of them, too busy or far away at the time they were needed to provide answers to our
questions. Thus, the student-researcher had to sit down with some of them, transforming
the questionnaire into an ‘interview’ and filling in the information for them. He also
collected answers from others through phone calls. This was the case, for example, with a
lecturer who was recently appointed at the University of Bamenda, though he was still
teaching the course at Nkongsamba.

2.2.7. Data analysis and validity

Data analysis will be done qualitatively and quantitatively. Richard’s curriculum


development model will greatly help in the analysis of Bilingual Training at the tertiary
level. Tertiary level data is presented in two chapters. One on the state of the art of
Bilingual Training in English (BTE) and the other on the learners’ language and learning
needs. In the first chapter, archives (teaching programmes, log books and test papers) were
analysed following that model (learners’ needs, programme objectives, syllabus, course
structure, teaching methods, and materials).

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2.2.7.1. Qualitative analysis

Qualitative analysis concerns the data retrieved from archives (course outlines, past
questions, log books, etc.) and participant observation. Qualitative analysis was done here
based on two approaches: Error analysis and ethnographic contents analysis.

2.2.7.1.1. Ethnographic contents analysis

Ethnographic contents analysis is used. David L. Altheide in Given (2003: p. 288)


describes ethnographic content analysis (ECA) as

an integrated method, procedure, and technique for locating, identifying, retrieving,


and analysing documents for their relevance, significance, and meaning. The emphasis
is on discovery and description of contexts, underlying meanings, patterns, and
processes rather than on mere quantity or numerical relationships between two or
more variables.

The documents in this approach include written documents, videos, emails, audiotapes, and
the researcher’s field notes. A protocol of systematic analysis and constant comparison is
provided to bring out themes, discourses. The documents which we shall analyse here are
archives: teaching programmes, test papers, syllabi (or course outlines). Typical ECA
follows these steps:

• Pursue a specific problem to be investigated.


• Become familiar with the process and context of the information source (e.g.,
ethnographic studies of newspapers and/or television stations). Explore possible
sources (perhaps documents) of information.
• Become familiar with several (6–10) examples of relevant documents, noting
particularly the format.
• Select a unit of analysis such as each article (this may change).
• List several items or categories (variables) to guide data collection and draft a
protocol (data collection sheet).
• Test the protocol by collecting data from several documents.
• Revise the protocol and select several additional cases to further refine the protocol.
(ibid, p. 288 – 289)

The analysis is done with acute interest for everything at all levels that contributes
to failure to have the learners equipped with the ESP skills needed for academic purposes:
the institutional factor (their handling of the course, not only at the tertiary level but also at
the primary and secondary levels, seeing the institutional neglect that works for insufficient
English language learning in French-speaking education), course planning, etc.

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2.2.7.1.2. Comparative analysis

Comparative analysis is a process whereby different entities (for example interviews,


reports, settings, cases) are “analysed to isolate prominent similarities and
differences” (Mills, 2003). Melinda Mills continues her definition as follows:

Comparative analysis is also a primary task within case study research. Case studies
are often compiled with the knowledge that comparisons will be made with the
description of a particular case. In some instances, researchers will compare a
particular case with that of a hypothetical reference group or frame of reference to
highlight differences. (ibid)

A lot of comparison is done in this study. We shall:

- Compare Bilingual Training in English (BTE) as it is practised in our case study to


English for English L2 international students in New Zealand and other nations
- BTE practice in Foumban will be compared to BTE in Nkongsamba

2.2.7.2. Quantitative analysis

Quantitative analysis will be concerned with quantitative data obtained from the
questionnaires. Data from the interviews, archives and participant observation will also be
subjected to numerical analysis. The results will be presented in the form of statistical
tables of frequencies and percentages, processed with Microsoft Excel 2013. Since Excel
presents the advantage of combining histograms to statistical tables, most of the statistics
will be presented in that form.

2.2.7.3. Validity

The question that rises in one’s mind here is, what ascertains that the findings are credible,
valid and reliable? This question is asked with even more emphasis as one analyses
qualitative data. Brown (2011) suggests a recent research strategy: triangulation, used to
increase the credibility of both the data and their interpretation. Triangulation “… involves
the researchers comparing different sets and sources of data with one another.” (Brown
2011, quoting Brown 200129). He discusses seven triangulation approaches:
- Data triangulation or methodology triangulation uses multiple types of procedures
(questionnaire, interviews, observation, etc.) to establish findings;
- Investigator triangulation exploits findings by many needs analysts;

29
Brown, J. D. (2001) :Using Surveys in language programs, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

69
- Theory triangulation uses multiple research frameworks to establish data and
interpretation validity and reliability;
- Interdisciplinary triangulation derives findings from many disciplines and their
approaches;
- Time triangulation refers to collecting data on many occasions;
- Location triangulation, using multiple locations (with probably different
participants).
Though it is possible to use many of these approaches in the same research work, the
study’s validity approach will narrow down to time triangulation and location
triangulation.
BTE lecturers’ answers to questions on the questionnaire will be compared to the
student researcher’s own observation of facts on campus. We have spent quite some time
in the field, though we taught the course only for one year. We also taught French at
Foumban for two years and that gave us time to observe a few things in the Practice of
BTE in that institution. Teachers’ answers to questions concerning methodology and
materials will also be compared to students’ answers so as to establish facts. This will
constitute data triangulation.

Conclusion
Our study is chiefly guided by ethnography, a research theory in which the researcher
surveys the life lived in a given social context and describes what is and why it is firstly
from the point of view of community members. This thesis does describe how English is
taught in the French-speaking subsystem of education in Cameroon. But its aim is to
propose a curriculum for fine arts university students. The second part of this chapter is a
step-by-step description of the research methodology. Our next concern will be to survey
English language as it is experienced at the pre-tertiary level by Cameroonian learners.

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Chapter 3: PRE-TERTIARY LEVEL ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN
FRANCOPHONE EDUCATION

CHAPTER 3

PRE-TERTIARY LEVEL ENGLISH


LANGUAGE IN FRANCOPHONE
EDUCATION

Introduction
In the Cameroonian educational system, the French-speaking tertiary level student should
have had previous experiences with English at the primary and secondary level. Not all of
them have gone through Kindergarten. This student researcher is an example. Therefore,
university English is expected to be a continuation, not a repetition, in this venture with
English. Yet the learners’ poor achievement of English proficiency at the pre-tertiary level
is well-known (Sokeng 2010, Nforbi 2012). The government has been working towards
correcting this trend, especially at the level of secondary education where the objective-
based approach (OBA) has given way to the competence-based approach with entry
through real life situations (CBA-RLS), since 2012. Though the present university students
have not known the new programmes of study at the secondary level, we shall not dwell on
the old method and programmes that they experienced. We did this already in our DIPES II
and M.A. dissertations. We are preparing a programme for Bilingual Training in English
that should be current, with the assurance that if it is well implemented, those who get to
year one, even without a competence-based background, will not be found wanting in the
programme. Rather, they will most likely enjoy an English language programme that
moves alongside their interest and accompanies them in their university and professional
training. We shall discuss only the recent curriculum, because it is already in Troisième
this year (2017/2018), and that is what the present Troisième students will experience
throughout their secondary education, until they get to the tertiary level, within the next
years. This chapter sets out to describe English at the primary and secondary levels, paying
attention to the programmes of study, the materials, and the methods.

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3.1. English at the Francophone primary level
Primary education is basically general in Cameroon. The primary school has six classes,
respectively SIL, CP, CE1, CE2, CM1 and CM2. These six classes are divided into three
pairs, termed levels: Level One comprises SIL and CP, Level TWO has CE1 and CE2, and
Level Three is made up of CM1 and CM2.

3.1.1. The programmes of study

The programmes of study are designed and released in three documents following these
three groups, under the title: Programme officiels de l’enseignement primaire, published
by the former Ministry of National Education in 1993. There are 18 subjects in the
programme Level One, 10 subjects on the programme for level two and 10 subjects on the
programme for Level Three. For each subject, the general and specific objectives are
specified. For Level One states the status of each of the official languages and the
methodology thereof should be consequent: “In francophone Primary schools in
Cameroon, French and English are respectively the first and second language of
communication and instruction and shall be taught as such” (MINEDUC, 1993)

3.1.2. General objectives

At the end of primary education, learners must have achieved elementary language
mastery, “the aptitude to understand oral and written messages and to express themselves
orally and in writing at school and out of school” (MINEDUC 1993a: p. 26). This general
objective is further divided into skill objectives for speech practice and oral work, reading
and written work. Listening is to be integrated with the other skills. This makes the
syllabus skill-based.

Speech and oral work

- Understand the educated variety of spoken English


- Discriminate between English sounds (e.g. get / gate; pen / pain)
- Articulate all the 44 phonemes of English
- Speak English fluently
- Recognise and understand various stress and intonation patterns (e.g. insisting on
an element in the utterance)
- Express their own attitude by the use of stress and intonation

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- Develop confidence and naturalness in their oral command of English so as to
express themselves coherently and appropriately to an individual or group.
Reading

- Be able to read silently, and with understanding, a wide variety of types of written
English,
- Find pleasure through reading extensively
- Acquire skills like reading for gist, for information or for study.
- Develop critical reading skills which will enable the child to set out his impression
and or understanding of a passage
Written work

- Express themselves effectively in simple, clear and correct English.


- Write in appropriate style, (e.g. formal and informal, as the situation demands) and
with due regard to conventions of punctuation
It is very obvious in this outline that spoken English is given much prominence, and
displays the important restriction to the educated variety, that is prescriptive English,
following strict structural rules. Also, pronunciation is well engaged with the place given
to discriminating simple minimal pairs, articulating all the phonemes of English, and other
para-segmental features such as meaningful stress and intonation, and fluency. Reading
skills include silent reading, reading for gist, for information, for pleasure and critical
reading. And for writing, the English must be simple, clear and correct and the style should
be adapted, with correct punctuation. Such objectives demand teachers who are very
knowledgeable in English and well-trained to teach the language, and materials that are
verily adapted to the programme.

3.1.3. Specific objectives and materials

For each class, the specific objectives under each skill will be presented below. For
economy of time, one textbook in use will also be compared to those objectives to show to
what extent they match, because it is not unusual to observe a gap between policy and
practice. Since listening is to be integrated to the teaching of the other skills, there may be
no need for audio-visual materials, provided the textbook and other materials possess
qualities for vocabulary, grammar, speaking and reading skills.

The manual which we shall use is the series Champions in English, published by
EDICEF, MACMILLAN. This series presents a textbook for each class; it has a teacher’s

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guide to help the francophone teachers understand the language and its pedagogy so as to
be more effective. These features are shared by another manual like Beginning English by
CEPL, Limbe.

3.1.3.1. The case of the first class: SIL (Class One)

The general objective for this level is to introduce the learners to the four language
skills, teach them the vocabulary of their immediate surrounding (home and school) and
introduce the alphabet, the sounds of English and some basic structures especially needed
for daily school activities.

For speech practice, spoken language is emphasised, the learner should be led to
listen and repeat, learn the short sounds of English ask and answer simple interactive
questions, use greetings and responses, nursery rhymes and songs with actions, elementary
language games and use the present progressive.

For reading, an important place is given to full colour pictures to support the
learning of the skill. These pictures must reflect the Cameroonian context. Reading lessons
are to start with recognising pictures and giving their names, and gradually, short
descriptions will be introduced. Exercises consist in matching pictures with words and
descriptions.

Writing starts with tracing lines and shapes, followed by tracing and shaping known
letters of the alphabet, starting with big movements on chalkboard or hand board and
gradually towards lined paper, to foster hand-and-eye coordination. Real writing starts with
gradual copying, letters, words and descriptions of scenes.

Champions in English (SIL) is a manual with colourful drawings on virtually all the
pages apart from the contents and foreword pages. This feature alone goes to a great extent
in fostering speaking and reading, and is helpful in writing.

- Unit one is only about greetings. It has four lessons on four pages: Good morning!
(At school), Good afternoon! (in and out of the classroom), Good evening! (in the
neighbourhood) and Good night! (at home). The lessons teach how to greet and
respond to greetings, and the colour contrast and scenery in the drawing facilitate
understanding of time, place and interlocutors. Activities include ‘look and say’,
and ‘say or sing’. This unit emphasises spoken language and teaches how to greet

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and respond to greetings, so that these objectives on the syllabus can be easily
attained.

- The teaching of the letters of the alphabet starts with unit two, and each of the four
lessons has as title the corresponding letter of the alphabet : a; b; c and d. there are
four colourful drawings to illustrate each of the letters, with the names below them,
preceded by the indefinite article (a/an). The exercise consists in tracing the letter
under study many times on the line and reading them: ‘trace and say’ exercises.
Then, the very pictures used to illustrate the letter, at the same time teach a learner-
related vocabulary, are repeated, and their names written repeatedly against them.

The same pattern continues in Units 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12, though in a few


lessons, more than one letter is taught, and, increasingly, the drawings are more
complex, often with more than one item on the same drawing. This fulfils the
objective of learning the letters of the alphabet and individual short consonant and
vowel sounds, and further fosters the teaching of their immediate surrounding
vocabulary.

- The intermediary units focus on more structural details, where the first lesson
introduces the structure and the last three lessons dwell on practice. For example,
Unit 3 is on colours, and only four colours are treated: green, red, yellow and black.
Lesson 2 and Lesson 3 bear the title ‘What colour is it?’, where ‘it’ in the question
is to be replaced by the name of the object (already seen with previous alphabet
lessons) and the answer has the structure “It is + colour”. The last lesson is a listen
and match lesson.

- In like manner, unit four dwells on numbers from 1 to 5, continued in Unit 11 (5 –


10). Exercises include ‘trace and say’, ‘trace count and say’ and ‘count and write
the number’, and ‘How many … are there? There is/are …’. Unit seven is on
asking and saying one’s name, naming the parts of the face, facial expressions of
happiness and sadness, and action verbs involving the face. It is here that role play
is introduced. This continues in unit 9 with the use of ‘these are to identify parts of
the body and role plays with the playful giving of instructions on actions involving
parts of the body (clap your hands – touch your shoulders, …). Unit 13 teaches
simple questions with ‘where is …?’ and answers with prepositions in and on and

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common objects. Unit fourteen continues with ‘Is it …? – Yes, it is/ No, it is not, it
is …’, ‘What is …?’

- Unit 15 teaches classroom vocabulary, and

- Unit 16, the last unit, is about basic hygiene. Lessons include ‘clean and dirty’, ‘I
wash my face’, ‘I brush my teeth’ and ‘this is the way’.

The textbook designers have observed the age-bound playful approach in this manual,
to make the contents appealing to the learners and the method conducive. The brief
description of the manual clearly shows that for SIL, the manual is very adapted to the
syllabus prescriptions and objectives. Similar comparison of the other books in the
series and the corresponding syllabus would produce the same result. The case of Class
One has been used for illustration. I shall only continue with syllabus objectives for the
rest of the classes.

3.1.3.2. Cours Préparatoire (Class Two)

In addition to consolidating the work covered in Class One, school, home, farm and garden
vocabulary and structures, and more sound practice are to be covered. This specific
objective is broken down under four skills as follows:

- Speech practice

Children’s vocabulary is to be enlarged through objects in their immediate surrounding,


pictures or mimes. Spoken English is to be further developed through sound and word
building, simple story telling and dramatization, with songs and rhymes if possible.

- Language structures

The simple present tense is introduced with to be, to have, etc., instructions. The indefinite
and definite articles, the noun, the singular and plural are introduced. Besides, the
progressive forms continue simple Wh- questions with what, when, who, etc.

- Reading

Learners should practice reading from pictures, drawings, flashcards, and command cards.
The ‘look and say’ method is promoted, with use of spelling and reading games.

- written work

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Learners should be able to write an indefinite number of words, with emphasis on the
correct formation and use. Spelling practice such as word completion is encouraged.

3.1.3.3. Cours élémentaire Première année – CE1 (Class Three)

This class is the first of Level Two in primary education nomenclature. The syllabus at this
level is referred to as communicative. Emphasis is laid on oral and aural work, with a basic
grammatical skeleton and the other skills are to be gradually introduced. The objective is to
get the learners read texts aloud meaningfully, show understanding of oral and written
message, and carry out writing tasks related to text and pictures. Syllabus contents are
presented in the form of a table (p.34), which we shall simply reproduce here.

Communicative objectives Structural focus


Describing a place This is …; It is a …
Describing the location of things It is next to …/It is near …
Describing an animal It has a long nose …
Telling the time It is ten o’clock.
Introducing a member of the family This is my mother, she is a teacher
Asking about the time What time is it?
Describing somebody’s possessions He has a black bag
Talking about the days of the week Today is Monday …
Describing what one does during the day I go to school. I work in the garden
Finding out about other people’s possessions Do you have a toy…?
Counting things Refer to the maths syllabus

3.1.3.4. Cours élémentaire Deuxième année – CE2 (Class Four) : weekly workload 4h
– 4h30

Communicative objectives Structural focus


Describing what one is doing I am washing my clothes
Finding out about what somebody is doing What is Paul doing? He is eating banana
Talking about or describing the means of She goes to school by bus
transportation
Buying and selling How much is it? It is fifty francs, it is expensive,
it is cheap

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Talking about or describing the weather It is windy. It is sunny …
Talking about or describing clothes He has a nice shirt …
Talking about the months of the year This is January
Talking about the past He played football yesterday
Naming and identifying parts of the body This is my head
Talking about a home This is my room

3.1.3.5. Cours moyen Première année – CM1 (Class Five)

This is the first class of Level Three. The syllabus approach is similar to that of Level Two.
Syllabus contents are presented in tables. These tables are copied below.

Communicative objectives Structural focus


Describing and talking about a journey She caught a bus in the morning. It was a safe journey
(sic)
Talking about one’s obligations We must sweep the classroom. She has to wash her
hands before eating
Asking someone to do something politely Could you open the window, please? May I have your
book, please?
Talking about habitual actions He goes to his farm every day. She plays the guitar
everyday…
Talking about one’s present actions He is singing
Finding out what is wrong with someone What is the matter with you? I have backache …
Stating what is wrong with one I have toothache
Comparing people He is taller than I. He is as fat as his friend.
Comparing things A cow is bigger than a dog
Predicting outcomes Events: What will happen if …?
Story: What will happen next?
Expressing regret I wish I listened to my parents
I wish I took my medicines
Expressing one’s wishes I would like to eat a banana
Describing an ongoing action or activity He is washing his clothes …
Locating and describing places Edea is a large town. It is between Douala and Pouma.
It is a big industrial town

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Counting things Counting up to 100,000
Talking about the past Jane went to Kumba last night

3.1.3.6. Cours moyen Deuxième année – CM2 (Class Six)

Communicative objectives Structural focus


Talking about one’s present We are cleaning the room
actions
Talking about habitual actions We sweep the classroom every day, they go home every weekend
Describing what one is good She is good at mathematics, jumping …
at
Describing the activities of He is a good fisherman. He catches fish with a net
someone
Talking about one’s future She is going to visit her aunt next week. I shall visit my uncle
intentions next year.
Comparing people and things He is taller than I. Peter is more intelligent than John. This
bamboo is as long as that ruler
Talking about hypothetical If it rains tomorrow, I’ll take my umbrella
situations
Expressing one’s wishes I would like to be a teacher
Talking about the past I was in class four when I was eight years old.
Counting objects Counting up to one million.
Describing a journey The journey was interesting / boring / dangerous
Predicting outcomes Following this story/situation, I think …
Describing ways of travelling He goes by land (on foot, …), by air (by plane …) by sea (by
canoe …)
From the preceding syllabus, English language at the primary level could also be referred
to as initiation to English language. Consequently, the learners are taught General English.
In SIL, the approach could be referred to as a literacy approach, where the learners are
taught to greet and respond, to trace and say the letters and sounds of English, and to name
the objects in their immediate environment. The grammatical structures are very simple.
From Cours Préparatoire, the communicative approach is introduced. And so continues up
to Cours Moyen II.

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3.1.4. Weaknesses of primary level English

If only the policy could be adequately implemented and the materials optimised, one could
rejoice that primary school graduates possess a strong foundation from which the
secondary level could take off. But many pupils, especially in rural areas, may not have the
textbook (whether for classroom activities or for revision at home). Secondly, practice is
an asset in a child’s language learning. With whom will these children practise the
language after school? Many Francophone parents today cannot speak or read English, and
very few of them would hire a home teacher or get an older child to teach English to their
younger siblings. A third and major question that rises to one’s mind is: who teaches them
English? Is it the Francophone all subject magister, whose English should be most likely
doubtful? Have they been well trained to teach English? What are the difficulties which
they face in the field? These questions would necessitate a survey for answers.

There are primary schools in the nation where a teacher is set aside to teach English,
as well as in the Anglophone section, there is a teacher of French. Though the practice may
not be official, it would be interesting to study its output. As the Government promotes
bilingualism in the official languages with so much emphasis, the creation of a bilingual
series in the Government Teacher Training Colleges should be evaluated. If primary school
teachers are trained just to teach English to French-speaking pupils, so that in every
primary school, there is a government live agent of official bilingualism with specific
training to that end, better results could be obtained. This approach would be advantageous
at least in two regards. First, many pupils will be open to real English language learning. It
is not infrequent to hear Cameroonians say “c’est Dieu qui donne l’anglais”. Primary
school teachers are not left aback in this apathy. The earlier one learns a language, the
better. These pupils’ motivation would likely be increased. Second, it would be very easy
to ensure the continuity of training in English, as the primary level and secondary level
would be able to collaborate more effectively, and not operate so separately on one of the
most central issues in national integration.

3.2. English language in French-speaking secondary education


French-speaking secondary education in Cameroon has three main subdivisions:

- general education (Sixième, Cinquième, Quatrième, Troisième, Seconde, Première,


and Terminale),

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- technical education (Première année, Deuxième année, Troisième année, Quatrième
année, Seconde, Première and Terminale) and
- Teacher training (ENI 1, ENI 2 and ENI 3). Teacher training in turn is subdivided
into general education and technical education.

One could focus more on general education and technical education, and exclude teacher
training for at least two reasons. First, teacher training is already professional. The
socioeconomic context demands that after training they seek to do part-time jobs in
primary schools around, so as to be eligible for a contract with the government. Second,
very few primary school teachers are interested in further studies in general, and Fine Arts
studies in particular. Most of those who want to go further would rather study psychology
or sociology in order to upgrade their professional status, for instance, so as to be able to
apply for entrance into advanced teacher training colleges. A third reason for focusing
solely on general education and not even technical education would be that they constitute
the actual background of a vast majority of learners in Fine Arts Institutes, as the
questionnaires will reveal later. Yet, the English language studied in Government Teacher
Training Colleges will be analysed as well, for a curriculum needs to be proposed for the
training of Primary School Teachers whose sole subjects in the field will be English and
French, what we could refer to as primary level Bilingual Letters Teacher.

3.2.1. General education

At the secondary level, the Competence-Based Approach with entry through Real Life
Situations (CBA-RLS) comes to replace the objective-based approach (OBA hereafter)
which, interpretedly, taught language so that “language items both relevant and irrelevant,
had to be memorised by the learners with the hope that one day, they would have a
situation in which to apply such knowledge” (MINESEC30, 2012: p. 64). The CBA-RLS
curriculum effected in August 2012 by ministerial order was therefore to be an innovation,
seeking to make the language learnt directly relevant to the learner. When this curriculum
had been tried for two school years (2012/2013 and 2013/2014), in July 2014, ministerial
order N° 264/14/MINESEC/IGE OF 13th August 2014 to outline the syllabi for Sixième
and Cinquième (first and second levels in the general French-speaking secondary school)

30
‘MINESEC’ is an acronym that stands for “Ministère des Enseignements Secondaires”, that is, the
Cameroonian Ministry of Secondary Education. The educational sector in Cameroon is divided basically into
three levels, each with a separate ministry. Thus, there is a ministry of Basic Education (for the nursery and
primary levels), a Ministry of Secondary Education (for the secondary level) and a Ministry of Higher
Education (for the tertiary or university level).

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enhanced the tried curriculum into a more contextual CBA-RLS curriculum. Triggered in
Sixième in the year 2014/2015, it moved on to Cinquième in 2015/2016, and will so
continue up to Terminale. The major changes in 2014 are discussed below.

3.2.1.1. Comparing the 2012 and the 2014 curricula

Both programmes of study are competence-based, and the second was published as an
amelioration of the first, as the difficulties that teachers encountered in the field had been
addressed in the 2014 programme, supported by a guide for teachers. This 2014 curriculum
goes a long way to cover the challenges that we had recorded earlier (Nforbi & Siéwoué,
2016b), especially as a teacher’s guide is provided.

3.2.1.1.1. General structure of the programmes

The sections of these programmes are the following:

- A general presentation of the programme of study


- The students’ exit profile (MINESEC, 2014a only)
- The place of the programme of study in the new curriculum
- The contribution of the programme of study to the broad area of language learning
- The contribution of the syllabus to areas of life (MINESEC, 2014a only)
- The ‘families of situations covered’ (2012), referred to as ‘Areas of life broadly
covered by this programme of study’ in MINESEC(2014a)
- The synoptic table of the modules (2012) or breakdown of the modules (2014)
- The various modules, five modules for one level.
A comparison of the structure of a module shows the following stages:
- Module’s title
- Time and number of weeks to cover the module (2012 only)
- Presentation of the module
- Contribution [of the module (2012)] to the curriculum goals
- Contribution of the module to the broad area of learning
- Contribution of the modules to the domains of life
- Coverage of the module (2014 only)
- Contents of the module.

When both programmes are compared, an index of the macro-level changes is seen
at the level of the parentheses in the preceding stages. There are elements that are shown as

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present in the 2012 curriculum only. These elements have therefore been judged
unnecessary and wiped away. Other elements are specified in brackets as ‘2014 only’, an
index of innovation. The rest of the stages are consistent with both programmes. An
analysis of these changes shows the following.
There are two new elements included in the 2014 curriculum, at the level of its
structure: the student’s exit profile, defining the francophone learners’ profile at the end of
the first cycle, the number of tasks they should be able to carry out in English, spelled out
for listening and speaking, for reading, and for writing. The specification of these learning
outcomes is relevant in that it gives the classroom teacher a broad picture of the number
and nature of these tasks, and can serve as a guide for achievement evaluation so that at the
end of each year, teachers can have an idea about the level of their learners with regards to
the exit profile. It is also an indication for the common basis on which exam questions can
be set nationwide. This is a strong innovation which provides down-to-earth information
about the certificate examinations that are upcoming.
The exit profile involving listening and speaking includes:
- Interact orally with classmates, teachers, etc.
- Give information to others on a specific topic
- Defend his/her point of view on a simple and familiar topic
- Summarize information from a simple text orally
- Interpret facial expressions, mime and simple gestures
- Talk about/describe certain cultural/traditional aspects in Cameroon
- Sing songs/recite poems on real life situations and other familiar topics (2014: p.17)
If the learners must be taught how to use English to carry out tasks in this domain,
the pedagogy must ensure a careful tackling of all the spoken language components,
attitudes, gestures, tone, stress, and the sounds of English.
The ‘contribution of the syllabus to areas of life’ section is simply a cataloguing
and use of the five areas of life (or domains of life) as entry points for learning (2014:
p.18). The different modules are each shaped from the areas of life catalogued and adapted
to learners’ levels. These areas of life will be discussed below. The contents of both study
programmes are categorised and compared in the tables below.

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Table 3 : Comparison of general presentations of study programme (2012 and 2014)
2012 2014 Observations
- The need for a
more fruitful approach:
- The need for a OBA proved
more fruitful inadequate in
There is a need to
approach: OBA supporting the
match curriculum
Rationale proved inadequate in bilingual policy of
with innovations in
supporting the Cameroon
scientific knowledge
bilingual policy of - System must be
Cameroon. upgraded to suit
innovations in
scientific knowledge
- learner - learner
personality personality
development as a development as a
Outcome conscientious, moral conscientious, moral - identical
and responsible and responsible citizen
citizen of Cameroon, of Cameroon, Africa
Africa and the world and the world
- Diverse areas - Diverse areas of
Scope of life and classes of life and classes of - identical
situations situations
- Not only
- Fair mastery of
- Fair mastery of receive and give
English grammar,
English grammar, information, but
vocabulary and
vocabulary and also the analytic
phonology
phonology capacity of learner
- Capacity to
- Capacity to - Not only
Requirements receive, analyse and
receive and give reacting
give information orally
information orally and appropriately to
and in writing, and to
in writing, and to instructions, but
react appropriately to
react appropriately to more broadly, oral
written and oral
instructions and written
messages
messages

The innovations in scientific knowledge referred to are difficult to capture within


the curriculum as it is described in MINESEC (2014). In addition to linguistic knowledge
(grammar, vocabulary and phonology), the learners are not to give and receive information
only, but they must be able to process the information, to use their intellect in doing the
analysis, that is, knowing why they should say this and not that, and understanding subtle
meanings in messages. Again, they are not to react to instructions only (see Total Physical
Response method), but to messages in general, oral or written.

Table 4 : Comparison of places of study programme in the new curriculum2012 and


2014

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2012 2014 Observations
- Interdisciplinary - Not only
education interdisciplinary
- Interdisciplina - Professionalizati education, but also
Approach
ry education on of education prominence of
- Rooting learners professionalization
in national cultures and national cultures
- Cross-
- Cross-curricular
Objective curricular - Identical
competence
competence
- Development
- Development of
of learner’s overall
learner’s overall ability
Contribution ability to listen,
to listen, speak, read - Identical
of EFL speak, read and
and write competently
write competently in
in real life situations
real life situations
- Compulsory
- Compulsory tool
tool for
for communication,
communication,
Status of survival, and for
survival, and for - Identical
English national and
national and
international
international
integration
integration

In addition to making use of an interdisciplinary approach, the 2014 programme


subscribes to the general educational policy of professionalization, and is intended to root
the learners into their cultures. For example, it does not suffice to be able to say good
morning, but the right attitude should be adopted with respect to the interlocutor. You do
not greet your father as you would greet your teacher or a Bamileke, Bamoun, Foulbe or
Beti King. The spoken language must be accompanied by a culturally-bound attitudinal
body language.

Table 5 : Domains of life (2012), or Areas of life broadly covered (2014a)


2012 (pp. 64 – 65) 2014 (pp. 19 – 20) Observations
1. Family and social
1. Family and social life - Identical
life
2. Economic life and 2. Economic life and
- Identical
occupations occupations
- ‘environment’ is added
3. Health education, sports, 3. Environment, well-
while sports and leisure are
leisure and well-being being and health
deleted
4. Citizenship 4. Citizenship and - ‘Human rights’ is added.

85
human rights Inside the module, there are also
mentions of duties.
5. Information,
5. Media and - The term ‘information’ is
communication and the
Communication deleted
media
6. Human rights and duties - 2012 modules 6 and 7 are
7. Environmental /// inserted into 2014 modules 4
awareness and 3
Seemingly, the need to reduce the number of modules so as to avoid sequencing
difficulties as discussed earlier was translated here by the merging of related themes and
the deletion of non-unavoidable themes such as sports and leisure, which could be studied
in further classes.

Table 6 : Synoptic table of the modules (2012) or Breakdown of the modules (2014)
2012 (pp. 64 – 65) 2014 (pp. 19 – 20) Observations
st st
Cycle 1 1 - identical
Sub-cycle Observation Column does not exist - column is deleted
Year 1 (general and - each class is
technical schools) provided with its own
separate syllabus, and
Level 6ème
Year 2 (general and general education is
technical schools) separated from
technical education
- Column is
Domains Column does not
Specified inserted to match with
of life exist
titles of modules
Verbal (e.g.: “Using
Non-verbal (e.g.:
language to attend basic
“language
health and safety needs, - Goals for
Titles of interactions relating
explore times and seasons language use are
modules to health and well-
and have a responsible specified
being”, Module 5,
feeding habit”, Module 3,
6ème)
6ème)
Every module is Every module is
Status - Identical
compulsory compulsory
- Number of
Varying between 21
Time 15 hours all through teaching hours reduced
and 24 hours
to 15.

Here, the alterations include the addition of a column for the domains of life,
matching with the different titles of modules which, in turn, spell the goals for language

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use, so that the classroom teacher can evaluate the achievement of these goals. Titles are
not non-verbal and vague as in 2012. In 2014, the learner is the one to USE language,
hence the action verb ‘using language’. Learners are to be gradually transformed into
language users. It is also important to note that the programme was the same for technical
and general education in 2012, but the 2014 programme separates them. The compulsory
status of modules further establishes common grounds for evaluation nationwide. The
changes related to teaching hours are commented on below.

3.2.1.1.2. The module

Whereas the 2012 programme indicates time and number of weeks inside a module (e.g.
“[24 hrs. (8 weeks)]”), the same information is provided under the title ‘coverage of the
module’ in the 2014 programme: “the teacher will endeavour to cover … the module
within the prescribed 15 teaching hours”, with an understandable meaning of the number
of weeks, since three hours are put aside each week for EFL. “Three hours [1 week] are set
aside for the testing of learners’ competency to listen, speak, read, and/or write
appropriately (MINESEC 2014: 20, 24, 28, 32). In the last module for Sixième, this testing
goes for “the students’ ability to listen to simplified dialogues or stories, speak and read
simplified texts, and/or write appropriately” (ibid: 36), showing that the learners will have
acquired many more subtle skills in the coverage of the four previous modules, and will
have attained a point where many of such subtle skills can be operationalised for more
complex tasks (listen to simplified dialogues, stories, read simplified texts). The number of
weeks to cover a module is therefore six weeks.
There are three innovations: first, the reduction of teaching hours from 21 – 24 to
15 makes it henceforth very possible to handle a module within an administrative sequence
(18 hours, six weeks). Yet, with the emphasis laid on official Bilingualism in the nation
further supported by the Head of State’s recent creation of a National Committee in charge
of Bilingualism and Multiculturalism, English language teaching to Francophones was to
be given more time and periods in a week. Instead of cutting down the periods from five to
three in Cinquième and maintaining three periods in Quatrième and Troisième, the
Government could effect the exact reverse, that is, maintain five periods in the observation
cycle like before, and rather add two other periods for English in Quatrième and Troisième.
Nforbi has observed that “the problem with 2nd language learning in Cameroon is
forgetting” (2012a: 303). He proves that the more frequent learners repeat or are drilled on
a language structure, the faster its mastery. This is well-proven by immersion cases.

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Second, the minimal coverage percentage is specified: 90% for the first four
modules and 80% for the last module. Finally, the group of skills to be emphasised is
specified: “with emphasis on spoken language” (MINESEC 2014:20, 24; 28; 32; 36).
These modules further establish a basis for evaluation across the country, especially as the
first BEPC31 exams will be written in 2017 or 201832.). Leaving aside a whole week for
skills evaluation is a major innovation, supported by the evaluation hints at the end of both
programmes and the tackling of the various skills elicited in the accompanying pedagogic
guide (MINESEC, 2014 b).
The content of every module is fitted into similar tables, with 3 main headings in
three columns, covering 2, 2 and 3 columns respectively, as follows:
1) Contextual framework: - Family of situations
- Examples of real life situations
2) Competence indicators: - Categories of actions
- Examples of actions
3) Resources: - Essential knowledge (speech work, grammar and
vocabulary)
- Attitudes
- Other resources (human resources, materials and methods)
The structure remains basically identical in both contents but we note two changes
in two columns. The 2012 programme presents three categories of actions while the 2014
programme presents four. The former has ‘initiating conversations’, ‘carrying out actions

31
“BEPC” stands for “Brevet des Études du Premier Cycle”, a certificate obtained at the end of the fourth
and last level of French-speaking general secondary school. We have difficulties translating it as “GCE O/L”
(General Certificate of Education, Ordinary Level) for at least three reasons. Francophone Cameroonians
obtain a BEPC at the end of the fourth level (Troisième) of secondary education, a Probatoire at the end of
the sixth level (Première) and a Baccalauréat at the end of the seventh and last level (Terminale) of
secondary education. The Probatoire is a compulsory certificate for access into Terminale. A pass in all these
Francophone exams is a minimal score of 10/20, average of learner’s scores in all the papers. The GCE O/L
is obtained at the end of the fifth level (Form Five) of Anglophone general secondary education and the GCE
A/L (Advanced Level) is obtained. A pass at the GCE O/L is obtained when the candidate has at least a C
grade in a minimal number of four papers, and for the GCE A/L, a minimum number of two papers. First,
there may be a match in number of years between the GCE A/L and the Baccalauréat, but no such match
exists between the GCE O/L and the BEPC. Second, the criteria for pass are not identical in the two systems.
Third, the curricular contents are divergent in terms of syllabi, methods, evaluation, etc. The mismatches
between the Anglophone certificates and the Francophone certificates are many. For more on the
dissimilarities between the two systems, see Ngalim, V. B. (2014): “Harmonisation of the educational sub-
systems of Cameroon: A multicultural perspective for democratic education” in Creative Education, Vol. 5,
pp. 334-346, online
32
The BEPC exam may soon be written in Seconde (the fifth level of secondary education), unlike now that
it is written in Troisième, in a governmental will to bring about harmonisation in the educational sector in
Cameroon. It already started at the primary level where Class Seven in the Anglophone system disappeared
recently and the First School Leaving Certificate is now written in Class Six, corresponding to the six years
after which the Francophone ‘CEP’ (Certificat des Études Primaires) is written.

88
in response to oral stimuli’ and ‘making use of written language’ (for reading and writing).
The advantage of the second category of actions is that it focuses on listening
comprehension as “listen …. + action” and the evaluation is obvious: the learner carries
out the right action or not. If good use were to be made of this category, the learners’
listening comprehension skills would be highly developed. But the drawback in this
categorisation is that speaking is split and does not reflect natural language use. In
initiating a conversation, MINESEC (2012: p. 72) provides such actions as “greets people
and takes leave”, and in the second category no provision is made for responding to
greetings (ibid: p. 73). On the contrary, the 2014 programme has four categories of actions
corresponding to the four basic language skills.
The other change is at the level of speech work, where all the strange sounds have
disappeared. It is probable that a computer bug changed the sounds of the 2012
programmes into forms of objects, for the square brackets are consistently present around
these objects and each module had many of them. The 2014 programme for Sixième, for
instance, has no phonetic symbols but topics. This point is further discussed in the section
‘The pronunciation problem’ below.

3.2.1.1.3. Evaluation

The goal of assessment is to help teacher regulate learners’ skills development (2012) and
evaluate their performance (2014). Evaluation is ongoing and sequencing and
harmonisation of evaluation are determined by the school’s department. Both curricula
suggest basically the same test techniques and the skills to which they correspond. The
2014 curriculum indicates that the evaluation criteria adopted by the department should be
made known to the learners and advises the teachers to give their learners multiple
opportunities to upgrade their performances. Assessment focuses on one skill and should
not only be written, but also oral. But the structure of the examination paper in the official
exams remains unknown, though the examination focus is suggested – at least 80% of
modules must be covered, emphasis should be laid on spoken language.

3.2.1.1.4. The pedagogic guide

The pedagogic guide here referred to as MINESEC (2014b) is another significant


innovation in the 2014 curriculum in that it equips the teachers with the theoretical and
practical knowledge needed to successfully facilitate learning through the curriculum. It
explains the objectives of the programme of study, the methodology (the theoretical

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backing of the curriculum, the drawing of lesson plans – maintaining Nkwetisama’s (2012)
proposal, how to read and interpret the document (MINESEC, 2014a), guidelines on
assessment, drawing the scheme of work), learner skill development and insights on
learning styles. The availability of a teacher’s guide is a big step ahead in facilitating and
implementing CBA-RLS curriculum, and will reduce teachers’ complaints to a large
extent, provided the guide reaches them and they find time to go through it.

3.2.1.2. Learning contents

It has already been mentioned that in each domain of life, examples of real-life situations,
categories of action and examples of action are given for teachers to select and fit into their
own contexts. Essential knowledge content (speech work, grammar and vocabulary) is also
proposed in each module so that the structures of language be focused upon, not only its
real-life problem solving aspect. Again, the possible human material and methodological
resources are suggested to the classroom teacher who will plan the lesson and teach it. The
various domains of life in the programme are consistent throughout the secondary school.
The difference in each level is the contents of the modules from one class to another. Also,
the learner’s exit profile will be useful in grasping the progress from one level to the next
level and on. The module titles will be commented first, and the students exit profiles will
be presented later. Table 5 presents the various modules’ contents from Sixième to
Troisième. There are five modules for each class, corresponding to the five areas of life in
the 2014 curriculum (see Table 3).

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Table 7 : Graded contents of modules
Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5
Module 1
Economic life and Environment, well- Citizenship/Human Media and
Family and social life
occupation being and Health rights Communication
Using language to
Using language to
Using language to - make informed Using language to
- attend to basic health
Sixième - assert oneself as a choices on Using language to - explore audio-
and safety needs,
(MINESEC responsible member of consumption of goods - fulfil the rights and visual and print
- explore times and
2014a: pp. the nuclear and and services (buying duties of a child and basic media, and
seasons and
19-20) extended family and and selling)and civic duties - keep abreast of
- have a responsible
school community - explore jobs and modern technology
feeding habit
professions
Using language to
Using language to
- create interpersonal
Cinquième Using language to - create environmental
relationships and to Using language to Using language to
(MINESEC - discuss more on awareness and to
- talk about the - explore citizens of the - keep abreast of
2014b: pp. different jobs and - explore interests and
home/habits and nation and the world modern technology
19-20) professions hobbies in relation to
routines/home
health
furnishing
Quatrième Using language to Using language to Using language to Using language to
Using language to
(MINESEC - talk about social - Talk about a vision - Talk about protection - Talk about gender
- Explore ICT’s
2014c: p.18) integration (traditions of their future of the environment and issues and mutual

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Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5
Module 1
Economic life and Environment, well- Citizenship/Human Media and
Family and social life
occupation being and Health rights Communication
and customs of professional life the fight against acceptance
Cameroon and Conflict while managing endemic and pandemic
resolution) leisure diseases
Using language to
Using language to
Using language to - Talk about Using language to
Troisième - Talk about - Explore utilities
- Talk about national consumption habits - Talk about the quest for
(MINESEC maintaining hygiene of modern
integration and and how they impact excellence, gender issues,
2014c: p. 42) and sanitation and technology.
diversity acceptance economic life and and democracy
climate change
climate change
1. Member of a family 1. Informed choices 1. basic health and 1. Child’s rights and 1. Audio-visual
2. Home habits and of goods and services safety needs duties, basic civic duties and print media
furnishings 2. Exploring jobs 2. times and seasons 2. Citizens of the nation 2. Modern
3. Social integration and professions 3. health, interests and and of the world technology
Gradation
4. National integration 3. A vision of future hobbies 3. Gender issues and 3. ICT’s
appraisal of
and acceptance professional 4. protection of the mutual acceptance 4. Utilities of
focal points
professions environment 4. Gender issues, modern technology
4. Impact of 5. fight against democracy, quest for
consumption habits endemic and pandemic excellence
on economic life and diseases 5.

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Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5
Module 1
Economic life and Environment, well- Citizenship/Human Media and
Family and social life
occupation being and Health rights Communication
climate change 6. hygiene and
5. sanitation, climate
change

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Table 7 shows clearly, especially the last line where we bring out the various
module foci in the domains of life specified in the curriculum, that the module contents are
graded, from simple and readily accessible notions to more complex notions, from talking
about physical things in one’s environment (home furnishings for instance) to talking about
abstract notions (like national integration and acceptance). The only problems, as Nforbi
and Siéwoué (2016b) already mentioned, are the notions themselves, the vocabulary and
the functional aspects attached to them. We also proposed that materials designers take
these difficulties into consideration. Michael Nama et al (2015, 2016), in their series
Interactions in English (from Sixième to Troisième) seem to have addressed the said
difficulties. The pedagogic guideline is also significant in facilitating teacher work.

The programme in itself is highly commendable, as learners are now trained and
drilled not just on abstract things like war and journeys from Sixième, but on things that
are very inherent to their daily life. By the time these learners graduate from high school,
those who will have been lucky to enjoy proper teaching/learning are expected to be very
bilingual, that is able to use both English and French orally and in writing as well. Yet, a
critical look at the programme shows that the pronunciation aspect remains problematic.
We shall discuss this later.

A last comment is that the English language that is taught to Francophones at the
secondary level is what would be referred to as general English (GE). Holmes (1996: pp.
3-4), quoted by Basturkmen (2010: p. 2), explains the General English syllabus “based on
a conception of the kind of reality that the student has to deal with in English. For example,
a General English course will probably be written around the language-based activities of a
stereotyped teenager”. Not only do the contents of modules prove it, but also, the students
learning profile at the end of the first cycle (Summarised in Table 8 below) specifies no
particular area of competence, whether academic (this would be English for Academic
purposes – EAP) nor occupational (English for Occupational Purposes – EOP). It is the
English language that every Cameroonian needs for official Bilingualism and national
integration and unity sake. Upon graduation from the secondary level and as the
programme evolves, the learners may have been introduced to many academic or
occupational fields but it is very unlikely that they be taught English as English for
Specific Purposes. The professional schools around the nation, like the school of arts in
Ebolowa and the Government Professional High School of Agriculture in Yabassi could
enjoy this privilege, but no curricula have yet been designed for them as a specific group.

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Table 8 : End of first cycle learner’s exit profile.

Source (MINESEC 2014a: p. 7)

It should be borne in mind that the innovation at the secondary level, in a government’s
ambition to produce an elite of very bilingual citizens, has consecrated a Special Bilingual
Education Programme, from Sixième to Terminale, and from Form One to Form Five, for
the Anglophone subsystem. We shall now take a look at the programme.

3.2.1.3. The Special Bilingual Education Programme

In general secondary education, a special bilingual education programme was designed


recently in both Anglophone and Francophone sub-systems. It starts in Form One and
Sixième respectively, and goes up to Upper Sixth (Arts) and Terminale (A4 Bilingue).
Access to this programme is granted upon success in a competitive entrance examination.
The programme is present only in some pilot secondary schools in the nation, especially
found in ‘towns’.

The main difference in dealing with the other official language between the common
general education and the special bilingual education programme is that in the latter,
besides the normal English or French language subject is supported by much reading and
library work, and the learning of other subjects including manual labour and citizenship in
the other official language. So, the programme works like a semi-immersion programme
and prepares the learners to develop a richer language repertoire than the others, but it has
at least one shortcoming, especially with the other subjects: the teachers’ language could
be questionable mainly in terms of pronunciation and grammar. Non-language teachers,
especially those in the ‘sciences’, tend to neglect grammatical and phonological features of

95
the language they use to teach. Therefore, not only are Cameroon English, Pidgin English
and Camfranglais, and not neglecting the interferences of home languages, already
creeping into the language of instruction, but also, the learner is exposed to a language
which is not pure, which is not standard. (See Simo Bobda and Mbangwana, 2004, Mendo
Ze, 1990, Nzessé, 2009).

3.2.2. Technical education

The programmes of study for general and technical education are very similar in many
regards. The domains or areas of life to study are exactly the same, the programmes of
study follow the same pattern in their presentation, and the structuring of module contents
is constant. The coefficient remains 03. Yet there are some differences. In order to avoid
needless repetition, we shall proceed simply by bringing out major differences with each
other. Table 9 below shows the first set of differences.

The weekly workload in general education, in all classes, is 18 hours set aside for
each module in English language, with 15 hours for teaching and 3 hours – that is a whole
week – to be used for each sequence for skills development, this time allocation varies in
technical education, though the annual workload is specified to be 75 hours. Everything
being equal, there would be 90 hours of English language instruction in the first year, only
50 hours in the second year, in the third year and in the fourth year. In general education,
the learner would be exposed to 360 hours of formal instruction and the technical
education learner, only 240 hours, upon graduation from first cycle. This may be normal,
they need more time for their specific specialty subjects.

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Table 9 : Synoptic table of the modules in secondary technical education (MINESEC 2014e:18-19)

Secondly, module titles are narrower in technical education and more focused. The
contents of each module do not cover more than one and a half page whereas in general
education, they cover two full pages. This entails that technical education has less yet more
specific work to cover.

Thirdly, though the essential knowledge and examples of real life situations are not
too exactly the same, they are much similar in that the essential grammar and vocabulary
for the proposed real-life situations are clearly spelt. Nonetheless, the English language
teacher in technical education is expected to “endeavour to use vocabulary/lexis and

97
register that is specialty-specific in the fields of Carpentry, Bricklaying, Mechanics,
Electricity, Electronics, Refrigeration, Welding, Commerce, Dressmaking/Seamstering,
Plumbing, Surveying, High-tech, Information Technology, General Engineering, etc.”
(MINESEC 2014e: p. 20). This entails that at all levels (lesson planning, lesson delivery
and evaluation), the learner’s specialty should be at the centre of affairs. This is an attempt
to teaching English for Specific Purposes, as it consists mainly in giving out to the learner
the vocabulary and register that are consistent with their fields of study. Yet, the English
they are taught is basically General English, the module titles give the language teaching
status away. English for Specific Purposes, as we demonstrate in the curriculum design
later, would ascribe to the modules titles that evolve from learners specialties. Willing and
hardworking teachers will struggle to give out their best, but it really takes studying that
language afresh.

One difficulty with doing ESP as the secondary technical level is that teachers
cannot rely solely on dictionaries and deliver the goods. Too many government technical
schools have been created recently (between 2004 and 2011), and we find them
everywhere. It seems in each village there must be a government technical secondary or
high school. But the evidence is there: resources are dispersed and the new schools have
neither enough teachers nor adequate equipment – in quality and quantity. Ipso facto, one
will hardly find qualified teachers and rich libraries in these schools. If it is hard to find
good specialty textbooks in French in the Francophone technical schools, it is even harder
to have them in English. The teacher’s work becomes, at times, discouraging, and they fall
back to teaching grammar, vocabulary, sounds, with little relationship with learners’
specialties. In addition to this, no English language textbook has so far been designed
exclusively for French-medium technical education in Cameroon. So the problem with the
teaching/learning of English in Cameroon is not the programme of study, but the backing
of this programme, and, as Nforbi (2012a: p. 301) says in regret, its productivity.

What is the use of investing human resources (teachers), finances in their training
and in the training of secondary level learners, designing long and well elaborate
programmes, if the learners upon graduation remain unable to display acceptable
proficiency in speaking the English language after seven years? The pedagogy has been
unproductive. Likewise, if technical teachers do not have adequate materials (textbooks
and others) for planning their lessons, delivering them and evaluating, their work in
technical schools remains unproductive and their subject less appealing to the learners.

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3.2.3. Appraisal of student’s exit profile

A global evaluation could be done on the student’s exit profiles here, but the programme is
yet to reach the final class of the secondary level. We can only extrapolate, with the
contents reviewed earlier, that the students will be likely to display better English language
proficiency upon graduation than they used to do before (See Sokeng’s (2010) report). We
do not find it necessary to propose what people are already working on, at the ministry of
secondary education.

In the analysis of this programme, we notice one major inadequacy that may
negatively hamper the learners’ overall language development: the pronunciation
component is not clearly spelled in the curriculum, and that may cause teachers to neglect
it on the field.

3.2.4. The pronunciation component

We can discuss the pronunciation component of the current programme of study because
pronunciation is a most vital part of language. Spoken language cannot be thought of
without pronunciation, and its prominence in day to day language use is not negligible. The
way the speech workload is presented on the current competence-based programme of
study is subject to worries. The speech work items on the 2014 programme of study are
presented in Table 10.

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Table 10 : Speech work on the programme of study
Sixième Cinquième Quatrième Troisième
- Recycle - Recycle - Recycle
Module - Vowels and [vowels/consonants] [vowels/consonants] [vowels/consonants]
1 consonants - Contrast consonant - Contrast all the vowel and - Contrast all the vowel and
sounds consonant sounds consonant sounds
- Pronounce the definite - Produce simple stress - Focus on nasals /m/, /n/, /ŋ/; /ʧ/, - Produce correct word stress and
and indefinite articles in and intonation patterns /ʤ/ and more consonant sounds sentence stress
Module
isolation and in - Produce short utterances
2
connected speech and dialogues
correctly
- Identify and use - Practice intonation and stress - Show mastery of intonation and
homophones and patterns stress patterns: weak forms in
Module - Pronounce weak and homonyms connected speech, orthography
3 strong form in speech - Contrast the short, long and pronunciation
and diphthong vowel
sounds
- Pronounce s and es - Practise stressed and - Practise stressed and unstressed - Make thorough discrimination
plural regular noun unstressed syllables in syllables in connected speech, and identification of all the sounds
Module
formation correctly connected speech dialogues, role play and through speech work.
4
- Recycle the strong and simulation activities.
weak forms
Module - Recycle homophones - General revision - General revision - General revision
5 - General revision [vowels/consonants]

100
Only trained and hardworking English language teachers would be able to tackle speech
work as presented in the table 11 adequately. The first reason being that the sounds of English
are not visible, and teachers should decide which one to teach and which one not to teach.
There is a conspicuous negligence of the sounds of English in the new syllabus, whether in
2012 where the symbols were too strange to be called phonetic symbols (Nforbi & Siéwoué,
2016b) or in 2014 where phonetic symbols are bluntly left aside, except the nasals in
Quatrième, though the teacher’s guide advises that pronunciation activities be integrated into
lessons, to accompany the learners in speaking tasks (MINESEC, 2014d: p. 35).
The speech work is loaded with supra-segmental features including stress, intonation
and the like. But that is no learner’s first problem with pronunciation. When they discover a
new word, the first question or challenge is about reading, better still articulating that new
word. They should therefore be taught to articulate phonetic symbols – as the pronunciation
of each word in isolation is specified in the dictionary to this end. In this connexion,
MINESEC (2014a: p. 17) states that the Sixième learner should “read words from the
dictionary correctly (based on the sounds learned so far)” as part of their exit profile, but no
clear plan are made to achieve this goal. That a teacher should decide which sounds to study
with the learners is not a wary approach, although it must be exploited in the meantime. One
could think that it is advantageous for the early learner of Sixième not to stress up their minds
with spelling and sounds at the same time. But there are many disadvantages not to insert
distinct sounds to be taught in the syllabus:
First, the Cameroonian EFL teachers are not native speakers of English, and therefore
the challenges they face in attaining RP are a reality. It would not be unrealistic to declare that
the English of some of these teachers leaves much to be desired, as the insufficient presence
of trained teachers – who are not exempted – is complemented by part-time teachers with
certificates ranging from the GCE Advanced Level or the Francophones’ Baccalaureate and
Master’s degrees in languages, as well as other fields of study. It is not unusual to see
Anglophone physics or geography teachers teaching EFL (see Siéwoué, 2013: pp. 45 – 46;
Siéwoué, 2014: p. 47). At the same time, learners tend to hold teachers in very high esteem,
and will copy their pronunciation. The learners’ attention needs to be drawn to the reference
found in dictionary transcriptions.
If these teachers who have studied other subjects should teach English, therefore, there
must be intra-departmental sessions where they are trained in various language issues,
including the sounds and pronunciation patterns of English. The difficulty at this level is that
not much profit can be made out of this training, since these teachers teach English just for a

101
while, until an English language teacher is available. Nonetheless, the training is necessary
and in addition to the learners, the teachers themselves are beneficiaries. In the absence of this
training, the heads of department should accompany these teachers so as to ensure quality
teaching.
Second, if the learners are to learn the use of ‘the’ as either [ðə] or [ðɪ], the different
realisations must be transcribed for memory sake. Teachers put needless demands on learners’
memories when they ask them to repeat words after them and think that they will memorise
the pronunciation. In some cases the pronunciation is actually memorised, but in many others,
many are the students who forget it, and the end result is the inability to speak or listen to
English. Teaching is all about facilitating learning, and all the assets in this regard should be
operationalised.
Third, CBA-RLS over-emphasises the need to put the learner at the centre of their
learning, an enterprise whose impact should be the development of learners’ autonomous
learning. The method adopted by the Ministry of Secondary Education is “student-centred and
learners are accompanied to self-direct their learning, it is important to teach them the
strategies that they need” (MINESEC 2014b: p. 34). Teaching the learners the sounds of
English equips them with the dictionary skills needed to articulate words that they had never
encountered before, from the dictionary transcription. This is even more needed when the
curriculum encourages learner creativity and student-student interaction, classroom
instruction is to be at least 75% student talk (MINESEC, 2012: pp. 73 -74, p. 77, p. 81, p. 84,
p. 88, p. 92, pp. 95-96, p. 103, p. 107); see also MINESEC (2014a: pp. 21-22, pp. 25-26, p.
29, p. 33, p. 37), though no percentage is specified. In the effort to be creative, the learners
will need to use new words in English. What these words are and how they are articulated, the
dictionary will answer. If the teacher is referred to all the time when learners need to use a
new word, the teaching learning will be slowed down and the teacher will be regarded, not
only as facilitator – and maybe not at all – but (also) as the ‘magister’ (welcome back to the
grammar-translation age). Again, we suggest that the phonetic systems found in the learners’
pocket dictionaries be used in teaching them the sounds of English. If another system is used,
maybe the one that the teacher masters best, or the one found in advanced learner’s
dictionaries, these early learners may get confused and give up. This should further serve the
purpose of developing learner autonomy.
Fourth, language sounds are some of the major features in oral language production,
the most evident, through the other features could be perceived. Martin Bygate (2011)
distinguishes four phases in the processing of oral language production, including:

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conceptualisation (involving access to long-term memory, tracking of the discourse,
interlocutor’s knowledge and expectations, pragmatic purpose, etc.), formulation (involving
the lexico-grammatical selection and phonological priming), articulation (involving the
segmental and supra segmental processing), and monitoring. The syllabus, as discussed
earlier, has gone to a great extent in providing for the fostering of conceptualisation (such as
the pre-listening activities spelled out in the pedagogic guide (MINESEC, 2014b: pp. 34-35),
formulation has to do with contextual vocabulary, grammar, and the phonological rules to
govern the sounds in the utterance. The first two are provided for, but for the latter, we see
two occurrences in the syllabus for Sixième: the ‘-s/-es’ and the articulation of ‘the’ in
connected speech. This is quite acceptable, but the articulation process must also be well
catered for, by an adequate teaching of sounds and supra-segmental features.
Fifth, the need for the development of autonomous learning and use of new words is
further sustained by Bobda & Mbangwana’s (2004: p. 37) who point out that “indeed, the
inconsistencies between spelling and pronunciation in English are disconcerting”. They go
further to show that the same letter or sequence of letters can be phonetically manifested
differently and the same sound can be matched with various spellings. For instance, ‘a’ has
nine phonetic manifestations, ‘s’ has five, etc. (ibid: 37-38) and [i:] matches with eight
spelling representations, [a:] has nine representations, [tʃ] has four, and the list continues
(ibid: 44-45). The sounds and spelling discrepancies continue with silent letters (halfpenny,
knee, calm, …), homophones (see/sea, cue/queue, …) and heterophones, words with same
spelling but different pronunciations with different meanings (row/row, minute/minute,
tear/tear, …), and there are too many instances of these in the language.
It should be noted here that in French, there is a high level matching of one-to-one
sound spelling, though there are some few exceptions to the rule, including mischievous
accents, doubling of consonants and old French spellings33. The early French-speaking learner
of English approaches the L2 with this previous knowledge. However, though both English
and French use the 26-letter Latin alphabet, there are sound and spelling discrepancies. The
learners therefore need the necessary strategy to facilitate the learning of a language with a
similarity relationship of ‘contrast’34, that is, the learner perceives L2 form/pattern as

33
See Tocquet, R. (2001): Comment avoir une orthographe qui mène au succès, online, http://www.livres-
gratuits.com
34
Ringbom and Jarvis (2011) distinguish three types of cross-linguistic similarity relationships: ‘similarity’,
‘contrast’ and ‘zero relations’. The relationship is ‘similarity’ when “an item or pattern in the TL is perceived as
formally and/or functionally similar to a form in the L1 (or other previously learned language).” In the ‘contrast’
relationship, “the learner perceives a TL pattern as in important ways differing from an L1 form or pattern,
though there is also an underlying similarity between them.” Last, in a ‘zero relation’, “items and patterns in the

103
significantly different from L1 form/pattern (Ringbom & Jarvis, 2011). We have heard many
of our students stressing this as one of the major reasons why they cannot speak English, and
think of using English as a solely God-given ability.
It is a necessity to train these learners from early classes like Sixième to read and to do
phonetic transcriptions. So that they would spend seven years focusing on, amongst others,
the very important language component of pronunciation, and seven years of articulating new
words from their dictionary phonetic transcriptions, and not simply the non-native teacher’s
pronunciation. The seven-year benefit will help greatly in their spoken English development,
and the results may be astonishing. This activity should not be retarded till the university. The
learners will neither study nor discover all that they were supposed to have mastered in seven
years during the three years of undergraduate studies. And helping such “ESL35 learners work
to modify their pronunciation/speech patterns toward increased intelligibility is especially
challenging – for both student and teacher — for the patterns are likely to be well entrenched
and resistant to change” (Morley, 1991). She further quotes Wong (1986: pp. 232-233) who
warns that “the long-term effects of neglecting pronunciation are most dramatically
exemplified by the accountants, programmers, police officers, telephone operators, and
engineers enrolled in accent improvement and effective communication courses” in the
Chinese context for instance. In Cameroon, many government officials and high personalities
do enrol in linguistic centres as well. This warning clearly spells out the necessity of giving
pronunciation the place it rightly deserves.
The classroom teacher could even transcribe each difficult word systematically,
encouraging the learners, gradually, to check out in the dictionary. We insist on this because,
as we have seen, articulation is a prominent process and component of all oral skills, whether
receptive (listening) or productive (speaking, loud reading) or interactional. The necessity is
even more emphasised in a socio-economic context where immersion programmes have
become almost unthinkable.
A sixth reason for teaching the sounds of English and drawing the learner’s attention to
word pronunciation in the dictionary (as a reference) is that the English language has travelled
across the globe and the non-native speakers of English have developed varieties of English
and some of the varieties are claimed for identity. Here, we are reminded of Kachru’s three

TL at early stages of learning are seen to have little or no perceptible relation to the L1 or any other language the
learner knows”. They continue that a learner who perceives no real relation between the TL and L1 might
progressively take note of contrast relations, as their proficiency develops in the TL.
35
The author makes it clear in her paper that she uses ESL for both ‘English as a Second Language’ and ‘English
as a Foreign Language’.

104
concentric circles of English. The dictionary skills that involve pronunciation arm both the
teachers and, much more, the students with the necessary tools to reach out to the Received
Pronunciation (RP), also called Standard British English (BrE). Bobda & Mbangwana (2004:
pp. 192-214) study the American accent and the Cameroonian accents of English putting out
their major differences from RP in many regards: the sounds, the stress deviations, spelling-
influenced pronunciations, etc. They still demonstrate that English does not vary only
geographically across the globe, even within the same community, it can vary according to
social class, ethnic groups, gender, style, etc. at the level of phonology, the variations do not
only involve the sounds and stress, but other supra-segmental features, for instance intonation
and rhythm (Crystal, 2004: p. 168). Crystal continues to discuss the need for similarity in the
Englishes of the world, because they have increasingly grown dissimilar.
The pull imposed by the need for identity which has been making New Englishes
dissimilar from British English, could be balanced by a pull imposed by a need for
intelligibility, on a world scale, which will make them increasingly similar, through the
continued use of Standard English. (p. 178)
This should be the rationale behind the Cameroonian educational and administrative policies
of promoting Standard British English, and it is the role of pedagogy to implement the policy.
The teaching of English sounds is therefore, amongst others, a subtle but significant way of
preparing the learners to interact with the English speakers of the globe without much
difficulty, since they all and relatively have reference to RP. The curriculum wants the
learners to grow up to be citizens not only of the nation (Cameroon), but also of Africa and of
the world (MINESEC 2014a: p. 16), and intends to “prepare them for smooth insertion into a
more demanding job market worldwide, through a pertinent teaching/learning process”
(MINESEC 2014a: p. 3).
Pronunciation holds an unshakable place in oral communication, especially in the era of
globalisation. Joan Morley (1991) puts it this way:
Overall, with today’s renewed professional commitment to empowering students to
become effective, fully participating members of the English-speaking community in
which they communicate, it is clear that there is a persistent, if small, groundswell of
movement to write pronunciation back into the instructional equation but with a new look
and a basic premise: Intelligible pronunciation is an essential component of
communicative competence36.
Richards (2001: p. 28) confirms in turn that pronunciation is significant in talk as
performance. Morley (ibid) draws a parallel between speech production (comprising various

36
Her emphasis

105
micro aspects of pronunciation) and the overall speech performance. We shall simply
reproduce her illustration in the next table.

Table 11 : Parallel between two components of spoken English: speech production and
speech performance
SPOKEN ENGLISH
[A focus on specific elements of [A focus on general elements of oral
pronunciation37] communicability38]
Pronunciation: Microfocus Oral Communication: Macrofocus
* Clarity and precision in articulation of * Overall clarity of speech, both segmentals and
consonant and vowel sounds suprasegmentals

* Consonant combinations both within and * Voice quality effectiveness for discourse level
across word boundaries, elisions, assimilations communication

* Neutral vowel use, reductions, contractions, * Overall fluency and ongoing planning and
etc., structuring of speech, as it proceeds

* Syllable structure and linking words across * Speech intelligibility level


word boundaries, phrase groups, and pause
points

* Features of stress, rhythm, and intonation * General communicative command of grammar

* Feature of rate, volume, and vocal qualities * General communicative command of vocabulary
words/phrases
* Overall use of appropriate and expressive
nonverbal behaviours

The table is quite expressive. We could only add that, the more frequently sound, word and
phrase pronunciation is practised, the better the individual in oral performances in clarity,
accuracy, fluency and intelligibility.

3.2.4.1. Recordings and audio-visual materials, an asset

Both the 2012 and the 2014 curricula provide that the learners listen to recordings and audio-
visual materials – see for example MINESEC (2012: p. 73, p. 77, p. 80, pp. 83 – 84, p. 87, p.

37
A focus on the discrete features of voice and articulation
38
A focus on global patterns of spoken English

106
91, pp. 94-95, pp. 98-99, p. 102, p. 106) and MINESEC (2014b: p. 21, p. 25, p. 29, p. 33, p.
37), but in the field, these media are very absent, and the teachers must manage to wangle a
few. Though MINESEC (2014b) brings out very useful guidance in tackling the pedagogy of
the four skills in general and the oral skills in particular, curriculum implementation and
achievement of curriculum goals will be highly paralysed. Recordings and audio visual media
are quality tools for the oral presentation of the skills on the curriculum. When a learner has to
listen to health advice, to dialogues related to selling and buying goods, to TV and radio news
reports, to instructions on the phone, to departure and arrival announcements at the airport, to
passages with specific information on the environment, economic and professional life and all
this kind of stuff, and as they learn the notional and functional component, they must also
learn the language, audio and audio-visual media become of utmost importance.
Languages have tones, and one of the first benefits of the listening exercise is that the
language learner gets the tone of the language they are learning. This is true for both L1 and
L2 language learners. Even without understanding a set of national languages, a Cameroonian
who has had the chance to be exposed to them will use tone, among other features, to
distinguish Ewondo from Fulfulde, the Bamileke languages, etc. And this is the reason why
teachers should bring native speakers recordings into the classroom quite often. Once the
learners have picked the tone, fluency is fostered. And it is the benefit of immersion
programmes, where the L2 learner is exposed to L2 community and their daily use of
language. In the same light, the Francophone students are encouraged to befriend their
Anglophone fellows, to visit them in their homes and learn English from them. Though the
Received Pronunciation (RP) may be attacked here, the Francophone learners will be in some
kind of immersion. For Widdowson, “immersion […] would seem to be a kind of baptism
which mysteriously induces the gift of tongues” (1990: p. 14) but insists that “the success of
immersion by medium teaching is not complete. Students appear to acquire more in the way
of fluency than accuracy” (ibid: p. 15). Accuracy will be developed through the training of
learner’s conceptualisation, formulation, articulation and monitoring processes, to follow
Bygate’s (2011) nomenclature discussed earlier. But the issue is, how will the teachers get
these recordings?
One could readily answer that as the teachers listen to the radio, watch the different
national and international TV channels, as they browse on the internet, they could gather the
recordings. This is very possible, but it poses many problems. First, it is still a reality in
Cameroon today that not all the teachers are computer-literate, even amongst the younger
population. Those who fall in this category will find it difficult to do the exercise. Second,

107
there is no guarantee that the media files would be gathered and didacticised in time. Third,
even if the media could be made ready for instruction in time, the discrepancy between the
schools will be considerable: not only will there be any uniformity in the training of the
students, but also there will be no basis on which to evaluate them at the official examination
because of that lack of uniformity. Fourth, it may be very costly for these teachers to engage
in the business of gathering audio-visual materials for teaching, at the individual level, even at
the level of the department, there is need at this level for a budget line. Lastly, we want to put
forward that the design of such materials as audio and audio-visual materials strongly need to
espouse the tenets of the educational policy in the country. And not every teacher will take
time to go through these ethical, socio-political and economic restrictions before using a self-
designed material in the classroom. As a major part of a curriculum, material design will also
“involve consideration of the whole complex of philosophical, social and administrative
factors which contribute to the planning of an educational programme” (Allen, 1984). The
curriculum ideologies39 must be reflected through the choice and use of materials. It is not
fully in the teacher’s role to design such materials for their teaching, but to select, organise
and use them to teach.
The design of audio, visual and audio-visual materials should be left to materials
designers who must, in turn, use these media to support the textbooks produced to accompany
the teaching/learning process (Nforbi & Siéwoué, 2016b) for a discussion of the needed
course book to support CBA-RLS in English as a foreign language). It is the government’s
duty to instruct the commercial textbook designers to complement their textbooks with audio,
visual and audio-visual materials and provide the curricular restrictions to this effect. It is
rather sad to know that though such examples as the materials used for IELTS and TOEFL
exams preparation are well known, the State has not promoted them. Quality education
demands the use of the media nowadays. Textbook designers could be asked to give these
media a prominent place in their products, so that a grammar or vocabulary or writing lesson
can make use of them, at different stages of the lessons. The media should be burnt on DVDs
or CDs and appended to the textbook, so that each student will have a copy. This is where the
multimedia centres in schools become useful for language teaching. They have been mistaken
for simple computer rooms – for computer studies – for long in our schools. Another
advantage would be that, even at home, the learners will be able to replay the media and train
their oral skills. The use of audio and audio-visual materials is an aspect of language teaching

39
For more on curriculum ideologies, see Richards, J. C. (2001): Curriculum Development in Language
Teaching, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 124 - 141

108
that is conspicuously absent in Cameroonian schools. There is need for quality materials, and
commercial textbook designers must be put to the task.
Again, the argument will be raised against this point of view, that it is costly to
produce such materials, that their prices will be raised and not every Cameroonian parent will
afford a copy for their children, and if other manuals are to be designed likewise, would
parents be able afford them? Our answer would be that it may be difficult, but it is not
impossible. The materials can be subsidised by various fundings. It simply takes a
governmental will, as the government targets emergence by 2035. We have already seen that
most social problems find their solution in the educational sector of the nation (Nforbi,
2012a). This is where subsidies are extremely meaningful. Where there is a will, there is a
way.

3.3. Implementation of the competency based approach at the secondary


level
3.3.1. Sample scheme of work

109
LEVEL I: SIXIÈME
MODULE N° 1: FAMILY AND SOCIAL LIFE
USING LANGUAGE TO ASSERT ONESELF AS A RESPONSIBLE MEMBER OF THE NUCLEAR FAMILY, THE EXTENDED FAMILY AND
THE SCHOOL COMMUNITY
Expected outcomes
Contextual Framework
Essential Knowledge
Sq
Categories Attitudes Assessment Project Resources
Week Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of Actions
SITUATION 01: FIRST DAY IN SCHOOL
- Greet friends,
make
introductions - Personal - Human
and take a pronouns resources
leave (s + o) - Directing peer to Peers,
- Listen to - The - Letters of spell words teacher,
presentations simple the correctly, (groups - Materials
- Speaking Learners fill an
to identify present alphabet - Courtesy of 5). Manual,
1 - Listening - /ʃ/ and /ʧ/ application form
basic details tense (-s) - Members - Sociability - Completing dictionary,
2 - Reading - “-er” as /ə/ for school ID
about - Questions of a - Responsibility sentences with pictures
1 - writing card
family/school with nuclear introduction - Method
- Read sample “what is family words and verb - Learner-
school ID …”, forms (4 marks) centred
cards where, - Learner to
- Extract basic when learner
information
from passage
- Ask for, - Present - The school - Sociability: - Learners - Learners provide - Human
- /ɛ/ in toilets,
Speaking obtain and simple (- campus knowing one’s ask/answer information on resources
3 beds, desk,
Listening give es, neg - School social and simple questions their school to a Peers,
pen, head
information and inter authorities physical on their school, in visitor teacher,

- 110 -
about the forms) environment correct - Materials
school grammatical Manual,
sentences. (4 dictionary,
marks) pictures
- Method
- Learner-
centred
- Learner to
learner
SITUATION 02: EXPLORING SCHOOL SUBJECTS
- Human
resources
Peers,
- Ask and teacher,
- Questions
obtain - In groups of five, - Materials
with how - School - Learners
information learners record Manual,
many…? subjects produce a list of
4 Speaking about - /ɪ/ the teachers in dictionary,
- a/an and - Numbers school needs per
teachers, school per subject pictures
plural (0-100) subject
subjects, taught. (4 marks) - Method
form
school needs, - Learner-
centred
- Learner to
learner
- SITUATION 03: DISCOVERING EXTENDED FAMILY MEMBERS
- describe their - Human
- Questions - Learners
relationship resources
with ‘do, produce their
with relatives - Learners answer Peers,
does’ - The - /n/ and /ŋ/ own family tree
- ask and MCQ items on teacher,
5 Speaking - This is, extended (grant & - Sociability (brothers, sisters,
answer essential - Materials
these are; family frank) father, mother,
question knowledge Manual,
that is, uncles and
about family dictionary,
those are aunts)
- introduce pictures

- 111 -
family - Method
members - Learner-
centred
- Learner to
learner
6 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in socialising at home and in school
MODULE 2: ECONOMIC LIFE AND OCCUPATIONS
USING LANGUAGE TO MAKE INFORMED CHOICES ON CONSUMPTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES AND EXPLORE JOBS AND
PROFESSIONS
Expected outcomes
Contextual Framework
Essential Knowledge
Sq Resourc
Categories Attitudes Assessment Project
Week
of Actions
Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech es
SITUATION 01: SHOPPING FOR CLOTHES
- Read the - Learners
names of - Types of bring
clothing clothes - Pronounce - Honesty, personal - Human
- Learners name
- Say a poem - Adjectives the clothes and resource
- Reading - Respect ( for various types of
7 on clothes - long/short, vocabulary classify s
- Speaking items with
others’ likes clothes and
- Express big/small, them Peers,
precision and dislikes) colours.
likes and dull/bright, according to teacher,
dislikes etc. gender, - Material
2 - collectively s
- Revising Clothing
- Read the /n/ and /ŋ/ items,
- Using adjectives
size and - ‘the’ vs. ‘a/an’ (thin & dictionar
to describe four
price of - Order of thing, y
- Reading - Adjectives of clothes items in
8 items in a adjectives pink) - - - Method
- Speaking colour four correct
shop (opinion, size, - Articulatin Learner-
sentences (4
- Describing colour) g final –t, centred
marks)
clothes -d and –s
correctly

- 112 -
SITUATION 02: SHOPPING FOR GROCERIES
- Human
resource
s
Peers,
teacher,
- Read a very - Material
- MCQ items on
simple - Numbers from - Articulatin - Learners s
- Groceries Numbers,
9 - Speaking illustrated 100 to 15,000 g final –t, dramatize a pictorials
(meat, fruits, - Honesty groceries and
10 - Reading buying and - May/can for -d and –s bargain at a ,
crops) polite requests (4
selling polite requests correctly grocer’s dictionar
marks)
stories y,
manual
- Method
- Learner
-
centred
SITUATION 03: EXPLORING JOBS
- Read names
of jobs - Jobs, - Listening
- “-or” as - Collaboration
- Reading - Listen to a - Have/s got for workers, comprehension
11 /ə/ , - ibid
- Listening dialogue on possession workplaces with MCQ items
- /ɒ/ and /ɔ:/ - confidence
various and tools (4 marks)
workplaces
12 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in choosing goods and services, and exploring jobs and occupations
MODULE 3: ENVIRONMENT, WELL-BEING AND HEALTH
USING LANGUAGE TO ATTEND TO BASIC HEALTH AND SAFETY NEEDS, EXPLORE TIMES AND SEASONS AND HAVE A
RESPONSIBLE FEEDING HABIT
Expected outcomes
Contextual Framework
Essential Knowledge
Sq Resourc
Categories Attitudes Assessment Project
Week Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech es
of Actions

- 113 -
SITUATION 01: AT THE PHYSICIAN’S
- Look at a
- Human
picture
- Learners resource
(hospital) s
design an
and discuss - The passive - Learners Peers,
- Diseases advert
- Practice a voice (is caused prepare for teacher,
(germs, about a
dialogue on by …, is the Biology
7 - Speaking symptoms, - Cleanliness health issue
the manifested by - ‘-ch’ as /ʧ/ or dialogue in teacher
8 - Reading prevention - Alertness in
prevention …) /k/ groups of - Material
9 - Writing and cure) - Responsibility Kouhouat s
of cholera - The imperative five and
- Parts of the (with Pictorials,
- Read a - “and’ and present it.
body drawings dictionary
dialogue ‘because’ (4 marks)
and - Method
between a
colouring) Learner-
3 patient and a
centred
physician
SITUATION 02: READING THE CLOCK AND DAILY SCHEDULES
- Human
- The past simple resources
- Read the - Days and Peers,
tense (regular - Learners
time on a months teacher,
verbs) articulate -
- Speaking clock / - Seasons of - Materials
10 - Sequence ed correctly Clock,
- Reading watch the year - “-ed” as /ɪd/ - Responsibility - ///
11 markers - They read dictionary
- Writing - Say a poem - Adjectives
- Adjectives and write , manual.
on daily to describe
(before, during, time - Method
schedules seasons
after, then, while Learner-
centred
12 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in discussing health and well-being related issues
Module 4: Citizenship and Human rights
USING LANGUAGE TO FULFIL THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF A CHILD AND BASIC CIVIC DUTIES
Expected outcome
Sq Contextual framework
Essential Knowledge Attitudes Assessment Project Resourc

- 114 -
Week
Categories
Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech es
of actions
SITUATION 01: FINDING OUT ABOUT A CHILDS RIGHTS AND DUTIES
- Read
sentences and - Learners
- ‘-ure’ as /ə/ - Human
match them evaluate
(pleasure, resources
with pictures statements - Discuss Peers,
measure,
- Listen/Read a and decide pictures of teacher,
- Synonyms picture, - Respect for
simple whether they children civics
- Reading - Expressions leisure, elders/others
13 dialogue on - ‘Must’ and are right or captured on teacher
- Speaking on the rights - /ʌ/ (us, must, - Obedience
4 14 children’s ‘must not’ wrong, from a tour with - Materials
- Listening and duties of conflicts, but, - Accountability Clock,
rights and the regards to
a child country, - Responsibility dictionary
duties perspective of rights and
much, adult, , manual.
- Say rights and duties
study, - Method
children’s duties. (4
club…) Learner-
rights and marks) centred
duties
SITUATION 02: FINDING OUT ABOUT COUNTRIES, EMBLEMS AND MOTTOS
- Reading - Read short - Expressing - Nations, /θ/and /ð/ - Patriotism - Learners build - Learners - Human

- 115 -
- Speaking simple purpose with ‘so nationalities - Responsibility ten noun copy the resource
- Writing passages with that’ and phrases with national s
pictures and languages the adjective anthem in teacher,
nations’ ‘national’ (5 English, - Material
emblems marks) without any s
- Sing the mistake. Pictures
National of flags,
15
Anthem Map of
16
- Write the Africa
National dictionar
Anthem y,
manual.
- Method
- Learner
-centred
SITUATION 03: THE NATIONAL DAY IN CAMEROON
- Human
- Learners resources
- Say the roles - Produce a
complete teacher,
of various - Words report of
sentences - Materials
- Listening actors on - Future with related to the - /ei/ (nation, the last 20th
- Patriotism with grammar Pictures
17 - Speaking National Day ‘will’ or ‘going National Day take, day, May dictionary
- Responsibility and
- Reading - Read simple to’ in Cameroon spectators) celebration , manual.
vocabulary
passage for - Antonyms in - Method
items (5
information Bangourain - Learner-
marks)
centred
18 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in discussing citizenship and children’s rights
Module 5: Media and communication
USING LANGUAGE TO EXPLORE AUDIO-VISUAL AND PRINT MEDIA AND KEEP ABREAST OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY
Expected outcome
Contextual framework
Essential knowledge
Sq
Categories Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of actions

- 116 -
SITUATION 01: FINDING OUT ABOUT/LOCAL NEWS/BREAKING NEWS/CURRENT ISSUES
- Listens to a - Human
local news resources
cast teacher,
- Discuss - Materials
- Words and - Reads an
various - Revising the Pictures
expressions informative
- Listening media (price, present, past and dictionary,
19 related to text in
- Speaking functions and future simple - /ʌ/ and /ɜ:/ - Curiosity - /// - Method
20 audio visual newspaper
- Writing limitations) - Adverbs of - Learner-
and print and answer
- Write simple manner (-ly) centred
media questions
meaningful
sentences
with given
5 terms
SITUATION 02: MAKING AND RECEIVING PHONE CALLS, SMS,
- Human
resources
- Prepare to
Teacher,
- Listen to - Learners use act phone
- Parts of a peers
simple phone homophones conversatio
phone - Materials
conversations correctly ns, asking
- Listening - Revising - Words - Homopho - Responsibility Pictures,
21 - Role play In four and
- speaking questions related to the nes - Creativity manual,
22 phone sentences providing
use of a dictionary,
conversation They reply to information
mobile phone Cell phone
- Write an sms an sms on latest
- Method
local news
- Learner-
centred
5 SITUATION 03: USING THE COMPUTER, SENDING AND RECEIVING EMAILS

- 117 -
- Human
resources
- parts of a
Read an teacher,
computer
email and the - Learners read - Materials
Question tags - types of - Responsibility
READING reply an email and Pictures,
23 -24 (with be, have computer /əu/ , /ei/ - Creativity ///
writing Write a short extract manual,
and do) - words related
email to a information dictionary,
to the use of
friend - Method
a computer
Learner-
centred
- Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in choosing the most convenient communication means and communicating
25
effectively
GENERAL REVISION
END OF YEAR

- 118 -
LEVEL II: CINQUIÈME
Module N° 1: Family and Social Life
USING LANGUAGE TO CREATE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP AND TO TALK ABOUT THE HOME/ HABITS AND
ROUTINES/HOME
FURNISHING
Expected outcomes
Contextual Framework
Essential Knowledge
Sq
Categories Attitudes Assessment Project Resources
Week Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of Actions
SITUATION 01: MEETING PEOPLE – MAKING FRIEND
- Human
resources
Peers,
- Learners are teachers,
- Read a dialogue where
given phrases to - Materials
people meet. - Revising the Inter-
1 Reading - /ɒ/ and - Politeness fill in a dialogue
- Meeting people and past simple personal - /// Manual,
2 Speaking /au/ - Sociability where people
introducing oneself tense relationships pictures,
meet and make
friends dictionary
- Method
- Learner-
1
centred
SITUATION 02: PERFORMING HOUSEHOLD CHORES
- Describe pictures of - Complete a - Human
people doing house dialogue with resources
- Present
chores - Words - /ʌ/ and phrasal verbs - Learners list Peers,
progressive
- Listening - Interact orally on the related to /ɜ:/ - Extract words their home teacher,
3 - Phrasal
- Reading reasons for house home - Practise - Responsibility from puzzle distribution siblings
4 verbs
chores habits / word - Say what a of house - Materials
- Adverbs of
- Discuss the furniture stress person is chores Manual,
frequency
consequences of poor acting (house pictures,
environment habits chores) dictionary

- 119 -
- Method
Learner-
centred
SITUATION 03: PARTICIPATING IN THE CLEANLINESS OF THE DIFFERENT ROOMS/FURNITURE IN THE HOUSE
- Human
resources
Peers,
- Talk about furniture - Draw a
- Learners teacher,
- Read a description of - Home - /θ/ and picture of a
- Prepositions describe siblings
- Speaking a house furniture /ð/ - Responsibilit room in their
5 - Revise the position of - Materials
- Reading - Describe pieces of (position - Practise y, house and
past simple objects using Manual,
- Writing furniture and word - orderliness write four
tense the right pictures,
- Write short function) stress sentences to
prepositions dictionary
descriptions describe it.
- Method
Learner-
centred
6 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in discussing home chores and routines
Module N° 2: Economic Life and Occupations
USING LANGUAGE TO DISCUSS MORE ON DIFFERENT JOBS AND PROFESSIONS
Expected outcome
Contextual framework
Essential knowledge
Sq
Categories of Attitudes Assessment Project Resources
Week Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
action
SITUATION 01: FINDING OUT ABOUT COMMON TASKS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT JOBS
- Human
resources
- Describe pictures and - Managing - In groups of
Peers,
Speaking derive jobs - More jobs sound / - Conscientiou five, learners
2 7 teacher,
writing - Write short sentences - Conjunctions related spelling sness - draw lists of
8 siblings
associating jobs to words discrepa all the jobs in
- Materials
tasks ncies their village
Manual,
pictures,

- 120 -
dictionary,
some tools
- Method
Learner-
centred
SITUATION 02: EXPLORING JOB AVAILABILITY AND DEMANDS
- Human
resources
- Reads messages from - Complete
Peers,
friends and contacts to dialogues with
- In groups of teacher,
be informed of job job related
- The first five, learners siblings
opportunities vocabulary
conditional - The process - “-s” as - Cooperation find out - Materials
9 - Reading - Extract useful - Divide words
- The present of looking /s/, /s/ or - Concern for about Manual,
10 - writing information from job into three
perfect for a job /ʒ/ others demands of pictures,
advertisements groups
tense jobs in their dictionary,
- Write to inform friend according to
locality some tools
on job opportunity the realisation
- Method
of “-s”
- Learner-
centred
SITUATION 03: USING MONEY AND MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES
- Human
resources
- Say whether Peers,
- Read a short passage - Practise - In groups of
sentences on teacher,
on laws of money - Words word - Conscientiou five, learners
money siblings
- Reading management - The related to stress sness reasonably
management - Materials
11 - Writing - Write a budget for the imperative money - Sound / - Team budget the
are true or Manual,
- speaking money earned during form managemen spelling building money
false. Correct pictures,
holidays t, budgeting discrepa - collaboration earned during
the wrong dictionary,
- Saying tongue twisters ncies the holiday
statements some tools
- Method
- Learner-

- 121 -
centred
- Cooperati
ve
learning
12 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in discussing jobs and occupations
Module 03: Environment, well-being and health
USING LANGUAGE TO CREATE ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS AND TO EXPLORE INTERESTS AND HOBBIES IN RELATION TO
HEALTH
Expected outcome
Contextual framework
Essential Knowledge
Sq
Categories Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of actions
SITUATION 01: KEEPING THE HOME, SCHOOL AND IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT CLEAN
- Read simple
- Human
illustrated - Complete
resources
environmental simple
- Learners Peers,
awareness and sentences with
write short teacher
hobbies in relation to - Intensifiers - Contrast words and
sentences on - Materials
health stories : too, very, - Words and the short expressions on
environmental Manual,
- Reading - Describe an so expressions and long - Responsibility the essentials
13 awareness in pictures,
3 - Speaking environment’s degree - First related to vowels - Cleanliness of
14 good English dictionary,
- Writing of cleanliness conditional the /ɪ/ and - Consciousness environmental
and post all some tools
- Give basic hygienic (cause and environment /i:/, /ʊ/ awareness and
over the - Method
and sanitation advice effect) and /u:/ hobbies in
school - Learner-
- Complete sentences relation to
campus centred
on environmental health
- Cooperative
awareness
learning
SITUATION 02: DISCUSSING RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
- Speaking - Discuss what students - Some, any - Contrast - Consciousness - Learners - Learners - Human
15
- Listening do when they are free and no. - Hobbies monoph- complete produce an resources
16 - Respect
- Writing - Asks for , obtains, and - Modals: thongs sentences with expository Peers,

- 122 -
gives information must, may, and grammar, passage on teacher,
about hobbies in can. diphthon vocabulary hobbies in villagers
relation to health - Revising gs items their locality, - Materials
- Listen to conversation the in groups of Manual,
on hobbies and give expressions five. The pictures,
their point of view of cause and class will dictionary,
- Write short passage on effect vote for the Method
hobbies best - Learner-
presentation centred
- Cooperati
ve
learning
SITUATION 03: PRACTISING AN ACTIVITY
- Human
resources
Peers,
teacher,
- Project will - Learners villagers
- Future with - Words and - Homo-
count for describe the - Materials
- Speaking - Discuss how to start a ‘going to’ expressions nyms and - Creativity
17 assessment. farming Manual,
- Writing school garden - Relative related to homo- - Innovation
Accuracy is to process for dictionary,
pronouns gardening phones
be rewarded. corn farming
tools
Method
- Learner-
centred
18 Testing learners’ ability to use the four language skills in creating environmental awareness and discussing health and hobbies
Module 04: Citizenship / Human rights
USING LANGUAGE TO EXPLORE CITIZENS OF THE NATION AND OF THE WORLD
Expected outcome
CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK
Sq Essential knowledge
Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week Categories of Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech

- 123 -
actions
SITUATION 01: FINDING OUT ABOUT CUSTOMS AND CULTURAL PRACTICES
- Human
resources
Peers,
teacher,
- Read a passage on the
- Learners parents,
Ngondo Festival for - Adjectives
write an villagers
information (in ‘al’, ‘ic’, - Words and - Practisin - Sociability - Reading
- Reading illustrated - Materials
- Listen to informative ‘ful’) and expressions g word comprehension
19 - Listening - Tolerance passage on Manual,
text on the Nguon adverbs related to stress in (a passage on a
20 - Writing - Ethno- their local pictures,
Festival (manner, customs and connecte national
- Speaking relativism cultural dictionary,
- Write a friendly letter degree, and culture d speech culture)
enumeration)
events, in recordings
to a pen pal
groups of ten Method
- Learner-
centred
- Cooperative
4 learning
SITUATION 02: IDENTIFYING PEOPLE OF OTHER NATIONALITIES
- Human
resources
Peers,
- Learners
- Read maps - Nations, teacher,
- Reading complete a
- Read a passage and - Expressing nationalities, - Materials
21 - Speaking, - /// - Sociability table with - ///
make sentences on obligation Languages Manual,
writing nationalities
nationals and leaders dictionary
and languages
Method
- Learner-
centred
SITUATION 03: FINDING OUT ABOUT FAMOUS AFRICAN LEADERS
- Speaking - Discuss famous - Word order - Expressions - Practisin - Learners find - Same as - Human
22 - ///
- Reading African leaders’ in sentences with the g word one not-well- assessment resources

- 124 -
photographs, verb ‘win’ stress in known African Peers,
nationalities and - Adjectives connecte leaders each teacher,
prowess to describe d speech and write short - Materials
- Read short passages leaders paragraphs on Manual,
on three African them dictionary,
leaders for newspaper
information s
Method
- Learner-
centred
Module 05: Media and Communication
USING LANGUAGE TO KEEP ABREAST MODERN TECHNOLOGY
Expected outcome
CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK
Essential knowledge
Sq.
Categories Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of actions
SITUATION 01: EXPLORING GADGETS AND APPLIANCES
- Human
- Matching picture to resources
names of gadgets and Peers,
- Phrasal
appliances teacher,
verbs with
- Express preferences, - Materials
‘turn’ and - Revision - Responsibilit - Fills in
23 - Speaking likes and dislikes. - Gadgets and Manual,
‘switch’ : /ʌ/ and y sentences with - ///
24 - Reading - Practise dialogues appliances dictionary,
- Revising /ɜ:/ - Creativity phrasal verbs
5 (exchanging electronic
the present
information) on gadgets
perfect
gadgets Method
- Learner-
centred
SITUATION 01: PRACTISING POLITENESS OVER THE PHONE
- Speaking - Describe parts of a Using Words and - /n/ and - Moderation - Complete - Human
25 - ///
- Listening mobile phone gerunds expressions /ŋ/ - Politeness paragraph with resources

- 125 -
- Writing - Practise dialogue over related to words related Peers,
the phone phone to phone teacher,
- Listen to a phone communicat communicatio - Materials
conversation and copy ion n Manual,
traditional expressions dictionary,
cell phone
Method
- Learner-
centred
GENERAL REVISION
END OF YEAR

- 126 -
LEVEL III: QUATRIÈME
Module N° 1: Family and Social Life
USING LANGUAGE TO TALK ABOUT SOCIAL INTEGRATION (TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS OF CAMEROON) AND CONFLICT
RESOLUTION
Expected outcomes
Contextual Framework
Essential Knowledge
Sq
Categories Attitudes Assessment Project Resources
Week Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of Actions
SITUATION 01: SOCIALISING WITH FRIENDS AND NEIGHBOURS AND CELEBRATING BIRTHDAYS
- Describe their usual
activities from pictures
- Listen/read a dialogue
- Human
on what youngsters do
resources
with friends
Peers, teachers,
- Speaking - Listen to a passage on Words and
- Reciprocal - Diphthon - Sociability - Learners - Organise a - Materials
Listening friendship for expressions
1 pronouns gs /eɪ/, - Politeness identify classmate’ Manual,
- Writing information related to
2 - Relative /a/, /iə/ - Collaboratio pictures and s birthday pictures,
- Reading - Write a paragraph on birthdays, and
pronouns and /aɪ/ n activities party dictionary
- how they met their socialising.
1 - Method
latest friend
- Learner-
- Read a newspaper
centred
article on birthdays
- Sing the song ‘Happy
birthday’
SITUATION 02:PARTICIPATING IN TRADITIONAL AND CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS
- Look at pictures and - words and Listen to - Illustrate - Human
- Speaking - Passive - /əu/ and
guess the traditional / expressions - Sociability an local and resources
3 - Reading voice more on
cultural event. related - Politeness interview backgroun Peers, teacher,
4 - Writing - revising the diphtho
- Read an article on traditional / - Tolerance and d culture villagers
- Listening past tense ngs
cultural practices in the cultural answer in a tree - Materials

- 127 -
world and give personal practices multiple diagram Manual,
judgement. choice pictures,
- Fill an information sheet questions dictionary
on cultural background - Method
Learner-
centred
SITUATION 03:PARTICIPATING IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION EFFORTS
- Human
resources
- Apologising and - In groups
Peers, teacher,
responding - Words and of five,
- Materials
- Speaking - Look at pictures and expressions - Complete learners
Manual,
5 - Reading suggest conflictual - The past related to - /s/ and - Politeness sentences produce 2
pictures,
- Writing situations and solutions perfect conflict and /z/ - Tolerance with studied minute
dictionary
- Listening - Read an illustrated resolution words sketches
- Method
conversation on efforts on conflict
Learner-
conflict resolution resolution
centred
Cooperative
6 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in discussing social integration in Cameroon
Module N° 2: Economic Life and Occupations
USING LANGUAGE TO TALK ABOUT THE FUTURE OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL LIFE WHILE MANAGING LEISURE
Expected outcome
Contextual framework
Essential knowledge
Sq
Wee Categories Attitudes Assessment Project Resources
Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
k of action
SITUATION 01: PREPARING FOR A SHORT, SIMPLE JOB INTERVIEW
- Look at pictures and - Past simple - Read texts - Human
- Words and
- Speaking discuss tasks related to passive - /m/ and - Confidence silently and resources
expressions
2 7 - Listening future jobs - Phrasal /n/ in - Patience match them Peers, teacher
related to job - ///
8 - Reading - Listen to presentations verbs with coda - Politeness with - Materials
search and
- Writing to identify basic details ‘look’ and position - respect pictures on Manual,
interview.
about job interviews ‘give’ job pictures,

- 128 -
- Read a job descriptions dictionary
advertisement and - Method
identify qualified Learner-
candidates centred
- Fill in a simple online
application form
SITUATION 02: DISCUSSING JOBS
- Human
resources
- Identify pictures with
- Modals Peers, teacher,
jobs
(should, - Learners villagers
- Identify tools with jobs - Words related - Learners
must, can, - /əʊ/, /aʊ/ debate on - Materials
- Speaking - Read simple text on to jobs and read a job
9 have to, be and /ə/ - Respect working Manual,
- Listening working environment + related tasks advertiseme
10 allowed to) - Silent - Confidence accidents pictures,
- Reading discussion - Antonyms nt and
- Present letters in the dictionary,
- Listen to a passage on with ‘un-’ respond to it
progressive village. some tools
accidents in the work
passive - Method
place for information
Learner-
centred
SITUATION 02: DISCUSSING RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
- Human
resources
- Learners
Peers, teacher,
- Express opinions, - Making record all
- Collocations - Listen to a other students
intentions, likes and suggestions the leisure
- Speaking - Words and talk on - Materials
dislikes about job with activities
- Reading expressions - /ʤ/ and - Flexibility leisure Manual,
11 entertainment ‘let’s…’, they carry
- Listening related to /g/ - Friendliness activities pictures,
- Read an email on ‘what if …’ out in
- Writing recreational for dictionary,
leisure activities and - Adverbs of school and
activities information - Method
respond to it. frequency out of
Learner-
school.
centred
- Cooperative

- 129 -
learning
12 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in discussing jobs and occupations
Module 03: Environment, well-being and health
USING LANGUAGE TO TALK ABOUT PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE FIGHT AGAINST ENDEMIC AND PANDEMIC
DISEASES
Expected outcome
Contextual framework
Essential Knowledge
Categories Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of actions
SITUATION 01: RECYCLING USED ITEMS
- Human
- Grouped
- Look at pictures and resources
according
discuss question Peers, teacher,
to their
- Listen to a short simple - Read an villagers,
quarters,
text on the protection of illustrated - Materials
- Words and learners
the environment. - Practise newspaper Manual,
- Speaking - Exclamatio expressions - Responsibili keep a
- Exchange information intona- article on pictures,
13 - Listening ns with related to the -ty diary of
3 on recycling and tion in some dictionary,
14 - Reading what …!, protection of - Cleanliness environme
reusing plastic waste. exclama- recycling some tools,
- Writing how …! the - Innovation nt
- Read and recite a poem tion facts and newspaper
environment unfriendly
on water. answer - Method
attitudes
- Write short messages questions - Learner-
and
on the protection of the centred
propose
environment - Cooperative
solutions
learning
SITUATION 02: PROTECTING ENDANGERED SPECIES OF ANIMALS
- Read and discuss short - The - Write a - Human
- ‘en-’ and ‘de-’
messages on nature comparative - Consciousn short story resources
- Reading in words - Practise - MCQ on
15 protection degree of ess about a Peers, teacher,
- Speaking related to word essential
16 - Read a dialogue adjectives - Responsibili meeting villagers
- Writing animal stress knowledge.
between a park guide - The ty with a - Materials
protection
and a visitor, on animal superlative strange Manual,

- 130 -
protection degree of talking pictures,
adjectives animal dictionary,
talking Method
about the - Learner-
threats to centred
its life - Cooperative
- learning
SITUATION 03: FIGHTING AGAINST ENDEMIC AND PANDEMIC DISEASES
- Human
- Practise
resources
- Exchange information articulati
- Words and Peers, teacher,
on causes, symptoms, on of - Conscious- - Complete
expressions villagers
prevention and final ness paragraph
- Speaking related to - Materials
treatment of an endemic - The noun consonant - Responsibili with studied
17 - Reading endemic, - /// Manual,
disease: malaria phrase - /aɪ/ as in -ty malaria
- Writing epidemic and dictionary,
- Read an illustrated text bite, - Alertness related
pandemic farming tools
on the prevention and high, - Cleanliness words
diseases Method
eradication of malaria insectici
- Learner-
de, try…
centred
18 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in discussing the fight against epidemic, endemic and pandemic diseases
Module 04: Citizenship / Human rights
USING LANGUAGE TO TALK ABOUT GENDER ISSUES AND MUTUAL ACCEPTANCE
Expected outcome
CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK
Essential knowledge
Sq
Categories of Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
actions
SITUATION 01: BEING A VICTIM OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION / HARASSMENT
- Read case studies of - Words and - Practise - Acceptability - Write ten - Grouped - Human
- Reading - Possessive
discrimination and expressions stressed - Self-esteem slogans on by resources
19 - Listening adjectives
4 identify gender abuse related to syllables quarters, Peers, teacher,
20 - Speaking - Adverbs of - Respect for gender
- Read slogans on gender gender - Practise learners parents,
- Writing degree others equity
equity and respond to discriminations diphthongs identify villagers

- 131 -
them gender - Materials
- Listen and respond to a discrimina Manual,
friend’s letter on gender tion pictures,
discrimination (private instances dictionary,
letter) in the Method
locality - Learner-
centred
- Cooperative
learning
SITUATION 02: EXPLORING PROBLEMS OF GENDER AND VIOLENCE
- Human
resources
- Reading - Words and - Acceptabilit
Peers, teacher,
- Adverbs of expressions y - Complete a
- Listening - Read slogans on gender - Materials
21 frequency related to - ‘c’ as /k/, - Self-esteem paragraph
violence and respond to - /// Manual,
22 - Speaking - Universal gender /s/ or /ʃ/ - Respect for with words
them dictionary
pronouns violence and others learnt.
Method
- Writing empowerment - tolerance
- Learner-
centred
SITUATION 03: VOLUNTEERING IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION ISSUES
- Listen and respond to - Human
some stories about resources
peace builders - Read the Peers, teacher,
- Exchange information UN charter senior
- Words and
- Listening on settlement of dispute - Respect for silently and discipline
expressions
- Speaking in their locality - Possessive others answer master,
23 related to - /// - ///
- Reading - Read and respond to pronouns - Tolerance questions discipline
conflict
- Writing conflictual situations - Dignity - MCQ on master
resolution
- Read an excerpt of the essential - Materials
UN charter, on “Pacific knowledge Manual,
settlement of dispute” dictionary,
for information newspapers

- 132 -
Method
- Learner-
centred
24 Testing the learner’s ability to use language in solving conflicts and gender inequity
Module 05: Media and Communication
USING LANGUAGE TO EXPLORE THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES
Expected outcome
CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK
Essential knowledge
Sq.
Categories Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of actions
SITUATION 01: EXPLORING GADGETS AND APPLIANCES
- Human
resources
- Ask, obtain and give - Bring Peers, teacher,
information about statistics - Materials
- Past tense
modern technology of phones Manual,
of regular - Words and - Resourceful - Read
- Speaking - Express preference, at home dictionary,
verbs expressions ness passages
25 - Reading likes and dislikes about - ‘-ed’ as and newspapers,
- Revising related to - Critical silently and
26 - Listening ICT gadgets /ɪd/ identify ICT gadgets
adjectives gadgets and thinking define key
- Writing - Listen to an informative the various and appliances
in appliances - consciousness concepts
text and establish apps and Method
5 comparison
differences between aptitudes - Learner-
types of phones therein centred
- Cooperative
learning
SITUATION 02: EXPLORING MODERN ICT INVENTIONS
- Read a poem on ICT Revision: - Resourceful - Record the - Human
- Speaking inventions - Present - More words - Articulat ness - Listen to a ICT resources
27 - Reading - Read a conversation on perfect and and ing ICT - Critical passage and innovation Peers, teacher,
28 - Listening how ICT innovations past simple expressions terms thinking answer s in their - Materials
- Writing affect lives - Passive related to ICT correctly - Attentivene MCQ’s locality Manual,
- Write a short dialogue voice ss last year. dictionary,

- 133 -
on how ICT newspapers,
innovations have ICT gadgets
affected lives in their and appliances
locality Method
- Writing and email - Learner-
centred
- Cooperative
learning
SITUATION 03: WORRYING ABOUT ICT LITERACY
- Human
resources
Peers, teacher,
- Listen to a
- Materials
- Discuss functions of passage and
- Resourceful Manual,
various ICT gadgets - Modals for - Syllable answer
- Speaking - Words and ness dictionary,
- Listen to a conversation polite count MCQ’s
- Listening expressions - Critical newspapers,
29 and answer questions requests - General - Filling in - ///
- Reading related to ICT thinking ICT gadgets
- Read a passage on ICT - Conditional stress gaps in a
- Writing literacy - consciousne and appliances
literacy and complete s (1 & 2) rules paragraph
ss Method
summary with studied
- Learner-
words
centred
- Cooperative
learning
30 Testing the learners’ ability to use language in the NICT’s
GENERAL REVISION
END OF YEAR

- 134 -
LEVEL IV: TROISIÈME
Module N° 1: Family and Social Life
USING LANGUAGE TO TALK ABOUT NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND DIVERSITY ACCEPTANCE
Expected outcomes
Contextual Framework
Essential Knowledge
Sq
Categories Attitudes Assessment Project Resources
Week Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of Actions
SITUATION 01: INTERACTING WITH PEERS FROM OTHER TRIBES/CULTURES IN CAMEROON
- Human
resources
- Interpret national Peers,
diversity from map of teachers,
Cameroon - Words and - Materials
- Present - Write a brief - Learners
- Listen to a debate on expressions Manual,
- Speaking simple and related to - Tolerance personal prepare an
national diversity and - Practise pictures,
1 - Listening present - Sociability discussion of exposé on
- Reading integration national stressed cultural
2 progressive - Consideration the factors of national
Writing - Read passages on - Conjunc-
integration syllables
- Collaboration unity in integration in
symbols,
various cultures and tions
and dictionary
diversity their locality
match with pictures diversity - Method
1
- Use key words to - Learner-
complete a paragraph. centred
- Cooperative
learning
SITUATION 02: TAKING PART IN CROSS NATIONAL CELEBRATIONS
- Read a passage, ask, - Words and - MCQ items - Learners - Human
- Use
obtain and give expressions essential write and resources
- Speaking passive
information on related to - Revise knowledge draw Peers,
3 - Listening and active - Responsibility
national symbols patriotism diph- - Oral national teacher,
4 - Reading voices - Collaboration
- Listen to a passage on and thongs presentation symbols for siblings
Writing th - Use
the 20 May, with national of national posting - Materials
ellipsis
pictures, and respond symbols symbols around the Manual,

- 135 -
to it school pictures,
- Present some national campus national
symbols to classmates symbols,
- Sing the national dictionary
anthem - Method
- Say a poem on Learner-
patriotism centred
SITUATION 03: PROMOTING TOLERANCE AND LIVING TOGETHER
- Human
resources
Peers,
- Revise
teacher,
- Read about cultures pronouns - articulate - MCQ items
- Words and - Keep a diary siblings
and make comparisons (personal, final - Cordiality essential
- Speaking expressions of acts of - Materials
- Listen to a passage on possessive consonant - Politeness knowledge
5 - Listening related to tolerance vs Manual,
- Reading cultural promotion of , sounds - Collaboration - Write two
cultures, acts of pictures,
- Writing tolerance reflexive - revise - Tolerance paragraphs to
tribes intolerance dictionary
- Discuss illustrations of …) consonant - sociability describe two
- collocations for a week - Method
lack of tolerance. - More on sounds cultures.
Learner-
ellipsis
centred
Cooperative
learning
6 - Testing learners’ ability to use their four language skills in discussing national integration and diversity acceptance
Module N° 2: Economic Life and Occupations
USING LANGUAGE TO TALK ABOUT CONSUMPTION HABITS AND HOW THEY IMPACT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE
Expected outcome
Contextual framework
Essential knowledge
Sq
Categories Attitudes Assessment Project Resources
Week Actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
of action
SITUATION 01: FINDING BEST BUYS
2 7 - Speaking - Exchange information - Compound - Words - Honesty - MCQ items - In groups of - Human
- /ei/ and /ɛ/
8 - Listening about home sentences pertaining - Accountability essential five, learners resources

- 136 -
- Reading consumption habits - Use to shopping - Confidence knowledge produce Peers,
Writing - Listen to a conversation gerunds and - Responsibility - Oral records of teacher,
between two women on consumption explanation consumption parents,
their consumption habits of key words habits with siblings
habits and finding best negative - Materials
buys impact on the Manual,
- Read a simple socioeconomi pictures,
illustrated passage on c life in their dictionaries,
the socioeconomic locality - Method
problems related to Learner-
alcohol centred
- Discuss other Cooperative
consumption habits learning
with negative bearings
on learners community
- Write short messages on
consumption habits and
best buys
SITUATION 02: INQUIRING ABOUT ACCOMMODATION
- Listen to radio - Human
broadcasts on various resources
housing problems Peers,
- Identify various types of - MCQ items teacher,
- Speaking houses - Words and essential parents,
- Complex - Question
- Listening - Read a newspaper expressions - Responsibility knowledge siblings
9 - Reading sentences and
article for facts on relating to - Flexibility - Filling in gaps - /// - Materials
10 - Writing - Expressin statement
housing rental accommoda - Patience in a paragraph Manual,
g purpose tones
accommodations in tion with studied pictures,
Cameroon words dictionary
- Exchange information - Method
on housing realities in - Learner-
rural and urban areas centred

- 137 -
- Cooperative
learning
SITUATION 03: PARTICIPATING IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES
- Human
resources
Peers,
- In groups of teacher,
- Match pictures and
five, learners siblings
drawings with leisure
- Revise produce an - Materials
activities - Idiomatic - Filling in gaps
- Speaking expressions account of Manual,
- Exchange information expressions - Nasals : - Confidence in dialogues
- Listening of purpose leisure pictures,
11 on leisure activities in for /m/, /n/, - Friendliness and passage
- Reading - Revise activities in drawings,
their communities emotional and /ŋ/ - Tolerance with studied
- Writing modal their locality dictionary,
- Read illustrated passage states words / forms
auxiliaries by age group some tools
on the benefits of
and - Method
recreational activities
occupations. - Learner-
centred
- Cooperative
learning
12 Testing the learners’ four language skills in discussing consumption habits and their impacts on socioeconomic life
Module 03: Environment, well-being and health
USING LANGUAGE TO TALK ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE AND ABOUT MAINTAINING HYGIENE AND SANITATION
Expected outcome
Contextual framework
Sq. Essential Knowledge
Categories Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week of actions Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
SITUATION 01: KEEPING INFORMED ABOUT WEATHER CONDITIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
- Look at pictures and - Words and - Revising - MCQ items - Human
- First and
- Speaking discuss weather and expressions vowel - Consciousness essential resources
13 second
3 - Reading climate change effects. pertaining sounds - Responsibility knowledge - /// Peers, teacher
14 conditional
- Alertness
- Writing - Read short passages on to weather /ɔ:/, /ɒ/ - Filling in gaps - Materials
climate change and and climate and /ə/ in dialogues Manual,

- 138 -
global warming. change Practise and passage pictures,
- Listen to an interview sentence with studied dictionary
on weather conditions intonation words / forms - Method
- Read pieces of advice / stress - Learner-
on how to maintain the centred
climate. - Cooperative
learning
SITUATION 02: BEING CONCERNED ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
- See pictures and
complete sentences with - Human
words for description resources
- Read a newspaper Peers,
article on reusing and - An expository teacher,
- In groups of
recycling materials - Adjectives essay on how villagers
- Words and five, learners
- Speaking - Complete (asking in - Consciousness garbage items - Materials
expressions design
15 - Reading questions) an interview comparison - Responsibility are treated in Manual,
relating to - /ɪ/ and /i:/ - Alertness environmental
16 - Listening on garbage - Direct and the village and pictures,
environmen devices by
- Writing - Listen to some indirect - Cleanliness how they dictionary,
tal issues reusing
recycling tips speech ought to be Method
materials
- Write short messages on treated - Learner-
environmental issues centred
- Write an expository - Cooperative
essay on environment learning
maintenance
SITUATION 03: MAINTAINING HYGIENE AND SANITATION
- Describe pictures and - Human
- Phrasal - Words and - An expository - Write
drawings and discuss resources
verbs expressions - Consciousness essay on prescriptions
sanitation issues Peers,
- Speaking - ‘Tell’ and pertaining - Revise /θ/, - Responsibility hygiene and on hygiene
17 - Guide peer in hand teacher,
- Writing ‘say’ to hygiene /ð/ and /ʌ/ - Alertness sanitation in and sanitation
wash - Cleanliness villagers
- Relative and the village and for their
- Read an interview with - Materials
clauses sanitation prescriptions school
a nurse on hygiene and Manual,

- 139 -
sanitation tips dictionary,
- Write hygiene and farming tools
sanitation words in a Method
crossword puzzle - Learner-
centred
18 Testing learners’ ability to use the four language skills in the discussion of climate
Module 04: Citizenship / Human rights
USING LANGUAGE TO TALK ABOUT THE QUEST FOR EXCELLENCE, GENDER ISSUES AND DEMOCRACY
Expected outcome
CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK
Sq. Essential knowledge
- Categories Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week of actions
Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
SITUATION 01: QUESTING FOR EXCELLENCE
- Asks for, obtains and - Human
gives information on resources
- Words and
Cameroonians who Peers,
expressions
have excelled - MCQ items teacher,
- Revising depicting
- Read short illustrated essential parents,
the the quest for - Identifying
- Speaking passages on successful knowledge villagers
indirect excellence monoph-
19 - Reading icons - Self esteem, - Filling in gaps - Materials
speech - Expressions thongs and - ///
20 - Listening - Listen to a short radio - Dignity. in dialogues Manual,
- Writing - Phrasal with good: diphthong
commentary on an and passage pictures,
verbs good at, no s
excellent performance with studied dictionary,
4 good at,
- Write basic personal words / forms recordings
good for,
data on an application Method
for good, …
form to join an academy - Learner-
of excellence centred
SITUATION 02: PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY
- Express opinions about - Prefixes to - Write a guided - Identify - Human
- Speaking - Prepositio - Cordiality
gender equality form - Revising expository gender issues resources
21 - Reading ns - Respect for
- Read adverts, antonyms consonant essay on in their Peers,
22 - Listening - Word others
announcements, etc. on - Words and sounds genital locality and teacher,
- Writing order - Sociability
gender issues expressions mutilation propose - Materials

- 140 -
- Listen to role plays on related to sensible Manual,
gender issues gender solutions dictionary
- Write short messages on issues Method
gender issues in their - Learner-
locality centred
SITUATION 03: PARTICIPATING IN TRAINING ACTIVITIES / COURSES ON DEMOCRACY
- Answer brainstorming - Human
questions on democracy resources
- MCQ items
- Read campaigning Peers,
essential
slogans - Acceptability teacher,
- Speaking - Words and knowledge
- Read a newspaper - General , - Materials
23 - Reading - Tense expressions - Filling in gaps
report on an exemplary stress - Respect for - /// Manual,
- Listening sequencing related in dialogues
presidential elections’ rules others dictionary,
- Writing democracy and passage
outcome - sociability newspapers
with studied
- Read an account of Method
words / forms
senior prefect elections - Learner-
in school centred
24 Testing learners’ ability to use the four language skills in talking about the quest for excellence, gender issues and democracy
Module 05: Media and Communication
USING LANGUAGE TO EXPLORE UTIILITIES OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY
Expected outcome
CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK
Essential knowledge
Sq. Categorie
Attitude Assessment Project Resources
Week s of Examples of actions Grammar Vocabulary Speech
actions
SITUATION 01: SUBSCRIBING TO SERVICE PACKAGES
- Answering a quiz on - Resourcefuln - MCQ items - Human
- Words and
- Speaking communication services - Revising ess essential resources
expressions
25 - Reading - Role play a dialogue on ellipses - Consciousnes knowledge Peers,
related to - /ʒ/, /ʃ/, /ʤ/ - ///
26 - Listening communication services - Revision s - Filling in gaps teacher,
communicat
- Writing - Read short messages of tenses - Critical in dialogues - Materials
ion services
from thinking and passage Manual,

- 141 -
telecommunication with studied dictionary,
services and respond to words / forms newspapers,
them phone and
- Read and compare computer
various providers’ tariff gadgets
charts Method
- Learner-
centred
SITUATION 02:COMPLAINING ABOUT SERVICE QUALITY
- Human
- Read brief instructions resources
on how to handle ICT Peers,
hitches - Match words teacher,
- Write a friendly email / Words and to their - Materials
- Produce a
sms to ask for help with expressions - Resourceful- definitions Manual,
record of
- Speaking NICT’s related to ness - Put letters / dictionary,
- The third phone
27 - Reading - Read complaints and hitches and - Silent - Consciousness words in the newspapers,
conditional problems at
28 - Listening decide the ICT device at complaints letters - Critical correct order to phone and
home, in the
- Writing stake about ICT thinking form ICT computer
form of a
- Listen to a dialogue service - Politeness related terms gadgets
table
between an after-sales quality or grammatical Method
service attendant and a sentences - Learner-
network user centred
- Role play a dialogue - Cooperative
learning
SITUATION 03: RELAXING WITH VIDEO GAMES, COMPUTERS, ETC
- Ask, obtain and give - Resourceful- - Match words - Human
- Articulating
- Speaking information on How ness to their resources
- Quantifiers short
29 - Reading ICT gadgets are used General - Consciousness definitions Peers,
- General forms - ///
30 - Listening for entertainment revision - Critical - Put letters / teacher,
revision - General
- Writing - Read an interview on thinking words in the - Materials
revision
online games - Politeness correct order to Manual,

- 142 -
- Agreeing / disagreeing form ICT dictionary,
with a peer’s point of related terms newspapers,
view on ICT games or grammatical phone and
sentences computer
gadgets
Method
- Learner-
centred
31 Testing learners’ ability to use the four language skills in exploring the utilities of modern technology
END OF YEAR

- 143 -
3.3.2. Analysis of the sample scheme of work

The scheme of work presented on the previous pages shows very useful criteria that should
be adapted to the design of our tertiary level curriculum for continuity and a smooth
transition between the two levels. Considering the general layout of the scheme of work,
the following remarks are made:

- The scheme of work is produced on the basis of the five modules on the curriculum
- Each module, which addresses a broad domain of life, is fitted into one
administrative sequence of six weeks, with three periods in a week. The five
modules of a class are therefore to be taught in thirty weeks, but with the many
public holidays and celebrations and extra-curricular activities at the secondary
level, only twenty-five weeks are considered.
- Under the module’s title, the contextual framework and the expected outcomes are
clearly defined. The former includes the week, the categories of action and the
actual actions to be carried out by the learners. The latter specifies on the one hand
the essential knowledge to be taught/learnt including grammar, vocabulary and
speech, and, on the other hand, the attitude to help the learners develop, the
assessment, the project that will be carried out using language so as to display
adequate learning and acting in the real life situation (discussed below) framework,
and the resources to mobilise – human resources, material resources and
methodological resources.
- Teaching derives from a ‘real life situation’. The contextual framework and
expected outcomes are designed therefrom. The learner, from the onset, is placed
into that situation, and, eventually, should have become competent in addressing
the situation.

3.3.3. Influence on the proposed curriculum

Continuing the secondary level curriculum onto the tertiary level entails producing a
curriculum that commands a similar method. Our curriculum will therefore follow
Richards’ (2001) curriculum specifications: objective of programmes, syllabus, course
structure, teaching methods, materials.

144
3.3.3.1. Objective

This is an ESP study. We shall not be teaching General English (GE) to the learners as it is
done at the secondary level. The English to teach here is English or Academic Purposes
(EAP). Since the learners are university students. “There is a raft of evidence that the needs
of English for academic purposes are both linguistic and cultural. What he means by
cultural needs is that learners should have comprehensive information of academic norms
and what they are required to do in university” (Jouybar, 2013, quoting Zareva, 2005).The
main objective will be to enable the learners to use English nimbly in addressing general
and specific academic issues. The modules discussed below will provide more specific
objectives.

3.3.3.2. Syllabus

We intend to develop a curriculum that places the learner, not in (general) real life
situations, but in ‘real academic/professional situations’ from which language
teaching/learning contents will evolve. Inside each real academic/professional situation,
these stages will be followed:

- The contextual framework will be defined, with the categories of actions and the
examples of specific actions to carry out in that situation;
- The expected outcome will also be specified: grammar, vocabulary, and the speech
items needed for fluent expression in the said academic or professional situation.
- An effort will be made to grade the contents.

Syllabus contents are specified under ‘course structure’ below.

3.3.3.3. Course structure

Course structuring involves selecting (1) a syllabus framework and (2) developing
instructional blocks. The syllabus framework adopted in this work will be situational, since
we focus instruction on real academic or professional situations. The instructional blocks –
sequences of the workload with their own objectives and reflective of the general objective
– will be modules, with immediate and observable objectives which will be tested at the
end of the module.

At the secondary level, a module covers 15 teaching hours and 3 hours for testing,
at the end of instruction, there are five modules in each class, and the programme is to be

145
covered in 75 periods a year. At the tertiary level in general, and in Cameroon’s Fine Arts
Institutes in particular, the Bilingual Training course is taught for 30 hours in Level 1, 30
hours in level 2 and 30 hours in level 3 of undergraduate studies, for a total of 90 hours of
instruction. If we teach a module in 18 hours, there will necessarily be an imbalance in
their distribution. We plan to teach 03 modules each year. Therefore, a module shall be
handled in 10 hours, with the last hour for testing. The 03 modules shall thus be covered in
30 hours. Module titles and contents will be discussed later, after the discussion of learners
other needs.

3.3.3.4. Teaching method

At the secondary level, the competence-based approach with entry through real life
situations guides education henceforth. This approach has already been explained and is
adopted for the curriculum proposed here, for the sake of continuity. It helps the learner
mobilise all the knowledge and skills acquired for efficient real life (but academic or
professional here) problem-solving. Actually, Language teaching with entry through real
life situations is what guides English for Specific Purposes. “Decisions about what to teach
and sometimes how to teach […]are informed by descriptions of how language is used in
the particular contexts the learners will work or study in. There is thus a strong focus in
ESP on language as ‘situated language use’” (Basturkmen, 2010: p. 8). Therefore, the
above-mentioned continuity is amply provided for. But other methods will be used when
and where necessary. For Example, in his study of Business English in Cameroon, Mbe
(2016) proves that the task-based approach is the most beneficial, it creates a sense of
doing the real thing in the learner, and they are thus highly motivated not to fail as
prospective professionals. The learners will be given tasks – both generic and carrier tasks-
from time to time to support learning.

3.3.3.5. Materials

The material resources in this framework will differ depending on the real professional
situation.

A manual would obviously help to a very great extent, for it contains varied
resources for language teaching and learning. Nforbi and Siéwoué (2016b) bring out some
strengths of a coursebook. For the learner, the coursebook provides a sense of secure
learning, a sense of progress and achievement, an effective resource for self-directed
(autonomous) learning, an important source of input, and an opportunity to communicate
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orally or in writing. For the teachers, it mainly helps them gain confidence – especially for
the less experienced ones, and it is an important resource for ideas, activities, exercises,
and materials – including photos, lessons, drawings, passages, exercises, and at times
excerpts from newspapers and other magazines – methodological guidance, and a source
for take-home activities. Manuals are often backed with audio/-visual materials. Yet, in
this study, we shall not design a manual. We shall only make recommendations for such an
endeavour. However, in a near future, we shall put some time aside for it. All these
resources will be made use of.
Realia will also be made use of, including tangible (working) tools, works of arts.
The learners will equally need advanced learner’s dictionaries for vocabulary
development: a monolingual English language dictionary and a (French and English)
bilingual dictionary, learner’s field specific dictionaries, such as a dictionary of
Architecture, a dictionary of drama, a dictionary of fashion and design. Adams Simpson
(2014) quotes Wright (199840: p. 3) for whom “dictionaries, whether bilingual or
monolingual, have long been part of the language learner’s essential equipment”. They
should also be given opportunities to flip through the page of encyclopaedias. Every other
material resources that can facilitate language teaching/learning will be used.
In addition to these materials, the secondary level curriculum and scheme of work
manifest the need to specify, for each entry situation, the human resources: the course
facilitators and the learners themselves are the first and most available human resources for
the enterprise. In addition, a significant asset of the Fine arts Institute in Cameroon is that
professionals are constantly and officially invited to teach. When they come, they could
help as human resources in the classroom, provided they possess the English it takes to
deliver the goods. Academic staff, especially the administrators could as well be invited for
the academic aspect in the course.

Besides all these bearings of the secondary level curriculum and its implementation
on the proposal, further needs analysis was done through the questionnaire, from which
many rules were derived.

Conclusion
In one word, EFL teachers used to be confused about what was actually expected of
them and how they would go about it, after the first programme of study was released in

40
Wright, J. (1998): Dictionaries, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

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2012. The 2014 programme is quite more simplified and specific, and major innovations in
terms of a defined exit profile at the end of the first cycle, the fitting of each of the five
module into an administrative sequence, a module coverage rate of at least 80%, and a
setting aside of 3 hours (1 week) in general education each sequence to evaluate learners’
skills, all working together for a common grounds for upcoming official exams. But
teachers may already be anxious about the nature of the English language paper. Another
strong innovation, a teacher’s guide was also released in July 2014, and constitutes a
theoretical backing and practical help for classroom pedagogy. Two problems arise with
the new programme. First, one notices a glaring absence of plans for the real fruit-bearing
teaching of the sounds of English and pronunciation on the one hand, and composition on
the other hand, momentous elements of spoken language and of effective communication
respectively. Second, its productivity is questionable. The absence of needed resources and
adequately designed materials, insufficient time distribution and very heavy teacher’s
responsibility to deliver the goods in such a porous environment are aspects that work
against the productivity of the new competence-based curriculum at the secondary level.
Moreover, the sample scheme of work here begins in Sixième and ends in Troisième.
Actually, Troisième students will be taught following the CBA-RLS for the first time in
2017/2018. So we stopped the curriculum on what is available. The curricula for the last
three classes of the secondary level are soon to be released, following the same pattern. We
also studied the implications on the proposed curriculum, in one word, consist in a
definition of the method (Competence-Based Language Teaching, with entry through real
academic / professional situations) and the syllabus structure, an integrated syllabus.

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CHAPTER 4 : THE TEACHING/LEARNING OF ENGLISH IN FINE ARTS INSTITUTES IN
CAMEROON
CHAPTER 4

THE TEACHING/LEARNING OF
ENGLISH IN FINE ARTS INSTITUTES
IN CAMEROON

Introduction
English is taught in Fine Arts Institutes in Cameroon to both Anglophones and
Francophones. Our case study is English for Francophones, referred to as ‘Bilingual
Training in English’ (BTE). The chapter describes Bilingual Training in English as is
practised in the two Fine Arts Institutes. It espouses a curriculum approach. That is, the
description covers the seven curriculum items in Richards (2001) perspective mentioned
earlier. Two questions will guide the analysis: (1) to what extent does this item of the
‘curriculum’ expedite effective language learning? and (2) to what extent does it match
with the English for Specific Purposes approach? However, it will be difficult to think of
appraising the learners’ needs as proper needs analysis would not have been carried out a
priori the instruction. Course lecturers would have based their teaching on general
observation and assumptions, amongst others the learners’ very low proficiency in English.
Therefore, only the last six items will hold our attention. They will be discussed in a given
order.

4.1. The state of the art


4.1.1. Course descriptions

The Institute of Fine Arts in Foumban possesses a document titled Programme des
Enseignements en cycle de Licence Professionnelle. This document presents the institution
to the reader and provides general information on it: its mission and goal, the training, the
professional possibilities for learners, the organisation of training, and the administrative
organisation of the institute. After this general information, the document proceeds with

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step by step description of all the courses taught in the establishment, one department after
the other and one semester after the other.

The document describes each course by providing the following information:

- The course code followed by the title and the number of credits it carries
- The course objective
- A one sentence description of the course, that is, the course content
- The key words, and
- The evaluation mood.

The course descriptions of Bilingual Training were retrieved and are presented below:

Department of Visual arts

Year 1:

ENT242 : Formation Bilingue 1 (2,5 crédits)

Objectif : Le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers dont celui de
sa spécialité.

Descriptif : description des différentes parties du discours, prononciation, transcription


phonétique, vocabulaire spécifique.

Mots-clés : alphabet – phonétique – phonologie – transcription – expression.

Modalité d’évaluation : Exposé /Contrôle continu et examen final.

Year 2

ENT 442 : Formation Bilingue 2 (2,5 crédits)

Objectif : Le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers.

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Descriptif : typologie et conjugaison des verbes, accords des participes, typologie et
modalités de phrases, typologie et variation de la ponctuation.

Mots-clés : formes verbales – modalités de phrases – participes – ponctuation.

Modalité d’évaluation : TD/TP/Contrôle continu et examen final.

Year 3

ENT632 : Formation bilingue 3 (2,5 crédits)

Objectif : le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers.

Descriptif : typologie et variation des formes textuelles, variation des formes syntaxiques,
expression orale seul ou en groupe (débats, exposés, prise de notes, conversation),
expression écrite (lecture et rédaction des textes divers, creative writing)

Mots-clés : typologie textuelle – expression écrite et orale – formes syntaxiques

Mode d’évaluation : Évaluation continue : 30% ; Examen écrit : 70%.

Department: DECORATIVE ARTS

Year 1:

ENT 242: Formation bilingue 1

Objectif : Le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers dont celui de
sa spécialité.

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Descriptif : Description des parties du discours, prononciation, transcription phonétique,
vocabulaire spécifique.

Mots-clés : Alphabet – phonétique – phonologie – transcription – expression.

Modalité d’évaluation : Exposé /Contrôle continu et examen final.

Year 2

ENT 442 : Formation Bilingue 2

Objectif : le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers.

Descriptif : typologie et conjugaison des verbes, accords des participes, typologie et


modalités de phrases, typologie et variation de la ponctuation.

Mots-clés : formes verbales – modalités de phrases – participes – ponctuation.

Year 3

ENT 641 : Formation Bilingue 3

Objectif : le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers.

Descriptif : typologie et variation des formes textuelles, variation des formes syntaxiques,
expression orale seul ou en groupe (débats, exposés, prise de notes, conversation),
expression écrite (lecture et rédaction des textes divers, creative writing)

Mots-clés : typologie textuelle – expression écrite et orale – formes syntaxiques – écriture.

Mode d’évaluation : Devoir sur table, examens.

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Department: Performing Arts and Cinematography

Year 1

ENT 241 Formation bilingue 1

Objectif : Faire acquérir aux étudiants les quatre domaines de compétence linguistique
dans la deuxième officielle de chacun (anglais pour les francophones et français pour les
anglophones) à savoir : Le parler (Speaking), l’écrit (Writing), la lecture (Reading) et
l’écoute (Listening), afin de lui permettre d’engager et de mener une communication
courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Le cours vise aussi à
développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante
dans des contextes divers particulièrement celui de sa spécialité. Au niveau I, l’étudiant
devra acquérir les notions fondamentales de la grammaire et de l’expression
française/anglaise.

Sommaire : Description des différentes parties du discours, prononciation, transcription


phonétique.

Mots-clés : Alphabet – phonétique – phonologie – transcription – expression.

Mode d’évaluation : Évaluation continue : 30% ; Examen écrit : 70%.

Year 2

ENT 441 Formation bilingue 2

Objectif : le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers.

Descriptif : typologie et conjugaison des verbes, accords des participes, typologie et


modalités de phrases, typologie et variation de la ponctuation.

Mots-clés : formes verbales – modalités de phrases – participes – ponctuation.

Mode d’évaluation : Évaluation continue : 30% ; Examen écrit : 70%.

Year 3

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ENT 641 Formation bilingue 3

Objectif : Le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers.

Descriptif : Typologie et variation des formes textuelles, variation des formes syntaxiques,
expression orale seul ou en groupe (débats, exposés, prise de notes, conversation),
expression écrite (lecture et rédaction des textes divers, creative writing)

Mots-clés : typologie textuelle – expression écrite et orale – formes syntaxiques – écriture.

Mode d’évaluation : Évaluation continue : 30% ; Examen écrit : 70%.

Department: Arts, Technology and Cultural Heritage

Year 1

ENT 241 Formation Bilingue 1

Objectif : Le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers dont celui de
sa spécialité.

Descriptif : description des différentes parties du discours, prononciation, transcription


phonétique, vocabulaire spécifique.

Mots-clés : alphabet – phonétique – phonologie – transcription – expression.

Modalités d’évaluation : Contrôle continu et examen final.

Year 2

ENT 441 Formation Bilingue 2

Objectif : le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui

154
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers.

Descriptif : typologie et variation des formes textuelles, variation des formes syntaxiques,
expression orale seul ou en groupe (débats, exposés, prise de notes, conversation),
expression écrite (lecture et rédaction des textes divers, creative writing)

Mots-clés : typologie textuelle – expression écrite et orale – formes syntaxiques – écriture.

Modalité d’évaluation : TD/TP/Contrôle continu et examen final.

Year 3

ENT 641 Formation Bilingue 3

Objectif : le cours vise, dans le cadre global de la politique linguistique nationale, de faire
acquérir à l’étudiant d’une langue (français ou anglais) les éléments de base afin de lui
permettre d’engager et de mener une communication courante à l’oral et à l’écrit dans
l’autre langue (français ou anglais). Il vise aussi à développer chez l’étudiant l’aptitude à
s’exprimer et à engager une conversation courante dans des contextes divers.

Descriptif : typologie et variation des formes textuelles, variation des formes syntaxiques,
expression orale seul ou en groupe (débats, exposés, prise de notes, conversation),
expression écrite (lecture et rédaction des textes divers, creative writing)

Mots-clés : typologie textuelle – expression écrite et orale – formes syntaxiques – écriture.

Mode d’évaluation : Devoir sur table, examens.

Department: Architecture and Engineering Art

Year 1

ENT 241 Formation Bilingue 1

Mots clés : formation, bilingue, 2ème langue

Objectifs : L’étudiant d’architecture doit maîtriser au moins une seconde langue


notamment l’anglais pour les étudiants d’expression française et le français pour les
anglophones. Il importe dans ce but que les étudiants aient l’habitude de s’exprimer
oralement en anglais, en français en utilisant une partie du vocabulaire de l’architecture et

155
en acquérant un accent compréhensible. L’objectif est de donner confiance à l’étudiant, de
l’encourager à s’exprimer oralement. Après une séance inaugurale précisant les objectifs et
la méthode, des exercices d’expression orale seront organisés à partir du vocabulaire de
l’enseignement de l'architecture et en particulier de celui utilisé pour l’analyse de la ville et
la typologie des édifices. Les étudiants devront disposer d’un lexique pour leur travail
personnel. Un soutien sera organisé pour les étudiants en difficulté ainsi qu’une aide pour
l’utilisation des supports d’auto-formation (méthode d’apprentissage, conversations, films
relatifs à l’architecture et à la ville en Version Originale…)

Contenu : Les exercices d’expression orale seront organisés à partir du vocabulaire relatif
à l’enseignement de l’architecture de 1ère année, le logis, L’espace public…L’étudiant se
sera bien familiarisé avec le lexique. Un soutien sera fourni sous diverses formes :
conversations, auto-formation assistée.

Modalités d’évaluation : Notes de cours + Examen final écrit

Year 2

ENT 441 Formation Bilingue 2

Mots clés : formation, bilingue, 2ème langue

Objectifs : Les exercices d’expression orale seront organisés à partir du vocabulaire relatif
à l’enseignement de l’architecture de 2ème année, le logis, l’espace public…L’étudiant se
sera bien familiarisé avec le lexique. Un soutien sera fourni sous diverses formes : -
conversations, - auto-formation assistée, - séjours recommandé

Contenu : Les exercices d’expression orale seront organisés à partir du vocabulaire relatif
à l’enseignement de l’architecture de 1ère année, le logis, L’espace public…L’étudiant se
sera bien familiarisé avec le lexique. Un soutien sera fourni sous diverses formes :
conversations, auto-formation assistée.

Modalités d’évaluation : Notes de cours + Examen final écrit

Year 3

ENT 641 Formation Bilingue 3

Mots clés : Formation, bilingue,

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Objectifs : Les étudiants doivent être capables de présenter leur projet de fin d’études en
anglais et/ou en français. Sans recommencer ce qui a été fait au collège et au lycée, il
importe dans ce but que les étudiants aient l’habitude de s’exprimer oralement en anglais
et/ou en français en utilisant une partie du vocabulaire de l’architecture et en acquérant un
accent compréhensible. En 3ème année l’étudiant doit avoir pris confiance en sa capacité à
se faire comprendre oralement. Le vocabulaire sera maîtrisé grâce au travail personnel.

Contenu : Les exercices d’expression utiliseront le vocabulaire relatif aux « équipements


publics », aux « logements », à « l’habiter en ville »…Une période d’immersion en zone
anglophone, (et/ou francophone) sera fortement recommandée. Un soutien sera organisé :
sous forme de conversation, grâce au recours à des dispositifs d’auto-formation.

Modalités d’évaluation : Notes écrites (Rapport de stage), Notes orales (Jury de stage)

We shall do a content analysis of this data, to find out what English is programmed for
French-speaking learners in Foumban and how specific that English is. The following table
summarises the data.

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Table 12 : Summary of Bilingual Training course description by department (IBAF)
Performing Art and Arts, Technology Architecture and Engineering
Year Item Visual Arts Decorative Arts
Cinematography and Heritage Art
Equip the learner with: Equip the learner with: Equip the learner Equip the learner - Help students get used to oral
- basic SOL skills; - basic SOL skills; with: with: expression with the vocabulary of
- oral and written - oral and written - basic SOL skills; - basic SOL skills; architecture, specifically, the
interactional skills in interactional skills in - Oral and written - oral and written jargon of town planning and
Objective SOL in various SOL in various contexts interactional skills in interactional skills in building typology
contexts including their including their study SOL in various SOL in various - Equip them with a lexicon for
study field. field. contexts, especially contexts, especially self-learning further supported by
in their study field. in their study field. learning methods, conversation,
authentic motion pictures in
architecture
I
- parts of speech - parts of speech - parts of speech - parts of speech - Oral communication drills based
- pronunciation - pronunciation - pronunciation - pronunciation on the architectural language of
Course - phonetic transcription - phonetic transcription - phonetic phonetic transcription homes and public squares studied
content - specialist vocabulary - specialist vocabulary transcription in the training content of Year I
- Assistance with conversations
and assisted self-learning
- Exposés / Continuous - Exposés / Continuous - Continuous - Continuous - ‘course marks’
Evaluation assessment assessment assessment (30%) assessment - End of semester exam
- End of semester exam - End of semester exam - End of Semester - End of Semester
exam (70%) exam
- Equip the learner - Equip the learner with: - Equip the learner - Equip the learner - Oral communication drills based
with: basic SOL skills; with: with: on the architectural language of
basic SOL skills; - Oral and written basic SOL skills; basic SOL skills; homes and public squares studied
Objective - Oral and written interactional skills in - Oral and written - Oral and written in the training content of Year II
II interactional skills in SOL in various contexts. interactional skills in interactional skills in - Assistance with conversations
SOL in various SOL in various SOL in various and assisted self-learning
contexts. contexts. contexts.
Course - conjugation - conjugation - conjugation - conjugation - Oral communication drills based
- sentence modalities - sentence modalities - sentence modalities - sentence modalities on the architectural language of
content
- punctuation - punctuation - Punctuation - punctuation homes and public squares studied in

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the training content of Year II
- Assistance with conversations
and assisted self-learning
- tutorials/practicals/ - exposés / Continuous - continuous - tutorials/ - ‘course marks’
continuous assessment assessment assessment (30%) practicals/ - End of semester exam
Evaluation - end of semester exam - end of semester exam - end of Semester continuous
exam (70%) assessment
- end of semester
exam
Equip the learner with: Equip the learner with: Equip the learner Equip the learner - Prepare the learners for end of
- basic SOL skills; - basic SOL skills; with: with: cycle project presentation, with
- oral and written - oral and written - basic SOL skills; - basic SOL skills; confident oral conveyance of
Objective interactional skills in interactional skills in - oral and written - oral and written meaning
SOL in various SOL in various contexts. interactional skills in interactional skills in
contexts. SOL in various SOL in various
contexts. contexts.
- textual forms - textual forms - textual forms - textual forms - Expression drills based on public
- syntactic structures - syntactic structures - syntactic structures - syntactic structures equipment, housing, and urban life.
- oral (debates, note - oral (debates, note - oral (debates, note - oral (debates, note - Strong recommendation of
taking, conversation) taking, conversation) and taking, taking, conversation) immersion into SOL zone
III and written (reading written (reading and and written (reading
Course conversation) and
and writing various text writing various text and writing various
content types, creative writing) types, creative writing) written (reading text types, creative
communication communication and writing various writing)
communication
text types, creative
writing)
communication
- continuous - end-desk test - continuous - on-desk test - Evaluation of written expression
Evaluation assessment (30%) - end of semester exam assessment (30%) - end of semester (work experience report)
- end of Semester exam - end of Semester exam - Evaluation of oral expression
(70%) exam (70%) (work experience report defence)

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At the first glimpse, Table 12 shows that the content of the Bilingual Training programme is
almost the same in four departments: Visual Arts, Decorative Arts, Performing Arts, Arts,
Technology and Heritage. It emphasises General English41 skills through the three years, and
a specific item to the learner’s field appears only in Year One, where the learners should be
prepared to communicate in various contexts, including their study field. Apart from this, the
course objective, the course content and evaluation prescriptions provide nothing specific to
the learner’s subject area. The programme in the Department of Architecture and Engineering
Art is quite different in terms of focus.

The Department of Architecture and Engineering Art makes the scope of the course
very specific to the learners’ study field in Year I and in Year III. The objective in Year II
seems to be a little bit blurred; it might have been a computer mistake, for it is the same thing
with the course content. At the level of course content, the Department insists on the learners’
using specialist vocabulary for self-learning and communication. There is emphasis on oral
communication and written communication, in their field. This is the only department with a
real burden for English for Specific Purposes:

Though we insisted, it was very difficult to obtain this document in Nkongsamba.


Thus, we relied more on the course facilitators’ answers on questionnaires and log book to put
a finger on teaching contents, but before the teaching contents, we shall look at the teaching
staff.

4.1.2. Syllabi

In this section, we analysed and compared the course outlines that had been in force in both
institutes over the last years. In Foumban, the course was taught as a joint course since the
institute was opened, so the course outline applies to all the departments. Yet, actually, only
one real course outline was found for Year III (2016/2017); course facilitators’ names were
removed. Apart from this, course contents could only be retrieved from log books. The
students were given no outlines at first contact with course facilitators. What we could
retrieve from the log books features as follows:

41
General English is explained in the previous chapter.

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YEAR I their academic and professional
interests42.
Academic year: 2012/2013
First Day: 10/10/2016
First Day: 29/10/2012; 7h30 – 9h30; 2
hours The Present simple tense

 I – Exercise: List 100 words in your Text 1: Composition


specialties and use them in 100
 Present simple
sentences with translations, in the
 Past simple
simple present tense
 Present and Past Perfect
 II – Translation of words
 Present and Past continuous
Second day: 05/11/2012; 9h45 – 11h45; 2  Present and Past perfect continuous
hours  The use of the present simple tense

 Commands and orders (“Show me o To like/love + verb+-ing

your machine”, the teacher ordered.) o To show habitual actions:


always, usually, after
End
o With time expressions after:
Academic year: 2016/2017 when, until
o In possible conditions, after if
Bilingual Training
and unless
About this course
Second day: 13/10/2016, 12h45 – 16h45, 4
This class is designed for students to hours
develop the vocabulary and grammatical
 Text 2: Style
skills receded for arts training. Topics will
o Vocabulary of some nouns
include reading comprehension, sentence
o Fashion idioms and expressions
building, class discussions and activities
o Grammar: The use of Verbs of
will strengthen knowledge of vocabulary
perception: hear, see, feel, smell
and current issues in art. Students will
o Exercise: Describe someone you
write weekly about their experience in
know who dresses well. You
their various fields of studies basing their
should say : who they are, how
knowledge on class activities. Course
you know them and
assignments will allow for students to
research and present on topics reflecting
42
Underlining is my emphasis

161
Third day: 17/10/2016, 12h45 – 16h45, 4 End
hours
Year II
 Verbs of perception + noun+-ing
Academic year: 2013/2014
Fourth day: 20/10/2016, 12h45 – 16h45, 4
First day: 05 – 06 – 2014; 7h30 – 12h30; 5
hours
hours
 Conditional sentences
 Letter writing
o Conditional sentences type 1
o Friendly letter
o Conditional sentences type 2
o Formal letter
o Conditional sentences type 3
o Parts of a letter
o Exceptions
First day: 07 – 06 – 2014; 7h30 – 12h30; 5
 Quantifiers
hours
o With uncountable nouns: much,
a bit of, a little, a great deal … Test
o With both; all, enough,
Write a letter to your friend asking him or
more/most, any; less/least,
her when he/her will come back from the
no/none; …
village. Also, give him/her information
o With countable nouns: many, a
about the results of exams written before.
number, several, a large number
of, etc. Homework: Write a formal letter asking
o Much older, much faster, too for a job.
many, so much, etc. Academic year: 2015/2016
Fifth day: 24/10/2016, 12h45 – 16h45, 4 First day: 04 – 02 – 2016
hours
 Present simple tense
 Adverbs  Past simple tense
o Adverbs of time
 Present perfect tense
o Adverbs of manner
 Past perfect tense
o Adverbs of certainty
 Present continuous
o Adverbs of completeness
o Adverbs of place Second day: 06 – 02 - 2016

 Adjectives  Exercises on:


o Comparatives o the past perfect tense,
o Superlatives
162
o the present simple tense, b. Grammar: Modal auxiliaries
o the past continuous tense, c. Writing: The official letter.
d. Pronunciation: [ɛ] and other sounds in
o the present perfect tense
the passage
e. Debate: One can succeed in life
Third day: 07 – 02 - 2016
without university education
 Correction of assignment 3. The Job market
a. Reading: Brain drain in Africa
o Past perfect tense
b. Pronunciation: a few sounds in the
o Past continuous tense passage
o Future simple tense c. Grammar 2: Irregular plurals in
English
End d. Debate: Are Fine arts studies relevant
in the Cameroonian context.
Year III e. Task: Produce a list (and descriptions)
of opportunities consistent with fine
2016/2017 arts training profile for the job market
in Cameroon and beyond.
I. COURSE OBJECTIVE Log book contents not easy to find

By the end of this course, the student will INSTITUTEOF FINE ARTS,
be able to discuss university life with the NKONGSAMBA
right speech skills. This syllabus is
At the Institute of Fine Arts Nkongsamba,
therefore reading-based.
log book contents were retrieved and
presented below.
II. COURSE CONTENTS
1. Introduction to university life PMU III
a. Reading: An Encounter at the Year: 2016/2017
University
b. Vocabulary: False cognates in English
and French Plan of work
c. Grammar – 2: Using articles in
English 1) Revision of last year’s work
d. Pronunciation: [i:] and other sounds in 2) Distribution of expose topic
the passage 3) Mastering good sentence structures
e. Debate: Secondary education is more a) Building better sentences
demanding than higher education: 1) Building balanced sentences
enrolment, fees, choice of area of 2) Creating balance with parallel verb
study, exams and certificates. forms
2. On a university campus 3) Creating balance with correlative
a. Reading: Orientation meeting with conjunctions
new students b) Creating well-connected

163
1) Using conjunction to connect ideas 1- When exercise, I like dancing and
that are not equal in line skating.
2) Using conjunctive adverbs to show 2- I gave my old car to my nephew,
relationship of ideas my water skis to my father and my
c) - Trimming unnecessary words tennis racket I gave to charity.
from sentences
I gave my old car to my nephew, my
4) Presentation of exposés water skis to my father and my tennis
5) Continuous assessment racket to charity

6) End of semester examination 3- My friend eats dinner first lunch


second and then he is eating
a-1- balanced sentences are sentences breakfast last
which related description action or ideas
are written in the same form My friend eats dinner first lunch second
and breakfast last.
Ex: I came, I saw, I conquered
4- My new printer is quieter faster and
1) Nicaise is attractive and sensible
prints with higher resolution
Nicaise is attractive and sensible
2) Scrabble is mentally challenging My new printer is quieter, faster
and make me tired with higher resolution
Scrabble is mentally challenging
and tiring a-3 Creating balance with correlative
3) The lion we saw was huge, alert conjunction
and it was obviously hungry We remember ourselves that correlative
The lion we saw was huge alert conjunctions came in pairs ……..ex:
and obviously hungry either/or, neither/nor, both/and, not
only/but also
HOMEWORK Assignment: correct the following
sentences
1) The coffee here is delicious hot and
it’s also inexpensive 1- Nelly is not only a fine doctor but
2) The lawyer asked his client to tell an accomplished curator also.
the truth And if he could provide 2- Nicaise’s new outfit is neither
evidence colourful and it isn’t well fitting
3) The rain splashes on the roof and either.
always is soaking the parch 3- Our longtime night watch…..was
4) Soda is filling, full of calorie and not only energetic and liked to be
eventually in fattening punctual also.
5) David played classical guitar, jazz
guitar and then he tried rhythm and
Correction
blues
- Creating well connected
a-2- Creating balance with parallel
sentences
verbs forms

164
Let us look at the following coordinating 4) (Addition) Our motivation for thus
conjunctions, on, and; for, not, or, growth is to provide more services
therefore, beside, but, consequently, to our customers………..we’ll be
further, furthermore, however, more ever, able to speed the results of our
yet. testing
5) (Condition)Some population are
21/03/2017; 14h – 16h
difficult to survey ………our work
 Using conjunctions to connect the would be easier.
ideas that are not equal. Trimming unnecessary words from
sentences
Ex. If we study hard our class can
win the contest.
 To connect the ideas that are not Assignment
equal, you can choose from the Simplify the following sentences
following list of conjunctions: after,
although, as, because, if, since,
though unless, when, whenever, 16/05/2017
where, whereas Expose: 9h-14h
 Using conjunctive adverbs to show Topic1: zoos aquaria’s and botanical
relationship of ideas garden. Presentation 30min, Questions.
Topic 2: History and archaeology museum
22/03/2017; 14h – 17h and heritage site
1) Conjunctive adverbs that express Topic 3: Arts institution museum and
time institutions
2) Conjunctive adverbs that express Topic 4: Science and technology museum
addition and centres.
3) Conjunctive adverbs that express
contrast TH=20h30
4) Conjunctive adverbs that express
results ARTS PLASTIQUES ET HISTOIRE
5) Conjunctive adverbs that express DE L’ART
condition
NIVEAU I 2011-2012
Assignment: Choose a conjunction from
the categorised list depending on the 14/05/2012 07h30 – 11h30
categories noted before the sentences. Grammar: Parts of speech
1) (Time) we’ll be at Nelly’s school
 Verb
this morning. We’ll visit Sandra’s
 Noun
school in the afternoon.
 Pronoun
2) (Contrast) Though the weather was
improving, our … was flooded by  Vocabulary
three coches  Reading
3) (Result) To make this change, we’ll  Auxiliary verbs
need a substantial loan ………….. I o Modal auxiliaries
will call you back. o To express degree of ability
o To express necessity
o To express uncertainty

165
o To express obligation - Interrogative Pronouns
 To be
- Demonstrative pronouns
 To have
 To do - Possessive pronouns

1- Talk about situations which are - Possessive adjective (pronouns)


permanent
Adjectives
2- Talk about general truths
*Adjective of quantity
3- Time expression after when or
* Adjective description
until
* Adjective of distinction
4- To show future planned action
connected with travel * Adjective positive, comparative and
superlative.

11/06/2012 07h30 – 11h30


APHA II
Noun
I- Word formation
- Common noun
1- Compound
- Abstract noun
2- Affixation
- Countable
3- Semantic function
- Uncountable noun
a- Pejorative
- Verbal nouns
b- Negative
- Most diseases
c- Attitude
- Collective nouns
d- Number
- Possessive nouns
e- Qualitative
- Singular nouns
f- State of mind
- Question tags
04/02/2016
4- Conversion
12/06/2012 07h30 – 11h30
a- From noun to verb
Pronouns
b- From adjective to verb
- Personal Pronouns
c- From adjective to noun
- Reflexive Pronouns
II- VOICE
- Relative Pronouns
Active voice
- Indefinite Pronouns
1- When it is not necessary to mention
- Some definite pronouns
the performer of the action.

166
2- When it is obvious, who or what Writing an application
performs the action.
09/02/2010
3- When we don’t know, do not know
Essay writing
exactly or have forgotten who or
Planning an essay
what performs the action.
Introduction
4- When the subject of the active The body
sentence is people. The conclusion
5- When the subject of the active Homework: The qualities of a friend
02/03/2010
APHA III 2013-2014
Idioms and proverbs
12/04/201412h30-14h30 Idiomatic language
1. Definition
PUNCTUATION: THE CAPITAL
2. Eliciting the meaning of a
LETTER.
proverb, an idiom or an idiomatic
The capital letter and uses
saying
Art vocabulary and exercises.
3. Activity: explaining proverbs on
What is art?
the board
The fine art?
The visual art? 04/06/2010
The plastic art?
Performance art English Translation
Pictures -How to translate a text from French to
Philosophies of art English and from English to French.
Where do you see art?
Would you buy it? -Practice
People and art Homework: Translate a passage from
What makes art special? French to English.
One or two idioms
Test your basic art vocabulary
Culture vulture or Philistine? 21/09/2017 14h-16h

02-02- 2010 - Using conjunctions to connect the


Greetings ideas that are not equal ex: if you
In the morning; at midday; in the study hard our class can win the
afternoon; in the evening; at night; formal context.
greetings; informal greetings. - To connect the ideas that are not equal
you can choose from the following list
New date / 2010 of conjunction. ex: after, although, as,
Essay writing because, if, since, though, unless,
Writing an: when, whenever, where, whereas.
Expository essay
- Using conjunctive adverb to show
Descriptive essay
relationship of ideas
Narrative essay

167
22/09/2017 14h-17h 4) Substance and gas
5) Verbal nouns
- Conjunctive adverb that express time
- Conjunctive adverbs that express Collective nouns
addition Possessive nouns: numbers singular and
ARCHITECTURE ET URBANISME I, plural
2011/2012 QUESTION TAGS
Grammar Pronouns
Parts of speech 1- Personal pronouns: singular,
plurals
 Verb
 Noun 2- Reflexive pronouns
 Pronoun
3- Relative pronouns (who, which,
Vocabulary that, whom)
Reading Test
13h00-16h00
12/06/2012 7h30 – 11h30
a) Verb
 Auxiliary verb - Indefinite pronouns (singular,
 Modals auxiliary plural)
- Interrogative pronouns
Auxiliary verb
- Demonstrative pronouns
 To be
- Possessive pronouns
 To do
 To have Adjectives: adjective and description of
 Verb inflection quantities and adjective of distinction
 Voice - Degree of comparison
 Tense
 Use of tenses - Regular comparison
 Form of the passive voice - Irregular comparison
11-06-2015 7h30 - 11h30 Evaluation
Noun
 A proper noun ARCHITECTURE ET URBANISME –
 A common noun NIVEAU IV 2014/2015
 A Concrete noun
10/02/2015 10h-14h
 A abstract noun
- Introduction uses
1) Countable nouns - Presentation of the course
2) Uncountable nouns
- Reading and explication of the
3) Some abstract nouns
text :in the mind of the architect

168
- Vocabulary of the text: in the - Public projects
mind of the architect - Private project
- Preliminary enquires
12/02/2015 8h10-12h10
- Publics projects
PUBLIC SPACE - Private projects
- Sources of information
- What is a public space? - How to win a competition
- What things can we find in a - Vocabulary
public space? - Feasibility study
- What do people do in public - Engineering design study
space?
- Project financial study
- Characteristics of a good public
- Schedule of quantities
space?
- Estimation /cost planning
- What are the negative
- Financial support
characteristics of a public
- Contingency
space?
- Vocabulary
- What can make a public space
accommodation? Overview of programme

13/02/2015 13h-16h - Basic approach to testing and


exams
Text: the perfect home
End of the semester and program for
Reading second tense
Comprehension
Explication of the vocabulary - Collection and correction of
exercise homework for next
Technical English for architects semester to read on :
- Overview of construction - - writing a project report
industry - Summarizing a text
- A historical perspective - Project which could improve
 Ancient times the welfare of communities
 Egypt and pyramid - Writing short description of
 Greek influence projects drills
PROJECT BASICS Vocabulary: matching words for
- Principles of project architecture tools and equipment
management with apt images
- Factors affecting the success of - Classifying word into categories
projects - Drills practical and oral
- Balancing three factors
- Concern of project stakeholders
Knowledge of surviving properties and
- Preliminary enquires
mechanics of construction materials
- Getting the construction work
- Finding the work - Mechanics of structure and soils
- Marketing efforts - Points to note crud drills

169
Vocabulary: textual reading 26/05/2015 3 hrs
- Health and safety on the 1.3. Time and number
construction site
-Agreement between subject and verb
- Efficiency in building types
- Surveying in architectural 1.4. Consistent verb tense in paragraphs
studies - Subject and verb agreement in number
- Surveyors-diversified
professionals - Determining agreements with
- Surveying, construction and prepositional phrases
management
27/05/2015 2hrs
- Vocabulary drill
- Structure of a technical paper Consistent verb tense in paragraphs
- Writing a bio statement
09/06/2015 2h30
- Writing Emails and common
mistakes Speech verb tenses
- Undergraduates and graduates
22/06/2015 2hrs
- Titles and greetings
- Take home assignments - Irregular verbs
- Messaging organization in the
- Conjugation of irregular verbs
language of architecture
- Architecture genres: - Sentence construction with irregular
- Abstract verbs
- Stating the problem/motivation
- Methods/ procedure/ approach
- Results/ findings/ product A.C.U. Level III 2011-2012
- Questions tags
Reports and memoire presentation
- Letter writing
A- Formal letter
B- Informal letter
16/05/2015 3h30
C- Semi-formal letter
Course introduction - TENSES
Plan distribution (program) 1- Simple present tense
2- Simple past tense
CHAPTER I: Essential elements of 3- Future tense
English - LETTER WRITING : the body
1.1. Sentences and verbs - Speech
- 1- direct speech
1.2. Sentences fragments
2- indirect speech
25/05/2015 2hrs - VOICE
- 1- active voice
- Misuse of commas
2- passive voice
- Different sentences breaks - ARTICLES
(punctuations, conjunctions) 1- The definite article
- Revision 2- The indefinite article

170
- TEXT I a- Proper noun
- TEXT II
b- Common noun
03/12/2014 14h-16h
- Plural of nouns
15/01/2015 7h-10h
Assessing students’ level
- Opposite of noun
I- Grammar revision
- Verb
II- Type of shot
- Exercise (conjugation)
III- Pre-production, production, post-
- Conjugation of verb
production
IV- Reading comprehension - Exercise

V- Translation 27/01/2015 10h-15h

VI- Expose Exposés

11/12/2014 12h-14h G1: Lighting engineer


G2: The musician
- Director
G3: The gate operator
- Assistant director
G4: The wardrops manager
- Choreographer
G5: The camera operator
- Camera operator
G6: Cinematographer
- Costumer
G7: Storyboard
- Producer and executive
producer G8: Location manager
- Cinematographer 29/01/2015 8h-14h
- Location manager G9: Costume designer
- Musician G10: Costume manager
- Production designer G11: Scriptwriter
- Clapper trader G12: Clapper loader
12/01/2015 8h-10h G13: The director
GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS G14: The assistant director
-A noun G15: The casting director
- Gender of nouns G16: The line producer
- Formation of feminine nouns G17: The editor
- Types of nouns G18: The concept artist

171
G19: The production designer b- Uncountable nouns
G20: A choreographer c- Collective nouns
G21: Subtitling in film and cinema 5- Possessive nouns
G22: Makeup artist 6- Nouns and number
G23: The producer and the executive 7- Nouns and gender
producer
13/05/2016 9h30-16h
30/01/2015 7h30-10h30
II- Verb
G24: The perch man
1- Transitive verb
G25 et 26: The production assistant
2- Intransitive verb
G27: Still photographer
3- Auxiliary verb
a- Modals
CINEMA AND AUDIOVISUAL I
b- To be
2015-2016
c- To have
12h-16h
d- To do
PRESENTATION
4- Active and passive voice
Grammar
5- Verb inflection
I- Part of speech
6- Simple present tense
1- Noun
7- Time expression: after, when or
2- Verb until
3- Adjectives III- QUESTION TAG
4- Pronouns CAV II
II- Question tag 2015-2016
III- Word formation 17/01/2015 14h-15h
IV- Voice FIRST CONTACT
12/05/2016 PRACTICAL
I- Nouns Objectives
1- Proper nouns To enable student to start somewhere and
answer a question: so this course is to
2- Common nouns
facilitate the insertion of the student
3- Concrete nouns anywhere.
4- Abstract nouns Next day
a- Countable nouns

172
How to use your vocabulary: constructing 3- Middle close up
sentences, using relative pronoun.
4- Medium shot
Grammar: the use of verb in a sentence
after the verb the second one is in the Assignment: identify the various activities
infinitive. involved in the pre-production, production
and post-production level of a film.
Assignment: write in 150 words a short
story which will be used to produce in 3 15/01/2015 12h-15h
minutes film in class.
1- Knee or 3/4 shot
2- Medium long shot MLS
3- Long shot
4- Extreme long shot or extra-long
CINEMA AND AUDIOVISUAL III shot
2014-2015
CHAPTER II: CAMERA
PLAN MOVEMENTS
I- Guidelines for pre-production I- Type of camera movements
1- Types of shot 1- Dolly shot
2- Needs budgets contracts 2- Craine
Pre-production is planning 3- Pan shot or panoramic shot
Pre-production is activities 4- Travelling shot
Preproduction finalisation Next day 9h-13h
Contracts finalisation II- Camera angles
3- Artistic preparation 1- Right angle
Preparing for the shot 2- High angle shot
Visualization 3- Low angle
Shooting schedules 16/01/2015
Carl sheets CHAPTER III: GUIDELINES FOR
PRE-PRODUCTION
Reviewing the day’s work
I- Pre-production is planning
II- Guidelines for production
II- Pre-production activities
III- Guidelines for pre-production
a- Script break down
CHAPTER I: TYPES OF SHOTS
b- Selecting the production crew
Definition
27/01/2015
1- Extreme close-up (ECU) Presentation
11/12/2014 Topic 1: pre-production
2- Close up Introduction

173
I- what is the pre-production? Revision on parts of speech
II- Activities involved in pre-
- Verbs
production
III- Importance in pre-production - Nouns(pronouns)
Conclusion - Adverbs
Topic 2: Production
I- Definition - Adjectives
A- The technical construction of the - Conjunctions
team and artiste
B- Casting - Interjections
C- The plan of shooting 03/10/2016 10h-12h
II- Turning
Conclusion Continuity of revision

Topic 3: Post- production Pronoun (subject), pronoun (object)

I- Image editing Owner pronoun


II- Sound editing 04/10/2016 13h-15h
III- Sale and distribution
Building balance sentences
Conclusion
IV- Management department 09/10/2016 13h-15h
V- Production department
Revision on building balance sentences
VI- Lighting song and camera
department Creating balance with parallel verbs forms
VII- The wardrobe manager Practice examples
VIII- the art and props manager
IX- The kamport department Creating balance with correlative
a- Linking needed prop conjunctions
b- Determining logistical needs and Plan of work
arrangements
c- Identifying and scheduling selecting Revision of last year’s work
action Distribution of topic for expose
d- Shooting equipment and post-
Making good sentence structures
production needs
e- Determining logistical needs and Building better sentences
arrangements
Building balanced sentences
f- Identifying and scheduling location
g- Shooting equipment and post- Creating balance with correlative
production needs conjunctions
1- Budget finalisation Creating balance with parallel verb forms
2- Contract finalisation
3- Special contract clause Creating well connect sentences
Using conjunctions to connect ideas that
CAV III 2016-2017
are not equal
02/10/2016 13h-15h

174
Using conjunctive adverbs to show TOPIC: CAMERA ANGLE
relations ship of ideas
Part of the basic grammar of filmmaking
Trimming unnecessary words most camera angles derive their description
from the degree to which they vary from a
PRESENTATION OF EXPOSE
mythical “standard” shot, best describe as a
Revision creating well connected sentences camera positioned at the shoulder height of
the average human straight on the subject
Examples and assignment belong this would be low angle above it
Correction of the assignment that count high angle and from this derive extreme
an half in the C A low and high angles. Clearly, the use
mechanical equipment. As 600ms and
Using conjunction to connect ideas that are helicopters increases the possibilities here.
not equal
One common though often reductive, way
Assignment of reading camera angles
Correction of assignment HOME WORK
Using conjunctive adverbs to show Conjugate 05 verbs each, using the
relationship of ideas following tenses, present, past tense and
Exercise assignment: trimming past participle, present perfect, simple
unnecessary Word from sentences future, imperfect and conditional.

Common errors in English Conjugate the verb in infinitive, present


tense, past tense and past participle
Assignment
To go, to read, to write, to drive, to fly, to
flow, to burn, to smell, to dream, to shine,
MASTER I: C.A.V to shake, to win, to wear, to fight, to forget,
to listen
12/12/2014; 7h30-11h30
Révision de la grammaire anglaise
Les différentes variantes du verbe to shoot
C A V MASTER II
Assignment: close -up, extreme close –up,
medium close-up, medium shot or three ANGLAIS PROFESSIONNEL
quarter shot, medium long shot, extreme 25/05/2015:08H-12H
long shot
- Subject
13/01/2015 9h00-12h00 - Verbs
Defining a few terms in cinematography: - Sentence fragment and run-ons

Extreme close up, very close up , close up, 09/06/201508h-10h


medium close up, medium shot, three - Sentence fragment
quarter shot, medium long shot , long shot, - Run-on
extreme long shot. - Time and number
DICTATION 10/06/201508h-10h

175
- Determining agreement with 20/06/201508h-12h
prepositional phrases
- Part of speech
- Perfect verb tenses
- Noun, pronoun
22/06/2015 14h-18h - Verb
- Adjective
Revision
- Adverb
- Sentence fragment
- Proposition
- Run-ons
- Conjunction
- Determining agreement with
- Interjection
propositional phrases
- Articles
- Perfect verb tenses.

The very first remark to make here is that the course is taught in a joint class in
Foumban and gives no room to specialist discourse embracing everybody at the same time. In
Nkongsamba, there is an effort to teach the course separately, and much effort is made,
though not always, to apply structures to specialist discourse. It is actually the case with
Cinema and Audiovisual, Museology and Heritage and Architecture, where teaching content
is found matching with and dwelling on specialty jargon, in more than one course. Thus, the
effort towards focusing the course on learner’s field in Nkongsamba is obvious, but mostly
non-existent in Foumban.

At the Institute of Fine Arts Foumban, there were instances where the course was poorly
organised over the semester. In 2012/2013, for example, the course was taught in Year I in
only two sessions. In 2014/2015, the course was still taught in two sessions of five hours each
in Year II, and in three sessions in 2015/2016. In 2016/2017, in Nkongsamba, the course was
taught in 3 sessions to museology and cultural heritage students, three sessions to year I visual
arts students in 2011/2012, two sessions to visual arts students year II in 2016/2015, eight
sessions of two hours each to year III visual arts in 2013/2014, three sessions to Year II
Architecture and Town planning students in 2011/2012, 9 sessions to Year IV Architecture
students in 2014/2015, six sessions with Year III Architecture students in 2011/2012 three
sessions to Year I Cinema and Audiovisual students in 2015/2016, six sessions with Year III
students in the same academic year, four sessions with Year III CAV in 2016/2017, and so on.
Thus, there are only few instances where the course was taught in more than six sessions.

As for teaching contents, the grammar, vocabulary and writing taught in both institutes
is not different from what is taught at the secondary level, except for a few cases in
Nkongsamba where an effort is made to handle structural items alongside specialty

176
vocabulary or specialist discourse. The only problem is that there is no clear structuring in the
course. It is quite difficult to interpret any continuity with secondary level method whether in
method or in contents, there is some focus in one of the establishments on the learners
specialties, but when these learners gain in jargon, they would not gain much in language
structure, and still, would not really be able to use the language in their specialties.

Also, findings here ascertain that course facilitators design their “syllabi”
unilaterally. Nforbi (2012) regrets the conspicuous absence of an authority at the university
who serves as reference, and who thinks and evaluates the programme. Viewing the
importance that the government places on the promotion of official bilingualism, placing it
under the immediate authority of the Presidency of the Republic, this programme needs to be
given prominence accordingly. The guidelines and contents for Bilingual training at the
university level need to be clear to every lecturer involved in this course. As a language
course, the four basic language skills need to be taught and tested, in addition to the other
professional and intercultural language skills needed by the 21st Century university student.

The different syllabi designed by lecturers cannot be considered as valid because you
cannot develop a curriculum with no regard to what has been taught before (at the basic and
secondary level), and even with regards to this, it is not because the students fail that you must
repeat what has been taught. A critical study needs to be done as to what the problem is and
where the problem is (Nforbi 2012 a). this also explains the confusion as to learners
seemingly static proficiencies as they progress at the university.

The exit profile is generally spelled out in the curriculum. When there is no curriculum,
no exit profile is determined. This entails that no one could objectively give an answer to the
question “What should a Cameroonian university graduate be able to do in English?”. This is
not consistent with the constitutional emphasis on official bilingualism, and the government’s
heavy investments to promote official bilingualism at the individual level and at the
institutional level. Normally, a French-speaking physics graduate from the University of
Yaounde I is supposed to acquire the same proficiency in English, whether General English or
English for Academic purposes, as learners of the same subject from the other universities,
and this applies to all subject areas. It was normally to be the same case for graduates from
Fine Arts Institutes, each in their specialist fields, so that, if they are to compete for
whatsoever further training or career engagement, objective grounds would have been
provided for.

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It therefore becomes the mission of this study to propose a curriculum for Bilingual
Training in English in fine Arts institutes. This curriculum will take into account the real
language needs of the students, provide a learner’s exit profile and guide course facilitators in
selecting their course contents. It will provide for a model for designing similar curricula in
other study fields.

4.1.3. Course structuring

In the discussion of course structuring in the first chapter, it was stated that a course could be
structured in modules or in units. Generally, units are built on a thematic approach and
modules on broad domains of life or in a study field. However, both approaches entail that
teaching content be organised under broader topics. The presentation of the course outline for
Year III 2016/2017 at the Institute of Fine Arts Foumban shows that the course is organized in
units, where language items (grammar, vocabulary, speech, writing, etc.) are learnt under a
theme. The other outlines retrieved from log books are basically grammatical, or reading
based. It is really difficult to define the structure of the course as analysed earlier, since
approaches differ from teacher to teacher, apart from CAVIII of 2014/2015 which looks more
like a specialty course, dealing only with specialty contents, no structural contents, and is
structured in chapters. Thus, course structuring in both establishments is very irregular.

4.1.4. Teaching methods

The method here will have to do with the course design section on the teachers’ questionnaire
on the one hand, and the learners’ appraisal of presence or absence of some methodological
items in the course from Year I to Year III (Question 13 on students’ questionnaire). The
following table presents statistics retrieved through the questionnaires.

Table 13 : Aspects of Methodology

Foumban Nkongsamba
Yes No Yes No
Question
Aspect of methodology n % n % n % n %
number
7 Use of Institute's BTE programme 0 0 2 100 0 0 2 100

8 Needs analysis a priori 1 50 1 50 1 50 1 50


9 Setting of objectives 2 100 0 0 2 100 0 0
11 Using prepared syllabus 1 50 1 50 2 100 0 0
12 Teaching through the semester? 0 0 2 100 2 100 0 0
Will a coursebook facilitate teaching /
2 100 0 0 2 100 0 0
16 learning?

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The table shows that in Foumban, both teachers do not use the institute’s programme. One of
them justifies that they rather “follow the students’ needs. Courses vary from one year to
another according to students’ needs”. The other teacher says they “did not have it from the
beginning, [they] discovered it only recently”. This shows that there is no follow up of the
course in Foumban, and that the presence of a designed programme is a pure formality. If this
is to be related to the spelling of a course description of Bilingual Training by each
department, it could therefore be interpreted that this course was prepared to be taught as a
separate course from the onset, but, probably because of financial difficulties, the course was
made one for all department, therefore providing for an escape from the various descriptions,
and the whole programme itself. In Nkongsamba, teachers do not follow the establishment’s
programme because “it does not exist”, they “only follow global objectives but no programme
for Bilingual Training [in English]; each teach designs their contents”, claims one of them.
The other teacher says something similar.

As for needs analysis, only the teacher (50%) who had been teaching BTE in Foumban
for years says they do carry out some needs analysis before teaching. The other teacher
(50%), actually, they say they “d[o] not have time for that, it is time consuming”, though they
“gave the students a diagnostic test […they] did not have time to go through it before
teaching”. The first teacher guesses the learners needs during the first class, from their
backgrounds. This guessing is the first approach adopted by 50% of the informants in
Nkongsamba, the other draws “insight from texts on the web” to design their teaching.

Concerning objectives setting, both teachers (100%) in Foumban do set objectives


before they start teaching, and both teachers in Nkongsamba as well (100%). In Foumban, one
of them had taught only Year III students, and their summary of objective there is to make the
students “able to identify the offices and services on the university campus”. This is rather
what they should do in Year I, for it pertains to First Day situations. The other teacher
summarises her objectives as follows:

- Year I: Grammar and Vocabulary: mastery of specialty terms and grammatical


structures
- Year II: Using English in writing letters and essays
- Year III: Oral language: defending a topic in the arts. Learners must sustain their
arguments

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In Nkongsamba, one of the informants insists on grammar in Year I and terminologies that go
with their specialisations in Year II. The other prepares the learners to be able to “hold
minimal dialogues on things they learn in their fields of specialty” in Year I and to talk about
their craft in Year II. Both teachers have never handled the course in Year III.

When the Foumban teachers were asked if they always follow a syllabus (actually
meaning course outline) that they had prepared to teach, 01 (50%) answered ‘yes’ and the
other (50%) ‘no’. None of them provided more details. 100% of the informants in
Nkongsamba answered the question affirmatively, though the student-researcher could not get
the said course outlines.

Both teachers in Foumban (100%) do not usually have enough time to teach the course
through the semester. Both justify that the scheduling is not good at all. They might be given
one and a half month, that is 06 weeks, for 2 hours each week. Then, 12 hours will not suffice
for the course. One and a half month is not even as much as half a semester. The other teacher
complains that “the course is generally programmed for only a week (See appendices 1 and
2). In this case they might have 05 class sessions of 04 periods each, that is 20 hours (and they
were supposed to teach 30 hours) in this case, or 03 class sessions averagely, as the other
teacher puts it. However, we must say that this academic year, 2017/2018, the course was
scheduled over the whole semester in Foumban for the very first time, and it was taught from
the month of October; teachers had enough time to teach this year. In Nkongsamba, both
teachers had enough time to teach trough the semester, because they were permanent
lecturers. The others who are only invited to teach, two other teachers, do not have enough
time, so they teach over a short period of maximum one week (actually, “just a few days”,
since “the establishment pays hotel bills for their stay in Nkongsamba” (from informal
conversation with staff).

On teaching methods, all the informants use the lecture method, the learner-centred
method and some the learner to learner method when necessary. Thus, 100% of the
informants use the eclectic method. They do not specify the frequency.

As to what aspect of language is insisted upon in teaching, vocabulary and grammar are
given the highest significance and frequencies (3 on a 0-to-4 scale). In Nkongsamba, one
teachers does reading at a frequency of 2 (both in Foumban) and the other, speaking at a
frequency of 1 (both teachers in Foumban). Thus, globally, 100% insist really much on
grammar and vocabulary, 75% insist on reading at degree 2 and 75% on speaking at 1.

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Part of question 13 on the learners’ questionnaires is evaluative, learners identify
methodological items that were present in the course since Year I and those that were not.
Their evaluation is harnessed in the following table.

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Table 14 : Learners’ identification of methodological items used in the course
Area of Decorative
Architecture Performing arts Plastic arts Cultural heritage TOTALS
study arts
Methodological items Overall
Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Fbn Nkong
Institute results
Practiced? N % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Yes 12 60 9 45 13 65 15 78.95 9 56.3 10 50 7 53.85 5 55.6 16 80 57 64.04 39 56.52 96 60.76
Translation
No 7 35 11 55 5 25 5 26.32 8 50 10 50 4 30.77 4 44.4 4 20 28 31.46 30 43.48 58 36.71
Yes 13 65 16 80 14 70 14 73.68 15 93.8 20 100 12 92.31 8 88.9 18 90 72 80.90 58 84.06 130 82.28
Explanation in French
No 5 25 4 20 0 0 6 31.58 3 18.8 0 0 0 0 1 11.1 0 0 8 8.99 11 15.94 19 12.03
Yes 9 45 10 50 15 75 16 84.21 9 56.3 0 0 2 15.38 3 33.3 14 70 49 55.06 29 42.03 78 49.37
Debates and exposés
No 9 45 10 50 10 50 4 21.05 7 43.8 15 75 11 84.62 6 66.7 4 20 41 46.07 35 50.72 76 48.10
Emphasis on Yes 10 50 12 60 1 5 16 84.21 11 68.8 2 10 5 38.46 5 55.6 8 40 35 39.33 35 50.72 70 44.30
pronunciation No 7 35 8 40 14 70 4 21.05 5 31.3 16 80 7 53.85 1 11.1 10 50 43 48.31 29 42.03 72 45.57
Focus of students’ Yes 8 40 8 40 4 20 13 68.42 7 43.8 4 20 3 23.08 6 66.7 8 40 33 37.08 31 44.93 64 40.51
study fields No 11 55 12 60 14 70 7 36.84 10 62.5 16 80 9 69.23 2 22.2 10 50 51 57.30 37 53.62 88 55.70
Yes 9 45 7 35 8 40 13 68.42 8 50 16 80 6 46.15 3 33.3 10 50 41 46.07 39 56.52 80 50.63
Adequate tutorials
No 9 45 13 65 10 50 7 36.84 10 62.5 4 20 9 69.23 5 55.6 8 40 46 51.69 29 42.03 75 47.47
Recordings, video and Yes 4 20 6 30 0 0 3 15.79 2 12.5 3 15 0 0 2 22.2 0 0 6 6.74 14 20.29 20 12.66
text on specialty issues No 15 75 14 70 16 80 17 89.47 15 93.8 17 85 12 92.31 5 55.6 18 90 76 85.39 53 76.81 129 81.65
Work study in Yes 0 0 4 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 4 5.80 4 2.53
Anglophone zone No 19 95 16 80 17 85 19 100 17 106 20 100 12 92.31 8 88.9 18 90 83 93.26 63 91.30 146 92.41
study field trip with Yes 0 0 4 20 0 0 3 15.79 1 6.25 0 0 0 0 1 11.1 0 0 1 1.12 8 11.59 9 5.70
reports No 19 95 16 80 17 85 17 89.47 16 100 20 100 12 92.31 8 88.9 18 90 82 92.13 61 88.41 143 90.51
Yes 1 5 6 30 2 10 4 21.05 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 11.1 2 10 5 5.62 11 15.94 16 10.13
Use of books in English
No 18 90 14 70 15 75 16 84.21 17 106 20 100 12 92.31 6 66.7 16 80 78 87.64 56 81.16 134 84.81
Systematic Yes 7 35 18 90 0 0 100 36.84 0 0 16 80 0 0 4 44.4 0 0 16 17.98 45 65.22 61 38.61
correction of tests and
exams No 12 60 2 10 18 90 0 0 16 100 4 20 12 92.31 6 66.7 18 90 68 76.40 25 36.23 93 58.86
Use of a manual for Yes 7 35 0 0 1 5 0 0 9 56.3 4 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 19.10 16 23.19 33 20.89
BTE No 11 55 20 100 17 85 20 100 7 43.7 16 80 12 92.31 9 100 18 90 66 74.16 53 76.81 119 75.32

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Students may answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ in identifying the methodological items used in the
course by their lecturers between year I and year III. Actually, they may have been taught by
different lecturers, in the same field of study (there are those who repeat a level and others
join them the next year, where the lecturer could be changed), and this leads to some
methodological changes. The higher percentage here will establish the more frequent
methodologies. Another aspect of varying opinions is that the Bilingual training course is not
taught the same way in Foumban as in Nkongsamba where it is a joint course and has become
to be a separate course respectively. Results shall be interpreted for each item.

- Translation

In all the disciplines, the majority of informants in Foumban acknowledge that translation
is practised in the course. In Nkongsamba, it has not been practised for 55% of students in
Architecture, and 50% in the Plastic arts, 78% in the Performing arts and 55.6% in cultural
heritage. Thus, translation appears to be privileged in BTE methodologies. The overall
results confirm it.

- Explanation in French

In both establishments and in all the subject areas, explanation in French dominates, and ‘no’
bears percentages lower than 50 all through the table. 80.90% acknowledge it in Foumban,
84.06% in Nkongsamba and, overall, 82.28% of the informants.

- Debates and exposés

This strategy for proficiency development in speech is at 50-50 both in Foumban and in
Nkongsamba. This approach has also been greatly used with students in the performing arts in
both institutions, and the other disciplines except cultural heritage in both institutions, and
Plastic arts in Nkongsamba. All over, 55.06% of students in Foumban acknowledge the use of
debates and exposés in the BTE course, 50.72 in Nkongsamba do not.

- Emphasis on pronunciation

There is a higher acknowledgement of an accent on pronunciation in Architecture (both


Foumban and Nkongsamba), in the performing arts in Nkongsamba, the plastic arts in
Foumban, and cultural heritage in Foumban. Elsewhere, the percentage is lower than 50.
48.31% of the respondents in Foumban think that this item is absent from classroom practices
and 50.72% in Nkongsamba think the contrary for their establishment.

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- Focus on students’ subject areas

BTE in Foumban does not focus on students’ disciplines; the percentage for this is lower than
50% all through the table. In Nkongsamba, 68.42% of the Cinema and Audiovisuals students
acknowledge this focus, as well as 66.7% in Cultural heritage.
- Adequate tutorials

There are enough exercises for tutorials for 68.42 % Performing arts students and 66.7 %
plastic arts students in Nkongsamba. 56% of Nkongsamba students think that they have
enough tutorials in BTE. On the contrary, Foumban students in all the areas of study
acknowledge the adequacy of tutorials at less than 50%. This may really be a problem in
helping them internalise the learning contents.
- The use of recordings, videos, texts on specialist discourse, work study, field trips
in Anglophone zones and the use of a BTE manual.

As part of the BTE teaching/learning process, these methodological items are overwhelmingly
identified as absent from the course in both institutes. The lowest percentage throughout is
55.6% with cultural heritage in Nkongsamba. The very few students who answered ‘yes’ may
have used these items themselves but outside the framework of BTE.
- The systematic correction of tests and exams

Students in all the disciplines in Foumban acknowledge that the correction of tests and exams
is not systematic, actually, it seems to be extremely rare to have corrections of whether tests
or exams in Foumban, for the three years we spent there. It seems to be rather the reverse in
Nkongsamba where in all the study areas, almost 100% of the respondents acknowledge that
tests and exams are consistently corrected. This means that there is a better follow up in
Nkongsamba than in Foumban.

It should be noted that correction of exams and tests is very important for learning. It
provides no security for the learner. The questions ‘how was I to answer the questions?’,
‘what was I to write’ and ‘why did I make such and such mistake?’ would never be answered.
The ideal here is that all learners receive answers to all their questions, and correction for all
formative evaluation (tests, continuous assessment) and all summative evaluation (exams)
they undergo, so they can learn from their own mistakes. This aspect will be emphasised in
the curriculum proposed in this volume.

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- The use of a BTE manual

Only the performing arts students in Foumban claim to have used a manual for Bilingual
Training in English. They may have been confused between handouts and a manual, for no
has been used there since 2009. In all the other disciplines, the higher percentage goes for ‘no’
and rises close to 100%

4.1.5. Materials

All the informants (100%), both in Foumban and in Nkongsamba agree that the
teaching/learning of BTE would be much easier if a course book were adequately designed to
accompany the course, provided that the course book takes into account the real needs of the
students. One informant in Nkongsamba insists that the said course book should “contain
materials that would help in the teaching of ESP”.

As for materials, that is, teaching aids, chalk and board is solicited by all four
informants (100%) at the highest degree. All these teachers (100%) use handouts at various
levels of frequency, and two (50%), one in Foumban and one in Nkongsamba, bring works of
art in the classroom for lectures. They all (100%) use the Internet for lesson preparation.

4.1.6. Testing

It is widely accepted that learners are to be tested on what they have been taught. Testing that
does not spring from teaching/learning content does not reflect pedagogy. Testing reveals
teaching content, or at least part of it. Here are a few exam papers collected at the Institute of
Fine Arts Foumban. These are the exams written in three years (from 2012 to 2017), from
Year I to Year III. The names of institutions and examiners were taken away for ethical
reasons. We shall group them according to learners’ level, so as to put a finger on their
patterns.

YEAR I

Test paper F-101

SECTION A: GRAMMAR (10marks)

A/ Choose the correct answer from the list of verbs in brackets (5mks)

a) They………………………………..school now.( will go, went, had gone, to go)

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b) Susan…………………………… her teeth every day. ( brushes, brushed, had brush, to
brush)
c) He………………………………….. The food slowly yesterday (to eat, eats, had eaten, ate)
d) My mother………………………….rice and fish presently. ( is cooking, cooked, will cook,
to cook)

e) The artist ……………………..already……………….. the drawing (paints, has painted,


painting, to paint)

B- Fill in the blanks with the appropriate quantifiers chosen from the list (5mks)

FEW, A FEW, A LITTLE, ENOUGH, SOME, MANY, NO, A LOT OF, SOME, MANY.

1. Give me a _______ minutes to finish. I will certainly need ___________more time.


2. Add ________________salt in that dye there is ____________________ of colour
3. There are __________________children in the class but _______________ are intelligent.
4. Do you have ________________money to buy the camera?__________ will like to have it.
5. There is _____________water in the bucket please go and fetch___________

SECTION B: VOCABULARY (10marks)

A/ Complete the following sentences with the nouns below. (5mks)

Noisy, windy, tasty, healthy, dirty

a) The children are…………………………because they keep clean and they eat well.

b) This table is very………………please can you clean it?


c) It is very …………………..everyone is shouting.

d) You are a good cook and your food is………………..

e) It is not rainy outside but it is very………………

B. Write the antonym of each underlined word. (5marks)

e.g. Big shoes are unfashionable. Fashionable

a) The hippopotamus is an ugly animal. ___________________

b) I frown when my mother gives me little food. ____________________

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c) The road to my school is narrow. _____________________

d) You can’t separate art from creation. ____________________

e) Young girls are repulsive when they are angry. ____________________

Test paper F-102

1. Put the verbs in bracket in the present continuous tense

a) Can you wait a moment, please? Your computer___________________ (repair)


now

b) The man told me that those trees______________________ (cut) down soon

c) _________ the students from the fine arts institute ________________ (present) their
performance next week?

2. Put the verbs in brackets in their correct form


a) If the boy___________(work) hard, he will be the best of the competitors
b) The fashion designer would have organized a fashion parade, if
she_______________(finish) sewing the apparels
c) If Paul and Betty ________________(go) in for the competition, they would be
awarded.
3. Use a future marker, APART FROM “WILL OR SHALL”, to complete these sentences.
Make sure you put it in the correct form

a) My father__________________ to buy a new computer for me next year


b) The girls ___________________ to design the garments but they noticed that their
drawing tools were at home.
c) We __________________ to attend the English lesson when the teacher asked us to go for
the painting workshop.
4. Put “A” or “AN” before each of the following

a) _______ European; b) ____ umbrella c)___union; d)____uncle; e)______uniform;


f) ______hotel; g)________hour; h)____ heir; i)_____helpful person; j)_____ chicken

5. Put “THE” or “Ø” in the spaces provided

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a) My father lives in___________ Douala

b) _______Republic of Cameroun is a peaceful country

c) Eto’o plays for _________Manchester United

d) Paul studies_______ architecture in IFAF while Mary does________music

e) _______malaria is a dangerous illness as compared to_______AIDS

6. Put in “DO” or “DOES” in each blank space

a) __________ you know his brother? What ________he do in the university?

b) How________they manage to get home so early? _______ somebody give them a lift?

c) When __________ the secretary want to see us? _______ the other members of the
committee know about this?

7. Put “IS” or “ARE” in each blank space

a) I hope everybody _______ happy today; the holidays ________ about to start and this ____
the end of the semester

b) Her hands ________small; the shape of her hands _________unusual

c) All the equipment for the music workshop______old-fashioned but some of it_____still
quite useful.

Test paper F-103

1. Put the correct forms of the verbs into the gaps


1. Atangana always_______________ questions during the English lessons (give)
2. Everyday, Emana ________________ flowers in the garden flying in the sky ( admire)
3. I usually______________ my friends during the painting workshop (meet)
4. Last year our lecturer and us ____________ a trip to Yaounde to visits the national
museum (make)
5. The weather ____________ really nice yesterday (be)
6. The students ___________just__________ their assignment (finish)
7. The boy __________ already___________ (buy) the paint
8. There were no meat left when my mother came back. The children_____________ it
all (eat)

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9. It _____________________ for two months, so the land was dry (not/ rain)
10. The performers ____________________ now so don’t go ( dance)
2. Complete these sentences so that it should correspond to the expression of conditions
1. If I___________ (go) to the cinema, I will watch Titanic
2. We ________________ (play) football, if the rain does not fall
3. Paul should see the doctor if he ___________ (have) temperature
4. If Tim and Thomas were older, they____________________ (take) part in the
competition
5. Fandio would visit Peter, if he ______________ (live) in Foumban
6. If I came home earlier, I __________________ the dinner (prepare)
7. If I had gone to the market, ________________ the chicken (buy)
8. We would have taken the child out of danger if we ________________ there on time
(go)
9. If John had learned more words, he _________________a good report (write)
10. If they boys__________________ to the festival, they would have seen their
school performance
3. Use much, many, something, someone, somewhere or anything, anyone, anywhere into
the gaps.
1. I've got in my eye.
2. We haven't heard about Peter. Is he ill?
3. Do you live near Bonamoussadi ?
4. There isn't __________ milk left in the fridge.
5. You shouldn't eat so __________ sweets.
6. My friend doesn't eat ___________ fruit.
7. They don't know ________ about the history of their country.
8. I don't have ___________ time to practise basketball.
4. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the adjectives given.
1. A rock is than a leaf. (heavy)
2. Our house is than yours. (big)
3. The princess is than the witch. (beautiful)
4. Tom is a student than Mary. (good)
5. Which is the subject at school? (difficult)
6. Jim is the player in the football team. (good)
7. Elephants are the animals. (heavy)

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8. Let's pick the apple of the tree. (big)
9. Mary is the girl in the class. (thin)
10. Ben was the person in his family. (noisy)
5. Name and describe any cultural or artistic ceremony you have attended and say why it
was interesting.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________ .

YEAR II

Test paper F-201

SECTION A. GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 10MKS


A/ Chose the correct preposition from those in brackets and fill in the blank spaces.
a) The students are ………. the classroom. (on, in)
b) Please, let us go …….... school. (to, at)
c) The thief jumped ...........the fence.(over, on)

C/Fill the empty spaces with “who” or “which” “what”


a) This is the boy ……………stole my pen.
b) Here is the pen ……………he gave me.
c) At …………… time will you be living

B/ Match the following words in column A with their corresponding meaning in column
B. Write your answer in the space provided. The first one has been done for you as
example.

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A Answer B
Example: To cut down or
To reduce to transport or lift
diminish
Not sick tasty
Do not forget health
To carry remember
Good and nice to eat To cut down or diminish
A disease an illness

SECTION B: READING COMPREHENSION (10mks)

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. We all need water .We need
it for drinking for cooking, painting, moulding and for washing. We use a lot of water for
growing crops. Without water, everything dies. Our planet has a lot of water, but much of it is
in the oceans and seas; this is salt water and we cannot drink it. But we can drink fresh water.
All our fresh water comes from rain. Rain runs into streams and stream run into rivers and
lakes. In my country people build dams on rivers; then they can have plenty of water.
Sometimes, the rain goes through the earth and makes lakes under the ground. People then dig
wells to get the water.

Some countries are very dry. In Botswana, for example, rains usually come in November; but
in some years, there is no rain. Then there is a drought. Animals and crops die. The sun burns
the land and the people have nothing to eat; so rain is very important. The name for rain in
Botswana is “pula” .pula is a gift from God. You see, a man can live for three weeks without
food , but can only live for three or four days without water. Water is the most important thing
in the world.

Questions
(1)- What do we use water for?

(2)- Why can we not drink water from the sea?

(3)- Where does fresh water come from?

(4-) What happens when there is a drought?

(5)- For how long can a man live without water?

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Test paper F-202

Text: Landslide

A landslide, also known as a landslip, is a geological phenomenon that includes a wide range
of ground movements. Although landslides are primarily associated with mountainous
regions, they can also occur in areas of generally low relief. In Cameroun it is becoming a
menace to the live of the population in some cities. This is the reason why, the Minister of
Urban Development and Housing has said that the population living in risky areas should
vacate their residence because of its vulnerability to landslides and other natural disasters. The
Minister made this recommendation during a work session with stakeholders on Sunday 9;
august, 2009 following the recent landslides in Bamenda. He made the call after engineers of
the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing realized the need to minimize the degree of
risk involved in living around areas of natural disasters.

This year the City of Douala witnessed a very serious deluge that took away lives and
destroyed significant properties. Yet with the call of the administration to vacate such
precarious areas, population is still reluctant to abide to the decision. Consequently, the
Government Delegate has taken serious measures to pull out resistant population from these
dangerous places.

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS FOLLOWING THE INSTRUCTIONS. RESPECT


THE ORDER OF NUMBERING CHRONOLOGICALLY.

Section A: Reading Comprehension

Choose the letter corresponding to the correct answer and write it in the examination
booklet

1. What is landslide? (0.5mk)

a) It is a normal phenomenon

b) It is a geological phenomenon that includes a wide range of ground movements.

c) It is a phenomenon that is beyond human control

d) A dangerous catastrophe for populations living in risky areas.

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2. Who has decided that the population should go away from dangerous areas and why?
(1mk)

a) The Head of state because he wants to build a modern stadium for the 2019 African Cup

b) The Government Delegate of the Douala city, because people are happy to give out their
properties

c) The Minister of Urban Development and Housing since those residing in these areas are
exposed to landslides, floods and other natural disasters.

d) The population has noticed the danger and sees the necessity to go away.

3. When was the recommendation taken? (1mk)

a) It was taken 6 years ago after competent engineers realized the need to take seriously the
risk involved in living around areas of natural disasters.

b) It was taken after the Douala flood, after many people died.

c) It was taken yesterday after the dead of two girls in the far north.

d) It was taken 6 years ago following the landslides in Bamenda.

4. Why has the Government Delegate of the Douala city decided to take serious
measures? (1mk)

a) Because the population do not want to leave their houses for his business

b) Because he wants to disturb the population

c) Because he wants to save the life of the population

d) Because they are stubborn.

5. From the above text, which are the towns witnessing natural catastrophes?(1mk)

a) Yaounde, Douala and Bamenda

b) Bamenda, Douala and Ngaoundere

c) Bamenda and Douala

d) Maroua and Bamenda

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Section B: Grammar and vocabulary (Choose the letter corresponding to the correct
answer and write it in the examination booklet)

6. “The Minister of Urban Development and Housing has said the population living in risky
areas should vacate their residence because of its vulnerability to landslides” (1.5mks)

i) Which is the appropriate synonym to the word landslide in this sentence?

a) Victory; b) Avalanche; c) Rout; d) Win


ii) Give the opposite of the word vacate

a) Fill; b)stay; c) go; d) clear out


iii) Vulnerability in the above sentence means

a) to be defenseless; b) to be hardworking; c) to be susceptible; d) to be prepared

7. “This year the City of Douala witnessed a very serious deluge that took away lives and
destroyed significant properties.” (1mk)

i) The underlined words in the sentence are

a) Nouns; b) prepositions; c) adjectives; d) adverbs


ii) “This year the City of Douala witnessed a very serious deluge” what is the tense in this

sentence?

a) Present simple tense; b) past continuous tense; c) past simple tense

8. Complete these sentences by choosing the letter corresponding to the answer (3mks)

i) The Minister has not_________ taken the decision.

a) already; b) still; c) when; d) yet

ii) _______ the population does not vacate they will suffer from floods.

a) since; b) when; c) if; d) after

iii) While the engineers __________ the population was looking at them.

a) are working; b) will work; c) were working; d) was working

iv) The population should stop______

a) being stubborn; b) vacate; c)always be looking; d) heated

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v) The Government Delegate________ just_________ to us what to do.

a) have explained; b)has explained; c) had been explaining; d) will be explaining

vi) ______ Flood is dangerous it will be nice we leave this place.

a) for; b) though; c) since; d) ever since

Section C: Essay writing (10mks)

Write an essay on any of the following topics. Not more than 200 words

08. Can arts and culture contribute to the development of a nation?

09. Causes and consequences of natural disasters

10. The day I shall never forget.

Test paper F-203

1. After giving the comparative and superlative forms of the adverbs bellow, use them to
complete the sentences that follow so that they can make sense

a) Badly _________ ____________


b) Well _________ _____________
c) Little ________ _____________
d) Much _________ ______________

i) He draws well but his brother draws even ______________


ii) The student didn’t play very well yesterday but I think they will do _______ today
iii) I had some problems last year with my workshop, this year I think it will be _____
iv) The boy paints ________________ faster than the girl
v) All three of them can drive but Atanga drives the _________ carefully
vi) During the debate George spoke badly but his friend spoke even_______than he did
vii) One of the six competitors in the dance sport event, Bellati danced the quick
step______________

2. Insert MORE or MOST where necessary in the following sentences

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a) Exams this year are________________difficult than last year
b) This man is the ___________best architect in the region
c) Afitati is ____________taller than the brother
d) George is the ____________ skillful of the forwards but he is not the _______ successful

3. Look at this table and then answer the questions completely in your examination booklet

Marks in
Age Height Weight Shoe size an English
test
Boys
Belli 16 1,0m 44 39 40%
Paul 14 1,0m 40 29 56%
Azema 18 1,45 m 56 40 78%
Girls
Atallia 14 1,0m 46 29 56%
Fany 18 1,40m 55 26 65%
Annetta 25 1,55m 60 39 53%

A) Who is best at English?

B) Which girl is better than Belli at English language and having the same height?

C) Whose shoes are smaller than Paul’s?

D) Do boys perform well at English than girls?

E) Make a comparison between Paul, Annetta and Azema in a sentence so much so that all the
elements in the above table appear

4. Use an adverb of similar meaning in place of the underlined words

a) He always arrives at the right time

b) He opened the door in a cautious manner

c) They came to see us from time to time

d) The sculpture was not seen in the museum because of the bad quality of the light

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Test paper F-204

Complete this text with the following


although, However, although, because, because, but, Although, Although, but

Dear Jane,
It's wonderful to hear from you. Of course I remember you, _______________it's been over
ten years since or last meeting. Who gave you my address? It was great to learn a bit about
you and your family. You asked what I'm doing at the moment, so here's some of my news.
First of all - I married John! I know you never liked him very much, so you'll probably be
pleased to hear that we're now divorced._______________, we still see each other a lot
_______________we have two children. The twins are now six and they're good boys,
____________of course, they're sometimes a bit difficult to handle. We moved from
Birmingham ______________I didn't want the boys to grow up in a big city. Now, we live in
an old farmhouse in Wales. It's really beautiful ___________it's expensive to look after
because it's so old. ________________John still lives in Birmingham, he often visits and the
boys always spend part of their holidays with him. I know you're busy ____________I'd love
to see you again. Maybe you can come over and meet my new husband. Yes, I'm married
again. Do you remember Harry King? ______________I could never get on with him when
we were young, we somehow fell in love.
We got married a year ago.
I can't wait to hear more of your news, so write very soon.
Exercise 2:
Choose the correct answer: BECAUSE, SINCE, SO THAT, DUE TO, ORDER TO, AS
A RESULT OF, BECAUSE, IN ORDER TO, IN ORDER TO, SO THAT
1. I phoned _____________I need to speak to you
2. ___________it's his birthday on Monday, he's having a party.
3. We're leaving now, ____________we can arrive early.
4. We stayed at home ______________the rain.
5. She went on a diet in ________________lose weight.
6. _________________the pilots' strike, all flights have been cancelled.
7. _________________the bus was late, I missed the meeting.
8. I'm going to travel by bus _______________save costs.
9. __________________understand how the human body works, you need some knowledge

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of chemistry.
10. She started to use email _______________she could send messages more quickly.

Exercise 3: Tick the correct linking word

Furthermore
1. Eating well is important for good health. _______________, it helps to make
Moreover
you more attractive.
Because

Moreover
2. The apartment is very pretty and, _______________, the rent is quite low. Hence
instead

Therefore
3. Research has shown that bright yellow and bright blue are the most visible, and
So that
_______________ safest, colours for cars.
Since
Hence
4. Our production costs have increased, _______________ our prices have gone
Therefore
up as well.
otherwise

otherwise
5. You'd better work on improving your pronunciation; _______________, you'll
Because
fail the speaking test.
so

Despite
6. She has decided to stay with her husband _______________ the fact that he
Likewise
cheated on her with her best friend.
since
Nevertheless
7. I'm not really interested in history, but the lecture was quite interesting
So
_______________.
Hence
Whereas
8. _______________ most substances shrink when they are cooled, water actually
Because
expands.
therefore

Although
9. ____________ each individual is unique, members of the same species share
Though
certain obvious common features.
Hence
in fact
10. No, I don't want to go to dinner with you. ____________, I'd like you to stop
because
asking me out, because I'm really not interested.
whereas
Unless
11. There is no wind on the moon, so ____________ someone disturbs them, an
Until
astronaut's footprints will last forever!
because

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However
12. A snake has no ears; ____________, its tongue is extremely sensitive to sound
Therefore
vibrations.
since
instead
13. I tried to phone you, but I dialled the wrong area code, and got someone living
because
in Louisiana ____________.
hence
Consequently
14. He was weakened by the disease, and ____________ vulnerable to infection. Therefore
instead

Exercise 4: Choose 'despite', 'however' or 'although'.


Despite, Although, However, despite, However, Although, however, although, Despite,
despite, Although, however, However, Despite, Although
1) __________________ the rain, we still went to the park.
2) __________________ it was raining, we still went to the park.
3) It was raining. __________________, we still went to the park.
4) John bought the watch, __________________ the fact that it was expensive.
5) John bought the watch. __________________, it was expensive.
6) __________________ it was expensive, John bought the watch.
7) I finished the homework. It, __________________, wasn't easy..
8) I finished the homework, __________________ it wasn't easy.
9) __________________ the fact that it wasn't easy, I finished the homework.
10) She went for a long walk, __________________ being cold.
11) __________________ she was cold, she went for a long walk.
12) She was cold. She went for a long walk, __________________ .
13) The restaurant has a good reputation. __________________, the food was terrible.
14) __________________ the restaurant's good reputation, the food was terrible.
15) __________________ the restaurant has a good reputation, the food was terrible.

YEAR III

Test paper F-301

Write a composition of not more than 250 words on one of these topics.

1. Clyde Kuckhohn writes

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“The people of Africa, like all people of the world, are inseparable from their history and
culture, for their history is the record of what they did, thought and said; and their culture is
the totality of their ideas, concepts and values that characterize their societies. These cultural
elements are manifested in their literature (oral as well as written), religions, social, economic
and political institutions, music and dance, arts and drama, and their languages – all these in
turn have been and still are profoundly influenced by their environments.”
From the above citation, show how it is important for students in arts school to master their
culture.
2.

Make a comparative and contrastive description of the above pictures from the
different point views of picture description seen in class.

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Test paper F-302
INSTRUCTIONS:
1. ANSWER ON THIS QUESTION PAPER. 2. DO NOT WRITE YOUR NAME ON THIS
PAPER

SECTION I: GRAMMAR (10mks)


1. Put the verbs in the appropriate forms and tenses. (5mks)

A. If her parents____________(come) to the ceremony when she was a student,


she____________________(feel) ashamed of them.
B. Atabong _______________(change) since he_______________(go) to the university.
C. Alima was afraid her friend________________(tell) her parents the truth.
D. They were proud that Kwenti________________(obtain) her degree.

2. Use the following link words in the sentences, rephrasing them when necessary. Each word
must be used once only: Thanks to, unlike, so.... that, in order to (5mks)

a) Life was very difficult for the parents. The mother had become faded and anxious.
___________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
b) Her parents would have loved to go. They were not invited to the ceremony.
___________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
c) They had sacrificed themselves. They wanted to help their daughter to get a good
education.
___________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
d) She had been successful at school. Her parents' encouragements had helped her.
___________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

SECTION II- VOCABULARY (10 marks)

I- Write the opposite of the underlined words. (5marks)

a) I was careful with my bag, I can’t find it. ___________________________


b) The angry student jumped out of the classroom. ___________________________
c) Young boys and girls were playing behind the house. __________________________

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d) During the ceremony, I gave a gift to the groom. ______________________________
e) There are many bilingual students in my school. _____________________________

II. Match words from column A with answers in column B. Then, write the new words in the
space provided. (5 marks)

Column A Column B Answer


a) Wedding 1. fees e.g. School fees
b) Spokes 2. rights
c) Police 3. nets
d) Human 4. cake
e) Mosquito 5. person
f) School 6. raid

Test paper F-303


Text: Fashion in the 1960’s

The 1960’s opened with the simple A-line dress. Most dresses were very simple and so
accessories were both expressive and bold. Some fashion history writers have called this era
the “Great masquerade.” The 60’s was a time of action, violence, protest, rebellion,
experimentation, and counterculture. Dramatic events took place during this decade and
dramatic changes in fashion occurred. The 60-70’s provided to the youth both in advertising
and production in the clothing industry. Teenagers had money to spend and enjoyed keeping
up with the latest trends. During these years two sets of fashion developed side by side:
fashion for the young and fashion for the rest of society.

There were three major movements during the 60’s that helped to shape fashion amongst
which we can mention: Firstly, the Civil Rights Movement sparked an impressive move to
ethnic fashion. Blacks and whites alike found interest in the African colours and prints. The
expression of the day was “Black is Beautiful.” Secondly, the Women’s Liberation Movement
caused women to burn their bras and wear men’s clothing. The “unisex” clothing, clothing
worn by both sexes, is a result of this movement coupled with the sexual revolution that was
taking place at the same time. Girls turned to pants because they preferred the long, clean,
“liberating” line. Boys wore embroidered shirts and beads because peasant embroidery and
bright colours offered liberation from the notion of what had been masculine taste for 150
years. 1960s fashion was influenced by the excitement surrounding space exploration and the

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first moon landing. Innovative synthetic materials like polyester, plastic, PVC and vinyl
enjoyed huge popularity throughout the decade.

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS FOLLOWING THE INSTRUCTIONS.


RESPECTTHE ORDER OF NUMBERING CHRONOLOGICALLY.

Section A: Reading Comprehension (Choose the letter corresponding to the correct


answer and write it in the examination booklet)

1. What characterizes Fashion in the 60’s (0.5mk)

a) A-line and shabby dresses

b) Very complex style for men and women.

c) Simple A-line dress and most dresses were very simple

d) Simple dresses and accessories were both expressive and bold.

2. Which type of events or actions marked fashion designing? (1mk)

a) Violence, protest, rebellion, experimentation, and counterculture.

b) Fête champêtre, violence, counterculture

c) Teenagers had money to spend.

d) This period gave to the youths advertising and production in the clothing industry.

3. Which are the types of fashion that developed in the 60’s (1mk)

a) This period provided fashion for the young and that for the rest of the society.

b) Black is beauty determined the fashion trend.

c) Women, young as well as the men had their own fashion.

d) There were many types of fashion for both the young and the rest of the society.

4. There were three major movements during the 60’s that helped to shape fashion
amongst which we can mention. (1mk)

a) The Civil Rights Movement sparked an impressive move to ethnic fashion. Blacks and
whites alike found interest in the African colours and prints.

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b) The Women’s Liberation Movement caused women to burn their bras and wear men’s
clothing.
c) The “unisex” clothing, clothing worn by both sexes, is a result of this movement coupled
with the sexual revolution

d) The Civil Rights Movement sparked an impressive move to ethnic fashion and the
Women’s Liberation Movement gave birth to the “unisex” clothing.

5. The expression of the day was?(1mk)

a) “Black is Beautiful.”
b) “Blacks are Beautiful.”
c) “Black’s Beautiful.”
d) “Black is Beautifully.”
Section B: Grammar and vocabulary (Choose the letter corresponding to the correct
answer and write it in the examination booklet)
1. “ In the 60’s improved fabrics and mass production techniques meant that clothes could be
produced much faster and more cheaply than ever before.” (1mk)

i) Which is the appropriate synonym to the word fabric in this sentence?

a) material; b) textile; c) garment; d) dresses


ii) Give the antonym of the word cheaply

a) expensively; b) luxuriously; c) heavily; d) economically

2. “Fashion was influenced by the excitement surrounding space exploration and the first
moon landing. Innovative synthetic materials like polyester, plastic, PVC and vinyl enjoyed
huge popularity throughout the decade. (1.5mks)

i) The underlined words in the sentence are

a) Nouns; b) prepositions; c) adjectives; d) adverbs


ii) “Innovative synthetic materials like polyester, plastic, PVC and vinyl enjoyed huge
popularity throughout the decade.” what is the tense in this sentence?

a)Present simple tense; b) past continuous tense; c) past simple tense; d) Future tense
iii) The underlined word in the above sentence can be replaced by:

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a) then; b) if; c) so; d) also
3. Complete these sentences by choosing the letter corresponding to the answer (3mks)

i) Young people love_________ short dresses. a) putting in; b) putting on; c) put on; d) put
off
ii) The “unisex” clothing is a result of the sexual revolution. Which of the following
expressions best replace the underlined one in this sentence?

a) is a consequence of; b) is the outcome in ; c) is the importance of; d) is the product

iii) __________to the longevity of Coco Chanel’s designs, her life story continues to captivate
people’s attention. a) in addition; b) although; c) after; d) moreover

iv) There __________several biographies of the fashion revolutionary, including Chanel and
Her World. a) have been; b) has been; c) had being; d) will be

v) Famed fashion designer Coco Chanel was born Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel ______August
19, 1883. a) of ; b) in; c) on; d) under

vi) ____________Girls turned to pants because they preferred the long, clean, “liberating”
line, boys wore embroidered shirts and beads. a) While; b) though; c) when; d) ever since

Section C: Essay writing (10mks)

Write an essay of not more than 200 words on any of the following topics.

01. The arts domain or field I like most and why?


02. Tell us how you prepare your day before going to school.
03. What do you think about unisex clothing?

Test paper F-304

Write an INTRODUCTION and a CONCLUSION for one of the following topics

1. Arts
2. Comment this assertion: “culture is indispensable for development”
3. Nature

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Test paper F -305

Answer all the questions of Section A, and one question in Section B. Poor grammar and
spelling will be penalised
SECTION A
1. In the form of a diagram, present the use of articles in English. Illustrate each case with one
sentence. (6 marks)
2. Write the letter corresponding to the sentence followed by the correct word that completes the
sentence. (4 marks)
a. Because of the … phenomenon, Africa trains one third of her graduates for export to
the developed nations.
b. Only the department of Architecture and Engineering Art has an … of over 40
students in Level One each year.
c. University evaluation is in two phases: … which constitutes 30 per cent of the marks,
and end of semester examination which carries 70 per cent of the marks.
d. The person who conducts activities in a department is called the ….

SECTION B
3. Write five separate sentences containing strong arguments to support this point of view:
“Higher education is more demanding than secondary education” (10 marks)
4. Ateba has passed the competitive exam into the Institute of Fine Arts Foumban. She
wants to go through the registration process. Using numbers ( 1. …, 2. …, 3. …, etc.),
give her the steps to follow. (10 marks)

Test paper F-306

Complete with your own words. Poor grammar or spelling will be penalised. Do not copy the
sentences. Write the number of the sentence, followed by the corresponding answer (2 marks
X 10 = 20 marks)
01. Mr Hudson is a …, he is in search for a wife.
02. Mr Fomethe has published many articles and textbooks in physics, he is a …
03. While the minister delivered her speech, the … listened attentively.
04. The teacher is not … at our poor results, because she is really teaching.
05. The two boys went home, … a conversation on Cameroon’s victory.

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06. Yesterday, we had … at 1.00 p.m., the food was delicious.
07. Over the last two years, the Government has built many football … nationwide, including
one in Bafoussam and one in Limbe.
08. The … assist the Vice-Chancellor, Dean or Director, in administering their institutions.
09. If you write a letter to the Vice-Chancellor, you must send it through the …, at the
chancellery.
10. Today, registration begins on the internet. Students withdraw a … online so as to pay the
registration fee at the bank.

INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS NKONGSAMBA


Year I
Test paper N - 101 (Architecture and Town planning, Plastic Arts)
Attempt all the exercises in the light of the context
A) Form verbs from the following nouns
Departure, receipt, refusal, criticism, satisfaction, exhibition, belief, importance, deception,
reception
B) Turn the following statements into questions by adding question tags
1) He is reading English.
2) She needs a new dress
3) They used to live in Nkongsamba
4) He doesn’t need this book
5) Marconi didn’t invent the television
6) Peter collects stamps
7) Jonah will visit us
8) Elanga wrote a letter last night
9) We play football every Sunday
10) We can have the window closed.

C) Give short responses to the following questions. Write only the responses.
1) He has arrived, hasn’t he?
2) I am doing better this year than last year, aren’t I?
3) She used to smoke cigarettes, didn’t she?
4) Was she there?

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5) Would she come?
6) Did he lock the door?
7) Have you seen him?

D) Complete the following sentences using comparative or superlative form where


necessary
1) Sule works (hard) any boy in the class
2) Jim stayed (long) anyone else.
3) Paul (known) in Douala than other towns in Cameroon
4) Her character is (bad) his.
5) English is (difficult) French
6) This exercise is (difficult) of all
7) Douala is (big) Buea
8) My computer is (beautiful) my friend’s.

E) Choose the more suitable word from the brackets and then put it in its correct form.
1) Bicycle racing is (dangerous, safe) than playing football.
2) The Pacific Ocean is the (large, cold) of all the oceans in the world.
3) In law, banditry is (bad, good) than theft. It is a (friendly, serious) offence and carries
a (small, great) penalty.

Test paper N - 102 – area of study unspecified

1. Use each of the following verbs in sentences transitively and actively. In all write five
sentences. Tell, grow, contribute, serve, possess
2. Turn the sentences in 1. Above from active to passive sentences.
3. Identify the affix and show its effects on the following words: polygamy, sadness,
politician, unstable, students, learning, locked, antisocial, engineer, artist.
4. For each word write two sentences, so that each word performs two grammatical
functions. Young, nurse, house, successful, mail.
Example: brush
The painter is using the brush (noun)
They brush their shoes everyday (verb)

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Test paper N - 103 – Plastic Arts / Architecture and Town planning
Attempt all the exercises.
1) What is the sum of 5/3 + 3/5 – ½ + ½ =
2) How is ¾ read in English?
3) Which arithmetical calculation gives us an odd number in 16/4, 7+4, 3x3; 12-4.
Choose the correct expression.
4) How is 21st written in English?
5) Which of the following could be considered the cardinal number? 4; forth; 4th;
fourths.
6) Which arithmetical calculation gives us a prime number in 8/4. 9x3, 7+4, 12-4?
7) The fraction that gives the even number is 27/3, 3/13, 12/3, 5/10. Choose the
fraction.
8) How do we write 5,505 in full in English?
9) What is the solution of the denominator in the following fraction? 4x3/4 – 2x3/4 +
2x3/4.
10) Express the mathematical calculation in words (in English): 45-5.
11) What is the noun of the mathematical sign in exercise 1 above?

From 12 to 16, rewrite the following sentences, putting as many words as possible into the
plural, and making any other alteration.
12) A witch used to be burnt.
13) A match is taken from a box or torn from a book.
14) The defeated army had no time to bury the body of its hero.
15) Which is the greater curse in Cameroon?
16) The child was sitting in the classroom.
From number 17 to 21, turn the following statements into questions by adding question tags.
17) They worked on painting terminology every Sunday.
18) You intend to become an artist.
19) You needed a new drawing board
20) The Indomitable Lions of Cameroon defeated the Lions from Senegal.
21) We always eat potatoes.
From number 22 to 26, write sentences using each of the following verbs transitively.
22) Hear 23) read 24) paint 25) sing 26) teach

209
From number 27 to 30, write sentences using each of the following verbs intransitively.
27) hear 28) read 29) paint 30) sing
From number 31 to 35, form infinitive verbs from the underlined words and expression.
31) it was an exciting laboratory experiment.
32) The mathematical equation was embarrassing.
33) The prison yard was big
34) A lion is a dangerous animal.
35) The match will be played again.
From number 36 to 40, form compound nouns or word groups to express:
36) A room in which you sleep.
37) a box for holding matches.
38) A place where meals are sold.
39) The spoon used when taking tea.
40) A room in the house where we receive visitors.

Test paper N - 104 – Plastic Arts / Architecture and Town planning

Choose only the right letter corresponding to the right answer in the light of the context. NB:
+1 mark for correct answer, -1 mark for wrong answer and 0 mark for no answer. Answer in
chronological order.
1. Where …. the car? A) did you park B) did you parked C) parked you? D) you
parked.
2. My friend …. the answer to that question. A) is know? B) know c) knowing D)
knows
3. I am busy at the moment … on the computer. A) I work b) I am work C) I am
working D) I working.
4. The house was … building. A) a nice old stone B) nice stone old C) a stone old nice
D) an old nice stone.
5. The government is doing nothing to help ……. A) poor B) the poor C) the poor
people D) the poors
6. Someone ….. the tickets are free. A) said me B) said me that C) told me D) told to
me.

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7. Last week Justin said I’ll do it tomorrow. He said he would do it ….A) the following
day B) tomorrow C) the previous day D) yesterday
8. The librarian asked us…so much noise. A) don’t make B) not make C) not making D)
not to make
9. We went to a fabulous show in New York. Show is A) noun B)verb C)adjective D)
adverb
10. Laura wanted to show Rita her photos. Show is A) noun B) verb C) adjective
D)statement
11. The windows aren’t very clean. Clean is A) noun B)verb C)adjective D)adverb
12. Doesn’t anyone clean the windows? Clean is A) Noun B) Adverb C) adjective D)
question.

Read this part of Amy’s letter about her new job. Then look at the answers below and choose
the letter corresponding to the correct answer.
Amy: My new job is great. The people here are (13) … than I expected. Luckily my
new boss isn’t as rude as (14) … my old boss, Mrs Janette, was; I hated her. She was
the (15) ….. friendly person I have ever met. Everyone here is older (16) … . In fact I
am the youngest person (17) … the office. But I don’t mind.
The good thing about the job is that I get a (18) … more money; although not
much more than I did before. The bad thing is that the journey isn’t (19) …. Simple as
it was in my old job, where the bus took me straight there. Now I have to change
buses. But I’m allowed to start work early. The earlier I leave home, (20) … the
journey is because the buses are not so crowded.
13. A) more nice B) most nice C) nicer D) nicest
14. A) as B) so C) than D) that
15. A) least B) least C) less and less D) so
16. A) as I B) as me C) than I D) than me
17. A) out of B) in C) from D) of
18. A) bit B) less C) lot D) much
19. A) as B) less C) more D) same
20. A) more easier B) more easy C) the easier D) the easy

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Year II
Test paper N - 201 - Cinema and Audiovisual I & II

A - Vocabulary-Professional expression (5marks)


INSTRUCTIONS: Fill the spaces with the correct word from the list below
(Films-schools, directors, screenwriters, making, sounds-stages, designed, shirt-films)
1. Some film directors started as……., film editors or actors.
2. Film students generally study the basic skills utilized in ….., a film
3. Some film schools are equipped with……,and post-production facilities
4. A full degree course can be …… for up to five years of studying
5. Future directors usually complete…… during the enrolment

B - GRAMMAR (5 marks) abandon- leave


INSTRUCTIONS: UNDERLINE THE WRONG WORDS
1. She bought some (steak, stake)
2. The design was for (sail, sale)
3. The (hole, whole) class refused to write the exam.
4. My boy broke a (pane, pain) of glass.
5. The joiner (bored, board) a small(whole, hole) in the (would, wood)

C COMPREHENSION – READINGAND WRITING TECHNIQUES (10 marks)


Read the passage carefully and then answer the questions below
According to the oral and documented history of the Tikar people, they originated in present
day Sudan. It is believed that when they inhabited Sudan, they lived adjacent to two groups.
The first group comprised iron-makers/ blacksmiths and carpenters in the Meroe kingdom.
This group (ancestors of the Mende people) later left Sudan and moved west toward Lake
Chad. They eventually travelled to the Mali Empire and along with the town Fulani and
Mande, founded the kingdom of Manni. The second group (ancestors of Fulani) arrived in the
Sudan from Egypt and Ethiopia. These cattle and goat herders moved west to lake Chad near
present-day Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria before travelling across west Africa. It is believed
that when the ancestors of the Tikar were in Sudan, they lived along the Nile river. There,
they developed the cattle grazing, iron-making, horse riding and fighting skills…. After the
death of the king, his oldest son inherited the throne. Soon afterwards his second son, Share-
Yen, and his followers moved to present-day Foumban district and started the Bamoun Clan.

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Ngouo-Nso, a sister, and her followers moved to present-day Kumbo District and created the
Nso Clan in the present-day state of Nso near Bamenda. The youngest brother moved further
south and created the Bafia Clan in the present-day Mbam state.
1. How many groups did the Tikar stay with and what were the occupations? (2marks)
2. What did the Tikar develop along the Nile River? (2marks)
3. From where did the Tikar originate? (2marks)
4. What happened when the Tikar travelled along with the town Fulani? (2marks)
5. Where are the Tikar found in Cameroon? (2marks)

Test paper N - 202 - Cinema and Audiovisual II

A VOCABULARY-PROFESSSIONNAL EXPRESSION (5marks)


Place the following words in the sentences best suited to them (extra, critic, screenplay, stunt,
nominated, box-office, animated, part, genre, audition)
1. The script for a movie, including descriptions of scenes and some camera
directions…………….
2. A cartoon-like film using drawing and not real people …………………..
3. A second film made to continue the story started in the first ……………..
4. A risky piece of action in a film usually carried out by a professional……………..
5. A category or type of film; e.g. action ……………………………….
6. Selected to be on a short list for a prize: ………………..
7. A trial performance, as by an actor, to demonstrate suitability or skill…………………
8. A performer hired to play a minor part, as in a crowded scene in a film…………….
9. A booth at the cinema where tickets are sold; used generically to also mean the cinema
……………..
10. Someone whose job is to review films for a newspaper or TV programme …………..

B GRAMMAR (5marks)
Correct the following sentences (change all the singulars to plurals and the verbs into the
simple past tense.)
1. The woman prepares food.
2. The sheep runs into the valley
3. The mouse scampers from the cat
4. The rabbit runs from the dog

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5. The child runs to the table.

C COMPREHENSION (5marks)- READING AND WRITING TECHNIQUES (10marks)


Read the passage carefully and then answer the questions below.
THE STORY OF A GREAT RIVER
From its source in the mountains between Sierra Leon and Guinea to its delta in Eastern
Nigeria the mighty Niger will have travelled some 4.000 kilometres. This nine-month-long
journey to the far-off Golf of Guinea will take it through many countries and some of the most
varied scenery in the world... Its waters create the fertile plains of the Mali Republic before
reaching the desert regions. Beyond Timbuktu went in turn South-Eastwards to flow to the
Republic of Benin and Niger. It is here that it enters Nigeria, that great African state and,
more than half its journey over, is put to work. Vast hydro-electric plants provide for the
needs of Nigeria’s millions and for the industry of this huge country. Here too, irrigation
schemes, fed by its waters, assist in food production and its use ,with specially designed
vessels ;to facilitate travel trade and the transport of goods. And everywhere, there are
fishermen casting the nets… waterways taking the Niger at last to the sea. Here, too, and in
the sea offshore, are the oilfields which make Nigeria one of the main oil producers of the
commonwealth.
1. Where is the source of the Niger? Justify?
2. Name with justification, four towns on its banks?
3. Through which countries does it pass?
4. In which country is it delta? Justify?

Test paper N - 203 – Area of study unspecified

Answer all questions


1. Insert the definite article where necessary (05marks)

a)………….. Boy over there is …………worst in the class at arts


b) …………. Convention came on ……... Saturday of June,2015.
c) ………. Supervisor inspects all ………… work.
d) …….. World opinion is against ………..theft in the museum.
e)……… pen is mightier than ………….sword.
2 . Restore the capital letters and punctuations in the following speech. (05marks)

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A very agitated woman rang up her doctor and a servant answered the phone can I speak to
Dr Russel she said its urgent im sorry madam the doctor is out will you live a message oh dear
my ten years old little boy has swallowed a fountain pen when the doctor be in im afraid
madam he wont be in for two hours perhaps three hours. Three hours cried the woman what
shall I do in the meantime im afraid madam you’ll have to use a pencil.
3. What is the difference between role play and simulations?
4. Name and describe three other methods of perfecting your speaking abilities.
5. Complete the following sentences with “how”, “what” or suitable adverbs(05marks)
a) He slipped on the ladder and …………he came
b) ………… went the thieves in the stolen car.
c) …………. a pity she’s so deaf
d) There’s no time to waste so ………….you go at once.
e) ………… beautiful the view is from you window.

Test paper N - 204 - Cinema and Audiovisual

ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS


SECTION A: PUT A CIRCLE ROUND THE LETTER WITH THE CORRECT ANSWER
1) Performing arts are art forms
i) In which artists use their body and voice to convey artistic expression
ii) That uses the artist’s own body, face, presence as a medium
iii) That involves music and dance as their medium of communication
a) i and ii
b) i and iii
c) ii and iii
d) all of the above
e) none of the above
2) Which of the following are not considered as performing arts forms
i) Theatre, music, circus
ii) Ballet, dance, opera
iii) Mime, acrobat, circus
a) i and ii
b) ii only
c) iii only

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d) all of the above
e) none of the above
3) artists who practise performing arts are known as
a) singers b) dancing c)musicians d) performers e) performing artistic
4) for performing arts to take place, the following must be involved
a) actors, actresses, audience, spectators
b) actors, audience, time, dancers
c) time, audience, place , space
d) actors, time, space, audience
e) place; actors, music, singers
5) according to written history, theatre originated from
a) Greece b)Greeks c) Italy d) Italians e)Egyptians

SECTION: B
1) Write short notes on the following
a) Arts (2marks)
b) Performing arts (2marks)
c) Literary arts (2marks)
d) Visual arts (2marks)
2) How does theatre, music and dance relate to your specialization?

Test paper N - 205 – Area of study unspecified

PART ONE: Fill in the blank spaces with the correct word or phrase
1) I…………………… missed the bus. I was only just in time to catch it.
a) Mostly b) near c) nearest d) nearly
2) Yes, I have got the report. ……………… it a) I just am reading b) I’m just reading c)
I’m reading d) just I’m reading
3) I’ve read this paragraph three times, and I ……………………. understand it. a) Can’t
still b) can’t yet c) still can’t d) yet can’t
4) You can see the details ………………………………. the computer screen. a) At b) by
c) in d) on
5) We’ve lived in this flat ………………………………… five years. a) Ago b) already c)
for d) since

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6) This car is ………………………, if you‘re interested in buying it. a) For sale b) in sale c)
at sale d) to sell
7) I prefer dog ………… cats. I hate cats a) from b) over c) than d) to
8) Someone ……………….. The tickets are free. a) said me b) said me that c) told me d)
told to me
9) Last week Justin said TLL do it tomorrow. ‘He said he would do it
………………………… a) at the following day b) the previous day c) tomorrow d)
yesterday
10) The librarian asked us …………………… so much noise. a) Don’t make b) not make
c) not making d) not to make

Test paper N - 206- Visual Arts, Cinema and Audiovisual

From number 1 to 15, choose one letter that corresponds to the correct answer in the light of
the context. NB: +1 mark for correct answer, -1 mark for wrong answer and 0 mark for no
answer. The exercises should be done in the order they appear.
1) Last year January was the month with ……. Rain of all. A) the much b) the many c)
the least d) the little.
2) Of these pots, the black one holds …… water. A) the most b) as many c) the fewest
d) the less.
3) Would you mind a …… of bread? A) peace b) piece c) pease d) pace
In the following passage the numbered gaps 4- 8 indicate missing words. From each number
in the list below the passage, select the most suitable of the four choices which are offered.
Because of its 4 position and 5 climate, the town has become a 6 seaside 7 with many
luxury 8 where people may obtain rooms.
4) a) healthy b) hygienic c) sanitary d) salutary
5) a) bracing b) enervating c) piercing d) exciting
6) a) devoted b) fanciful c) pet d) popular
7) a) device b) recourse c) rendez-vous d) resort
8) a) bars b) cinemas c) hospitals d) hotels
9) This is the …… useful present I have ever received. A) more b) most c) very d) less
10) …….. meat are you going to buy? A) how many b) how much c) so much d) how
11) Mr. Ekame tried to make …. with his children a) piece b) peace c) pease d) peaces

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Choose the word which has the same meaning as the word or words underlined
12) The teacher was amazed that Mau knew all the answers. A) happy b) sure c)
surprised d) confident
13) A zebra must run fast to get away from a lion. A) faraway b) hurry c) escape d) alive
14) There are few roads near our village, so it is a very quiet place to live. A) good b)
quietude c) calm d) serious
15) We may be in time for the start of the programme, if we are quick. A) block b) fast c)
hurry up d) quick
Complete the following passive voice sentences in the tenses suggested.
16) Milk (use) for making butter and cheese. (present)
17) Not a sound (hear). (past)
18) All your test papers (collect) at the end of the hour. (future)
19) Your exercises must (write) in ink. (infinitive)
20) My other picture (paint). (present continuous)

Test paper N - 207 – Area of study unspecified


I. In your booklet, only write the letter that corresponds to the correct answer in the light
of the context.
1) Sometimes she bounces it with her hand. The word bounces is in the A) past tense B)
past participle C) Present tense D) Present participle.
2) I cannot bear … to that stupid sound she calls singing A) listen b) to be listening C)
listening D) to have listened.
3) Paul … a new dress last night. A) worne B) wore C) wore D) ware.
4) Yesterday, we …. home early to get to school early. A) leaved B) lived C) left D)
lift.
5) She didn’t see his brother because she … to bed before he came home. A) has one B)
have gone C) had gone D) went.
6) Maria …. a bad headache since early this morning. A) has B) is having C) has been
having D) had
7) In the rainy season, people …. thick overcoats. A) wears B) are wearing C) wear D)
worn
8) We ….. breakfast by the time they call for us today. A) have finished B) had finished
C) will have finished D) finished.

218
9) His trousers …. for pressing yesterday. A) had been sent B) have been sent C) were
sent D) were sended.
10) We have decided …. to Yaounde tomorrow. A) to be going B) will go C) to go D)
to go to.
11) If you learnt science at school, you …. able to solve this simple problem. A) can be
B) have been C) should be D) are being
12) No one has said anything yet, but I think …. be getting salary increase by next month.
A) must B) can C) may D) would.
13) …. there any …. Over there? A) are … mices B) is … mices C) are … D) are ….
mouses.
14) He bought ….. for their meal. A) some bread B) a bread C) bread D) breads.
15) Chairs, cupboards and beds are …. Of Kadji sports academy. A) furnitures B)
equipments C) furniture D) equipment.
16) Army is to soldier as a …. is to bishop A) church B) mitre C) Cathedral D)
bench
17) …. is to a teacher as a …. is to players. A) group team B) flock, troop C) staff, team
D) pack, troupe.
18) Adamou is in the religious knowledge class, but Ida is not because it is … class. A) the
boy’s B) the girl’s C) the boys’ D) the girls.
19) Peter’s sister is a … cartoonist. A) best B) better C) good D) badder.
20) Her sisters are …. workers. A) harder B) hardest C) hard D) harderest.

I. In not more than a page, say what you like about architecture. (10 marks)

Test paper N - 208 - Cinema and audio visual


1. Restore the capital letters and punctuations in the following speech. (10 mks)

A YOUNG GIRL races away from her tormentor but then trips and falls the KILLER enters
the forest clearing taking a moment to savor this death the girl shakes her head as if begging
for the killer to change his mind but no he closes in a black cloaked arm raising the knife into
the air the knife catches the moonlight for just a moment before it races downloads.

2. Write questions to which the following could be answers: (10mks)


a) No, I’m Austrian.
b) Yes, he has.
c) No, only three months.
d) Yes, we go there every year.
e) Yes I know him very well.

219
f) No, he has a bad accent.
g) Yes I went there last month.
h) Yes, I saw the exposition in the museum.
i) She said that she was coming for the paintings next week.
j) Because it is such a poor exposition.

Test paper N - 209 - area of study unspecified


I. Form adjectives from the following words and use them in sentences of your own.
Example: Education : Educated
She is an educated girl.

- Nature - Practice - Alcohol


- Trouble - China - Habit
- Charm - Mother - Colour
- Interest - Function - Marry
- Politeness - Sincerity - Faith
- Fortune - Intelligence - Hunger
- Maturity - Love

Year III
Test paper N - 301 - Museology and cultural patrimony

INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

A) COMBINE THESE TWO EQUALLY IMPORTANT STATEMENTS USING


ANY COORDINATING CONJUNCTION OF YOUR CHOICE
1) We want to buy objects on sale. The sale will last just this week.
2) They could walk anywhere in the museum. They couldn’t disturb the workers.
3) I had promised to arrive at 1pm. Heavy traffic delayed me.
4) I’ve spent two week’s pay. I will be eating very meagerly for a while.
5) Lend me 10.000 FCFA. I will pay you next month.
6) I have studied and studied for the test. I feel unsure of myself.

B) CORRECT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1) The cultural artefacts are for Sandrine and I.


2) My teacher gave he and I the same mark.
3) Nellie and him share a room.

220
4) The argument is between the teacher and I.
5) Me and my friends meet one night in month for dinner.
6) Send the money to she by Express Exchange.

SIMPLIFY EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1) The tour on the museum tour of Bimbia was enlightening.


2) If you have an objection to the menu, please let me know.
3) This is a report about an analysis of our class film projection.
4) We were looking for a museum curator who was skilled
5) Hire only qualified museologist who are certified in the skill.
6) Store the objects in a place to which we all have access.
7) I have a suspicion that the visit will end an argument.
8) Please make a recommendation for a museum director.

4.1.6.1. Analysis of test papers

4.1.6.1.1. Format

At the first glimpse, one observes that in Foumban, the exam paper does not have a fixed
format, it seems to depend on the teacher. Though most of the papers are divided into at least
two sections. However, the various sections recorded through all these papers include:

- Grammar
- Vocabulary
- Reading
- Writing

At the same time, all the exam questions fit into one of these domains or more.

4.1.6.1.2. Focus

The exam foci on the 11 test papers from Foumban above can be seen through Table 15
below.

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Table 15 : Exam foci at the Institute of Fine Arts Foumban
Foumban (12) Nkongsamba (14)
Linguistic
Focus n43 %44 Instances n % Instances
component
8 57.14 N – 101 (Section
B and C)
N – 102 (Ex. 1;
2)
F-101 (Section A, Ex. N – 103 (Ex. 17
A)
– 35)
F-102 (Ex. 1, 2,3, 6, 7)
Verbs (tenses,
F-103 (Ex. 1, 2) N – 104 (Section
mood, form, 5 45.45 A, Ex. 1-3)
F-202 (Section B Ex.
voice) N-202 (Section
7)
F-302 (Section I, Ex. B)
1) N-206 (Ex. 16-
20)
N-207 (Ex. 1 –
12)
N-208 (Ex.2)
Concord 3 21.42 N-103 (Ex. 12 –
(plural, 16)
gender, N-202 (Section B)
notional N-207 (Ex. 13)
concord)
1 7.14 N – 104 (Section
Reported
Grammar speech A, Ex. 7-8)

3 21.42 N – 104 (Section


B, Ex. 18)
Quantifiers, N-206 (Ex 1 – 2,
F-101 (Section A, Ex.
countable and 10)
2 18.18 B)
uncountable N-207 (Ex. 14-
F-103 (Ex. 3)
nouns 15)

4 28.57 N – 101
(Sections C and
F-101 (Section B, Ex. D)
A) N – 104 (Section
Adjectives 3 27.27 F-202 (Section B Ex. B, Ex. 13-16 ; 19
7) - 20)
F-203 ( Ex. 1, 2, 3) N-206 (Ex. 9)
N-207 (Ex. 19 –
20)
2 14.28 N-205 (Part 1,
Adverbs and
Ex. 1)
adverbials
N-205 (Part 1,

43
Number of exams involved
44
Percentages

222
Ex.9)
F-102 (Ex. 4) 1 7.14 N-203 (Ex 1)
Articles 2 18.18
F-304 (Ex. 1)
2 14.28 N-102 (Ex. 4)
F-303 (Section B, Ex. N – 104 (Section
Word class 1 9.09
2) A, Ex. 9-12)

F-201 (Section A, Ex. 3 21.42 N – 104 (Section


A) B, Ex. 117)
F-202 (Section B, Ex. N-205 (Part 1,
Prepositions /
4 36.36 8) Ex. 5 – 7)
conjunctions
F-204 ( Ex. 1, 2, 3, 4) N-301 (Section A)
F-303 ( Section B, Ex.
3)
F-201 (Section A, Ex. 1 7.14 N-203 (Ex. 5)
Wh- words 1 9.09
B)
Syntax (word 2 14.28 N-205 (Part 1, Ex.
order, 2-3, 8, 10)
genitive, N-207 (Ex. 16)
F-101 (Section B, Ex. 1 7.14 N-206 (Ex. 12 –
B) 15)
F-201 (Section A, Ex.
C)
Synonyms / F-202 (Section B,
5 45.45
antonyms Ex.6)
F-302 (Section II,
Ex.1)
F-303 (Section B,
Ex.1)
Compounds 1 9.09 F-302 (Ex. II)
F-303 (Section B, Ex.
Phrasal verbs 1 9.09
3)
Economy 1 9.09 F-304 (Ex. 2. a)
F-304 (Ex. 2. B, c, d)
University life 2 18.18
F-305 (Ex. 8, 9, 10, …)
3 21.42 N – 104 (Section
Vocabulary A, Ex. 6)
Confusables
N-201 (Section B)
and
N-206 (Ex. 3, 11)
homonyms

False cognates 1 9.09 F-305 (1,2)


4 28.57 N – 101 (Section
A)
Word N-102 (Ex. 3)
formation N-103 (Ex. 36 –
40)
N-209
N-206 (Ex. 4-8)
Other general
1 9.09 F-305 (3 - 7) N-207 (Ex.16 –
vocabulary
17)
Specialty 4 28.57 N-201 (Section A)
vocabulary N-202 (Section A)

223
N-203 (Ex.3)
N-204

The use of
1 9.09 F-201
water
Landslide 1 9.09 F-202
Fashion in the
Reading 1 9.09 F-303
1960's
Comprehension The story of 1 7.14 N-202 (Section C)
River Niger
Origins of the 1 7.14 N-201 (Section C)
Tikar
community
Description 1 9.09 F-302
F-103
F-202 (Section C, Ex.
Narration 3 27.27
8)
F-303
F-303 (Section C, Ex.
Argumentative 3)
2 18.18
Writing essay F-304 (Section B, Ex.
4)
F-202 (Section C, Ex. 1 7.14 N-207 (I)
8)
F-301 (Ex. 1)
Exposé 5 45.45 F-303 (Section C, Ex.
1)
F-304 (Section C, Ex.
1, 2)
2 14.28 N-203 (Ex. 2)
Punctuation
N-208 (Ex.1)
1 7.14 N-103 (Ex. 1 –
Functions Arithmetic
11)

4.1.6.2. Discussion of findings on test papers

4.1.6.2.1. Main concerns in test papers

From this table, it can easily be seen that the top focal points are these three in Foumban, with
a percentage of 45.45 and more:
- verb tenses (grammar), 57% in Nkongsamba
- synonyms and antonyms (vocabulary) and
- the expository essay (writing) is dominant in exam questions.

The second top focal point, with a percentage of 36.36, goes to:
- prepositions, and
- conjunctions.

224
The third point of concern, with a percentage of 27.27, goes to:
- adjectives (grammar), and
- narration (writing).

The most recurrent aspects of language in test papers are verb tenses, prepositions,
conjunctions and adjectives in grammar, synonyms and antonyms in vocabulary, more present
in Foumban than in Nkongsamba, and the expository essay and narration in writing. Thus, the
language skills that receive much attention are grammar, writing, and vocabulary at the
institute of fine arts Foumban.

4.1.6.2.2. Co-ordination of testing contents

Many domains of language are covered in some test papers in one institute and totally absent
in the other in grammar, vocabulary or writing.

The Institute of Fine Arts Nkongsamba (IFAN) seems to show more concern for
grammar than the one in Foumban (IFAF). Not only is it more committed to verb tenses
(57.14% for IFAN against 45.45% for IFAF), but also it touches more aspects such as
concord (21.42%), reported speech (7.14%), adverbs and adverbials (14.28%) and word order
(14.28%). IFAF has 0% in all these subdomains.

As for vocabulary, IBAN tests homonyms (21.42%), word formation (28.57%) and
specialty vocabulary (28.57%) whereas IFAF addresses issues very different from these,
untouched by the previous institute. They include compounds (9.09%), phrasal verbs (9.09%),
economics (9.09%), campus vocabulary (18.18%) and false cognates (9.09%). Thus, while
one establishment touches an aspect of vocabulary, the other touches a very different one.
And the tendency is quite the same in writing.

IBAN treats only one type of essay (the expository essay) with little recurrence
(7.14%), whereas, in Foumban, this exercise recurs more often, and in four subtypes:
description (9.09%), argumentation (18.18%), narration (27.27%) and the expository essay
(45.45%).

These major divergences could only be explained by the lack of a harmonised teaching
and testing contents. Both institutes are fine arts institutes and the mission is quite the same,
to train artists and architects. Yet, in the same course, Bilingual training in English, students
are tested differently.

225
4.1.6.2.3. Selection and grading of test contents

Looking at table 1 above, one realises that the same structural elements are tested from Year I
to Year III, almost throughout the table. Actually, in most fields in IFAN, Bilingual Training
is taught only in Year I and in Year II. However, when the same aspects of language are
tested through the Bachelor’s cycle, it bespeaks of a lack of organisation of teaching and
testing. Though in the presence of a well-designed curriculum verb tenses can be tested
throughout the cycle, the test papers collected strongly proved that testing contents are not
graded at all.

4.1.6.2.4. English for Academic Purposes

A major characteristic of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is ‘specialist discourse’ which
ties to the jargon of students or professionals in their subject areas (Basturkmen, 2010).
English for Academic Purposes (EAP) is part of ESP. As one goes through the test papers
above, the general remark is that grammar exercises do not touch Fine Arts studies at all, and
vocabulary focuses on specialist in 28.57% of test papers in IBAN alone. No such thing exists
in Foumban. One could therefore turn to reading comprehension and writing.

The reading comprehension passages bear the following titles:

- The use of water (F-201)


- Landslide (F-202)
- Fashion in the 1960’s. (F-303)

The ‘use of water’ and ‘landslide’ are no topics to concern Fine Arts students with. In
studies in hydrology, geography or earth sciences, these topics would be relevant, but Fine
arts students would view it only as a general concern, and nothing peculiar to their
domains of study. The third topic, ‘Fashion in the 1960’s’, is relevant for fashion and
textile design, not all the students in this establishment, who will have to write the exam
though, because the course is taught as a joint course and the same exam questions go for
all the students. Therefore, EAP in this establishment, with regards to reading
comprehension, is inadequately specific.

As for writing, the topics are the following:

- Narration:
o The day I will never forget (F-202)
o Tell us how you prepare your day before going to school (F-303)

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o Describing a cultural or artistic ceremony. (F-103)
- Description
o Describing pictures. (F-302)
- Argumentative essay
o Arts, culture and development – (Fine arts, general topic for all disciplines)
o Point of view on unisex clothing (F-303) – (Fine arts, fashion design)
o University life (F-304)
- Expository essay
o Causes and consequences of natural disaster (F-202)
o Arts, culture and development
o Nature

Out of the 09 topics recorded here for writing at the exam in Foumban, only the 04
topics in italics (44.44%) seem to reflect General English (GE). The others have something to
do with fine arts: picture description, clothing, cultural and artistic celebrations, arts culture
and development, and university life. But apart from this university life which is common to
all, not all the course participants will virtually feel at home with the topics, since they touch
some areas of study more than the others. Again, the problem is the joint course aspect.

It is therefore possible to say that in both institutes, some effort is made to focus testing
on specialist discourse, but this effort remains very negligible. General English really
dominates, and English for Academic purposes is almost absent.

4.2. English language programmes in professional university colleges


abroad: the case of New Zealand
In this section, we present reports of such courses. The only difference is that most of the
courses we present are taught to speakers of the English language, though in one of them, the
learners are international students who use English only as a second language. There are few
instances abroad where course design is given great significance, and the courses are followed
up through ongoing and post course evaluation. We shall start with four examples in New
Zealand reported by Basturkmen (2010). We shall bring out aspects of the curriculum
including the learners and the context, needs analysis, objectives, course structure, teaching
method, materials and testing where the data is available.

Basturkmen (ibid) reports four cases of English language course designs in New
Zealand, namely English for the Police, English for Medical Doctors, English for Literacies in

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Visual Communication and English for Thesis Writing. The learners in these cases were
either university students, in training schools or practising professionals. We shall present the
first three cases from Basturkmen’s report.

4.2.1. English for police

The course participants in these four courses were all adults, “busy professionals (or
professionals in training) […] for whom learning about language and communication was
only one of the things they had to contend with” (ibid: 71). The courses were developed in
contexts where some real world challenges related to study or profession were to be
addressed.

In the English for police, the whole enterprise started with a young Japanese who
arrived New Zealand purposefully to serve as a Policeman. He had to face the language
challenges in New Zealand. As a Japanese who did not need much English in his country, he
needed to acquire the English necessary for his dream. This anecdote appeared in a local
Newspaper. The course had first been intended for participants from a mix first language
background Mandarin, Japanese, Hindi, Persian, Korean and Cantonese. But it was soon
detected that there might be many more people from other first language backgrounds. These
learners were offered a Pre-College Employment Programme (PRECEP) whereby they had a
few weeks work experience, helping out with various tasks. Yet, there was a high demand for
workplace literacy, and a good number of learners had had English either as a foreign
language or as a second official language in their home countries.

The course developers then set out to analyse the learners’ needs through multiple data
sources:

- Meetings with police,


- Visiting the Police college and the city’s central police station where they observed
classroom activities and police routines respectively,
- Analysis of police documents
- Ride-alongs, that is car-based patrols,
- Information on language problems or needs from police officers
- Identification of speaking situations which included exchange between police officers,
police and the public, and Police reporting in court,
- Police television programmes,

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From all these sources, quality information was obtained for needs analysis and investigation
into specialist discourse.

Thus, they set out to develop a course with three objectives matching with the three
broad needs of the learners: language use on the job, language to get through Police College
and language for further academic and/or specialist training, matching as well with basic
language skills such as speaking and writing, language knowledge and learner development.
The said objectives were stated as follows:

Figure 3: Course objectives from the English for Police course (Basturkmen, 2010: 76)

The course was then developed with time constraints in mind. The course was structured into
two modes: self-access online lessons and one-on-one tutorials. Yet the participants desired to
have teachers and classrooms. Finally, the course ran for 32 weeks of self-access learning and
tutorial support, and a weekly group lesson. This lessons involved a broad title, the language
items (text organisation, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation), and the skills (reading,
writing, listening and speaking). These skills also involved classroom activities. These various
language and skills items were then organised in the lesson as learning points. The lesson
format was as follows.

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Table 16 : Lesson format in the English for Police course (Basturkmen, 2010: 78)

Tasks consisted in performing real professional activities, like in the lesson above,
‘describing a suspect’, or summarising facts. Where the course participants found the tasks
difficult, they reported to the teacher for feedback. Luckily, the police officers were available
for more on the job.

In evaluating the course and learners’ learning, the course designers tracked their
progress through internal assessment of language proficiency (internal assessment) and
working with senior police officers evaluate the participant’s improvements in meeting the
demands of the job. This ‘employer’ assessment was judged essential. Finally, the course
developers found that their “increasing understanding of the situation derived from their
ongoing contact with the police” (p.73).

4.2.2. English for Medical Doctors

The second case is the design of an English language course for medical doctors from
overseas who desired to practise in New Zealand. These professionals had to write a
registration examination so as to receive the licence to work freely in the country. This course
was to be taught as part of their preparation for the registration examination, organised by the
Clinical Training Agency in conjunction with two universities offering medical studies.
Success in this exam was a pre-requisite for working in the country, because ‘in the local
community, it was important that doctor-patient interactions were patient-centred and
consultative’ (p. 88). Overseas doctors had been noticed with difficulties in conducting
consultations. The difficulties were not only related to English language problems, but also to
some socio-cultural and socio-psychological requirements that they did not possess.

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Even before the course developer came in, the professional development trainers had
already noticed that the overseas doctors actually experienced language difficulties in an area
of medical communication: patient-centred consultation. The ESP practitioner’s task was then
to identify the source of the problem, that is, what actually constituted their language
difficulties in this domain. She investigated into the needs of her course participants through
many sources:

- Videos of doctor-patient consultations for the language requirements in consultations


- Role-play between overseas registered doctors and actors playing the patients with
various health problems, for feedback on ‘patients’ understanding of doctor’s
questions and feeling in response to doctor’s handling of the consultation.
- Trainers’ feedback on overseas-doctors consultations,
- The Observed Consultation Appraisal form
- The observation of authentic medical consultations in two general practice clinics

With this, she put a finger on how the community expected patient-doctor consultations to
unfold, to see how the consultation was to be structured, and the ‘subtle’ uses of language that
were expected in the doctor’s repertoire. One main difference she observed in investigating
needs and specialist discourse was the emotional communication between the doctor and their
patients in authentic consultations, which did not exist in role plays and some overseas
doctors’ consultations with patients. She then derived four stages in a patient-centred
consultation: initiating the consultation, gathering information, explaining and planning and
closing the session, each stage requiring its own procedures and language structures and
functions. In all, the doctor needed to show a lot of concern for the patient and introduce
sensitive things without hurting them, to understand the patients’ own ways of saying things,
and to asymmetrical power and knowledge relations.

On course structuring, the course was to be held each Friday for 14 weeks, and a
session was to last 90 minutes. She therefore sequenced her course around the nine sub-stages
she had identified in doctor-patient consultations and would teach the language structures and
functions required for quality patient-centred consultation. The sequences included:
establishing initial rapport (build the relationship), establishing the patient’s concern
(understanding the patient’s perspective), Exploring and clarifying concern from medical
perspective, Exploring physical, social and psychological factors, providing structure to the
consultation, offering and explaining diagnosis, sharing decision making (offering options,

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thus avoiding authoritarian prescriptions), sensitivity to patients views). She summarised her
difficulties as follows

The professional development trainers told me what they had noticed about the doctors’
communication difficulties. They saw these difficulties as language related but they
couldn’t be specific about what these difficulties were and they did not say what I
should teach in the English course. It was really up to me to determine the parameters
of the course45. (Basturkmen, 2010: p. 98)

In her methodology, she avoided classroom sessions for the participants being senior
professionals. She rather used role plays and group work in which the participants role-played
consultations with actors. The role-plays were video recorded so the participants could see
themselves consulting and face their difficulties in group first, before feedback. The teacher
worked with professional development trainers for providing feedback.

No formal testing was carried out. It was rather really ongoing through the role-play
sessions, and the evaluation touched the candidate’s English proficiency (through the
actor/patient’s ease in understanding them), and insight into performance as to the degree to
which the registration candidate is understood by the patient.

The ESP teacher saw her lack of medical knowledge as both a difficulty and an
advantage, a difficulty because she had to put in much effort to get into the jargon, and an
advantage because she could successfully play a neutral role in the whole issue, and she could
better observe the language intricacies. Her other difficulty in designing the course was that of
finding authentic materials.

4.2.3. ESP for visual communication (in the visual arts)

This course was designed in a university context. At the beginning of the course, all the
students were new to art, both the home-based students and the international students for
whom English was a second language. In the Art and Design Certificate Programme that
existed in this university, there was a course on generic academic writing skills, using topics
from visual arts. This course was taught along with another course on theoretical concepts in
the History of Art. The home-based students already found it difficult to understand the
contents of the course and the requirements of assignments, but the international students had
more difficulty in all this. The head of the programme approached one teacher who had a first
degree in fine arts and had taught English for Visual Arts in the UK, and who himself found
the academic writing course ‘of limited value in helping students with writing in their
45
Our emphasis

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disciplines’, and asked him to design a new course for the international L2 students on the
programme. However, this course eventually became a writing course that catered for both
groups of students.

The ESP teacher had insight into the needs of the learners based on his long
experience in English for Arts and observation and being an arts and design lecturer in New
Zealand. During this experience, he had analysed samples of students’ writings, compared
high grade essays with low grade essays to understand what teachers valued, assessed learners
difficulties in deciphering reading texts and lectures and their lack of background knowledge
in the arts and art theory (writing tasks consisted in relating features of a work of art to
theory), and other principles related to arts discourse:

- Discourse is poetic, imaginative and playful,


- Discourse is multi-model (mixing text and images for example)
- Writing involves both mind and emotions
- Principles of rationality and objectiveness do not apply in the discourse of arts
- Etc.

Writing was also to be done in two main artistic genres: exegesis – learners are to explain
from theory the features of their own art works, and descriptions and analyses of art works.

The course was structured on both semesters of the year, and it combines disciplinary
subject content (art history) with language features. The course outline that we could refer to
as syllabus is sequenced into four parts following the periods of art history: Renaissance,
Enlightenment, Modernism and Post-modernism. Aesthetics seems to have also evolved
alongside the periods. When each period had been fully treated, a whole week was kept aside
as a studio week for practicals. Thus, the learners were exposed to disciplinary and
institutional expectations, exposed them to some visual arts genres and helped them acquire
disciplinary knowledge.

4.3. Comparing Bilingual Training in English in Cameroon’s fine arts


institutes and ESP in New Zealand
4.3.1. Status of the English language

The status of the English language offers one similarity and at the same time one dissimilarity
between the foreign programmes we have described, and the bilingual training course in our
case study. In the foreign programmes, most of the course participants are speakers of a first

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language which is not English. Thus, English to them is a second language (second or foreign
language). In our case, the learners supposedly possess a mother tongue as first language, and
they have gone through French-speaking education with English as only one of the subjects.
English to them is another second language since it is at least spoken on the media and by
English speaking nationals around, and they learn it as a foreign language. Therefore, ESP in
their case and Bilingual Training in English (BTE) in our case teach English in the status of a
second/foreign language. However, the immediate community expectations on English
language use vary. In New Zealand, English is the official language and New Zealanders are
native speakers of English: work or studies in this country demands a sound mastery of the
intricacies of English, and the workers must speak the language of Shakespeare with the
public. In Cameroon, it is different: most people in the immediate environment of most
French-speaking graduates speak French and would require interactions in French. Very few
are those who will be expected to settle or work in an English-speaking setting, whether in the
country or abroad. Yet, they should be prepared for national integration and global
integration. These learners may as well receive English-speaking customers or colleagues and
must be able to interact with them in English. The status of English is quite intrinsically the
same (a second/foreign language) for the learners, but extrinsically different in immediate use
(community demands).

4.3.2. Statement of course purpose

We realise that in all the cases presented earlier, it is the institution that sees the need for an
adequately designed English for Specific Purposes course, and contacts the ESP practitioner
for the course development. Systematically, they specify the context in which the course is to
be designed and the very specific target situation they want to reach through the course. In the
course descriptions cited earlier, the various departments state the objectives of the Bilingual
Training course, but none of the objectives reflect a target situation that must be attained. In
the institute of Fine Arts Foumban, four departments out of five offering training in different
sub-branches of the Fine Arts offer the same objectives throughout, from Year I to Year III.
The course is programmed to be taught as a joint course (for all the departments in Foumban),
yet a critical look at its objectives reveals that no critical fine arts aspect common to all the
departments but the learners are to be equipped with interactional skills in ‘various contexts
including their study field’. This reveals some confusion, and the lack of focus or the lack of
specificity in the Bilingual Training course. Only the department of architecture attempts to

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be specific in what learners should achieve each year in using English to address aspects of
architecture.

4.3.3. Course design

In New Zealand, thorough needs analysis is carried out with diverse data sources in
preparation for the course. Everything in the course springs from needs analysis: the course
objective could be more clearly specified, alongside the course content, the teaching methods
and materials, so that the learners exact needs are met and achievements can be observed by
various stake holders: the learners themselves, the ESP course developer/facilitator, the
training institution, and at times the workplace officers.

The duration of the course is equally to be noticed: 32 weeks (English for Police), 14
weeks (English for Medical doctors), a full academic year (English for visual arts), in New
Zealand. In our case, the course lasts for one or two weeks. This does not help course
participants acquire much in English.

Access to materials (authentic and unauthentic) in New Zealand was quite easy. Since
it is the training institution that requested an ESP course, they put their materials at the
disposal of the course developer, or facilitated access to materials. Also, there were TV
programmes (as in English for Police) that the course developer used for both the
investigation into specialist discourse, learners needs and even could use such materials in
class. They used the internet as well for both needs analysis and materials for the course. We
also imagine that they had well equipped libraries and studios (English for Visual Arts) that
could also help in the course. There is no library in one of the institutes of fine arts we study.
Apart from the internet and a few works of art produced by the learners for defence, access to
materials remains a challenge.

4.3.4. Course participants disciplinary knowledge

In only one of the cases in foreign countries have we had course participants who, from the
onset of the ESP course, had no disciplinary knowledge at all: English for Visual Arts. The
others were either professionals or professionals in further training, already working. The
latter case pertains to English for professional purposes and the former to English for
academic purposes.

From the onset of the Bilingual Training course in the Fine Arts institutes in
Cameroon, that is in Year I, most learners are new to disciplinary arts knowledge. The

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Bilingual Training in English course goes along with their acquisition of disciplinary
knowledge. Thus, it is supposed to be English for Academic Purposes, English for Fine Arts
Studies.

4.3.5. Course evaluation

In New Zealand, the institution participates in course design and course evaluation by
stating their expectations very clearly and providing materials. This is a real motivational
factor for the course developer(s). In our Fine Arts institutes, the course is set in a general
atmosphere of Bilingual training as a compulsory course for undergraduate students in all the
university establishments, and its objective is poorly stated, without any specific and
measurable outcome. Again, no one evaluates the course thoroughly for amelioration and goal
achievement. All the lecturers we interviewed confirmed this (See question 09, Appendix 9).
When asked if the institute had any structure in charge of following up and evaluating the
Bilingual Training course, Interviewee 02 said “[…] No. those courses are simply taught. I do
not know if course objectives and contents are even specified in the syllabi […]”. For
interviewee 01, « there is no authority in the establishment in charge of following up and
evaluating Bilingual Training. There are many positions in the Institute that have been vacant
so far. So, they could be preparing something for actual follow up of teaching but it does not
exist yet.”

It is rather funny to have five departments state objectives of a course and none follow
up and evaluate the course to see if the objective is attained. This is where Nforbi’s (2012)
suggestion for a Directorate in charge of Bilingualism at the university level is meaningful.
The Directorate could work with specialty lecturers, or with the department for a yearly
evaluation of the course.

Conclusion
“The literature […] suggests that the ESP course should be specific to discourse in that
context, rather than generic” (Basturkmen, 2010: p. 88). However, developing an ESP course
can be time consuming: in each of the cases in New Zealand, quite some time was set aside to
develop a course and come out with what to teach, how to teach it, with what materials and
for what very specific purpose. The New Zealanders seem to privilege this course
development stage. Institution authorities invite course developers and assist them with
materials and information as much as possible, having seen the necessity of language teaching

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for specific purposes. This seems not to be the case in our case study, for no one really seems
to care for the outcome of the course in the institutions. Even the government that has set up
an official bilingualism policy and effected it in the educational system through compulsory
second official language teaching has devised no strategies for proper follow-up and
evaluation of the undertaking.

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CHAPTER 5: ENGLISH LANGUAGE NEEDS OF FINE ARTS STUDENTS

CHAPTER 5

ENGLISH LANGUAGE NEEDS OF FINE


ARTS STUDENTS IN CAMEROON

Introduction
The previous chapter looked at how Bilingual Training in English is carried out in the case
study. That survey gives the student-researcher grounds for appraising what was done before.
In conformity with Widdowson’s (1990) submission that effective pedagogy is that which
combines instruction and research as a source of information for each other, the present
chapter is a record of French-speaking Fine Arts students’ English language needs analysis.
We indicated in the literature review that we would follow James Dean Brown’s (2011) needs
analysis model. The data source, as a reminder, is mainly the questionnaire. These
instruments shall be treated in their order. From the analysis, rules shall be derived for the
curriculum design in the next chapter.

5.1. Background information on learners


The background information includes learners’ ages, region of residence in secondary
education, type of secondary education, time spent at that level of education, active previous
contacts with English, and their self-esteemed level of achievement of the English language.
This information is indicative of the kind of students in the classrooms and their learning
needs.

5.1.1. Learners’ age groups and gender

The learners ages are presented in three groups: from 20 to 24 years, between 25 and
29 years and 30 years and over. A learner who enrols into primary education at the age of five
in Cameroon, and successfully passes to the next class each year, every other things being
equal, is to earn the first degree at the age of 21.

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Age is an indicator of degrees of concentration and curiosity. We consider the first age
group as that of learners who could still be focused on their learning, without much
distraction. The second age group, from 25 to 29 years, is for learners who begin to worry
about other things: men worry about finding a source of income so as to care for themselves,
no longer expecting from the family, whether a job or any other income generating activities;
the ladies at this age, are crazy about marriage, about moving out of their parents’ authority
into their own sphere of power, their home. The last age group, 30 years old and over, is
generally made up of workers and men and women with social responsibility (a home to look
after, a job to keep, for instance). Even more than the previous group, they worry about their
responsibilities. While the first group could still be disposed to doing a lot of cognition, with
the last two groups, the teacher will be forced to integrate straightforwardness into their
enterprise. Table 17 presents related figures from the case study.

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Table 17 : Learners’ background information
Field of study Architecture Performing arts Plastic arts Cultural heritage Dec. arts TOTALS
Institute Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Fbn Nkong Totals
Number/percentage N % n % n % n % N % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
18 – 24 4 20 8 40 8 40 12 60 5 31,3 20 100 3 23 9 100 8 40 28 31,5 49 62,0 77 48,7
Age group 25 – 29 15 75 11 55 8 40 7 35 6 37,5 0 0 9 69 0 0 6 30 44 49,4 18 22,8 62 39,2
30 + 0 0 1 5 4 20 0 0 5 31,3 0 0 1 8 0 0 6 30 16 18,0 1 1,3 17 10,8
Male 16 80 13 65 16 80 14 70 14 87,5 16 80 11 85 5 56 0 0 45 50,6 48 60,8 93 58,9
Gender
Female 1 5 5 25 4 20 6 30 3 18,8 4 20 1 8 4 44 20 100 41 46,1 19 24,1 60 38,0
Bachelor 1 5 3 15 7 35 4 20 6 37,5 1 5 4 31 1 11 10 50 28 31,5 9 11,4 37 23,4
Targeted
certificate Master 9 45 11 55 7 35 11 55 6 37,5 9 45 3 23 1 11 6 30 31 34,8 32 40,5 63 39,9
Doctorate 6 30 6 30 5 25 3 15 4 25,0 10 50 3 23 6 67 4 20 22 24,7 25 31,6 47 29,7
West 7 35 3 15 12 60 2 10 10 62,5 4 20 8 62 1 11 4 20 41 46,1 10 12,7 51 32,3
Littoral 2 10 5 25 4 20 9 45 2 12,5 5 25 1 8 3 33 2 10 11 12,4 22 27,8 33 20,9
Centre 8 40 3 15 2 10 4 20 2 12,5 5 25 2 15 1 11 4 20 18 20,2 13 16,5 31 19,6
North West 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0 1 11 2 10 2 2,2 1 1,3 3 1,9
Region South West 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 1 1,3 1 0,6
East 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 1 1,3 1 0,6
South 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 5 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 5 6,3 5 3,2
Adamawa 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 1 1,3 1 0,6
North and Far north 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0,0

Number of 6 years 0 0 0 0 1 5 2 10 2 12,5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3,4 2 2,5 5 3,2


years in 7 years 7 35 6 30 7 35 9 45 4 25,0 16 80 4 31 4 44 10 50 32 36,0 35 44,3 67 42,4
secondary
More than 7 years 12 60 14 70 11 55 9 45 9 56,3 4 20 8 62 5 56 10 50 50 56,2 32 40,5 82 51,9
TV 8 40 14 70 11 55 14 70 10 62,5 16 80 5 38 6 67 6 30 40 44,9 50 63,3 90 57,0
Radio 6 30 6 30 7 35 3 15 7 43,8 16 80 5 38 5 56 4 20 29 32,6 30 38,0 59 37,3
Contacts with Internet 11 55 4 20 6 30 9 45 6 37,5 16 80 0 0 4 44 2 10 25 28,1 33 41,8 58 36,7
English Family 4 20 6 30 5 25 4 20 2 12,5 2 10 1 8 4 44 6 30 18 20,2 16 20,3 34 21,5
Neighbours 9 45 7 35 6 30 5 25 6 37,5 10 50 2 15 3 33 8 40 31 34,8 25 31,6 56 35,4
Friends 13 65 10 50 10 50 9 45 10 62,5 0 0 2 15 6 67 4 20 39 43,8 25 31,6 64 40,5

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In Foumban, the second age group (25-29) dominates with 49.5%, and it is followed
by the first age group (18-24) with a non-negligible presence of 31.5%. the last age groups
percentage is not significant. The over 29 year-old students are even less present in
Nkongsamba (13%). This establishment is dominated by first age group students (62%), and
the second age group is also present (22%). In all, over 50 per cent of the learners are seen to
be concerned with other ‘duties’, and 48.7 per cent belong to the first group. Hence, wisdom
constrains the course facilitator to be outright. These learners do not always have time to read
and delve into the language because “at the higher educational level […] students are already
adults, with diminishing curiosity and capacity to take up linguistic challenges” (Mbangwana,
2004: p. 23).

A look on gender here shows that all the disciplines are highly dominated by male
learners, apart from the decorative arts, where female learners are the large majority. The
overall results show that there is no big difference between the male students’ presence in
Foumban (50.6%) and female students (46.1%). In Nkongsamba, amongst those who indicate
their gender 60.8M are male students and 24.1% female students. Thus 58.9% of the
respondents are male students and 38% are female students. Another factor to consider is their
main region of residence at the pre-tertiary level.

5.1.2. Respondents’ regions of residence during pre-tertiary education

The postulate is that, the longer the time spent in a linguistic milieu, the better the
acquisition of their language if an individual struggles to interact with them, for immersion is
the best way of learning a language (Widdowson, 1990 ; Kouadio, 2017). The English-
speaking regions targeted are the North-West and the South-West. Learners from these
regions where English is a day-to-day practice may not really find it difficult learning and
using the language.

Learners in both institutes mainly come from three regions: in Foumban, the West
provides most of them (46.1%), the Centre (20.2%) and the Littoral (12.4%); in Nkongsamba,
the percentages are 12.7%; 16.5% and 27.8% respectively. The overall input from these
regions is 32.3%, 19.6% and 20.9% respectively. The only two English-speaking regions put
in only 1.9% and 0.6% for the North-West and the South-West. The input from other regions
is insignificant, if not zero. However, this can be explained.

The two English-speaking regions, North-West and South-West, have an almost zero
share. Most English-speaking students would likely come from these regions, but they could

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not be included in this study since the Bilingual training which they receive is French, not
English. However, this does not explain that no French-speaking learner who grew up in these
regions be present in this class. In addition, Fine arts studies are offered at the Sahel Institute
(North), the Faculty of Arts, letters and social sciences in Yaounde, the Nkongsamba Fine
Arts Institute (Littoral Region) and at the most recent Department of Arts, University of
Bamenda. This explains, to an extent, why graduates from these regions are hardly found
amongst the respondents. However, the truth remains that not many of them (and it would
likely be the same in Yaounde, Maroua) have had sustained contact with English outside the
classroom before they got here. Tertiary level learners who have not had any sustained
immersion experience in the target language community will necessarily need their
vocabulary and fluency skills to be well focused upon. Reading would be the highest source
of input for vocabulary, and fluency development needs immersion (See Widdowson, 1990:
p. 15). That is one of the reasons for a focus on reading and work experience and study field
trips in Anglophone zones in the proposed curriculum.

5.1.3. Time spent and English language learning at the secondary level

The time spent at the secondary level can be equated to the minimal amount of time
where English has been consciously and formally learnt. English language teaching at the
primary level in Cameroon came up recently. At the secondary level, it was present since the
1960s.

Only 3.2% of the respondents have spent six years at the secondary level. 42.4% spent
the normal seven years there, but most of them (51.9%) had been at the secondary level for
more than seven years, that is, more than seven years of contact with English. Many studies,
as we said earlier, show that in spite of this adequate time, most learners display very poor
mastery of English, some for lack of motivation, others for poor teaching, and still others for
learning difficulties such as lack of didactic materials (Nforbi 2012a, 2012 b). In the next
table, percentages for these shortages, to which we add the lack of teachers, are the following:
40.5%, 11.4%, 35.4% and 12.0%, respectively. Thus, the highest difficulties in English
language learning with our respondents are a lack of motivation and the second, the lack of
didactic materials. And for these four main problems faced by secondary level students in
English language learning, 87.3% of the respondents do not think that their English language
learning at the secondary level was not adequate at all, only 12.7% think otherwise. 61.4% of
them come from a general education background, and they dominate all the areas of studies,

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apart from the decorative arts where 80% of the learners have technical certificates. This
background in the decorative arts necessitates great patience and strategic teaching, since
learners, for most of them, had never really loved to read, let alone language learning. The
table also shows that students get in touch with English through the media as well as friends
and family, though not all of them, and that the average student uses at least three languages:
the mother tongue as first language, French as a second language and English, actually as a
third language. Still, very few informants claim to be advanced learners with regards to their
English language proficiency, that is, the minimal level where a university student was to be
after the many years of English language learning at the secondary level, only 10 respondents
in the whole group that is 6.3%. 44% think that their level is ‘beginner’ and 45%
‘elementary’.

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Table 18 : Learners’ experience with English

Architecture Performing arts Plastic arts Cultural heritage Dec. arts TOTALS
Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Fbn Nkong Overall totals
n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
General
Baccalaureate education 9 45 14 70 16 80 16 80 14 87,5 16 80 2 15 6 67 4 20 45 50,6 52 65,8 97 61,4
or equivalent Technical
education 7 35 6 30 4 20 3 15 2 12,5 4 20 10 77 2 22 16 80 39 43,8 15 19,0 54 34,2
English well Yes 3 15 1 5 4 20 1 5 2 12,5 4 20 1 8 2 22 2 10 12 13,5 8 10,1 20 12,7
learnt? No 17 85 19 95 16 80 19 95 15 93,8 16 80 12 92 6 67 18 90 78 87,6 60 75,9 138 87,3
Lack of teachers 5 25 4 20 0 0 2 10 2 12,5 0 0 3 23 1 11 2 10 12 13,5 7 8,9 19 12,0
Poor teacher 3 15 2 10 4 20 3 15 1 6,3 0 0 0 0 1 11 4 20 12 13,5 6 7,6 18 11,4
Lack of
Causes documents 6 30 10 50 5 25 8 40 5 31,3 10 50 5 38 3 33 4 20 25 28,1 31 39,2 56 35,4
unwillingness 8 40 7 35 11 55 5 25 9 56,3 10 50 3 23 3 33 8 40 39 43,8 25 31,6 64 40,5
Laziness 6 30 9 45 2 10 3 15 4 25,0 16 80 2 15 2 22 6 30 20 22,5 30 38,0 50 31,6
Other reasons 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1,1 0 0,0 1 0,6
1 19 95 3 15 2 10 2 10 4 25,0 4 20 2 15 2 22 6 30 33 37,1 11 13,9 44 27,8
Other 2 10 50 7 35 13 65 12 60 7 43,8 6 30 6 46 4 44 12 60 48 53,9 29 36,7 77 48,7
languages 3 1 5 7 35 4 20 5 25 4 25,0 10 50 4 31 3 33 2 10 15 16,9 25 31,6 40 25,3
4 0 0 3 15 1 5 1 5 0 0,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1,1 4 5,1 5 3,2
Beginner 4 20 12 60 9 45 6 30 3 18,8 16 80 5 38 5 56 12 60 33 37,1 39 49,4 72 45,6
estimated
Elementary 12 60 6 30 10 50 13 65 12 75,0 3 15 6 46 2 22 6 30 46 51,7 24 30,4 70 44,3
proficiency
level Advanced 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 0 0,0 1 5 1 8 2 22 2 10 5 5,6 5 6,3 10 6,3
very advanced 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0,0

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After the secondary level years of planned instruction, if these learners still face
problems with the Queen’s language, the teaching/learning enterprise at the higher level
should be careful enough in order not to produce the same undesired result. The methodology
at the tertiary level must be different from what these learners were exposed to previously. It
should prepare the teacher to integrate remediation activities into their teaching.

5.1.4. Attitude towards an interlocutor speaking English

Question 11 on the questionnaire delved into the learner’s attitude towards an interlocutor
who speaks English. Two alternatives were foreseen: either (a) they would not want to
interact with the interlocutor – because of (i) shame or because of (ii) Anglophobia, or (b)
they would be willing to carry on the interaction but face some challenges at the level of (iii)
vocabulary, (iv) morphosyntax, (v) pronunciation, (vi) fluency, or (vii) all of the above.
Obviously, a student could face challenges at many levels. Hence, the various entries are not
exclusive. A student who ticks no option would be seen to be at home with English. Table 19
gives a picture of learners’ attitudes and their difficulties for those who may wish to continue
a conversation with a person speaking to them in English.

Only one student declares their hatred for English, that is 0.6%. Consistently, less than
50%, but at times up to 45% of the respondents, would be ashamed to make mistakes talking
back to such an interlocutor. Therefore, they shy away from doing so. Likewise, many want to
reply, but they face structural language problems such as lack of the right words (52.5%);
grammar (51.5%) and 40% face difficulties with pronunciation. Language structure is
therefore to be, if not prominent, present on the curriculum to be designed, with more
emphasis on vocabulary, morphosyntax and pronunciation. With our experience in English
language teaching, we know that Francophones have three root problems in General English:
using the tenses of English (Nforbi & Siéwoué, 2016a; Sokeng, 2012; Sokeng, 2014),
vocabulary (Kouega, 2005; Nforbi & Siéwoué, 2016b) and pronunciation (already discussed
in the chapter on pre-tertiary English).

In this first part which actually focuses on the learners’ present situation, it is
established that secondary level English language learning seems to have been elementary for
most learners in the study. Their difficulties using the language remain very obvious and
tertiary level Bilingual training in English needs to develop real strategies to motivate them
and ease learning. One main reason is that a good number of our respondents are not as young
one would expect them to be. They have reached ages at which necessitate them to gain

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independence from the parents and the new responsibilities narrow their curiosity and power
to focus on learning. The next section sets out to show the main contents of the BTE
programme and how it should be taught to them.

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Table 19 : Learners’ attitude and difficulties in responding to an English-speaking interlocutor

Architecture Performing arts Plastic arts Cultural heritage Dec. arts TOTALS
Overall
Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Fbn Nkong totals

n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Shame of
Unwillingness errors 9 45 8 40 9 45 7 35 5 31,3 0 0 7 54 3 33 6 30 36 40,4 18 22,8 54 34,2
to respond No interest
for English 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 1 8 0 0 0 0 1 1,1 0 0,0 1 0,6
Vocabulary 12 60 10 50 13 65 15 75 11 68,8 0 0 7 54 3 33 12 60 55 61,8 28 35,4 83 52,5
Language
problems Grammar 13 65 16 80 14 70 7 35 8 50,0 0 0 5 38 4 44 14 70 54 60,7 27 34,2 81 51,3
Pronunciation 10 50 11 55 10 50 7 35 5 31,3 0 0 3 23 4 44 14 70 42 47,2 22 27,8 64 40,5

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5.2. Thematic foci for fine arts BTE.
This section helps define our major foci in thematic choices, in the curriculum design, since
vocabulary is mainly learnt in relation to themes which in turn relate to jargons, whether
academic or professional. The learners were asked to grade themes covering a student’s
academic life and their fields of study on a 0-to-4 scale according to their degrees of
importance in a good BTE course. The results obtained are presented in the table below.

5.2.1. Thematic contents for academic life

For the students’ academic life as a broad theme in BTE, the general remark is that,
consistently, most students find the sub-themes proposed here as absolutely important and
almost 0% find them not important. 25.8% of the respondents in Foumban and 34.8% in
Nkongsamba, with the general percentage of 29.7, find the mastery of English for a
‘university campus’ absolutely important while only 4.4% may have it neglected. Likewise,
30% in Foumban, 47.8% in Nkongsamba, with an average of 38% find the discussion of
students' activities absolutely important for a good BTE in an Institute of Fine Arts, since they
are in a university as well. Only 4.49% find it not important. Students’ problems and
opportunities display the same trend, with 37.1% in Foumban; 39.1% in Nkongsamba and
38.0% as the overall percentage, ascribe absolute importance to it; with only 2.5% of them
declaring it needless. Even more students vote for ‘research and academic writing’: 49.4% in
Foumban, 69.6% in Nkongsamba and 58.2% of the informants find it absolutely necessary to
feature in a good BTE course; while a meagre percentage of 1.3 still do not see its
importance. Thus, the aspects of academic life proposed on the questionnaire were greatly
adopted by the respondents. The next point concerns their specialty study fields.

5.2.2. Thematic contents for the learners’ disciplines

We are supposed to compare the grading for each theme on specialty subject areas, but to
avoid reading and commenting on the whole table; seeing its volume, we propose to cumulate
the percentages of students whose lowest grade for the theme is 2/4, that is students who
acknowledge that the theme is at least important (see the smaller table below). We must,
however, point out that 4/4 is the most famous grade in the entire table below. The smaller
table with percentages only shows that no student group, be it in Foumban or in Nkongsamba,
or whatever field of study, has ascribed less that ‘important’ (that is 2/4) to any theme. Thus,
the specialty themes retained after the first survey are massively adopted by the informants.

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Table 20 : Learners’ needs in Bilingual Training in English
Area of
Architecture Performing arts Plastic Arts Cultural heritage Dec art Overall results
studies
Institute Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Fbn Nkong Totals
Broad Estimated
Aspect in
area in degree of n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % n % n % n % n %
studies (themes)
studies importance
0 0 0 1 5 2 10 1 5 1 6,3 0 0 1 7,7 0 0,0 0 0 4 4,5 3 4,3 7 4,4
1 7 35 2 10 1 5 1 5 2 12,5 5 25 0 0,0 1 11,1 2 10 12 13,5 8 11,6 20 12,7
The university
2 6 30 7 35 8 40 7 35 0 0,0 5 25 2 15,4 1 11,1 4 20 20 22,5 21 30,4 41 25,9
campus
3 2 10 5 25 3 15 7 35 4 25,0 0 0 4 30,8 3 33,3 4 20 17 19,1 16 23,2 33 20,9
4 1 5 5 25 6 30 4 20 5 31,3 10 50 5 38,5 5 55,6 6 30 23 25,8 24 34,8 47 29,7
0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 6 30 7 7,9 0 0,0 7 4,4
1 2 10 0 0 2 10 1 5 0 0,0 5 25 0 0,0 1 11,1 2 10 6 6,7 6 8,7 12 7,6
Students’
2 4 20 7 35 7 35 5 25 3 18,8 0 0 3 23,1 2 22,2 2 10 19 21,3 15 21,7 34 21,5
activities
ACADEMIC LIFE

3 8 40 8 40 2 10 7 35 4 25,0 0 0 2 15,4 1 11,1 2 10 18 20,2 17 24,6 35 22,2


4 3 15 5 25 8 40 6 30 5 31,3 15 75 7 53,8 4 44,4 4 20 27 30,3 33 47,8 60 38,0
0 0 0 1 5 1 5 2 10 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 1 1,1 3 4,3 4 2,5
1 2 10 2 10 1 5 1 5 3 18,8 0 0 0 0,0 3 33,3 0 0 6 6,7 3 4,3 9 5,7
Students’
problems and 2 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 0 0,0 3 15 8 61,5 0 0,0 4 20 22 24,7 21 30,4 43 27,2
opportunities
3 4 20 4 20 5 25 4 20 4 25,0 8 40 3 23,1 0 0,0 2 10 18 20,2 19 27,5 37 23,4
4 7 35 8 40 8 40 8 40 7 43,8 10 50 1 7,7 6 66,7 10 50 33 37,1 27 39,1 60 38,0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 1 11,1 2 10 2 2,2 0 0,0 2 1,3
1 0 0 3 15 4 20 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 1 7,7 1 11,1 0 0 5 5,6 4 5,8 9 5,7
Research and
academic 2 4 20 2 10 1 5 1 5 1 6,3 0 0 2 15,4 0 0,0 0 0 8 9,0 5 7,2 13 8,2
writing
3 5 25 4 20 2 10 3 15 3 18,8 4 20 4 30,8 0 0,0 4 20 18 20,2 15 21,7 33 20,9
4 8 40 11 55 13 65 16 80 10 62,5 16 80 5 38,5 6 66,7 8 40 44 49,4 48 69,6 92 58,2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6,3 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 1 1,1 0 0,0 1 0,6
Subject

Generalities in
1 0 0 5 25 2 10 0 0 1 6,3 0 0 1 7,7 0 0,0 0 0 4 4,5 6 8,7 10 6,3
subject area
area

2 3 15 6 30 2 10 5 25 2 12,5 2 10 4 30,8 0 0,0 4 20 15 16,9 17 24,6 32 20,3

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3 6 30 4 20 4 20 4 20 1 6,3 6 30 3 23,1 1 11,1 2 10 16 18,0 17 24,6 33 20,9
4 11 55 5 25 12 60 9 45 11 68,8 12 60 4 30,8 7 77,8 10 50 48 53,9 30 43,5 78 49,4
0 1 5 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 1 11,1 0 0 2 2,2 0 0,0 2 1,3
1 1 5 5 25 1 5 0 0 2 12,5 0 0 2 15,4 2 22,2 4 20 10 11,2 7 10,1 17 10,8
Art history 2 4 20 9 45 4 20 9 45 1 6,3 1 5 4 30,8 0 0,0 4 20 17 19,1 23 33,3 40 25,3
3 5 25 1 5 6 30 4 20 2 12,5 4 20 2 15,4 1 11,1 2 10 17 19,1 11 15,9 28 17,7
4 7 35 5 25 8 40 2 10 11 68,8 15 75 4 30,8 4 44,4 4 20 34 38,2 26 37,7 60 38,0
0 0 0 2 10 0 0 1 5 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 2 22,2 2 10 2 2,2 3 4,3 5 3,2
1 1 5 3 15 1 5 1 5 1 6,3 3 15 1 7,7 1 11,1 0 0 4 4,5 8 11,6 12 7,6
Aesthetics 2 5 25 5 25 5 25 7 35 1 6,3 0 0 5 38,5 1 11,1 4 20 20 22,5 17 24,6 37 23,4
3 7 35 4 20 1 5 9 45 4 25,0 3 15 3 23,1 2 22,2 2 10 17 19,1 19 27,5 36 22,8
4 5 25 6 30 13 65 2 10 9 56,3 14 70 3 23,1 4 44,4 8 40 38 42,7 25 36,2 63 39,9
0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 1 1,4 1 0,6
1 1 5 2 10 2 10 1 5 1 6,3 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 4 4,5 3 4,3 7 4,4
Tools and
2 2 10 3 15 0 0 1 5 2 12,5 2 10 6 46,2 2 22,2 2 10 12 13,5 12 17,4 24 15,2
functions
3 5 25 5 25 3 15 7 35 4 25,0 3 15 2 15,4 2 22,2 4 20 18 20,2 17 24,6 35 22,2
4 9 45 9 45 15 75 11 55 7 43,8 15 75 5 38,5 5 55,6 10 50 46 51,7 40 58,0 86 54,4
0 0 0 0 0 1 5 1 5 0 0,0 3 15 0 0,0 1 11,1 0 0 1 1,1 4 5,8 5 3,2
1 0 0 4 20 0 0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0 1 7,7 0 0,0 2 10 3 3,4 5 7,2 8 5,1
Studio language 2 5 25 5 25 2 10 2 10 1 6,3 1 5 3 23,1 2 22,2 0 0 11 12,4 11 15,9 22 13,9
3 4 20 2 10 7 35 4 20 2 12,5 3 15 1 7,7 2 22,2 2 10 16 18,0 10 14,5 26 16,5
4 8 40 9 45 10 50 13 65 7 43,8 14 70 8 61,5 4 44,4 12 60 45 50,6 44 63,8 89 56,3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 10 1 6,3 0 0 0 0,0 1 11,1 0 0 1 1,1 2 2,9 3 1,9
1 0 0 3 15 1 5 0 0 1 6,3 0 0 1 7,7 2 22,2 0 0 5 5,6 4 5,8 9 5,7
Creation
2 3 15 3 15 1 5 2 10 0 0,0 2 10 2 15,4 0 0,0 2 10 8 9,0 9 13,0 17 10,8
process
3 0 0 5 25 5 25 6 30 5 31,3 3 15 3 23,1 2 22,2 0 0 17 19,1 17 24,6 34 21,5
4 17 85 9 45 10 50 7 35 6 37,5 15 75 5 38,5 4 44,4 14 70 52 58,4 36 52,2 88 55,7
0 0 0 0 0 1 5 2 10 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 2 10 3 3,4 2 2,9 5 3,2
Exegesis
1 4 20 1 5 2 10 3 15 0 0,0 2 10 0 0,0 1 11,1 0 0 6 6,7 6 8,7 12 7,6

250
2 4 20 5 25 1 5 5 25 2 12,5 0 0 3 23,1 0 0,0 2 10 12 13,5 13 18,8 25 15,8
3 3 15 5 25 4 20 3 15 5 31,3 3 15 7 53,8 1 11,1 0 0 19 21,3 18 26,1 37 23,4
4 6 30 9 45 12 60 7 35 7 43,8 10 50 3 23.1 5 55,6 10 50 39 43,8 30 43,5 69 43,7
0 0 0 0 0 1 5 1 5 0 0,0 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 1 1,1 1 1,4 2 1,3
1 0 0 1 5 2 10 0 0 1 6,3 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 3 3,4 1 1,4 4 2,5
Professional
2 1 5 2 10 1 5 5 25 1 6,3 0 0 0 0,0 0 0,0 4 20 7 7,9 7 10,1 14 8,9
encounters
3 6 30 5 25 0 0 1 5 2 12,5 4 20 7 53,8 0 0,0 0 0 15 16,9 17 24,6 32 20,3
4 13 65 13 65 16 80 13 65 10 62,5 16 80 5 38,5 6 66,7 12 60 56 62,9 47 68,1 103 65,2
0 = Not necessary; 1 = somehow helpful 2 = important 3 = Very important 4 = Absolutely important

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Table 21 : Summary percentages for the grading of themes according to their degrees of
importance
Performing arts Cultural
Plastic arts Decorative Overall
Architecture and heritage
arts percentages
cinematography
Themes Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn 90,6
Generalities 100 75 90 90 87.6 100 84.7 88.9 80 81
Art history 80 75 90 75 87.6 100 77.7 55.5 50 86.1
aesthetics 85 75 95 90 87.3 85 84.7 77.7 70 91.8
Tools and
functions 80 85 90 95 81.3 100 100 100 80 86.7
Studio
language 85 80 95 95 62.6 90 92.3 88.8 70 91.8
Creation
process 100 85 80 85 88.8 100 77 66.6 80 86.5
Exegesis 65 95 85 65 87.6 65 100 66.6 60 82.9
Professional
encounters 100 95 85 100 81.3 100 92.3 66.7 80 94.4

5.2.3. Students’ learning needs

We mentioned earlier that learning needs are basically methodological. In short, there are a
few techniques that we identified as able to facilitate the learning not only of English
language but English for Fine Arts as well. They include translation, explanation in French,
debates and exposés, focusing on learners’ study fields, emphasis on pronunciation, adequate
tutorials (quality and amount of work), work study and study field trip in Anglophone zones
with reports written in English, the systematic correction of tests and exams and the use of a
manual clearly designed for Fine Arts Bilingual Training in English. If the learners think
these items are contextually relevant for expediting learning, to what extent do they evaluate
each? Table 22 presents their responses in detail. Their interpretation is done relying only on
what the overall results will suffice.

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Table 22 : Students learning needs
Area of
Architecture Performing arts Plastic Arts Cultural heritage Dec. art Overall results
studies
Institute Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Nkong Fbn Fbn Nkong Totals
Estimated
degree of n % N % n % n % n % n % n % N % n % n % n % n %
importance
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1 1.4 1 0.6
1 4 20 1 5 0 0 3 15 2 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 6.7 4 5.8 10 6.3
Translation 2 2 10 3 15 1 5 2 10 4 25 16 80 7 54 1 11.1 4 20 18 20.2 22 31.9 40 25.3
3 4 20 2 10 9 45 5 25 5 31 0 0 2 15 1 11.1 6 30 26 29.2 8 11.6 34 21.5
4 9 45 14 70 10 50 9 45 4 25 4 20 4 31 7 77.8 10 50 37 41.6 34 49.3 71 44.9
0 1 5 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 11.1 0 0 1 1.1 2 2.9 3 1.9
1 5 25 1 5 1 5 3 15 3 19 0 0 0 0 1 11.1 0 0 9 10.1 5 7.2 14 8.9
Explanation in
2 2 10 5 25 6 30 5 25 7 44 3 15 4 31 2 22.2 6 30 25 28.1 15 21.7 40 25.3
French
3 3 15 2 10 1 5 2 10 1 6.3 2 10 4 31 0 0.0 0 0 9 10.1 6 8.7 15 9.5
4 10 50 12 60 13 65 9 45 2 13 15 75 4 31 5 55.6 12 60 41 46.1 41 59.4 82 51.9
0 0 0 1 5 1 5 0 0 0 0 5 25 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 1 1.1 6 8.7 7 4.4
1 1 5 2 10 2 10 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 11.1 0 0 3 3.4 4 5.8 7 4.4
Debates and
2 2 10 4 20 3 15 3 15 2 13 0 0 1 7.7 0 0.0 4 20 12 13.5 7 10.1 19 12.0
exposés
3 4 20 3 15 1 5 16 80 5 31 5 25 4 31 3 33.3 2 10 16 18.0 27 39.1 43 27.2
4 13 65 10 50 13 65 10 50 5 31 5 25 6 46 5 55.6 14 70 51 57.3 30 43.5 81 51.3
0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 1 6.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 1 1.1 1 1.4 2 1.3
1 0 0 0 0 1 5 1 5 2 13 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2 10 5 5.6 1 1.4 6 3.8
Emphasis on
2 1 5 2 10 2 10 4 20 4 25 0 0 4 31 0 0.0 0 0 11 12.4 6 8.7 17 10.8
pronunciation
3 1 5 3 15 4 20 3 15 4 25 0 0 3 23 1 11.1 0 0 12 13.5 7 10.1 19 12.0
4 15 75 14 70 13 65 12 60 4 25 10 50 5 38 8 88.9 14 70 51 57.3 44 63.8 95 60.1
Focus of each 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 10 1 6.3 0 0 1 7.7 0 0.0 0 0 2 2.2 2 2.9 4 2.5
student's study 1 1 5 1 5 2 10 1 5 1 6.3 0 0 1 7.7 0 0.0 0 0 5 5.6 2 2.9 7 4.4

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field 2 1 5 4 20 1 5 2 10 1 6.3 4 20 3 23 1 11.1 6 30 12 13.5 11 15.9 23 14.6
3 4 20 3 15 1 5 3 15 4 25 6 30 2 15 1 11.1 2 10 13 14.6 13 18.8 26 16.5
4 12 60 7 35 16 80 12 60 6 38 10 50 4 31 5 55.6 12 60 50 56.2 34 49.3 84 53.2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 25 0 0 0 0.0 2 10 2 2.2 5 7.2 7 4.4
Tutorials 1 1 5 3 15 1 5 2 10 1 6.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2 10 5 5.6 5 7.2 10 6.3
(quality and 2 6 30 1 5 2 10 3 15 2 13 0 0 2 15 3 33.3 0 0 12 13.5 7 10.1 19 12.0
quantity) 3 2 10 5 25 8 40 6 30 5 31 5 25 3 23 2 22.2 2 10 20 22.5 18 26.1 38 24.1
4 9 45 11 55 10 50 9 45 8 50 5 25 7 54 3 33.3 16 80 50 56.2 28 40.6 78 49.4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 20 0 0 0 0 1 7.7 1 11.1 8 40 9 10.1 5 7.2 14 8.9
1 3 15 1 5 5 25 1 5 1 6.3 5 25 2 15 0 0.0 0 0 11 12.4 7 10.1 18 11.4
Recording and
2 4 20 4 20 4 20 2 10 1 6.3 0 0 2 15 1 11.1 6 30 17 19.1 7 10.1 24 15.2
video
3 4 20 4 20 6 30 2 10 5 31 3 15 2 15 3 33.3 0 0 17 19.1 12 17.4 29 18.4
4 6 30 11 55 6 30 11 55 7 44 10 50 5 38 4 44.4 6 30 30 33.7 36 52.2 66 41.8
0 0 0 1 5 0 0 4 20 1 6.3 5 25 2 15 0 0.0 6 30 9 10.1 10 14.5 19 12.0
Work 1 1 5 1 5 3 15 2 10 2 13 0 0 1 7.7 0 0.0 0 0 7 7.9 3 4.3 10 6.3
experience in
2 5 25 5 25 5 25 1 5 4 25 0 0 1 7.7 2 22.2 2 10 17 19.1 8 11.6 25 15.8
Anglophone
zone 3 2 10 1 5 7 35 1 5 2 13 1 5 3 23 2 22.2 2 10 16 18.0 5 7.2 21 13.3
4 11 55 12 60 6 30 12 60 6 38 12 60 5 38 4 44.4 8 40 36 40.4 40 58.0 76 48.1
0 0 0 1 5 20 100 4 20 1 6.3 0 0 1 7.7 0 0.0 6 30 28 31.5 5 7.2 33 20.9
1 3 15 1 5 2 10 1 5 1 6.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 6 6.7 2 2.9 8 5.1
field trip with
2 3 15 5 25 3 15 0 0 1 6.3 5 25 3 23 1 11.1 2 10 12 13.5 11 15.9 23 14.6
reports
3 4 20 3 15 5 25 3 15 2 13 0 0 2 15 1 11.1 2 10 15 16.9 7 10.1 22 13.9
4 9 45 10 50 9 45 12 60 7 44 10 50 7 54 7 77.8 8 40 40 44.9 39 56.5 79 50.0
0 0 0 1 5 0 0 3 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 6 30 6 6.7 4 5.8 10 6.3
1 0 0 1 5 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7.7 0 0.0 0 0 3 3.4 1 1.4 4 2.5
Use of books in
2 3 15 2 10 5 25 3 15 1 6.3 0 0 1 7.7 0 0.0 2 10 12 13.5 5 7.2 17 10.8
English
3 6 30 4 20 4 20 4 20 2 13 0 0 4 31 3 33.3 2 10 18 20.2 11 15.9 29 18.4
4 9 45 12 60 10 50 10 50 11 69 15 75 6 46 6 66.7 10 50 46 51.7 43 62.3 89 56.3
Systematic 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2 10 2 2.2 1 1.4 3 1.9

254
correction of 1 0 0 1 5 0 0 2 10 1 6.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 4 20 5 5.6 3 4.3 8 5.1
tests
2 4 20 4 20 2 10 4 20 1 6.3 2 10 3 23 3 33.3 0 0 10 11.2 13 18.8 23 14.6
3 4 20 3 15 1 5 2 10 6 38 2 10 3 23 0 0.0 0 0 14 15.7 7 10.1 21 13.3
4 12 60 12 60 16 80 11 55 7 44 16 80 6 46 6 66.7 8 40 49 55.1 45 65.2 94 59.5
0 0 0 1 5 0 0 3 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2 10 2 2.2 4 5.8 6 3.8
Use of a 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2 10 2 2.2 0 0.0 2 1.3
manual for 2 0 0 1 5 2 10 2 10 3 19 0 0 2 15 0 0.0 0 0 7 7.9 3 4.3 10 6.3
BTE 3 3 15 1 5 2 10 3 15 2 13 4 20 4 31 2 22.2 2 10 13 14.6 10 14.5 23 14.6
4 14 70 17 85 16 80 12 60 9 56 16 80 6 46 6 66.7 12 60 57 64.0 51 73.9 108 68.4

0 = Not necessary; 1 = somehow helpful 2 = important 3 = Very important 4 = Absolutely important

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The highest percentages still go to 4/4 in all the methodological items in the table. Those who
think the methodological items are important, very important or absolutely important are
91.7% for translation, 86.7% for explanation in French, 90.5% for debates and exposés, 82.9
% for an emphasis on pronunciation, 84.3% on a focus on learners’ study field, that is actual
teaching of English for specific purposes, 85.5% for the adequacy and sufficiency of tutorials,
75.4% the use of authentic materials such as recordings, videos and texts. Though the lowest
percentages are recorded here, work study and field trips in Anglophone zones with report
writing in English are envied by only 77.2% and 78.5% of the informants. 85.5% want to use
books discussing specialty notions in English, for the learning of English, in the BTE course.
87.4% expect to receive feedback on every test and exam which they take. 89.3% think that
the use of a BTE manual is important for facilitating learning. Those who reject these
methodological items, whichever, are extremely few.

Conclusion
This chapter aimed at discovering the learners’ present situation with English, their English
language needs as Fine Arts students and their learning needs to facilitate internalisation. The
statistical tables that flood the chapter adopted, like in the other chapter, a comparative
approach: presenting and comparing the finding from Foumban and from Nkongsamba,
before the general findings about students in fine Arts university institutes in Cameroon. The
main instrument used was the students’ questionnaire. The main findings are that the learners,
in their great majority, still face difficulties with the General English they studied at the
secondary level, and they are interested in knowing the language. Thus, they could identify
the contents of the Bilingual Training in English course which they found important as to
touch specific aspects of a student’s academic life and of their specialty study field. They also
covet many classroom techniques and other exercises, such as translation into French;
debates, a focus on the learner’s subject area, the use of authentic materials in English such as
audio/-visual recordings, a manual especially design for the course, and work study and field
trips to meet art professionals in Anglophone zones, so as to internalise English and English
for Academic Purposes more easily. Most of these methodological approaches match with
English for academic purposes, but, at the same time espouse aspects of the new competence-
based approach with entry through real life situations, already present at the secondary level.
It is important to grasp an idea on the implementation of this new approach at the secondary
level before eliciting our proposed programme for BTE.

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CHAPTER 6: THE PROPOSED ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FOR FINE ARTS
INSTITUTES IN CAMEROON

CHAPTER 6

THE PROPOSED ENGLISH LANGUAGE


CURRICULUM FOR FINE ARTS
INSTITUTES IN CAMEROON

Introduction
After we have presented the competence-based curriculum implementation on the field and
studied its influence on the English for Specific purposes we propose, in this chapter, we turn
to the part of the work that actually brings in new contribution into the field of language
teaching in Cameroon’s educational system in general, and at the tertiary level in particular.
Our main concern is to present the curriculum we propose for teaching English for Specific
Purposes to EFL Fine Arts undergraduate students, and this actually refers to English for
Specific Academic Purposes, since it is an English course for students in a specialist field. We
begin by recalling some important curriculum design rules derived from the needs analysis in
the previous pages. We shall also take a look at the Bilingual Training programme proposed
in an earlier study. After this, we shall define the curriculum approach we use, then move
onto syllabus design. Syllabus design will be considered with Mbe’s (2016: p. 26) sense of
the term ‘syllabus’:

even though the study [his PhD thesis] will go beyond the mere outline of the contents and
pacing to treat policy issues underlying the construction and implementation of a syllabus. The
main reason is that the process of design of both the curriculum and the syllabus is much the
same, as attested by the numerous cases glanced through. Another reason is that the syllabus is
the final accomplishment, the most tangible form, of the curriculum.

The integrated syllabus which we use shall mention the materials needed for content
teaching/learning, but still, we shall have a word to say on materials design.

6.1. Summary of needs analysis results


Curriculum design necessarily springs from needs analysis. The need for a continuous
curriculum revealed from the first pages and further discussed above is part of the needs

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analysis for this work. Where a previous curriculum was in force, this curriculum must also
be evaluated to see what amendments are needed for better learning. The theoretical works on
syllabus and curriculum development and the previous scientific surveys reviewed in the first
chapter, the curriculum evaluation and the needs analysis conducted earlier are still raw
materials in designing this curriculum. We start by recalling the main rules we derived earlier,
as our compass in applying Richard’s (2001) theory of curriculum development. These rules
will be referred to as ‘postulates’ hereafter, for the design of the curriculum. These postulates
were gathered from various sources.

Postulate 1: Learners’ age-bound concerns for other life issues require straightforwardness in
the teaching/learning enterprise.

Postulate 2: Learners’ lack of immersion experience requires a special focus on vocabulary


and fluency. Therefore, the learners shall be given maximal opportunities for
vocabulary and fluency development: they shall make ample use of dictionaries, and
they shall speak, listen, interact as much as possible.

Postulate3: Motivation is to be ensured from the onset, and sustained throughout the three-
year professional First Degree programme. This would be done through the pedagogic
entries, the real academic and professional situations, into which the learners shall be
required to solve problems in English.

Postulate 4: Aspects of GE should not be neglected in the ESP enterprise at the Tertiary level.
Nforbi (2012a) already proposed a summer session General English course, during
which the learners’ gaps would be filled before they undertake the Bilingual training
course content for the year. But seeing that this might be hard to implement in our
socioeconomic context, the BTE course facilitator will be required to have an eye on
learners’ gaps and provide corrections. It is for this reason that we would propose that
the course be handled in each department and not as a joint course as it is the case
now. The class-size would therefore be smaller and very easily controllable.

Postulate 5: English for Specific Purposes should be reduced to English for Academic
Purposes, since it is English for university students.

Postulate 6: The ideal is that feedback be given whenever it is needed, especially for the
correction of all tests and exams, to improve upon the learners’ performances. The

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new curriculum must give enough room for feedback in this light. This has not existed
before, and the learners have kept groping in the dark.

Postulate 7: There is so much to do in 90 hours (30 hours in year I, 30 hours in Year II and 30
hours in Year III). Efficient time management requires that learners do most of the
work at home, and only bring it for correction in the classroom. Consequently, the
Bilingual Training course should be spread through a whole semester, with regular
space between the various sessions, so the learners would have time to internalise
whatever they would have learnt and to do exercises that further expedite
internalisation.

6.2. Nforbi’s summary programme for bilingual training in English


Nforbi (2012) proposed the following summary programme for Bilingual Training at the
university level.

Level I

- Revision of all parts of speech


- Emphasis on the spoken language
- Vocabulary skills
- Punctuation
- Capitalisation
- Evaluative essays

Level II

- Language structure
- Phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and types of grammatical structures
- Tenses, Aspects, moods, etc.
- Writing and communicative skills
- Spoken English
- Comprehension texts from area of specialization

Level III

- Spoken English
- Scientific writing , the research paper, scientific reports, experimental reports
- CVs, letters, speeches, applications, articles for seminars

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- Translation

Level three should be functional enough to prepare the learners to meet the activities, be it
professional or political. Exposure to different types of writing and communicative skills is
useful. It is not at this level that grammatical concepts are treated. They are supposed to have
been handled in previous levels.

This programme is basically structural and functional. With regards to language


teaching for specific purposes, the programme provides for texts in learners’ domains of
specialisation in level II, on the one hand, and scientific writing, the research paper, scientific
reports, experimental reports, articles for seminars in level III, on the other hand. It is a
programme which can be used in every university establishment, but its emphasis on the
specific purposes aspect is not strong enough. It insists on the remedial approach and spoken
English at all levels. In the former case, our study provides that the course facilitator should
give feedback on learners’ language, but language structure (real content) should intervene in
our programme only to support the teaching of specialist content (carrier content). Also, there
is hope that if the competence-based approach is well implemented at the secondary level, the
learners may be expected to display better English language proficiencies upon enrolment into
the university. Therefore, there will be no need stressing aspects of general English any
longer. In the latter case, the need to develop the learners’ spoken language remains current
and any effort in this direction could not be more laudable. The learners should not only be
encouraged to speak and interact within and without the classroom, they should also be tested
in spoken English, for they should be able to communicate orally as an outcome of the course.
We shall now discuss the curriculum we propose.

6.3. Curriculum approach


Richards (2013) pictures his understanding of curriculum as including 3 interrelated
components: (1) input or content spelled syllabus, (2) process as methodology and (3) output
as learning outcomes.

Figure 3 : Dimensions of a curriculum. Source: Jack C. Richards (2013)

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With this definition, he distinguishes three approaches to curriculum design: forward
design, central design, and backward design.

- The forward design process starts with a decision on what is to be taught (input or
content), then selects the process and at the end defines the outcomes.

Figure 4 : The Forward Design Process