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1. What is the difference between electricity and magnetism ?

- Electricity is the force of the nature that is responsible for electric currents and

electric fields. Magnetism is the force of the nature that is responsible for

magnetic forces and magnetic fields.

Electricity can be present in either static charges (static electricity) or moving charges

(current electricity) whereas magnetism is only present when there are moving charges.

• Electric charges can occur in monopoles. The negative and the positive charge don’t need

to occur in pairs. Magnetic monopoles cannot exist; magnetic poles are always produced in

opposite pairs.

2. What is the relationship between electricity and magnetism?

In the early days scientists believed that, electricity and magnetism are two separate

forces. However, after the publication of James Clerk Maxwell, these forces are treated as

interrelated forces.

In 1820, Hans Christian Orsted observed a surprising thing, when he switched on the

battery from which the electric current is flowing, the compass needle moved away from the

point north. After this experiment, he concluded that, the electric current flowing through

the wire produces a magnetic field.

Electricity and magnetism are closely related to each other. The electric current flowing

through the wire produces a circular magnetic field outside the wire. The direction

(clockwise or counter-clock wise) of this magnetic field is depends on the direction of the

electric current.

In the similar way, a changing magnetic field produces an electric current in a wire or

conductor. The relationship between electricity and magnetism is called electromagnetism.

3. Describe the following:

a. Coulomb’s Law

Coulomb's Law is a law of physics that describes the interaction between

electrically charged objects. It was first defined by physicist Charles-Augustin de

Coulomb in 1783. This law states that the electrostatic force between two objects

is proportional to the product of the charge of each of the objects and inversely

proportional to the square of the distance between these two objects.

Specifically, , where F is the electrostatic force, ke represents a

constant value (sometimes called Coulomb's constant), q1 represents the charge

of the first object, q2 represents the charge of the second object, and r

represents the distance between the two charges. The constant value k e is

dependent on the medium in which the two objects reside.

b. Gauss's law states that the net flux of an electric field through a closed surface is

proportional to the enclosed electric charge. One of the four equations of

Maxwell's laws of electromagnetism, it was first formulated by Carl Friedrich

Gauss in 1835 and relates the electric fields at points on a closed surface (known

as a "Gaussian surface") and the net charge enclosed by that surface. The

electric flux is defined as the electric field passing through a given area multiplied

by the area of the surface in a plane perpendicular to the field. Another

statement of Gauss's law is that the net flux of an electric field through a surface

divided by the enclosed charge is equal to a constant.

c. Ohm’s Law is the core equation used to study electrical circuits. It holds that the

potential difference between two points on a circuit equals the product of the

current between those two points and the total resistance of all electrical devices

existing between those two points. The greater the voltage of a battery (or its

total electrical potential difference), the greater its current will be. Likewise, with

greater resistance, there will be less current.

4. While Oersted’s surprising discovery of electromagnetism paved the way for more

practical applications of electricity, it was Michael Faraday who gave us the key to

the practical generation of electricity: electromagnetic induction. Faraday discovered

that a voltage would be generated across a length of wire if that wire was exposed to

a perpendicular magnetic field flux of changing intensity.

Faraday made his first discovery of electromagnetism in 1821. He

repeated Oersted’s experiment placing a small magnet around a current-carrying

wire and verified that the force exerted by the current on the magnet was circular.

As he explained years later, the wire was surrounded by an infinite series of circular

concentric lines of force, which he termed the magnetic field of the current. He
took the work of Oersted and Ampère on the magnetic properties of electrical

currents as a starting point and in 1831 achieved an electrical current from a

changing magnetic field, a phenomenon known as electromagnetic induction. He

found that when an electrical current was passed through a coil, another very short

current was generated in a nearby coil. This discovery marked a decisive

milestone in the progress not only of science but also of society, and is used

today to generate electricity on a large scale in power stations. This phenomenon

reveals something new about electric and magnetic fields. Unlike electrostatic fields

generated by electric charges at rest whose circulation along a closed path is zero (a

conservative field), the circulation of electric fields created by magnetic fields is

along a closed path other than zero. This circulation, which corresponds to the

induced electromotive force, is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux

passing through a surface whose boundary is a wire loop (Faraday’s law of

induction). Faraday invented the first electric motor, the first electrical transformer,

the first electric generator and the first dynamo, so Faraday can be called, without

any doubt, the father of electrical engineering.

5. a. Fleming’s Left Hand rule.

When a wire carrying an electric

current is moved in a magnetic

field of a magnet the magnetic

field induced by the wire reacts

with the magnetic field of the

magnet causing the wire to

move outwards. Fleming's left

hand rule helps you to predict

the movement.

First finger - direction of magnetic field


SeCond finger - direction of current

(positive to negative)

ThuMb - movements of the wire

When a coil of wire carrying a current is placed in a magnetic field the coil turns.

c. In physics, a rule formulated by Scottish physicist James Maxwell that predicts

the direction of the magnetic field produced around a wire carrying electric

current. It states that if a right-handed screw is turned so that it moves forwards

in the same direction as the conventional current, its direction of rotation will

give the direction of the magnetic field.

6. Concept map

7. Factors that affect the magnetic field strength of an electromagnet:

a. Number of Loops

An electromagnet is made out of a coil of wire wrapped around a metal core—usually iron--

and connected to a battery. As the electrical current moves around the loops of the coil, it

generates a magnetic field like that of a small bar magnet. It has a north pole on one side

of the loop and a south pole on the other. Because the coil is made out of one continuous

wire, the magnetic fields of each loop “stack up,” creating something like a large bar

magnet. One way to increase or decrease the strength of the magnetic field is to change the

number of loops in the coil. The more loops you add, the stronger the field will become. The

more loops you remove, the weaker the field will become.

b. The Metal Core

c. The metal inside the coil magnifies the field created by it. Changing the metal core

for a different metal will make the electromagnet stronger or weaker. Iron cores

make for very strong fields. Steel cores make weaker fields. Neodymium cores make

the strongest fields. Sliding the core partially out of the coil will weaken the field,

because less of the metal is within it.

d. Battery Voltage

e. Changing the battery voltage will also change the field the electromagnet produces.

The higher the voltage of the battery, the more current will flow through the coil. The

greater the current in the coil, the stronger the magnetic field will grow. Conversely,

lowering the battery voltage decreases the current, therefore weakening the field.

f. Wire Size

g. Although metal wires are very efficient conductors of electricity, they still have some

resistance to the flow of current. Using larger gauges of wire on the coil will decrease

this innate resistance. This will increase the current and therefore the field. Using

smaller gauges will increase the resistance, reduce the current and weaken the field.

Using different types of metal wire will also affect the field strength, because every

metal has a different inherent resistance to current.

8. Describe the following:

a. Electric flux, property of an electric field that may be thought of as the number

of electric lines of force (or electric field lines) that intersect a given area. Electric

field lines are considered to originate on positive electric charges and to

terminate on negative charges. Field lines directed into a closed surface are

considered negative; those directed out of a closed surface are positive. If there

is no net charge within a closed surface, every field line directed into the surface

continues through the interior and is directed outward elsewhere on the surface.

The negative flux just equals in magnitude the positive flux, so that the net, or

total, electric flux is zero. If a net charge is contained inside a closed surface, the

total flux through the surface is proportional to the enclosed charge, positive if it

is positive, negative if it is negative.

10. They each use electromagnets, devices that create a magnetic field through

the application of electricity. Wrecking yards employ extremely powerful

electromagnets to move heavy pieces of scrap metal or even entire cars from one

place to another. Your favorite band uses electromagnets to amplify the sound

coming out of its speakers. And when someone rings your doorbell, a tiny

electromagnet pulls a metal clapper against a bell.

11. Capacitors are electrical devices that store energy, and they are in most

electrical circuits. The two major types of capacitors are polarized and non-

polarized. The way in which a number of capacitors are connected determines

their value in a circuit. Their combined value is highest when they are connected

in a series, positive to negative. Their combined value is lowest when they are

connected in parallel, end to end. Capacitors combined with resistors and

inductors in a circuit are used in electrical timing of events as well as in motors,

fans, televisions, automobiles and many other consumer products and high-

energy environments.

12. Motor/generators are really one device that can run in two opposite modes.

Contrary to what folks sometimes think, that does not mean that the two modes

of the motor/generator run backwards from each other (that as a motor the

device turns in one direction and as a generator, it turns the opposite direction).

The shaft always spins the same way. The "change of direction" is in the flow of

electricity. As a motor, it consumes electricity (flows in) to make mechanical power,

and as a generator, it consumes mechanical power to produce electricity (flows out).

13. Uses of Electromagnetism in Life

Whatever powered devices we use, from table clocks to microwave ovens, have some form

of electromagnetic principle involved in their functioning. It is electromagnetism which has

given the flexibility for switching of/on electricity as required.

Electromagnets are created by having an iron core wound with a conductor carrying

current. The strength of the electromagnet depends upon the amount of current passing

through the conductor. Also the current can be easily stopped and started to form an

electromagnet and de-energize respectively as per the need of the work to be performed.

This is the principle used for moving heavy objects in the scrap yard. Electricity is connected

to the circuit to power the electromagnets when they are energized. Thus the magnets start

to attract scrap metal (junk cars), and carry them to the designated area. After locating

them in a particular location, the electricity is disconnected from the circuit, thus de-

energizing the electromagnet, making the scrap metal detach from the magnet.

Uses in Home Appliances:

Many of our electrical home appliances use electromagnetism as a basic principle of

working. If we take an example of an electric fan, the motor works on the principle of

electromagnetic induction, which keeps it rotating on and on and thus making the blade hub

of the fan to rotate, blowing air. Not restricting to fan, many other appliances use

electromagnetism as a basic principle. Electric door bell works on this principle too. When

the doorbell button is put on, the coil gets energized, and due to the electromagnetic forces,

the bell sounds. The working of an electric bell is discussed in detailed manner in one of our

articles. The loudspeaker which we use for public announcements in meetings, or to

transmit message over a long distance, is a perfect example for an electromagnetic

appliance. The movement of the coil under the electromagnetic force produces sound which

is heard over a very long distance.

Also the modern way of locking the door or a bank safe is to have a magnetic locking

device. Either they may be having a number secret code or a magnetic card which when

swiped opens the door. The number keys are stored in the magnetic tape on the back of the

card, interacts with the magnetic card reader in the door. When the data stored on the card

and the memory matches, the door opens. Similar principle is used in the bank’s safe