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A. Watch the next video on what is causing global warming and climate change.


B. Discuss in class what the probable causes are and how

we can help to prevent that this continues occurring by
answering the following questions.
 Where does carbon dioxide come from?
 What is the connection of carbon dioxide to climate change?
 What does the greenhouse effect do?
 What happened 200 years ago?
 How have the levels of carbon dioxide been changing since 1750?
 How does the video end?

C. Now, read the article below to learn more about the consequences of this

A Threat to Our Planet

No part of our environment has escaped the effects of

pollution. All over the world, an increasing number of waste
materials and substances that issue daily from factories, homes
and vehicles have contaminated our land, air and water. In some cases, this waste is only an
eyesore, which spoils the beauty of our surroundings, while in other cases, it is a serious threat
to our health and can result in death.
Some of the most dangerous waste substances are, without
a doubt, those produced by factories. Industrial waste often
contains toxic substances that can kill plant and animal life.
When there is no proper government control, factories allow
these substances to pour into rivers, while their chimneys fill the
atmosphere with poisonous fumes, sometimes in areas no more
than a few kilometers from heavily populated cities.
In towns and cities, the use of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and gas) for heating results in large
amounts of carbon dioxide filling the atmosphere. Although people have created "smokeless
zones" in some cities where no coal or oil fires are allowed, the exhaust fumes from vehicles on
the roads has meant that air pollution continues to be a major problem.
But each of us is guilty of polluting our environment to some extent. Almost everything we
buy today comes in some sort of container or packaging, made of paper plastic, glass, or
aluminum which we usually throw away. Besides being expensive to collect, many of these
materials -especially plastic, glass, and aluminum -are very difficult to get rid of and lie in huge
dumps on the outskirts of many cities, one of the ugliest types of pollution. Some people should
encourage factories to recycle these materials, but few have shown any interest.
How much longer can we allow this pollution to continue? Scientists tell us that the
increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may soon have disastrous effects. They
fear that it will raise average temperatures around the world and cause the polar ice caps to melt.
If this happens, they say the level of the world's oceans will rise by four to six meters, and it will
cover on water or flood vast populated areas of our planet. Likewise, there will be some areas
where drought will be present. Can we afford to make such risks by continuing to pollute our
environment? We must participate more on the solution to this problem.
Adapted and modified by Ma. Carolina Abella for academic purposes from:

D. How much have you comprehended the article? Let’s find it out by choosing if
these sentences are true or false. Justify your answers.
1. Waste is not a real threat to our health. ________
2. The government is responsible for the waste factories produce. ________
3. The increased amount of carbon dioxide is the cause of global warming. ________
4. The more goods we buy, the more waste we produce. ________

E. Did you notice there are some words in bold in the reading? Do you know what
their meanings are? Which ones you can use to complete the sentences below?
1. Most factories and cars are producing __________________ that gets to the air,
contaminating our cities.
2. Some students are thinking of different campaigns to suggest factories some preventive
measures, so they do not produce ______________ substances.
3. People are working to _________________________ all their trash by recycling some of
the materials they throw away.
4. One of the terrible consequences of climate change is _________________. The amount
of water is diminishing every year.
Can you substitute the underlined word or words with the rest ones?
1. Nowadays, people are aware of the consequences of contamination. They are working on
reducing its effects. ______________
2. Scientists are concerned how fast glaciers are becoming liquid, and that produces a rise in the
sea levels that can affect the coastal cities. ______________
3. Factories must avoid producing remains of combustible matters that can pollute the cities,
and affect the environment. ______________
4. Pollution is a big menace for our lives, its high levels in the cities are causing respiratory
diseases to its inhabitants. ______________

F. After watching the next video by National Geographic where a woman describes
the causes and effects of climate change, get in groups and discuss the questions
that follow.
 What are the two main causes of climate change?
 What are the four aspects affected by climate change?
 What causes flooding?
 What causes the weather to be more extreme?
 What happened to the water supplies?
 What can cause smog?
 How can we revert some of the effects of climate change?

Let’s take a look at these sentences from the reading.

1. It is a serious threat to our health and can result in death.
2. Scientists tell us that the increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may soon
have disastrous effects.
3. Can we afford to make such risks by continuing to pollute our environment?
4. Some people should encourage factories to recycle these materials,
5. We must participate more on the solution to this problem.
 Did you notice the italic words?
 Can you guess what those words express?

G. Did you guess it? Let’s practice how we can use them.
Match each sentence to a sentence with the same meaning.
1. Jack must write a report tomorrow. a. She needs to help him, or the report will not
be finished on time.
2. Jack couldn’t write it yesterday.
b. Jennifer’s boss says she is allowed to help
3. Jennifer says she can help him tomorrow.
4. She has to help him, or the report will not
c. Jack will have to write a report tomorrow.
be finished on time.
d. Jennifer says she will be able to help him
5. Jennifer’s boss says she may help Jack.
e. Jack wasn’t able to write it yesterday.

Give advice in the following situations.

1. I’ve lost my checkbook and credit cards.
2. Tony wants to drive home, but he has had too much to drink.
3. (In a restaurant) Ugh! My soup is cold.
4. I never have any money.
5. Jenny and Paul are only sixteen, but they say they want to get married.

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals from the ones given in the box below. There
is more than one option for some of the sentences.
should might can could have to must

a) Jane’s flight from Morocco took more than 11 hours. She ___________ be exhausted after
such a long flight. She ___________ prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.
b) If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you ___________ walk down
town and explore the riverside.
c) You ___________ research the route a little more before you set sail.
d) When you have a small child in the house, you ___________ leave small objects lying
e) Susan: ___________ you hold your breath for more than a minute? Mary: No, I can’t.
f) Mary’s engagement ring is enormous! It ___________ have cost a fortune.
g) Please make sure to feed the fish while I am gone. If they don’t get enough food, they
___________ die.
h) I ___________ speak German fluently when I was a child.
i) The teacher said we ___________ read the book if we needed extra credit.
j) The spatula ___________ be in this cupboard but it’s not here.

Fill in the gaps with a suitable modal verb and write its function in the parenthesis.
There might be more than one possibility.
a) There is a lot of meat in the freezer. You ______________ buy any. (-
b) It's a hospital. You _________________ smoke. (___________________)
c) He had worked for more than 11 hours. He _______________ be tired after such hard work.
d) I _______________ speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Morocco
(______________________). But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure
to the language and I forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I _____________ just
say a few things in the language. (_________)
e) The teacher said we ____________ read this book for our own pleasure because it is
optional (_________________). But we _________________ read it if we don't want to.
f) If you want to learn to speak English fluently, you _______________ work hard.
g) Take an umbrella. It _________________ rain later. (________________)
h) You ______________ leave small objects on the floor (____________). Children
_______________ swallow such objects. (_________________)
i) You _____________ be careful when you drive. (________________)
j) _______________ I ask a question? Yes, of course. (_______________)
k) You _______________ take your umbrella. It is not raining. (__________________)
l) There are a lot of clouds in the sky. It ___________________ rain in a few minutes!
m) You _________________ eat healthy if you want to lose some weight.
Use modal verbs or modal related verbs to make appropriate sentences according
to the situation.
1. Global warming is causing a lot of harm over the whole planet. Suggest:
2. Many countries do not have environmental policies. Express a future possibility:
3. Many countries are suffering from water and energy shortage crisis. You say:
4. You are the leader in an interesting recycling project and you need your crew to do a special
task. You ask them to work on it. Express a request:

H. Let’s review how to make Wh-Word Questions by completing the exercise below.
There are some underlined word or words in the next article. Write the
corresponding Wh-Word Questions to those underlined words.
Drones fly to rescue of Amazon wildlife
By Mauro Pimentel, Agence France-Presse, adapted by Newsela staff

(1) A hoarse sound abruptly wakes visitors. (2) They are staying at a floating house that
serves as a base for environmentalists on the Jaraua River. The river is in the Amazon
rain forest of Brazil.

During flood season, the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve fills with water. The
reserve is located 310 miles from the Amazonas state capital Manaus.

For researchers from the Mamiraua Institute and WWF-Brazil, that means their nearest
neighbor is a caiman they call Dominique. (3) It has decided to squat for the day at the end
of their house.

But the surprising noise was something else.

"Don't worry! That's just the river dolphins breathing. It's scary in the middle of the night, right?"
biologist Andre Coelho says.

The next day, (4) scientists got into two boats, slowly navigating the endless spread of water-
filled forest.

In this primeval landscape, (5) the researchers used a drone to help them watch the
Amazon's pink river dolphins. The pink river dolphins' scientific name is Inia geoffrensis.
The voyage in late June, which AFP was invited to follow, was the last in the series of a project
called EcoDrones. The drones monitor populations of the pink river dolphin and another type of
freshwater dolphin called the tucuxi, or Sotalia fluviatilis.

1. _______________________________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________________________

3. _______________________________________________________________

4. _______________________________________________________________

5. _______________________________________________________________