In this article, we discuss the effects of touchdown on an inclined seabed of a mooring system consisting of one or two chains joined at the sinker that is subjected to horizontal tension or tension
at the suspension point. We modeled the statics of the system using the classical non-extensional
catenary theory. For a system without a sinker, we provide an analytical solution for the governing
equations, whereas for a system with a sinker, we derive governing equations that can be solved
only nu

© All Rights Reserved

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In this article, we discuss the effects of touchdown on an inclined seabed of a mooring system consisting of one or two chains joined at the sinker that is subjected to horizontal tension or tension
at the suspension point. We modeled the statics of the system using the classical non-extensional
catenary theory. For a system without a sinker, we provide an analytical solution for the governing
equations, whereas for a system with a sinker, we derive governing equations that can be solved
only nu

© All Rights Reserved

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- A Level Mathematics _ Practice Paper _ 7.1 _ Differentiation (Part 1)
- 134105586-coordinate-algebra-unit-3
- Syllabus for Mathematics
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- Coordinate Algebra Unit 3
- Trig No Me Try 7
- Truss
- Bernoulli
- A New Time Treatment for Solving Partial Integro-differential
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touchdown on an inclined seabed

To cite this article: Milan Batista & Marko Perkovič (2019): Computation of mooring chain with the

touchdown on an inclined seabed, Journal of Marine Engineering & Technology

https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=tmar20

JOURNAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

https://doi.org/10.1080/20464177.2019.1572059

Milan Batista and Marko Perkovič

In this article, we discuss the effects of touchdown on an inclined seabed of a mooring system con- Received 16 June 2018

sisting of one or two chains joined at the sinker that is subjected to horizontal tension or tension Accepted 14 January 2019

at the suspension point. We modeled the statics of the system using the classical non-extensional

catenary theory. For a system without a sinker, we provide an analytical solution for the governing

equations, whereas for a system with a sinker, we derive governing equations that can be solved

only numerically. Analytical formulae for the calculation of the restoring coefficient of the system

are also provided. Numerical examples and a real case of mooring buoy design illustrate the use of

the proposed model.

MIKE 21 [MIKE 2017]). However, the manuals of these

In this article, we consider the effects of an inclined

programmes do not describe a method for the calcula-

seabed on the statics of a mooring system consisting of

tions.

one or two chains joined by a sinker, where one chain is

The aim of this paper is to develop an analytical math-

attached to an anchor and the other is suspended from a

ematical model of the mooring system which interacts

buoy. Such a system can be found in harbours as a part of

with the slanted seabed. The model is to be used for pri-

a ship’s mooring system (Jones 1985; Tsinker 1995) or as

marily quasistatic analysis and should be simple enough

a part of a mooring system platform (Smith and MacFar-

for in-house implementation. Therefore we will utilise

lane 2001). In this article, we provide a straightforward

only the rigid body mechanics and the classical static

static analysis of such a system based on the classical

catenary theory. Consequently, we must assume the fol-

theory of non-extensional catenary (Appendix A). As is

lowing regarding a chain and its load:

well-known, such a static analysis can be used in the

initial design phase of a mooring system (Triantafyllou

• The chain is inextensible and homogeneous.

1982).

• The chain is completely submerged.

The statics of a catenary is one of the oldest problems

• The resistance of a chain in water is omitted.

in the mechanics of deformed bodies and has therefore

• The dynamic effects are omitted.

been a subject in a significantly large number of statics

textbooks (Bedford and Fowler 2008). Also, a signifi-

For the seabed, the assumptions are the following:

cant number of studies on the use of catenary theory for

designing a mooring system have been carried out. How- • The seabed is inclined and ideally flat, i.e. without

ever, notwithstanding the large volume of literature on irregularities.

the subject, it appears that a complete analytical model • The seabed is rigid such that a part of a chain lying on

of chains touching down on a flat rigid seabed is of a it cannot penetrate it.

more recent origin (Garza-Rios et al. 1997; Masciola et al. • The seabed is rough, that is, the friction force between

2013). To the authors’ knowledge, an inclined seabed has the seabed and chain and the seabed and sinker is not

been considered only by Chai et al. (2002); however, they limited.

used a semi-analytical approach on a complex model and

therefore did not provide a general formula. To that we Practically all the above assumptions about the seabed

add that a model of the inclined seabed is included in are more or less false. Therefore some comments are in

CONTACT Milan Batista milan.batista@fpp.uni-lj.si Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Portorož, Slovenia

2 M. BATISTA AND M. PERKOVIČ

that the part of the chain on the seabed is a straight

line. This assumption can be omitted. However, our goal

is to obtain explicit expressions for calculation of the

geometry of chain. Profiled seabed require an algorithmic

solution (Ariane 2015). The next two assumptions are

physical assumptions and in practical terms indicate that

the chain and sinker cannot move over the seabed, i.e.

they can only be lifted. We incorporated these assump-

tions because a discussion regarding the interaction of a

chain with the seabed and anchor mechanics are separate

subjects and are out of the scope of the present article.

For more details on these subjects, refer to Wang et al.

(2010), Aubeny and Chi (2010), Elosta et al. (2013), and

the references therein. In the following, we will, there- Figure 1. Initial (dashed line) and deformed (solid line) geome-

fore, consider only the suspended part of a chain, i.e. tries of chain, where PA is the anchoring point, PB is the initial

the catenary. We note however that we can obtain a sim- suspension point (buoy chain stopper), P0 is the chain apex point,

P1 is the chain touchdown point, and P2 is the current suspension

ple model of chain-seabed interaction by the assumption point.

of, for example, the validity of the Coulomb friction law.

But this again requires an algorithmic solution because of

possible stick-slip motion of the chain over seabed. that

2. Chain without sinker

These assumptions exclude a vertical chain from the dis-

2.1. Initial geometry

cussion. To discuss only a system with a seabed, we also

We assume that in the initial state, the chain is unloaded, assume that

and thus, its shape is composed of two line segments (see

Figure 1): one lying on the seabed and one vertical from − 900 < α < 900 . (3)

the seabed to the buoy. The initial geometric parameters

are as follows: The geometrical parameters listed above exhibit certain

interdependencies amongst themselves, and they permit

• Chain specific weight, q several possibilities of the initial data.

• Chain length,

• Length of the part of chain on seabed, 0 1. When hA , hB , and LB are specified, then, with the

• Angle between seabed and horizontal, α (we assume help of Figure 1, we can establish the following for-

the clockwise direction of α to be positive) mulae for calculating p, , and 0 :

• Water depth above anchor, hA

• Horizontal distance from anchor to buoy, LB hB − hA

p ≡ tan α = , (4)

• Water depth under buoy, hB LB

weight of a chain in the water as = L2B + (hB − hA )2 + hB , (5)

ρw

qw = 1 − q. (1) 0 = − hB . (6)

ρc

Using popular trigonometric identities, we can express

If we consider the density of steel, i.e. ρc = 7800 kg/m3 , sin α and cos α, which are required in future calculations,

and the density of seawater, i.e. ρw = 1027 kg/m3 , then using tan α as follows:

qw ≈ 0.868 q.

To avoid an extensive discussion of special circum- p 1

stances, we assume that the values of all the geometrical sin α = , cos α = (7)

1 + p2 1 + p2

parameters above are positive. Moreover, we shall assume

JOURNAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY 3

2. If hB , LB , and p are specified, then, using Eqs. (4) and Figure 1):

(5),

X1 = XA + 0 cos α, Y1 = YA − 0 sin α, (15)

hB = hA + pLB , (8)

Now, if we assume that H is specified, then, λ is expressed

as

= hA + LB 1+p +p .

2 (9)

H

λ= , (16)

3. If p, , and hA are specified, then from Eq. (9) qw

and therefore, the fundamental unknowns of the prob-

LB = ( − hA ) 1+p −p ,

2 (10) lem are arc-length coordinates s1 , s2 , of catenary start and

endpoint and length 0 of the chain on seabed. These

and hB is expressed by Eq. (8). unknowns are connected by the following two geomet-

4. Finally, if hA , hB , and are specified, then, from rical conditions:

Eqs. (4) and (5),

• The total length of the chain is

hB − hA

p= , (11)

( − hB )2 − (hA − hB )2 = 0 + s2 − s1 . (17)

and LB can be calculated from Eq. (10). • The vertical distance between the catenary end-points

We note that the chain cannot be straightened, and is (see Figure 1)

thus, chain span L is constrained to

y2 − y1 = hA + 0 sin α. (18)

LB ≤ L < 2 − h2A . (12)

From Eq. (17), we have

With zero horizontal force, the vertical force at the s2 = − 0 + s1 . (19)

suspension point is composed of only the weight of

the vertical part of the chain. We thus obtain the Using Eqs. (17) and Eq. (88) for y, we can express condi-

following values of the vertical load at the chain tion (18) as

touchdown point (index 1) and chain end (index 2):

p

λ2 + ( − 0 + s1 )2 − λ2 + s21 = hA + 0 .

V1 = 0 V2 = qw hB . (13) 1 + p2

(20)

This expression contains three parameters: s1 , 0 , and λ.

2.2. Calculation when the horizontal force is

When two of these are specified, then, the third can be

specified

calculated from Eq. (20). We distinguish the following

With the application of horizontal tension force H to three cases:

the suspension point, the chain gradually rises from the

seabed; thus, its shape consists of a line of length 0 on the Case 1: The chain is only to be raised from the seabed

seabed and the catenary. It is evident from the equations

in Appendix A that the shape of the catenary and its load In this case, 0 = 0, and at the catenary touchdown point

is completely determined if we know the chain param- (tangency point), we have α = −θ1 ; thus, tan θ1 = −p.

eter λ as well as the chain arc-length coordinates s1 of Therefore, from Eq. (89), we have s1 = −λp. Substituting

its start point and the arc-length coordinates s2 of its end this into Eq. (20), we obtain the equation for λ. By replac-

point. Further, the position of the chain in the plane coor- ing λ with Hmin /qw , where Hmin is the minimal force

dinate system OXY is completely determined if we know required to raise the chain from the seabed, we obtain

the plane coordinates of its start point (see Appendix B).

qw 2 − h2A

These coordinates are arbitrary. For definitiveness, in this Hmin = . (21)

study, we define the coordinate origin to be on the water 2 hA 1 + p2 + p

surface immediately above the anchor: When α = 0, i.e. p = 0, it reduces to a popular formula

XA = 0, YA = −hA , (14) for describing a chain rising from a horizontal seabed

(Garza-Rios et al. 1997):

where XA , YA are the coordinates of the anchor in the

qw (2 − h2A )

plane coordinate system. The coordinates of the con- Hmin = . (22)

tact point between the catenary and seabed are then (see 2 hA

4 M. BATISTA AND M. PERKOVIČ

Case 2: Part of the chain is on the seabed Because H ≥ 0, the lower value of TB is specified based

on the condition H = 0. Using Eq. (13), we obtain

When H < Hmin , it implies that part of the chain is on the

seabed. At the catenary touchdown point, we have s1 = TB ≥ qw hB or λB ≥ hB , (30)

−λp; thus, Eq. (20) becomes an equation with 0 as the where equality implies that H = 0. Equations (20) and

unknown. A solution to this equation is (27) have three parameters: s1 , 0 , and λ. Thus, one of

these must be specified, and the remaining two can be cal-

2

0 = (1 + p ) + 1 + p hA p

2 culated. As described in section 2.2, we now distinguish

three cases:

− h2A + 2hA (λ + p) 1 + p2 + 2λp+ (2 + h2A )p2 . Case 1: The chain is only to be raised from the seabed

(23)

In this case, we have 0 = 0, H = Hmin , and s1 =

When α = 0, this equation reduces to the formula for −Hmin p/qw , where Hmin is expressed by Eq. (21). Substi-

describing a chain on a horizontal seabed (Garza-Rios tuting these into Eq. (27) for H, we obtain the minimum

et al. 1997): tension force required for raising the chain from the

seabed:

0 = − 2hA λ + h2A . (24)

TB,min = Hmin 2 + (q − H

w

2

min p) . (31)

Case 3: The chain is completely raised from the seabed

Case 2: Part of the chain is on the seabed

If H > Hmin , then 0 = 0; thus, Eq. (20) becomes an

If qw hB < TB < Tmin , then a part of the chain 0 is on the

equation with s1 as the unknown. Its solution is

seabed. At the catenary touchdown point, we have s1 =

−λp; thus, in this case, for λ, Eq. (28) yields

1 2 − h2A + 4λ2

s1 = hA − . (25)

2 2 − h2A 0 = − λp − λ2B − λ2 . (32)

When s1 < 0, the catenary part of the chain contains its Note that we assume − 0 + s1 > 0 because the ver-

apex. When s1 = 0, the apex is at the anchor point. This tical force V2 > 0 at the suspension point. Substituting

occurs when the horizontal force is this into Eq. (20), we obtain an equation with λ as the

unknown, which has the following solution:

2 − h2A

H = qw . (26)

2hA

λB − r 1 + p + p 2λB 1 + p2 − r r(1 + p2 )

2

have only the monotone part of the catenary. (1 + p2 ) 1 + p2

(33)

where

2.3. Calculation when the tension force at the buoy

r ≡ p + hA 1 + p2 . (34)

is specified

For p = 0, this equation reduces to

When the tension force TB at the suspension point is

specified, then, by means of Eqs. (19) and (92), H can be λ = λB − hA . (35)

expressed as

Case 3: The chain is completely raised from the seabed

H = TB2 − q2w ( − 0 + s1 )2 , (27)

If TB > Tmin , then 0 = 0. From Eq. (27), we then have

or alternatively as

s1 = − λ2B − λ2 . (36)

λ= λ2B − ( − 0 + s1 )2 , (28)

Substituting this into Eq. (20), we obtain an equation with

where λ as the unknown. Its solution is

TB 1

λB = . (29) λ= (2 − h2A )[(2λB − hA )2 − 2 ]. (37)

qw 2

JOURNAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY 5

2.4. Chain-restoring coefficient and when H ≤ Hc , i.e. when the chain is lifted from the

seabed, then

The chain-restoring coefficient, which is used for lineari-

sation of H in, for example, mooring lines analysis (Jones

1985), is defined as d0 ds1 λh2A

=0 and = 2 . (45)

dλ dλ ( − h2A )(s1 + /2)

dH

K≡ , (38)

dδ We observe that the chain-restoring coefficient can be

where δ is the horizontal displacement of the buoy, which calculated in a purely analytical manner once the shape

can be expressed as the following using Eq. (88) for x: of the chain is known.

s s

δ ≡ L − LB = λ sinh−1 − sinh−1

2 1

λ λ 3. Chain with sinker

0

+ − LB . (39) When the chain has a sinker, the sinker divides the chain

1 + p2

into two parts: the part from the anchor to the sinker

This coefficient is used for linearisation of H. (referred to as the anchor chain and denoted by super-

Now, δ = δ̂(λ, s1 , s2 , 0 ). As observed from Eqs. (25) script -) and the part from the sinker to the buoy (referred

and (23), s1 and 0 rely only on λ; meanwhile, based to as the buoy chain and denoted by superscript +). In

on Eq. (19), s2 = ŝ2 (0 , s1 ). The total differential of δ is addition to the parameters from section 2.1, we now have

therefore the following parameters:

∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂s2 d0 • Sinker-chain specific weight, q− , and length, −

dδ = + +

∂λ ∂0 ∂s2 ∂0 dλ • Buoy-chain specific weight, q+ , and length, +

• Initial water depth above the sinker, hS

∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂s2 ds1

+ + dλ. (40) • Initial horizontal distance from the anchor to the

∂s1 ∂s2 ∂s1 dλ sinker, LS

∂s2

From this as well as ∂ 0

= −1, ∂s 2 dH

∂s1 = 1, and dλ = q , the The total chain length, , is now expressed as

chain-restoring coefficient is expressed as follows:

K=

q

, (41) = − + + . (46)

∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ d0 ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ds1

∂λ + ∂0 − ∂s2 dλ + ∂s1 + ∂s2 dλ

3.1. Initial geometry

where

∂ δ̂ s s s1

When there is no horizontal force on the buoy, then,

= sinh−1 − sinh−1

2 1

+ similar to a chain without a sinker, the chain shape is

∂λ λ λ λ2 + s1 2 composed of two straight lines (Figure 2).

s2 We now distinguish two cases:

− , (42)

λ + s2 2

2

1. The sinker is initially on the seabed

∂ δ̂ 1 ∂ δ̂ λ

= , = − , In this case, + ≥ hB . If LS is specified, then the water

∂0 1 + p2 ∂s1 λ + s1 2

2

depth above the sinker, hS , and the length of anchor chain

∂ δ̂ λ are expressed by

= . (43)

∂s2 λ + s2 2

2

hS = hA + LS p, (47)

Now, when H ≤ Hc , i.e. part of the chain is on the seabed,

then

d0 p + hA 1 + p2 (1 + p2 ) − = LS 1 + p2 . (48)

=− and

dλ − + p p + h 1 + p2

0 A Evidently, these relations are valid if LS < LB . The initial

ds1 load of the buoy chain is identical to that without a sinker

= −p, (44) (see Eq. (13)).

dλ

6 M. BATISTA AND M. PERKOVIČ

Figure 2. Initial state of a chain with sinker on the seabed (left) and that of a chain with sinker lifted (right).

If − is specified, then, based on Eq. (48), the distance (Qw − V1+ )p + H (λS − s+

1 )p + λ

+

w , (57)

1 + p2 1 + p2

−

LS = . (49) where

1 + p2

Qw

λS ≡ . (58)

The end forces on the buoy chain are q+

w

w hB . (50)

Eq. (56), this occurs when

2. The sinker is initially lifted from the seabed s+ +

1 = λS − pλ . (59)

In this case, + < hB . Thus, we have Evidently, N = 0 can be achieved only when + 0 = 0, i.e.

when the buoy part of the chain is completely raised from

LS = LB , (51) the seabed. This can also be demonstrated analytically. If

hS = hB − . +

(52) +

0 > 0, then, the contact point of the chain and seabed is

the catenary tangency point. Thus V1+ = pH, and there-

When the sinker is lifted, we have the following vertical fore, N = √Qw 2 > 0 for any Qw > 0. Thus, for H ≤ HS ,

forces at the chain’s characteristic points: 1+p

where HS is the minimum force that raises the sinker,

V1− = 0, V2− = q−

w (hB − hS ), (53) the sinker assumes the role of the anchor; moreover, the

V1+ = V2− + Qw , V2+ = V1+ + q+ chain is considered through a replacement of all the for-

w hS . (54)

mulae based on the methods described in the previous

section, i.e.

3.2. Equilibrium of sinker

hA ← hS and ← + (60)

If Q is the weight of the sinker in air, then, its weight Qw

in water is

To determine HS , we equate Eqs. (25) and (59) for s+

1 . The

ρw solution to the resulting equation is

Qw = 1 − Q. (55)

ρs

2

where ρs is the density of the sinker. For concrete of den- hS

−h2S + (+ − h2S )p2 ]

2

sity 2400 kg/m3 , we have Qw ≈ 0.572 Q, whereas for steel

q+ −p(+ − h2S )(+ + 2λS )

2

of density 7800 kg/m3 , we have Qw ≈ 0.868 Q.

When the sinker is in equilibrium on the seabed, then, HS = w (61)

2 h2S − (+ 2 − h2S )p2

the normal component N of the reaction force and the

tangential component F of the reaction force are (see When the sinker loses contact with the seabed, its equi-

Figure 3) librium requires the following (see Figure 3):

Qw − V1+ − pH λS − s+ − pλ+ Qw = V1+ − V2− = q+ + − −

N= = q+ 1 ≥ 0, (56) w s1 − qw s2 . (62)

w

1 + p2 1 + p2

JOURNAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY 7

• the length of the anchor chain

0 + s2 − s1 , (67)

specified

• the length of the buoy chain

When the horizontal force H lifts the sinker, the chain

shape becomes composed of three parts: the catenary cor- + = s+ +

2 − s1 , (68)

responding to the buoy chain (specified by the parame-

• and the vertical distance between the chain suspension

ters s+ +

1 and s2 ), the catenary corresponding to the anchor points (see Figure 4)

chain (specified by the parameters s− −

1 and s2 ), and the

part of the anchor chain on the seabed (length − 0 ). The y2− − y1− + y2+ − y1+ = hA + −

0 sin α. (69)

anchor chain and buoy chain parameters are as follows:

Using Eq. (88) for y, we can express this last equation as

H H

λ− = and λ+ = . (63)

q− q+

(λ ) + (s2 ) − (λ ) + (s1 ) + (λ+ )2 + (s+

− 2 − 2

+ 2 − 2 2

2)

The coordinates of the contact point between the sinker −

0p

− (λ+ )2 + (q+ s+

2

catenary and seabed are (Figure 2) 1 ) = hA + . (70)

1 + p2

X1− = XA + −

0 cos α, Y1− = YA − −

0 sin α. (64) We thus have five unknowns, − − − + +

0 , s1 , s2 , s1 , and s2 , and

four equations for disposal. From Eqs. (67), (68), (62),

Then, the sinker coordinates are the coordinates of the

and (59) we have

endpoint of the anchor chain

s− − − −

2 = − 0 + s1 , (71)

XS = X2− = X1−

s− s− q− −

+λ −

sinh −1 2

− sinh −1 1

, s+

1 = s + λS , (72)

λ− λ− q+ 2

YS = Y2− = Y1− s+ + +

2 = s1 + . (73)

⎛ ⎞

2 2 Introducing these expressions into Eq. (70), we obtain

⎜ s− s−

⎟

+ λ− ⎝1 + 2− − 1 + 1− ⎠ , (65) the relation among − −

0 , s1 , and H. Two of the parameters

λ λ must be specified; then, the third can be calculated. Sim-

ilar to a chain without a sinker, we consider the following

and the coordinates of the sinker are the coordinates of three cases:

the start point of the buoy chain, i.e.

Case 1: The sinker is only to be raised from the seabed

X1+ = XS , Y1+ = YS . (66)

In this case, − − − −

0 = 0 and s1 = −λ p = −Hmin p/q . In

−

0 , s1 , s2 , s1 ,

and are s+

2,

−

this manner, Eq. (70) becomes the equation for Hmin , that

connected by the sinker equilibrium equation (62) and is, the horizontal force that completely lifts the anchor

the following four geometrical equations: chain from the seabed.

8 M. BATISTA AND M. PERKOVIČ

Case 2: Part of the sinker of the chain is on the seabed To obtain the tension force TB,min that lifts the anchor

chain from the seabed, we first calculate Hmin ; moreover,

−

In this case, H < Hmin , and at the anchor chain touch- from the above formula, we express the following:

down point, we have s− −

1 = −λ p. Thus, the remaining

−

unknown in Eq. (70) is 0 . 2 + (q+ + + q− − − H 2

TB,min = Hmin w w min p + Qw ) .

(76)

Case 3: The chain is completely lifted from the seabed

In this case, H > Hmin , and therefore −0 = 0. From

−

Eq. (70), we can calculate the unknown s1 .

In this case, TB < TB,min . From Eq. (75), we have

All the cases above result in equations that do not have

an analytical solution and must be solved numerically.

Reasonable initial estimates of the numerical solutions TB2 − H 2 + Hp − Qw − q+

w

+

0 = −

0 = /2, and

. (77)

− − q−

w

s1 = −λ p, respectively.

Alternatively, we can transform the equations for the

Substituting this into (74), we obtain an equation with H

first two cases into a polynomial sixth-order equation, the

as the unknown.

second case into an eighth-order equation, and the third

case into a twelfth-order equation (see Appendix C). No

Case 3: The anchor chain is completely lifted from the

initial estimates are required in these cases; however, as a

seabed

result, we obtain multiple roots. In general, from among

such roots for each of these cases, we must select one

In this case TB > TB,min . From (75), we have

that is real and that satisfies the original equation (70).

In particular, in the first case, we must select a root that is

positive. In the second case, we must select one that yields TB2 − H 2 − Qw − q+

w

+

the value 0 ≤ − − s−

1 = − − (78)

0 ≤ . This is the smallest positive root. q−

w

In the third case, we must select the root that is proximate

to zero. Substituting this into (74), we obtain an equation with H

as the unknown.

3.4. Case when the tension force at the buoy is The resultant expressions are long and cumbersome;

specified therefore, we omitted them herein. However, the pro-

gramming of these equations with the aid of a computer

To address this case, first, we use the definitions λ− = algebra programme is straightforward.

H/q− and λ+ = H/q+ to re-express Eq. (70) in the fol-

lowing form:

3.5. Restoring coefficient of chain with sinker

H 2 − 2 H 2 In this case, the horizontal displacement of the buoy, δ, is

+ (s−

2

+ (s ) − 1)

q− 2

q−

+ s+ −1

+

−1 s1

H 2 + 2 H 2 δ = λ sinh 2

− sinh

+ (q+ s+

2

+ + (s ) − 1) λ+ λ+

q+ 2

q+

+

− p s s+

= hA + 0 . (74) + λ− sinh−1 2− − sinh−1 1−

1 + p2 λ λ

−

In addition, in this case, when applying Eqs. (71)–(73), + 0 − LB . (79)

Eq. (27) for H becomes 1 + p2

H = TB2 − [q+ + + q− (− − − − 2 To calculate K = dH dδ , we have two equations: one has

0 + s1 ) + Qw ] .

(75) seven parameters, i.e. δ = δ̂(− − − − + + +

0 , λ , s1 , s2 , λ , s1 , s2 );

Again, we consider three cases: the other is Eq. (70), which has the form ĥ(− − − −

0 , λ , s1 , s2 ,

+ +

λ+ , s1 , s2 ) = 0. If we add λ− = H/q− and λ+ = H/q+ ,

Case 1: The chain is only to be raised from the seabed we have sufficient equations to compute K. A tedious

JOURNAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY 9

0 = 0 (the chain is completely

ation results in the following equations for the chain- raised),

restoring coefficient:

When H ≤ Hc , i.e. when s− −

1 = −λ p, −1 1 ∂ δ̂ 1 ∂ δ̂ 1 ∂ ĥ 1 ∂ ĥ

K = + ++ − −− + − −

q ∂λ q ∂λ q+ ∂λ+ q ∂λ

∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂

−1 1 ∂ δ̂ 1 ∂ δ̂ ∂s−

+ ∂s−

+ ∂s+

+ ∂s+

K = + ++ − × 1 2 1 2

. (81)

q ∂λ q ∂λ− ∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ

∂s−

+ ∂s−

+ ∂s+

+ ∂s+

1 2 1 2

∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂

− + −+ ++ + p

∂s− 1 ∂s2 ∂s1 ∂s2 The partial derivatives in the above equations are as

follows:

1 ∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ ⎫

− + − + − ∂ δ̂ − − ⎪

q ∂λ + ∂s1 −

∂s2 −1 s2 −1 s1 ⎪

⎪

= sinh − sinh ⎪

⎪

∂λ− λ− λ− ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ 1 ∂ ĥ − −

s1 /λ − −

s2 /λ ⎪

⎪

+ ++ + p + − − + − ⎪

⎪

∂s1 ∂s2 q ∂λ ⎪

⎪

− − 2

1 + (s1 /λ ) − − 2

1 + (s2 /λ ) ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ ∂ δ̂ + + ⎪

⎪

− − − ∂ δ̂ s s ⎪

⎪

∂− ∂s− ∂s+ ∂s+ = −1 2

− −1 1 ⎪

× 0 2 1 2

. (80) sinh sinh ⎪

⎪

∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ ∂ ĥ ∂λ + λ + λ + ⎪

⎪

− − − ⎪

⎪

∂− ∂s− ∂s+ ∂s+ + +

s1 /λ + +

s2 /λ ⎪

⎪

0 2 1 2

+ − ⎬

+ + 2 + + 2 ,

1 + (s1 /λ ) 1 + (s2 /λ ) ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

Table 1. Calculated values for q− + ∂ δ̂ 1 ∂ δ̂ 1 ⎪

⎪

w = 100, qw = 20, hA = 1000, ⎪

+ = 500, p = 0, − = 896.6, Qw = −10 × 103 , and TB = − = − = − ⎪

⎪

⎪

∂0 1+p 2 ∂s1 1 + (s1 /λ ) ⎪

− − 2

100 × 103 . The unit of length is m, and the unit of force is 9.81 N. ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

∂ δ̂ 1 ∂ δ̂ 1 ⎪

⎪

Present (Smith and MacFarlane 2001) = = − ⎪

⎪

− + ⎪

∂s2 ∂s + + ⎪

− −

1 + (s1 /λ ) ⎪

2 2

H 44290.134 44.29 × 103 1 + (s2 /λ ) 1 ⎪

⎪

XS ⎪

⎪

644.210 644.2

∂ δ̂ 1 ⎪

⎪

YS −442.901 442.9

= ⎪

⎪

X2+ − XS + ⎪

⎪

231.925 231.9

∂s2 + +

1 + (s2 /λ )

2 ⎭

θ1− 0 0 (data)

θ2+ 63.711 63.7

(82)

w = 2, qw = 5, hA = 3, = 20, p = 100 %, = 8, and

+ −

Qw = 50 and various values of H. For these data, Hmin = 7.122, HS = 36.368 , Hmin =

47.835, LB = 7.042, hB = 10.042, LS = 5.657, and hS = 8.657. The units are unspeciﬁed

and are assumed to be dimensionally consistent. The angles are expressed in degrees (°).

Case 1 2 3 4

H 5 20 45 70

L 9.983 12.925 14.359 16.773

Anchor chain

−

0 8 8 1.639 0

Point 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

s− – – – – −22.5 −16.139 −22.706 −14.706

θ− – – – – −45 −35.651 −32.973 −22.790

V− – – – – −45 −32.278 −45.412 −29.412

T− – – – – 63.640 55.379 83.440 75.928

Buoy chain

+

0 0.572 0 0 0

Point 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

s+ −1.000 10.429 0.008 12.008 3.544 15.544 4.118 16.118

θ+ −45 84.522 0.117 71.577 21.496 59.930 16.390 49.022

V+ −5.000 52.139 0.041 60.041 17.722 77.722 20.588 80.588

T+ 7.071 52.398 20.000 63.284 48.364 89.809 72.965 106.745

10 M. BATISTA AND M. PERKOVIČ

⎫

∂ ĥ ⎪

⎪

= 1 + (s− /λ− )2 − 1 + (s− /λ− )2 ⎪

⎪

⎪

∂λ− 2 1

⎪

⎪

s− /λ− s− /λ− ⎪

⎪

+ 1 − 2 ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

1 + (s− − 2 1 + (s− − 2 ⎪

⎪

1 /λ ) 2 /λ ) ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

∂ ĥ ⎪

⎪

= + (s + + 2

/λ ) − 1 + (s+ + 2 ⎪

1 1 /λ ) ⎪

⎪

∂λ+ 2

⎪

⎪

s+ /λ+ s+ /λ+ ⎪

⎪

+ 1 − 2 ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

1 + (s+ + 2 1 + (s+ + 2 ⎪

⎪

1 /λ ) 2 /λ ) ⎪

⎪

⎬

∂ ĥ p ∂ ĥ s−

1 /λ

−

.

= − = − ⎪

∂− 0 1 + p 2 ∂s −

1 1 + (s1 /λ− ) ⎪

− 2 ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

− − ⎪

⎪

∂ ĥ s2 /λ ⎪

⎪

= ⎪

⎪

∂s2−

− − 2 ⎪

⎪

1 + (s2 /λ ) ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

∂ ĥ + +

s1 /λ ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

+ = − ⎪

⎪

∂s1 + + 2 ⎪

⎪

1 + (s1 /λ ) ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

∂ ĥ + +

s2 /λ ⎪

⎪

= ⎪

⎪

+ ⎪

⎪

∂s2 + +

1 + (s2 /λ )

2 ⎭

Figure 6. Force–deﬂection diagram for the chain described in

(83)

Table 1.

4. Numerical example

demonstrate that the various calculated values are highly

We implement the discussed model in the Maple and consistent.

the Matlab programme. For verifying the model, we use The second example provided in Table 2 and the cor-

data from Smith and MacFarlane (Smith and MacFar- responding Figures 5–7 are for demonstration purposes

lane 2001), where instead of θ1− = 00 , we use the sinker- and can be used to verify the results when one imple-

chain length calculated by them. The results in Table 1 ments their own programme.

JOURNAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY 11

at the bow the ship is anchored and fastened to a moor-

ing buoy or buoys, their sides exposed to winds. Recently,

during stormy weather, the sinker of a buoy was pulled

out, the anchors did not hold the ship, and the ship col-

lided with the crane at the coil terminal. A pier was also

destroyed. With the developed methodology, the design

of the new mooring layout was analysed. The buoy is

secured with anchor and a mooring chain, which is lay-

ing on a slope, while vertically loaded with the sinker. The

mooring buoy design is shown in Figure 8, applied load,

catenary and geometry of the chain is shown in Figure 9,

and analysis case study results are shown in Table 3.

5. Conclusions

In this article, we provided a complete analytical solution

for a system consisting of an anchor, chain(s), a sinker,

and a buoy. The assumptions listed in the introduction

Figure 7. Restoring-coeﬃcient diagram for the chain described

in Table 1. permitted us to fabricate a relatively straightforward ana-

lytical description of the system, which can be conve-

niently implemented using a computer programme.

The developed methodology was used in a real case in When the presented model is used for a buoy and/or

the Port of Koper, where large ro-ros are berthed in the an uphill seabed, a few additional examinations of the

Mediterranean fashion, the ships’ sterns made fast with input data are required because an arbitrary selection of

12 M. BATISTA AND M. PERKOVIČ

Figure 9. Screenshot of the Matlab programme used for calculations. Example is load case 1 from Table 2.

ent loads for the case from Figure 8.

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

F/SWL 1/10 1/2 3/4 1

Applied horizontal force kN 150 750 112.5 1500 ORCID

Buoy displacement m 11.63 15.27 15.39 15.44

Sinker displacement m 0.15 1.27 1.28 1.28 Milan Batista http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4004-8098

Sinker lift m 0.58 7.95 8.74 9.15 Marko Perkovič http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7493-6587

Chain angle at sinker deg 27.7 7.0 5.5 4.8

Vertical force at sinker kN −59.8 −92.6 −108.6 −125.9

Max. chain tension kN 182.1 762.3 1135.4 1509.5 References

Ariane. 2015. Ariane8 user guide. Paris: Bureau Veritas.

Aubeny CP, Chi C. 2010. Mechanics of drag embedment

anchors in a soft seabed. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng.

data could result in illegitimate mathematical operations. 136(1):57–68.

Bedford A, Fowler WL. 2008. Engineering mechanics: statics.

That is, not all the input data have a physical realisa- 5th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson Prentice Hall.

tion for the cases considered. We also emphasise that Chai YT, Varyani KS, Barltrop NDP. 2002. Semi-analytical

for an uphill seabed, we must assess the interaction of quasi-static formulation for three-dimensional partially

the chain with the seabed more carefully. It is notewor- grounded mooring system problems. Ocean Eng. 29(6):627–

thy that the model can also be used for a case in which 649.

Elosta H, Huang S, Incecik A. 2013. Dynamic response of

the chain is suspended directly from a ship. However, in

steel catenary riser using a seabed interaction under random

this case, part of the chain may not be submerged; thus, loads. Ocean Eng. 69:34–43.

the results of the calculation include a model error that Garza-Rios LO, Bernitsas MM, Nishimoto L. 1997. Catenary

must be assessed separately. In general, any application mooring lines with nonlinear drag and touchdown. Depart-

of the present model requires a critical consideration of ment of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Uni-

its fundamental assumptions. For example, one of the versity of Michigen.

Jones JP. 1985. Fleet moorings. Alexandria (VA): Naval Facili-

limitations of the model is its profile of the seabed. A ties Engineering Command.

complete treatment of a chain rising from an arbitrarily Masciola M, Jonkman J, Robertson A. 2013. Implementation of

profiled seabed requires an algorithmic approach. Thus, a multi segmented, quasi-static cable model. 23rd Interna-

the formulae derived above can be of significant aid. tional Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Anchorage,

Finally, we should mention that the governing equa- Alaska.

MIKE. 2017. MIKE 21 mooring analysis user guide. DHI.

tions (Eqs. (20) and (84)) of the model can be solved for

Smith RJ, MacFarlane CJ. 2001. Statics of a three component

other combinations of data. For example, one may spec- mooring line. Ocean Eng. 28(7):899–914.

ify the chain direction at the suspension points and then Triantafyllou MS. 1982. Preliminary design of mooring sys-

calculate the required chain length(s). tems. J Ship Res. 26(1):25–35.

JOURNAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY 13

Tsinker GP. 1995. Marine structures engineering specialized for the plane coordinate system OXY, the catenary geometry is

applications. New York: Chapman & Hall. expressed as

Wang LZ, Guo Z, Yuan F. 2010. Three-dimensional interac- s

tion between anchor chain and seabed. Appl Ocean Res. X = X0 + λsinh−1

λ

32(4):404–413.

s 2

Y = Y0 + λ 1+ −1 (s1 ≤ s ≤ s2 ), (A9)

λ

Appendices

where X0 and Y0 are the coordinates of the catenary apex, and

Appendix A. Catenary s1 , s2 are the natural coordinates of the catenary start and end

points, respectively. The coordinates of the apex can be calcu-

A catenary equation that has the apex at its coordinate origin

lated once we know a point that lies on the catenary. In our

(Bedford and Fowler 2008) is (see Figure A1)

case, this point is the contact point between the catenary and

x the seabed, i.e. the catenary start point with coordinate s1 . If

y = λ cosh − 1 , (A1) the coordinates of the contact point are X1 and Y1 , then, using

λ

Eq. (A9), the coordinates of the catenary apex are

where λ is the catenary parameter (characteristic length) s

X0 = X1 − λsinh−1

1

defined by horizontal force H and catenary specific weight q ,

as λ

s 2

H 1

λ≡ . (A2) Y 0 = Y1 − λ 1+ −1 . (A10)

q λ

The length of catenary s (arc-length coordinate) from its apex Thus, we can alternatively obtain the catenary through the

to a point with coordinate x is following formulae:

s s

X = X1 + λ sinh−1 − sinh−1

1

x ,

s = λ sinh . (A3) λ λ

λ

s 2 s 2

1

From Eqs. (A1) and (A3), we can express x and y as functions Y = Y1 + λ 1+ − 1+ (s1 ≤ s ≤ s2 ).

of s using the trigonometric identity cosh2 x − sinh2 x = 1, i.e. λ λ

(A11)

s 2

−1 s

x = λsinh , y=λ 1+ −1 . (A4)

λ λ Appendix C.

In this appendix, we consider an alternative method to compute

The inclination of the catenary at the point with coordinate s is

an unknown quantity for a chain with a sinker for the three

s cases discussed in section 4.3.

tan θ = , (A5) The governing expression for the first two cases has the

λ

following form:

where θ is the angle between the x-axis and the tangent to the √ √

catenary. The vertical component of the tension force at the X1 − X2 = X3 − A. (A12)

point with coordinate s is expressed as By eliminating the square roots, we obtain

s 64A2 X1 X2 X3 − [4(AX3 + X1 X2 )

V = qs = H . (A6)

λ

− (A2 + X3 − X1 − X2 )2 ]2 = 0. (A13)

In particular, at the catenary end-points, we have

Now, in the first case, H is unknown. Thus, if we substitute the

V1 = −qs1 and V2 = qs2 , (A7) following into Eq. (A13), we obtain a polynomial equation of

the sixth order for unknown H:

where the minus sign at the start point results from Newton’s 2 − − 2

H q − Hp + Q

law of reciprocal actions. The total tension force T at the point X1 ≡ +

with coordinate s is q+ q+

2 2

s 2 H + q− − − Hp + Q

X2 ≡ + +

T = H2 + V 2 = H 1 + . (A8) q+ q+

λ 2 2

H Hp H

Note that V, T, and θ are expressed as functions of s and are X3 ≡ −

+ − − + A ≡ − 1 + p2 + hA .

therefore independent of the position of the catenary in the q q q

plane. (A14)

For the second case, when −

0 is unknown, we substitute the

following into Eq. (A13):

Appendix B. Catenary in the plane

2 − − 2

In Appendix A, the geometry of the catenary is expressed in H q ( − −0 ) − Hp + Q

X1 ≡ +

the coordinate system located at the catenary apex. In general, q+ q+

14 M. BATISTA AND M. PERKOVIČ

In the third case, the basic equation has the following form:

√ √ √

X1 − X2 = X3 − X4 − a. (A17)

To eliminate

√ the square roots from this equation, we substitute

A = X4 + a into Eq. (A13). After a few manipulations, we

obtain an expression of the following form:

X4 f12 (X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , a) − f22 (X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , a) = 0, (A18)

where f1 and f2 are rather long and are thus omitted herein. If

we substitute the following into the above expression,

2 − − 2

H q ( + s− 1)+Q

X1 ≡ +

q+ q+

2 2

H + q− (− + s−1)+Q

X2 ≡ + +

q+ q+

2

H

+ (− + s−

2

Figure A1. Catenary. X3 ≡ 1)

q−

2

2 2 H

+ (s−

2

q− (− − − X4 ≡ 1) a ≡ hA , (A19)

H + 0 ) − Hp + Q q−

X2 ≡ + + (A15)

q+ q+

we obtain a twelfth-order polynomial equation with s−

1 as the

2

H − − Hp 2 unknown.

X3 ≡ + − − The described procedure is evidently manageable using a

q− 0

q+

computer algebra programme.

− p

H

A ≡ − 1 + p2 + hA + 0 . (A16)

q 1 + p2

After a rearrangement, we obtain an eighth-order polynomial

equation with −

0 as the unknown.

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