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The Keywords of the

Futhark Alphabet Joannes Richter

Abstract
This essay describes the keywords (“ᚠᚢᚦ” , “ᚦᚩᚱᚳ“ and “ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ”) of the Futhark Alphabet from the
Kylver stone up to the four additional letters Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ of the Merovingian king Chilperic I. The four
additional letters may be correlating to the first four runic symbols (“futha”) of the ᚠᚢᚦᚨ-alphabet.
The runic Futhark alphabet cannot be considered as a mere set of letter symbols, but must be seen
as a book based on at least one or more singular keywords (“ᚠᚢᚦ” and “ᚦᚩᚱᚳ“), which contain a set
of religious and philosophical cores. Initially the keyword may have been “ᚠᚢᚦ”.
Chilperic's four additional letters Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ may have allowed the king to save some Germanic
symbolism in the new Latin alphabet. Chilperic must have known the old religion was to be
doomed, but his authority and life depended on a good concept to save the core of basic runic
symbolism in the new Latin alphabet.
The concept of the modified Latin alphabet Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,V,X
allowed the readers to “see” the keyword “Thwiæou” (Dieu and also “Tiw”) in forward reading
mode. In reverse reading mode the word “(uæ)uuith” might be interpreted as the name of the
archaic Germanic deity “ Wut or “Vut” (“Wodan”). The exact composition for the 4 letter-keyword
is unknown.
Summary
The oldest runic alphabet (at the Kylver stone) dates from about 400 AD and was found at Kylver,
Stånga, Gotland. The alphabet starts with a header “IUÞ” (Kylver stone) respectively “ᚠUÞ” (the
other versions of the Elder Futhark), followed by an alphabet-body “A R K G [W] H N I J P Ï Z S
T B E M L Ŋ D O”.
The “IUÞ”-header of the Kylver stone probably directly correlates to the archaic IU-piter cult.
The “ᚠUÞ”-header of later runic alphabets correlates to the words such as WuoÞen (Voden) and wit,
respectively Þuw (Tuw, Tiw), futter, fodr, fud, foster, father, feed, fed-up, well-fed, fat, food, fit,
fathom, fetter, fasten, foot, and feast.
The runic alphabet cannot be considered as a mere set of letter symbols, but must be seen as a book
based on one or two singular keywords ( “ᚠᚢᚦ” and “ᚦᚩᚱᚳ“ ), which contain a set of religious and
philosophical cores.
The concatenated keyword ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ, (Ϝuthorc) may contain a handful of three letter-words (“Tiw”,
“Vut”, “ᚦor” and “Rod”). The days of the week have been sorted in chronological order of the
Germanic deities (“Tiw” → “Wit” (or “Vut”) → “ᚦor” → “Rod”).
“Tiw” or “Tuw” had been derived from *Dyeu(s), whereas “Wit” or “Vut” (“Wotan”) has been
derived by mirroring the word “Tiw” respectively “Tuw”.
In order to understand the runic concept I studied the four additional letters of the Merovingian king
Chilperic I, who is known to have introduced 4 letters Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ to the common Latin alphabet.
These characters have been specified by historians and may be correlating to the first four runic
symbols (“futha”) of the ᚠᚢᚦᚨ-alphabet.
In the course of time the runic Futhark-alphabet ( ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚳ) remained rather stable until the
Merovingians under king Chilperic I (reigning from 561 - 584 AD) expanded their empire to the
French territory. For this expansion the French language required new letters and probably also
keywords for the Lex Salica (Salic Law), which was written in Latin or in a "semi-French Latin".
Maybe king Chilperic I also felt obliged to include an additional extract of the runic keyword
(ᚠᚢᚦᚨ, “futha”) in the common Latin alphabet, which simultaneously might be intended to represent
the divine names “Dieu” (in French) and the Germanic divine names “Tiw” and “Wit”.
These four letters allowed Chilperic to save some Germanic symbolism in the new Latin alphabet.
The king must have known the old religion was to be doomed, but his authority and life depended
on a good concept to save the basic runic symbolism in the new Latin alphabet.
The concept of the modified alphabet Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,V,X
allowed the readers to interpret “Thwiæou” (or Diæu → DIEU) and also “Tiw” in forward reading
mode. In reverse reading mode the word “(uæ)uuith” might be interpreted as “ Wut or “Vut”.
This concept makes only sense if the runes were to be read in both directions, which allowed the
word ᚠᚢᚦ to be interpreted as “Wit” and “Tiw”. A second requirement includes the assumption that
the first runic symbol ᚠ may be interpreted as a digamma /w/ in the words “Wuth” and “Thuw”,
respectively “With” and “Thiw”.
Introduction
The runic alphabet cannot be considered as a mere set of letter symbols, but must be seen as a book
based on one or two singular keywords ( “ᚠᚢᚦ” and “ᚦᚩᚱᚳ“ ), which contain a set of religious and
philosophical cores.
The concatenated keyword ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (Ϝuthorc) may contain a handful of three letter-words (“Tiw”,
“Vut”, “ᚦor” and “Rod”).
The days of the week have been sorted in the chronological order of the Germanic pedigree of the
principal paternal gods, which may be derived from ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (Ϝuthorc):
1. “Tiw” (“Tuw” or “Tyr”) ( Tuesday ) - derived from “ᚠᚢᚦ” by backward reading
2. “Wit” (“Wut” or “Vut”) ( Wednesday ) - derived from “ᚠᚢᚦ” by forward reading
3. “ᚦor” (or “Thor”) ( Thursday ) - derived from “ᚦᚩᚱ” by forward reading
4. “Rod” (or “Krodo”) (Saturday ) - derived from “ᚦᚩᚱ” / “ᚦᚩᚱᚳ” by backward reading
“Tiw” or “Tuw” had been derived from *Dyeu(s), whereas “Wit” or “Vut” (“Wotan”) has been
derived by mirroring the word “Tiw” respectively “Tuw”.
In the days of the week these leading deities are followed by “ᚦor” (“Thor”) and “Rod”, which had
not been documented in Caesar's Gallic Wars and in Tacitus' Germania. At the time of Caesar and
Tacitus the deity Thor may been misinterpreted or turned out to be non-existent.
The religious cores “Wit” (“we two” or “Witan”) may be identified in words such as Widukind,
Wedekind, Wittekindt, Widekind, Wittekindsberg, Wittekindsburg, Wittekindsquelle, Wittekind-Linde.
The name Wittekind correlates to the religious core “wit” and has not been based on the colour
“white” (in Dutch “wit”), on the “widow's state”. "child of the wood" or (a wolf1).

1 Widukind war eine Umschreibung des Wolfs, eines Tieres, das mit dem Krieg oder mit dem Tod in Verbindung
gebracht wird. Name, Familie und Herkunft in Widukind (Sachsen)
Separating the “fuþ”-header from the “arc...”-body

Usually the fuþark is misunderstood in the sense that it does not begin with “ABC” but with “fuþ”,
which is a good reason to claim “fuþark” is “a row of characters” and therefore cannot be named
an “alphabet” for the lack of an ABC2.
However as soon as we remove the header “fuþ” from the fuþark-row we find a genuine ABC-
alphabet, which may be considered as the fuþark-body.

1: The futhark on the Kylver runestone (dated 400 AD) from Gotland, Sweden
- Public Domain - (Agrell died 1937)

The arrows-like symbol at the right side may be a sixfold Tyr-rune (ᛏ).

Iᚢᚦ--ᚨᚱᚲᚷIᚺᚾᛁᛃᛈᛇᛉᛊᛏᛒᛖᛗᛚᛜᛞᛟ
Futhark-alphabet with a header Iᚢᚦ (1:1 copied from the Kylver stone)

ᚠᚢᚦ--ᚨᚱᚲᚷᚹᚺᚾᛁᛃᛈᛇᛉᛊᛏᛒᛖᛗᛚᛜᛞᛟ
Futhark-alphabet with a header Fᚢᚦ (from the Kylver stone, but “repaired” at ᚠ and ᚹ)

The first 3 characters “ᚠUÞ” may be read as “FUT”, “VUT” or “WUT”, which include various
most important words such as “Woden” (“Wutan”), “Tuw” (as a reversed “Wut”) and “wut” as a
personal pronoun of the 1st person dual3.
In the Kylver stone the dotted lines for the f (ᚠ) and w (ᚹ) runes are partially missing. This may be
an error or an intended experiment, but in the case of an isolated header the real alphabet may
repeat letters from the header, such as the “I”, which is also found as an “I” in the header.
In the Kylver stone the usual first character f (ᚠ) may have been interpreted and intended as an “ I”-
vowel, which intentionally may be repeated in the “ᚨᚱᚲᚷ…ᚺᚾᛁᛃᛈᛇᛉᛊᛏᛒᛖᛗᛚᛜᛞᛟ”-body.
The AIΩ-vowels in the “ᚨᚱᚲᚷ…ᚺᚾᛁᛃᛈᛇᛉᛊᛏᛒᛖᛗᛚᛜᛞᛟ”-body have been highlighted yellow. We may
easily identify the Ω-structure of the terminating letter “O”, which obviously has been copied from
the Greek alphabet.4

2 Die speziell runische Reihenfolge ist auch der Grund, warum man das Futhark in der Forschung Runenreihe statt
Runenalphabet nennt. (source: Das ältere Futhark)
3 This has been documented in The Digamma-Joker of the Futhark, The Kernel of the Futhorc Languages and other
documents listed in Proceedings in the Ego-pronouns' Etymology.
4 The Decoding of the Kylver Stone Runes
Chronological list of the European deities „ᚦiw“, “Wiᚦ” , „ᚦor“, „Roᚦ“
Maybe the days of the week had been arranged according to their age, which may depend on their
derivation sequence. The first pair of names may be identified as the first 3 runic symbols ᚠ, ᚢ, ᚦ
(Futh) and ᚦ, ᚢ, ᚠ (thuw) in the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ – alphabet.
The second pair of names are ᚦ, ᚩ, ᚱ, ᚳ (thor) and ᚳ, ᚱ, ᚩ, ᚦ (croth).
The first couple of words may be decoded as ᚠ, ᚢ, ᚦ (Fuᚦ → Wuᚦ, Wit ) and ᚦ, ᚢ, ᚠ (ᚦuw, ᚦiw →
Tuw, Tiw). The second couple of words may be decoded as ᚦ, ᚩ, ᚱ, ᚳ (ᚦor[c] → ᚦor, Thor) and ᚳ, ᚱ, ᚩ,
ᚦ ([C]roᚦ, [C]rodo → Rod).
Indirectly the Germanic names for the days of the week had been derived from the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ
(Ϝuthorc) alphabet. The Germanic names for the days of the week have been sorted according to the
chronological order of the divine pedigree:
1. Tiw (the PIE-sky-god *tīwaz/*teiwaz )
2. Vud
3. Thor (local deity ?)
4. Rod (local deity ?)
The Sunday and Monday have been used as a standard European header.
The 3rd and 4th day have been devoted to the couples ᚦ, ᚢ, ᚠ (thuw → Tiw) and ᚠ, ᚢ, ᚦ (Futh → Vud)
of the first ᚠᚢᚦ - section of the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ – alphabet. Therefore Tiw and Vud (Wodan) represent the first
two Germanic deities.
The 5th day and 7th day is devoted to the couples ᚦ, ᚩ, ᚱ, ᚳ (thorc) and ᚳ, ᚱ, ᚩ, ᚦ (croth) of the second
ᚩᚱᚳ - section of the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ – alphabet. Therefore Thor and Rod represent the third respectively the
fourth Germanic deities. Tiw (Tyr, Mars) and Vud (Wodan, Mercury) are found in Caesar's Gallic
Wars and in Tacitus' Germania.
Between the 5th day and 7th day the 6th day (Friday) the fourth Germanic deity Freya is to be
inserted. Probably the 7th day is devoted to the Saxon/Slavic-concept [C]roᚦ, [C]rodo → Rod, which
refers to the Saturn-statue, which Helmold (c. 1120–1177) described in his Chronica Slavorum.5

Rank Days of Germanic Roman Slavic Derivation Source


the week deities deities deities
1 Sunday Sun Sol archaic
2 Moonday Moon Luna archaic
3 Tiw's day Tiw / Tuw (ᚦ, ᚢ, ᚠ) Mars *Dyeu(s) Germ.
4 Wodenesday Wit-an ( ᚠ, ᚢ, ᚦ ) Mercury Vit Tiw/Tuw Germ.
Vud (Wodan) Svantevit
5 Thursday Thor (ᚦ, ᚩ, ᚱ) Jupiter ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ Germ.
6 Friday Freya (---) Venus Germ.
7 Saturday Rod (ᚱ, ᚩ, ᚦ) Saturn Rod, ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ Saxo-
Crodo (ᚳ, ᚱ, ᚩ, ᚦ) Crodo Slavic
Table 1 Chronological list of the European leading deities

5 The "Rod"-Core in Slavic Etymology


The time frame for introducing „ᚦiw“, “Wiᚦ” , „ᚦor“, „Roᚦ“

The first couple of deities Tiw and Wotan


Wotan (Mercury at day #4) and Tiw (Mars at day #3) had been documented in Caesar's Gallic Wars
(58 to 50 BC) and in Tacitus' Germania (98 AD). At this time Tiw already had lost his dominance in
the Germanic Pantheon.
The planets Mercury and Mars seem to be the common deities, in which Mercury is the most
prominent. In a linguistic concept Tiw (representing Mars) is the most prominent symbol as it is
cognate to the PIE-sky-god. Therefore Tiw may be the oldest of the couple Tiw and Wit.
They worship as their divinity, Mercury in particular, and have many images of him,
and regard him as the inventor of all arts, they consider him, the guide of their journeys
and marches, and believe him to have very great influence over the acquisition of gain
and mercantile transactions. Next to him they worship Apollo, and Mars, and Jupiter,
and Minerva; respecting these deities they have for the most part the same belief as
other nations: that Apollo averts diseases, that Minerva imparts the invention of
manufactures, that Jupiter possesses the sovereignty of the heavenly powers; that Mars
presides over wars. To him when they have determined to engage in battle, they
commonly vow those things they shall take in war.

All the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and say that this tradition
has been handed down by the Druids. 6.

Mercury is the deity whom they chiefly worship, and on certain days they deem it right
to sacrifice to him even with human victims. Hercules and Mars they appease with more
lawful offerings. Some of the Suevi also sacrifice to Isis. Of the occasion and origin of
this foreign rite I have discovered nothing, but that the image, which is fashioned like a
light galley, indicates an imported worship

In their ancient songs, their only way of remembering or recording the past, they
celebrate an earth-born god, Tuisco, and his son Mannus, as the origin of their race, as
their founders.7

Tuisco may be cognate to Tiw (Mars) and *Deiwaz.

6 The Gallic Wars by Julius Caesar - Book VI De Quincey, 1923


7 Germania (1876), translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb
Names of the days of the week (AD 60-100)
For Germanic languages these names may have included Thor and Saturn, which did lead to the
naming conventions for Thursday and Saturday:
Between the 1st and 3rd centuries, the Roman Empire gradually replaced the eight-day
Roman nundinal cycle with the seven-day week. Our earliest evidence for this new system is
a Pompeiian graffito referring to 6 February (viii idus Februarius) of the year AD 60 as dies
solis ("Sunday").[1] Another early witness is a reference to a lost treatise by Plutarch,
written in about AD 100, which addressed the question of Why are the days named after the
planets reckoned in a different order from the actual order?.[2]
The days were named after the planets of Hellenistic astrology, in the order Sun, Moon, Mars
(Ares), Mercury (Hermes), Jupiter (Zeus), Venus (Aphrodite) and Saturn (Cronos).[3] 8
The days of the week define the chronological order for the principal deities in the Germanic
pantheon:
1. Tiw (Mars at day #3),
2. Wotan (Mercury at day #4)
3. Thor (Jupiter at day #5).

# Day (58-50 BC) → 98 AD 100AD → today


Period Between Caesar and Tacitus After Plutarch
1 Sunday
2 Monday
3 Tuesday Tiw (Mars) Tiw (Mars)
4 Wednesday Wotan (Mercury) Wotan (Mercury)
5 Thursday -- Thor (Jupiter)
6 Friday Freya (Venus)
7 Saturday -- Saturn
Table 2 The days of the week define the chronological order
for the principal deities in the Germanic pantheon

8 Names of the days of the week


The Germanic and Roman pedigrees
• The Germanic pedigree (from eldest to youngest) may be arranged as: Tiw → Wotan →
Thor → Rod.
• In contrast the Roman pedigree (from eldest to youngest) is from the slowest to the fastest
planet): Saturn → Jupiter → Mars → to be followed by the “bastard” planets Mercury and
Venus.
The theory of the “bastard” planets (Mercury and Venus) is documented in Plato's Timaeus9.

Tiw
The principal deity of the Germanic people seems to be Tiw 10, who had been honored by his own
runic symbol (the Tiwaz rune ᛏ) and had been derived from the PIE sun-god Dyaus, *Dyeu(s) or
*Teiwaz.

Wit
This god had been represented by a family of gods. The first son of Tiw seems to have been derived
from the horizontally mirrored name Tiw → Wit.
Due in part to the etymology of the god's name, scholars propose that Týr once held a
far more significant role in Germanic mythology than the scant references to the deity
indicate in the Old Norse record. Some scholars propose that the prominent god Odin
may have risen to prominence over Týr in prehistory, at times absorbing elements of the
deity's domains11.

In Dutch the word for the color “wit” (“white”) seems to correlate with the divine name “Wit” but
this is restricted to the Dutch word.
Old English hwit "bright, radiant; clear, fair," also as a noun (see separate entry), from
Proto-Germanic *hweit- (source also of Old Saxon and Old Frisian hwit, Old Norse
hvitr, Dutch wit, Old High German hwiz, German weiß, Gothic hveits), from PIE
*kweid-o-, suffixed form of root *kweit- "white; to shine" (source also of Sanskrit
svetah "white;" Old Church Slavonic sviteti "to shine," svetu "light;" Lithuanian šviesti
"to shine," švaityti "to brighten"). 12

9 Notes to Plato's Timaeus and Symposium


10 Týr, a Norse god. (Tiw is the Old English spelling.)
11 Scholarly reception (Týr)
12 white (adj.)
Thor
Thor and Saturn seem to represent younger generations and local deities. Thor and Rod have been
based on the letter “O”, which does not belong to the archaic triad A-I-U. The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc
alphabet is a runic script that was used from the 5th to the 8th century. It extends Elder Futhark
from 24 to between 26 and 33 characters. The script was used to record Old English and Old
Frisian.
Besides Old Norse Þórr, extensions of the god occur in Old English as Þunor and in Old
High German as Donar (runic þonar ᚦᛟᚾᚨᚱ). All forms of the deity stem from a Common
Germanic *Þunraz (meaning thunder).

Krodo
Obviously Krodo had not been defined and could not be integrated in the names for the days of the
week. The Saturday had been defined for the Roman name of the planet and remained intact for
some Germanic languages. The names Rod and Krodo may have been derived form ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ
(Ϝuthorc).
In the Saxon Chronicle (Middle Saxon: Cronecken der Sassen)—an incunable dated
1492, written by the goldsmith Conrad Bothe (c. 1475–1501) from Brunswick and
printed in the studio of Peter Schöffer in Mainz—, it is attested that the Saxons knew
and worshipped "Krodo".[7] Nineteenth-century German studies clearly identified
Krodo as "the God of the Slavs, the great God".[32] 13

Hrôddag
• Hrôddag is found in Trad. corb. § 424, ed. Wigand; these may be related to Hruodo, Hrôdo
as Baldag to Balder, and the contraction Roydag, Rodag would be like Roswith for
Hrôdsuith.
• If Roydag should turn out to be the seventh day of the week, it would be a strong testimony
to the worship of Chrodo.14

13 Saxon tradition
14 Teutonic Mythology (Grimm)- Page 248 – (quoted in The Gods in the Days of the Week and inside the Futhor ...)
The roots for WIT
The etymology for the core “wit” seemed insure. The relevant words may have been derived
from the mirrored word “TIW” (cognate to the PIE “*TEIWAZ”-root for the sky-god).
If the words for the mirrored PIE-root also correspond to a PIE-root the basic principle of
mirroring words may be considered as a PIE-method.
An analysis of the runic (ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ, Ϝuthorc) alphabet revealed an fundamental initial word “WIT” or
“TIW”, which ultimately may be interpreted as a divine name, related to “witan” or “Woden”.
In a reversed reading mode we also identify “Tiw” as another formula for “Wit”. This paper
documents the various derivations which are using the roots “Tiw” and “Wit”.
The remaining letters in ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ may be interpreted as another set of relevant deities (“ᚦor” and
“Rod”).
The Celts were known for their threefold structures, which probably also resulted in a favorite set of
three letter-words, such as wis and wit. These words seem to be categorized as fundamental
expressions for divine names, wit, to wit, wise and wisdom. Woden probably is cognate to witan –
“wisdom”.

Wiskunde
In Dutch wiskunde (“mathematics”) had been derived from wis. wisconst (literally “art of what is
known”).

Widukind
Widukind may be interpreted as “the child of Wit (“we two” or Witan)”, which may be confirmed by
alternative names such as Wittekind. Very little is known about Widukind's life.
Officially his name literally translates as "child of the wood" (i.e. a wolf),[dubious – discuss] more
probably a kenning than a proper name. The idea to relate this name to “wood” may be of the same
category as correlating Wodan to “wood” or even the “raging” German word “wut” (“rage”).
Wittekind

Overview of the Wittekind-labels


Numerous Wittekind-labels may be found, which theoretically all are related to the “child of the
wood”. The size of the “Wit”-related names and locations correlates to the “wit”-keywords (“we
two”) and “wit” as a mirrored label for the sky-god “Tiw”.
Title Topic Location
Wittekind in Hymn (1869) Iserlohn
Westfalenlied
Widukind 743 – 807; Enger
leader of the Saxons
777 → 785
Widukind von Corvey ~ 925 → ~ 973 AD
Widukind von Rheda ca. 1154 bis 1189/1191
Widukind von Wolfenbüttel, ca. 1089 bis um 1118
Widukind von Waldeck Bishop Osnabrück
* 13. Jahrhundert; † 18. November
1269
Widukind von Wittgenstein † 14. November 1272 Monastery Grafschaft
Weking “we”-king
Wedekind Family-name, surname
Wittekindt Family-name, surname
Widekind, Widekind I † 1136/1137 Schwalenberg
Wittekind II von † 1188/1189 Pyrmont
Schwalenberg
Wittekind III † 1189 Schwalenberg
Waldeck
Wittekindsweg High-way 95 km Porta Westfalica →
Osnabrück
Wittekindsquelle Water well Bergkirchen
Wittekindsburg Ruins of a fortification Nettetal at Rulle
772 bis 804 n. Chr.
Wittekindsburg Ruins of a refuge fort Porta Westfalica
(La Tène culture)
Wittekindsberg, Hill (281 m) Porta Westfalica
Wittekindshof, 1887 Volmerdingsen
Wittekindsquelle Water well Wittekindsweg bei
Lübbecke.
Wittekindsquelle, Water-well Porta Westfalica
in Wittekindsburg
Wittekind-Linde Large lime tree Elbrinxen
Wittekindspende Food gifts for the poor Enger

Table 3: The impressive number of Wittekind-labels


Notes to the etymology of Widukind
Some of the names may be related to a “king”: Weking (“We”-king) or Widuking, in which the
“king” indicates a leadership with a top authority.

Widukind
Widukind, also known as Widuking [citation needed] or Wittekind, was a leader of the
Saxons and the chief opponent of the Frankish king Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars
from 777 to 785. Charlemagne ultimately prevailed, organized Saxony as a Frankish
province, massacred thousands of Saxon nobles, and ordered conversions of the pagan
Saxons to Roman Catholicism. In later times, Widukind became a symbol of Saxon
independence and a figure of legend; the Codex Wittekindeus is said to have been owned by
him.
The name Widukind literally translates as "child of the wood" (i.e. a wolf),[dubious –
discuss] more probably a kenning than a proper name15.

Discussions about an etymology for Widukind


Discussions to the etymology are restricted to regions in which the religious core “wit” had not been
understood:
• The name Wittekind means white child in Dutch. Perhaps he was an albino?
This name
• Isn't the name simply a widow child?

Vitikint
The French variant “Vitikint” would hardly refer to a widow child.
• "Vintikint the Younger" or “Vitikint”
• Vitikind , général des Saxons, les excite toujours à la révolte.16

The reconstruction of a pedigree by August II. (Polen)


• The Abbe d'Ursberg, and the ancient Chronicle quoted by [Claude] Frauchet was a very
accurate writer, say, that Robert the Strong was Son to Vitikint17.
Widukind, Vitikind, Vitikindo, Wittekind, Imperio de Occidente, Stahlstich um 1840 von
Lemaitre des legendären Sachsenherzogs, dem Anführer in den Sachsenkriegen gegen Karl
den Großen, August der Starke [August II. (Polen)] versuchte eine Abstammung seiner Linie
von Widukind zu konstruieren, Blattgröße: 21,5 x 13,5 cm, reine Bildgröße: 18 x 10 cm.

Vitikind , général des Saxons, les excite toujours à la révolte.18

15 Life Widukind
16 Nouvel Abrégé chronologique de l'Histoire de France
17 Historical Essays Upon Paris: Translated from the French of M. de Saint Foix by Germain-Francois Poultain de
Saint-Foix Recent Addition in Talk:Widukind
18 Nouvel Abrégé chronologique de l'Histoire de France
The correlation between Widukind and Rod
Fulda is a central location for Saxon philosophy and religious activity, in which Widukind of
Corvey created the Codex Wittekindeus and Saxons shared a deity “Rod” with the West Slavic
population. Rod is said to 19

Widukind of Corvey
Widukind of Corvey was a tenth-century Saxon historian. The Codex Wittekindeus is a 128-
folio illuminated Gospel Book, produced in Fulda Abbey in Germany around 970–980.[1]
Alongside the Gero Codex, the Codex Wittekindeus is considered one of the two "greatest
works in the initial Ottonian revival of book-illumination".[2]

Rod, Hrodo, Chrodo, Krodo


Fulda also had been the location of the Harzburg where “Rod” (“Crodo” → Saturn) had been
honored20, whose sculpture had been interpreted as a Roman statue of Saturn.
As attested by Helmold (c. 1120–1177) in his Chronica Slavorum, the Slavs believed in
a single God begetting all the lesser spirits governing nature, and worshipped it by their
means.[3] In the earliest Slavic religion the supreme God of Heaven was called Deivos,
[3] but this name was soon abandoned[5] to be replaced by the concept of Rod.

In some old writings the name appears as Hrodo, Chrodo, Krodo, or the Latinised form
Crodone.[6] The 15th-century Saxon Chronicle attests that "Krodo" was worshipped
also by Saxon tribes, who inhabited modern-day northern and eastern Germany together
with West Slavic tribes.[7]

The "primordial God" of the Slavs


Deivos is equivalent to Tiw and Rod may be the follow-up child of Deivos (“Tiw”).
The name "Rod" is attested in Old Church Slavonic and Old East Slavic sources (as
Rodu) about pre-Christian religion, where it refers to divinity, ancestrality and
procreativity.[8] Michel Mathieu-Colas (2017) defines it as the "primordial God", but
the term also literally means the generative power of the family and "kin", "birth",
"origin" and "fate" as well.[2] The negative form, that is urod, means anything
wretched, deformed, degenerated, monstrous.[9] 21

Bothe's chronicle
Bothe's chronicle provides the description of Krodo's iconography, and says that Julius
Caesar, during the conquests of Magna Germania, ordered the erection of several
fortresses crowned by statues of deities. Local Saxons worshipped prominently Krodo,
identified by the Romans as Saturn, whose statue stood on the site which later became
Harzburg, in Bad Harzburg, modern-day Lower Saxony. When in 780, during the Saxon
Wars, the Frankish king Charlemagne occupied the region, he destroyed the statue in the
effort to Christianise and submit the Saxon people, and as a new spiritual centre he
founded a Christian cathedral in modern-day Osterwieck, in Saxony-Anhalt.

19 Delius, Christian Heinrich: Ueber den vermeinten Götzen Krodo


20 Ueber den vermeinten Götzen Krodo zur Harzburg
21 Rod (Slavic religion)
Middle Saxon — ... konigh karl quam in dat lant vnd bekorde de ostsassen do sprack he
· we is iuwe got · do rep dat meyne volck · krodo krodo is vnse got Do sprack konigh
karl · het krodo iuwe got dat het de kroden duuel · van deme worde quam dat bose wort
mangk den sassen · vnd do toch konigh karle to der hartesborch unde vorstorde krodo
den affgot vnde leyde den dom to saligenstidde dat nu osterwick het in de ere sunte
steffen.

English — ... King Charles came to the land and converted the East Saxons. Thus he
spoke: Who is your God? Then the common folk cried: Krodo, Krodo is our God. Then
King Charles said: Is Krodo your God? That is: The toad devil! ["toad" is kroden in
Saxon, producing a word-play] Thereafter the word ["Krodo"] became a bad word
among the Saxons. And then King Charles went to Harzburg and destroyed the idol
Krodo, and laid down the cathedral in Saligenstidde, now Osterwieck, in honour of
Saint Stephen.

— Saxon Chronicle22

The author of this legend however missed the Krodo in the runes (#6,#5,#4,#3 in ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ) ᚳ, ᚱ, ᚩ, ᚦ
(“croth”) of the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ, (Ϝuthorc).

22 Source: Saxon tradition in Rod (Slavic religion)


The dictionary of “wit” and “wis”-dom
The philosophically relevant 3-letter words-dictionary (Appendix) may compose a small list of
keywords. The selected keywords have been colored according to their permutations of O and W:

Key Explanation in the free dictionary


dan Used formerly as a title of honor for respected men, such as clerics and poets.
day The period of light between dawn and nightfall
dew [Old English dēaw; related to Old High German tou dew, Old Norse dögg]
die To stop living; become dead; expire
dis The god of the underworld; Pluto.
duo Two people or two things in close association

Tiw Sky-god, cognate to *Dyeu(s)


tow [Old English tōw; related to Old Saxon tou, Old Norse tō tuft of wool, Dutch touwen to
spin]
two Something having two parts

wed To unite closely (which is of uncertain etymological origin – source: wed).


wet akin to water
wis archaic to know or suppose (something) (etymology from *weyd- :“see, know”)
wit to wit that is to say; namely (used to introduce statements, as in legal documents)
Archaic A person of exceptional intelligence. (etymology from *weyd- :“see, know”)
Archaic dual: we two
Table 4: Philosophically relevant 3-letter words-from the 3-letter words dictionary

WIT
• (Law) to wit that is to say; namely (used to introduce statements, as in legal documents)

WIS
• wis (archaic) is to know or suppose (something). In Dutch wiskunde (“mathematics”) had
been derived from wis. wisconst (literally “art of what is known”). Equivalent to wis +
-kunde. Purism introduced by Simon Stevin in the 16th century to replace the Dutch word
mathematica which was a borrowing from Latin mathematica.

WIS – to know or suppose (something)


• In Dutch wis also indicated sure, certain (in een wisse dood — a certain death)
• Wis archaic to know or suppose (something)
• [C17: a form derived from iwis, mistakenly interpreted as I wis I know, as if from Old
English witan to know]
WIS - twig
• wis also may be understood as twig.
• To twig is related to understand → From Irish and Scottish Gaelic tuig (“to understand”).
Do you twig me? To understand the meaning of (a person); to comprehend.

WIS - tranquility
In Gothic wis also could be used for tranquility, such as in the Gothic Bible, Matthew 8.26:
jah qaþ du im iēsus: ƕa faurhteiþ, leitil galaubjandans! þanuh urreisands gasōk windam
jah marein, jah warþ wis mikil.

And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? Then he arose, and
rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a great calm. (KJV)
King Chilperic's 4 Letters and the Alphabet's Adaptation
Chilperic I (c. 539 – 584) was the Merovingian king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his death
in 584 .
Most of what is known of Chilperic comes from The History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours.
Chilperic's education involved religious and cultural themes. One of his studies concentrated on the
reformation of the Latin alphabet, which had been in use in the Merovingian court.

The Lex Salica (Salic Law)


In Merovingian times, law remained in the rote memorization of rachimburgs, who
memorized all the precedents on which it was based, for Merovingian law did not admit
of the concept of creating new law, only of maintaining tradition23.

The Lex Salica (Salic Law) had been written in Latin, or in "semi-French Latin" according to some
linguists,[1] it also contains what Dutch linguists describe as one of the earliest known records of
Old Dutch, perhaps second only to the Bergakker inscription.[2] 24
Originally the Merovingians did not need Latin to document their Lex Salica (Salic Law), but
needed to record the texts in a standardized Latin alphabet. This job probably had to be done around
the time of Chilperic's reign.
One of Chilperic's studies concentrated on the reformation of the Latin alphabet, which had been in
use in the Merovingian court.
In analogy to the attempt of the Roman emperor Claudius Chilperic's reformation involved the
introduction of 4 additional letters. As an educated royal Chilperic may have been the last individual
who fully understood the symbolism in the runic alphabet(s).

The Claudian letters25


The Roman emperor Claudius (10 BC– 54 AD), who was born in Lugdunum (modern Lyon,
France), proposed a reform of the Latin alphabet by the addition of three new letters, two of which
served the function of the modern letters W and Y.
1. Ↄ or ↃϹ/X (antisigma) to replace BS and PS.
2. Ⅎ, a turned F or digamma (digamma inversum) to represent the consonant form for a U
([w]/[v]).
3. Ⱶ, a half H, which may have represented the so-called sonus medius Y, a short vowel
sound (likely [ɨ] or [ʉ]) used before labial consonants in Latin words such as
optumus/optimus.
Partly one of Claudius' symbols (Ⅎ → Δ as a (/w/) also may have shared a goal of Chilperic's
proposal. In fact both Claudius and Chilperic proposed to introduce the digamma as a /w/ or /uui/.
Originally the digamma stood for the sound /w/ and represents the consonant doublet of the
vowel letter upsilon (/u/), which was also derived from waw but was placed at the end of the
Greek alphabet. Digamma or wau is in turn the ancestor of the Latin letter F. As an
alphabetic letter, it is attested in archaic and dialectal ancient Greek inscriptions until the
classical period.

23 Source: Government and law (Wikipedia)


24 Source: Salic Law (Wikipedia)
25 The Claudian letters.
Including the “Futharc”-header (ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚲ) in the Latin alphabet
Obviously Chilperic I concentrated his definitions on letter combinations which had been used in
documenting the Salic laws at his court:
• the ω as “oo” or “ou”,
• the æ as separate vowels “ae”,
• the combinations the as “ᚦe”, “θe” or “the”
• and the uui as various letter combinations: “vvi”, “oui” or “uui”.
In the Younger Futhark (ᚠᚢᚦᚬᚱᚴ) Chilperic's fourth symbol “æ” (“ae”) matches the fourth
runic symbol ᚨ (named As and representing “ą”, “o”, or “æ”.
Chilperic's concept implies that four letters “Δ” (“UUI”),“Θ” (“OU”), “Z” (“th”) and “Ψ” (“æ”)
match the four initial letters (ᚠᚢᚦᚬ) of the Younger Futhark runic alphabet (ᚠᚢᚦᚬᚱᚴ).
At that time the Latin alphabet did not provide suitable characters and as a high priest of the pagan
religion Chilperic I felt motivated to integrate the main runic symbols as special characters into the
Latin alphabet. Obviously Chilperic did not intend to insert individual characters, but words.
Even in the Elder Futhark alphabet ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚲ (“Futhorc” of “Futhark”) the fourth rune ᚩ represented a
vowel (“o” or “a”), but not the “æ”.

The alphabet's “Futharc”-header (ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚳ)


Chilperic's concept may have involved to copy the header of the runic alphabet ( ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚳ) to the
beginning of the Latin alphabet. At this location the sacred letters “UUI”, “OU”, “th”, “æ” ( ᚠᚢᚦᚨ)
would be located at the same header-position as in the original versions of the runic alphabets to
form the same divine names.
The extension of the alphabet has been specified as follows : uui (as a symbol Δ), ω (as a symbol
Θ), the (as a symbol Z), and æ (as a symbol Ψ).
Incidentally the additional four symbols uui (as Δ or ᚹ), ω (as Θ or ʘ), the (as Z) and æ (as Ψ)
match the initial four characters of the runic alphabet ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚲ (Elder Futhark) respectively ᚠᚢᚦᚬᚱᚴ
(Younger Futhark).
In this comparison I assume the initial rune ᚠ (the “F” in “Futhark”) represents a universal symbol
digamma (Ϝ, respectively in undercase: ϝ) which represents /w/ and also covers the phonemes /v/,
/f/, /u/, /y/. This is the first letter uui (as a symbol Δ) of Chilperic's additional letters.
In the archaic religion the first 3 initial runes (“Futh” of “Wuth”), ᚠ (the digamma “ϝ”), “ᚢ”, “ᚦ”
represent a keyword consisting the personal pronoun (“wut” or “wit” = “we two”) and the key for
the word “wutan” (“Wodan”, “to wit”, “witness” → “insight”).
The initial keyword “Wutha” (respectively “Futha”), which may be formed by concatenating
Chilperic's additional characters (ΔΘZΨ) more or less results in the word “Wioothæ” or
“Wodan”.26
Alternative initial keywords may be composed as Z,Θ,Δ (“Thouwi”), which resembles “Tuw” or
Z,Δ,Θ (“Thwiou”), which resembles “Twiu”.

26 King Chilperic's 4 Letters and the Alphabet's Adaptation


Several permutations are allowed and have to be checked for their mirroring behavior. Chilperic's
concept may have aimed to compose a keyword which represents the French word “Dieu” as well
as “Tiw” and in a reversed reading mode also “Wit”. This behavior may be made possible because
“Dieu” and “Tiw” already share the PIE-root *Dyaus.

An additional keyword at the beginning of the alphabet


The concept of appending additional letters at the end of the alphabet is harmless compared to the
idea of putting letters at the beginning. Inserting initial letters is working at the core of the alphabet.
The most promising composition for a keyword (with Chilperic's additional characters (ΔΘZΨ)
seemed to be Θ,Ψ,Δ,Z (“uæuuith”) which results in an new alphabet as follows:
Θ,Ψ,Δ,Z,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,V,X, (“[uæ]uuith” → UID → VID)

If we reverse the keyword Θ,Ψ,Δ,Z to “Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ” (“Thwiæou”) and insert it at the beginning of the
alphabet the initial four letter word “Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ” may be recognized as a “TIOU”-word:
Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,V,X, (“Thwiæou” → TIOU or Tiw”)

An initial keyword Θ,Ψ,Δ,Z at the beginning of the standard Latin alphabet


A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,V,X, may be considered as the insertion of an equivalent
keyword ᚠᚢᚦ at the beginning of the AIΩ-body (such as “ᚨᚱᚲᚷ…ᚺᚾᛁᛃᛈᛇᛉᛊᛏᛒᛖᛗᛚᛜᛞᛟ” in the
Kylverstone) for the various Futhark-alphabets.

This concept might resemble the Futhark-concept and allows the keyword to be identified as VID
and “TIOU” (Dieu and Tiw).
The end of the Merovingian dynasty
In The History of the Franks the historian Gregory of Tours describes Chilperic I as ambitious,
brutal, and debauched, but Gregory also was a Bishop of Tours and Chilperic may have been judged
for his religious ambitions.
Chilperic also has been described as a well-educated man of learning; he wrote poor poetry, became
involved in theological matters, and ordered four letters to be added to the alphabet. Regarding the
church as a major rival to his wealth, he treated the bishops with hostility and contempt; at the same
time, he had a reputation for injustice toward his subjects at large and imposed heavy taxes.
In September 584, while returning from a hunting expedition at his royal villa of Chelles, Chilperic
was stabbed to death by an unknown assailant. He has been buried in the Belgian city of Tournai
(Doornik)27 , where his sarcophagus has been discovered in 1653 [11]28.
Merovingian kings such as Clovis I (~466-511) and Chilperic (535-584) did wear their hair long to
testify their magic powers. Normally the Franks used to wear their hair short. This pagan belief may
have caused the end of the Merovingian dynasty.
After 747 Carloman retired in a monastery Pepin sent letters to Pope Zachary, asking
whether the title of king belonged to the one who had exercised the power or the one
with the royal lineage. The pope responded that the real power should have the royal
title as well.

In early March 751 Childeric III (c. 717 – c. 754) was dethroned by Pope Zachary and
tonsured.[5] His long hair was the symbol of his dynasty and thus the royal rights or
magical powers; by cutting it, they divested him of all royal prerogatives. Once
dethroned, he and his son Theuderic were placed in the monastery of Saint-Bertin[6] or
in Saint-Omer and Theuderic in Saint-Wandrille.

Childeric III (c. 717 – c. 754) was King of Francia from 743 until he was deposed by
Pope Zachary in March 751 at the instigation of Pepin the Short. Although his parentage
is uncertain, he is considered the last Frankish king from the Merovingian dynasty.29

27 Chilperic I, roi des Francs (539 – 584) - Chilperic I | Merovingian king | Britannica.com
28 Wallace-Hadrill Long-Haired Kings p. 162 quoted in Childeric I
29 Chilperic III
Conclusion
In the course of time the initial structure of the runic alphabets (ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚲ and ᚠᚢᚦᚬᚱᚴ) remained
rather stable until the Merovingians under king Chilperic I (reigning from 561 - 584 AD) expanded
their empire to the French territory.
The expansive empire needed a flexible, adaptive language and new keywords for the Lex Salica
(Salic Law) which had been written in Latin, or in "semi-French Latin".
As a king and supreme religious leader Chilperic I felt responsible to include the missing
symbolism of the runic alphabet (ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚲ and ᚠᚢᚦᚬᚱᚴ) to the Latin alphabet.
The correlation to the initial section of the Futhark alphabet suggests to insert the block of four
letters “ZΔΨΘ” as an integral section to the 21-letters alphabet a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,v,x,
in which the “word” may be added or interpreted in forward and reversed reading.
In French the divine Name Dieu (“Diæu”) had been derived from *Dyeu(s), which corresponds to
“Tiw” and required a reversal of the symbols from “Tiw” to “Wit” as well as “DIÆU” to “UEID”
→ “VID”.
Chilperic's concept may have been based on an additional keyword “ZΔΨΘ” (Thwiæou → Thiæou
→ “Tiou” → DIEU), resulteing in a new Latin alphabet:
Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,V,X,
In a reversed reading mode of the abbreviated keyword “ΔZ” (uuith → EuiD → “Vuith” → “Vut”)
this concept may also be represented by interpreting the first couple of characters Δ (wi) and Z (th):
Θ,Ψ,Δ,Z,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,V,X,
(uæ)uuith,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,V,X,
This transformation (from Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ to French DIEU, respectively TIOU” or Tiw” and in the
mirrored word from Θ,Ψ,Δ,Z to Woden (“Vut”) may be illustrated by concatenating the following
phases:
# Day (58-50 BC) 100AD 561 - 584 AD 584 AD
→ 98 AD → 561 AD → today
Period Between Caesar After Plutarch Chilperic I After Chilperic I
and Tacitus
1 Sunday
2 Monday
3 Tuesday Tiw (Mars) Tiw (Mars) Z,Δ,Ψ,Θ DIÆU
(→ Tuw, Tyr) Thwiæou → DIEU
→ TIOU (→ DIV)
4 Wednesday Wotan (Mercury) Wotan (Mercury) Θ,Ψ,Δ,Z (UEID
(→ Vut) ([ouæ]uuith) → VID)
→ “[V]uith”
→ “Vut”
5 Thursday -- Thor (Jupiter)
6 Friday Freya (Venus)
7 Saturday -- Saturn

Table 5 The days of the week define the chronological order


for the principal deities in the Germanic pantheon
Appendix 1 - The 3 letter-words dictionary
The philosophically relevant 3-letter words-dictionary may compose a small list of keywords such
as:

aba ate bum dal ego gag hop kid max now pep rep sex tax wax
abs ave bun dam elf gal hot kin may nun per rev she tea way
ace awe bus dan elm gap how kit med nut pet rib shy ted web
act axe but day emu gas hub lab meg oak pew rid sic tee wed
add aye buy Dee end gay hue lac men odd phi rig sim ten wee
ado BAA bye def era gee hug lad Met off pic rim sin the wet
aft bad cab del eta gel huh lag mid oft pie rip sip thy who
age bag cad den eve gem hum lam mil oil pig rob sir tie why
ago ban cam dew eye get hut lap mix old pin rod sis tin wig
aha bar can did fab gig ice law mob ole pip roe sit tip win
aid bat cap die fad gin icy lax mod one pit rot six tod wis
aim bay car dig fan god igg lay mol ooh ply row ski toe wit
air bed cat dim far got ill lea mom opt pod rub sky tom won
ala bee chi din fat gum imp led mon orb pol rue sly ton woo
ale beg cob dip fax gun ink Lee mop ore pop rug sod too wow
all bel cod dis fay gut inn leg mot our pot rum sol top wry
alt ben col doc fed guy ion les mud out pro run son tor wye
amp bet con doe fee gym its let mug owe psi rye sow tot yen
ana bid coo dog fen had ivy lib mum owl pub sab soy tow yep
and big cop don few ham jam lid nab own pup sac spa toy yes
ant bin cor dot fig has jar lie nah pac put sad spy try yet
any bio cos dry fin hat jaw lip nan pad rad sae sub tub you
ape bis cot dub fir hay jay lit nap pal rag sag sue tug zip
app bit cow due fit hem jet log nay pam raj sal sum two zoo
apt biz cox dug fix hen jew lot neb pan ram sap sun use
arc bob coy dun flu her job low neg pap ran sat sup van
are bog cry duo fly hey joe mac net par rap saw tab vat
ark boo cub dye foe hid jog mad new pas rat say tad vet
arm bow cue ear fog him joy mag nil pat raw sea tag via
art box cum eat for hip jug man nip paw ray sec tam vie
ash boy cup ebb fox his jun map nod pay red see tan vow
ask bra cut ecu fry hit kay mar nor pea ref sen tap wan
asp bud dab eft fun hog ken mas nos peg reg set tar war
ass Bug dad egg fur hon key mat not pen rem sew tat was
Appendix 2 – Overview of the Publications of Joannes Richter at Academia

1. De sleutelwoorden van het Futhark alfabet


2. The Keywords of the Futhark Alphabet
3. Het runenboek met het unieke woord Tiw
4. A short Essay about the Evolution of European Personal Pronouns
5. The Evolution of the European Personal Pronouns
6. De miraculeuze transformatie van de Europese samenleving
7. The Miraculous Transformation of European Civilization
8. The Duality in Greek and Germanic Philosophy
9. Bericht van de altaarschellist over de Lof der Zotheid
10. De bronnen van Brabant (de Helleputten aan de Brabantse breuklijnen)
11. De fundamenten van de samenleving
12. De rol van de waterbronnen bij de kerstening van Nederland
13. De etymologie van "wijst" en "wijstgrond"
14. The Antipodes Miᚦ and Wiᚦ
15. The Role of the Dual Form in the Evolution of European Languages
16. De rol van de dualis in de ontwikkeling der Europese talen
17. The Search for Traces of a Dual Form in Quebec French
18. Synthese van de Germanistische & Griekse mythologie en etymologie
19. De restanten van de dualis in het Nederlands, Engels en Duits
20. Notes to the Corner Wedge in the Ugaritic Alphabet
21. The Origin of the long IJ-symbol in the Dutch alphabet
22. Over de oorsprong van de „lange IJ“ in het Nederlandse alfabet
23. The Backbones of the Alphabets
24. The Alphabet and and the Symbolic Structure of Europe
25. The Unseen Words in the Runic Alphabet
26. De ongelezen woorden in het runenalfabet
27. The Role of the Vowels in Personal Pronouns of the 1st Person Singular
28. Over de volgorde van de klinkers in woorden en in godennamen
29. The Creation Legends of Hesiod and Ovid
30. De taal van Adam en Eva (published: ca. 2.2.2019)
31. King Chilperic's 4 Letters and the Alphabet's Adaptation
32. De 4 letters van koning Chilperik I en de aanpassing van het Frankenalfabet
33. The Symbolism of Hair Braids and Bonnets in Magical Powers
34. The Antipodes in PIE-Languages
35. In het Nederlands, Duits en Engels is de dualis nog lang niet uitgestorven
36. In English, Dutch and German the dual form is still alive
37. The Descendants of the Dual Form " Wit "
38. A Structured Etymology for Germanic, Slavic and Romance Languages
39. The “Rod”-Core in Slavic Etymology (published: ca. 27.11.2018)
40. Encoding and decoding the runic alphabet
41. Über die Evolution der Sprachen
42. Over het ontwerpen van talen
43. The Art of Designing Languages
44. Notes to the usage of the Spanish words Nos and Vos, Nosotros and Vosotros
45. Notes to the Dual Form and the Nous-Concept in the Inari Sami language
46. Over het filosofische Nous-concept
47. Notes to the Philosophical Nous-Concept
48. The Common Root for European Religions (published: ca. 27.10.2018)
49. A Scenario for the Medieval Christianization of a Pagan Culture
50. Een scenario voor de middeleeuwse kerstening van een heidens volk
51. The Role of the Slavic gods Rod and Vid in the Futhorc-alphabet
52. The Unification of Medieval Europe
53. The Divergence of Germanic Religions
54. De correlatie tussen de dualis, Vut, Svantevit en de Sint-Vituskerken
55. The Correlation between Dual Forms, Vut, Svantevit and the Saint Vitus Churches
56. Die Rekonstruktion der Lage des Drususkanals (published: ca. 27.9.2018)
57. Die Entzifferung der Symbolik einer Runenreihe
58. Deciphering the Symbolism in Runic Alphabets
59. The Sky-God, Adam and the Personal Pronouns
60. Notities rond het boek Tiw (Published ca. 6.2.2018)
61. Notes to the book TIW
62. Von den Völkern, die nach dem Futhark benannt worden sind
63. Designing an Alphabet for the Runes
64. Die Wörter innerhalb der „Futhark“-Reihe
65. The hidden Symbolism of European Alphabets
66. Etymology, Religions and Myths
67.
68. The Symbolism of the Yampoos and Wampoos in Poe's “Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym
from Nantucket”
69. Notizen zu " Über den Dualis " und " Gesammelte sprachwissenschaftliche Schriften "
70. Ϝut - Het Nederlandse sleutelwoord
71. Concepts for the Dual Forms
72. The etymology of the Greek dual form νώ (νῶϊ)
73. Proceedings in the Ego-pronouns' Etymology
74. Notities bij „De godsdiensten der volken“
75. The Role of *Teiwaz and *Dyeus in Filosofy
76. A Linguistic Control of Egotism
77. The Design of the Futhark Alphabet
78. An Architecture for the Runic Alphabets
79. The Celtic Hair Bonnets (Published Jun 24, 2018)
80. Die keltische Haarhauben
81. De sculpturen van de Walterich-kapel te Murrhardt
82. The rediscovery of a lost symbolism
83. Het herontdekken van een vergeten symbolisme
84. De god met de twee gezichten
85. The 3-faced sculpture at Michael's Church in Forchtenberg
86. Over de woorden en namen, die eeuwenlang bewaard gebleven zijn
87. De zeven Planeten in zeven Brabantse plaatsnamen
88. Analysis of the Futhorc-Header
89. The Gods in the Days of the Week and inside the Futhor-alphabet
90. Een reconstructie van de Nederlandse scheppingslegende
91. The Symbolism in Roman Numerals
92. The Keywords in the Alphabets Notes to the Futharc's Symbolism
93. The Mechanisms for Depositing Loess in the Netherlands
94. Over het ontstaan van de Halserug, de Heelwegen en Heilwegen in de windschaduw van de
Veluwe
95. Investigations of the Rue d'Enfer-Markers in France
96. Die Entwicklung des französischen Hellwegs ( " Rue d'Enfer "
97. De oorsprong van de Heelwegen op de Halserug, bij Dinxperlo en Beltrum
98. The Reconstruction of the Gothic Alphabet's Design
99. Von der Entstehungsphase eines Hellwegs in Dinxperlo-Bocholt
100. Over de etymologie van de Hel-namen (Heelweg, Hellweg, Helle..) in Nederland
101. Recapitulatie van de projecten Ego-Pronomina, Futhark en Hellweg
102. Over het ontstaan en de ondergang van het Futhark-alfabet
103. Die Etymologie der Wörter Hellweg, Heelweg, Rue d'Enfer, Rue de l'Enfer und
Santerre
104. The Etymology of the Words Hellweg, Rue d'Enfer and Santerre
105. The Decoding of the Kylver Stone' Runes
106. The Digamma-Joker of the Futhark
107. The Kernel of the Futhorc Languages
108. De kern van de Futhark-talen
109. Der Kern der Futhark-Sprachen
110. De symboolkern IE van het Nederlands
111. Notes to Guy Deutscher's "Through the Language Glass"
112. Another Sight on the Unfolding of Language (Published 1 maart, 2018)
113. Notes to the Finnish linguistic symbolism of the sky-god's name and the days of the
week
114. A modified Swadesh List (Published 12 / 17 / 2017)
115. A Paradise Made of Words
116. The Sky-God Names and the Correlating Personal Pronouns
117. The Nuclear Pillars of Symbolism (Published 10 / 28 / 2017)
118. The Role of the Dual Form in Symbolism and Linguistics (Oct 17, 2017)
119. The Correlation between the Central European Loess Belt, the Hellweg-Markers and
the Main Isoglosses
120. The Central Symbolic Core of Provencal Language (Oct 7, 2017)
Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................1
Summary...............................................................................................................................................2
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................3
Separating the “fuþ”-header from the “arc...”-body........................................................................4
Chronological list of the European deities „ᚦiw“, “Wiᚦ” , „ᚦor“, „Roᚦ“ ........................................5
The time frame for introducing „ᚦiw“, “Wiᚦ” , „ᚦor“, „Roᚦ“..........................................................6
The first couple of deities Tiw and Wotan..................................................................................6
Names of the days of the week (AD 60-100)..............................................................................7
The Germanic and Roman pedigrees...................................................................................................8
Tiw...................................................................................................................................................8
Wit....................................................................................................................................................8
Thor..................................................................................................................................................9
Krodo...............................................................................................................................................9
Hrôddag.......................................................................................................................................9
The roots for WIT...............................................................................................................................10
Wiskunde.......................................................................................................................................10
Widukind........................................................................................................................................10
Wittekind............................................................................................................................................11
Overview of the Wittekind-labels..................................................................................................11
Notes to the etymology of Widukind.............................................................................................12
Widukind...................................................................................................................................12
Discussions about an etymology for Widukind....................................................................12
Vitikint..................................................................................................................................12
The reconstruction of a pedigree by August II. (Polen) ......................................................12
The correlation between Widukind and Rod......................................................................................13
Widukind of Corvey......................................................................................................................13
Rod, Hrodo, Chrodo, Krodo..........................................................................................................13
The "primordial God" of the Slavs................................................................................................13
Bothe's chronicle............................................................................................................................13
The dictionary of “wit” and “wis”-dom.............................................................................................15
WIT................................................................................................................................................15
WIS................................................................................................................................................15
WIS – to know or suppose (something)....................................................................................15
WIS - twig.................................................................................................................................16
WIS - tranquility.......................................................................................................................16
King Chilperic's 4 Letters and the Alphabet's Adaptation..................................................................17
The Lex Salica (Salic Law)...........................................................................................................17
The Claudian letters.......................................................................................................................17
Including the “Futharc”-header (ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚲ) in the Latin alphabet.....................................................18
The alphabet's “Futharc”-header (ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚳ)......................................................................................18
An additional keyword at the beginning of the alphabet...............................................................19
The end of the Merovingian dynasty.............................................................................................20
Conclusion..........................................................................................................................................21
Appendix 1 - The 3 letter-words dictionary.......................................................................................22
Appendix 2 – Overview of the Publications of Joannes Richter at Academia...................................23

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