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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm


A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijec@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5984

Smart and Optimized Dough Maker for


Domestic Use
Manisha Nilkanth1, Vivek R. Verma2, Rakshanda Singh3 and Sumit K. Singh4
1
Department of E&TC, Army Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2
Department of E&TC, Army Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3
Department of E&TC, Army Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
4
Department of E&TC, Army Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
Dough kneading machine is used for the formation of dough. Quality of dough depends upon kneading process. The
conventional process of kneading is either by hand or by use of the machine. This paper aims at building a machine that
provides dough for a fixed number of chapattis, one at a time. This product also optimizes the process of dough kneading as the
dough maker available nowadays take water and dough as input in a single section and they require a minimum amount of
flour to work which is liable to wastage. This product overcomes this problem by providing two different sections for water and
dough after the user gets his specified number of chapattis the remaining flour can be put back into the container. It also takes
the help of gravity for the flow of water and flour, so we do not need any extra motor to make the flour and water fall into the
container thus reducing the power requirement.
Keywords: Dough, Kneading, Microcontroller, Motor

1. INTRODUCTION
Flatbread is an important part of the diet of a large population in the world. Most of the Indians’ staple diet includes
roti’s. Kneading is a process, used to mix the ingredients and add strength to the final product. Its importance lies in
the mixing of flour with water. When these two ingredients are combined and kneaded, the gliadin and glutenin
proteins in the flour expand and form strands of gluten, which gives flour its texture. If the proportion of flour and
water is not proper, then the dough turns out to be too hard or too soft. Hence, the dough kneader we have designed has
a mechanized system for proportion control using the input mechanisms to control the proportions of the two. Usually,
people knead the dough by hands, but It is a difficult activity. Hence various machines for kneading dough sprouted in
the markets. But these machines are not affordable to middle-class. Moreover, the dough kneading that is done by the
hand is done in a fixed amount that may in most cases be more than the amount required at the time. This extra dough
needs to be kept in the refrigerator which degrades its quality and the nutritional value. It also occupies additional
space in the refrigerator.
The motivation behind this project is to make a simple and cost-effective device that will help towards the upliftment
of the society. Also due to the majorly horizontal assembly of the traditional dough kneaders that have been in place
until now the amount of power consumed to operate the device is larger since the number of motors required to transfer
flour and water from one container to the other is also more.
Hence, the idea of building a dough kneading machine that would be much cheaper than the already existing devices
came. Apart from being less expensive this machine also produces dough in accordance with the number of roti’s
required thus the need for storing extra dough is also eliminated.
The dough kneader in this project has been made to work on motors and pumps of a very small voltage level thus
reducing energy consumption moreover the kneader kneads the dough for only one roti at a time, hence the amount of
wastage will be reduced to a great extent. Apart from this, the assembly of the kneader has been made vertical which
would also ensure that no extra power is used in the transfer of materials from one compartment to the other. Due to all
the above reasons, the device will become quite affordable.

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 6


IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijec@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5984

2. LITERATURE SURVEY
Siraj M. Tamboli [1]; stated that as the technology is growing, we want to add more luxury in the human lifestyle. The
purpose of his work was to make a dough kneading machine which would have no cleaning problem, consume lesser
power, would have low cost and less time-consuming. This work also focused on issues like safety and environment-
friendly and noise reduction while operation. The system design comprised of a microcontroller (AT89C51), an ac
motor, a belt and a container with suitable blades for the kneading process. First, the flour and water are put into the
container where the dough is to be prepared. Then a signal to the microcontroller is given to start the dough kneading
process, which in turn starts the ac motor. The ac motor rotates the belt which in turn rotates the blades of the container
and we get the dough. The limitation of this model was that it was not at all automated and the measurement of dough
and water needed to be done manually.

Felix Reinhart, Sebastian Wessels, Ansgar Trachtler [2]; stated that for good quality and consistent dough the speed
of rotation, the time of kneading and continuous monitoring of the kneading process is required. The purpose of this
paper was to design an intelligent kneading machine that has the capability to decide the speed of rotation and when to
stop so that the consistency of the dough is maintained. The process started with the measurement of the flour and the
water that would be required for the dough. The capacity of the bowl was 50Kg and the proportions were 25kg wheat,
14.51kg of water, 0.5kg of salt and 0.5kg yeast. Then the motor was started for mixing the ingredients. This stage
consisted of three parts detection, control, and prediction. Detection part identifies the phase of the dough, the reference
signal for the rotational speed is determined using the detection part and lastly for the prediction of the expected dough,
the aforementioned-idealized model is used. For detection and control part Euler’s algorithm is used until a point of
optimal dough is reached. The limitation of this model was that it was very bulky, so it could not be used for domestic
purposes.

Hasbi Apaydm, SukruKitis [3]; The primary aim of this paper was to automate the process of dough kneading. The
process started with storing the flour in moisture free environment and then transporting it in the intended amount to
the mixing cavity where it would be mixed with a proper proportion of water in order to become a dough. But for this
process, a five-flow method was considered. This consisted of 5 24V, D.C. pneumatic valves to enable the flow of flour
from silo to the kneaders. 5 24V, D.C. solenoid valve to allow the flow of water to the same kneaders, % motors to take
the flour from silo and flour line. In order to be able to calculate the liters of water being sent to the kneader water flow
meters are installed after each solenoid valve. Motor, solenoid valve, pneumatic valve, water meters are controlled with
the designed system to provide automation to the process.

Amit B Solanki [4]; the goal of this paper was to design and develop an automated fast food machine for large food
industry applications. Automated fast food machine is a device that squeezes the dough mixture of fast food with
following categorized efficiency such as time, human effort, safety, cleaning and quality during fast food making. This
designed machine can squeeze dough mixture using screw extruder with electric power and can be extruded out using
rotating conveyer from the machine. Therefore, the production rate of the fast food making machine is high as
compared with other manual and commercially available machines.

3. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION

Figure 1 Block diagram of dough kneader

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 7


IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijec@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5984

3.1 Keypad
It is in place for the purpose of taking input in the form of a number from the user.
3.2 ATMEGA 328
This microcontroller forms the basic controlling unit of the entire system such that inputs are given to it and as output,
it controls various mechanisms as per need.
3.3 D.C. Pump
The dc pump is a device that allows circulation of water from the container where water is stored to the place of action
that is the container where actual kneading is to be done.

3.4 D.C. Motor


The dc motor is used for the rotation of the blades in the kneading container. The design of the blades needs to be done
in a way that it is blunt so that it does not cut through the dough. The dc motor needs to be chosen in a way that it has
high torque but has moderate speed.

3.5 Stepper Motor


The stepper motor is placed in the assembly to provide precise movement of the slider.

4. WORKING
The working of this device depends upon various mechanisms used. These mechanisms and their working in the
sequence of operation are listed below.
4.1 Mechanism for flour

Figure 2 Slider mechanisms for addition of flour


The mechanism designed for pouring an adequate amount of flour in the assembly includes a stepper motor connected
via a linkage to a slider plate. The slider plate is kept on rails.
Once the input regarding the number of r has been fed into the system via the keypad the stepper motor is made to
rotate by a predefined angle by a signal given by the microcontroller. This rotation causes the slider to move for a timed
value thus letting flour for one roti to fall into kneading container this completes the job of the flour mechanism.
4.2 Mechanism for water

Figure 3 Pump for pouring of water

Once the amount of flour required for a single chapatti has been fed into the kneading container, the water mechanism
comes into play. Here essentially, we use a d.c. pump that pumps water from the storage container into the kneading
dough. the dc pump is operated for a time that is pre-calculated by trial and error to ensure an adequate supply of water
to the kneading dough.

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 8


IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijec@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5984

4.3 Mechanism for kneading the dough

Figure 4 Container for dough kneading

With the adequate amount of flour and water in the container, it now becomes possible to knead the dough. To do so a
dc motor is used this dc motor has its shaft connected to a blade. The blade is made to rotate at a moderate speed in
order to ensure proper kneading and binding of the dough. Once the motor has been rotated for a fixed time the
kneading process comes to an end.
This dough that has been kneaded is then presented to the user and the same process for the second bread starts until
it has run the number of times as entered by the user.

5. CONCLUSION
The complete dough maker for domestic use will be able to meet various goals of the project which are as follows:
1. Automate the process of dough kneading
2. Optimize the dough kneading process by producing the exact amount of dough required by the user.
3. A separate container for flour and dough to minimize the wastage of dough.
4. Highly efficient due to low power consumption devices used.
5. Low cost as the devices used are cheap.
References
[1] Siraj M. Tamboli, “Smart Dough Making Machine”, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR), Vol-3,
Issue-4, 2017, ISSN: 2454-1362, PP. No. 1367-1369
[2] Nilesh R. Badgujar, Prof. Sachin R. Shinde and Prof. Vivek S. Shinde, “Design and ManufacturingBhakriMaking
Machine with Modified Mixing of Dough &Modified Heating System”, International Engineering Research
Journal, 2017
[3] Felix Reinhart, Sebastian Wessels, Ansgar Trachtler, “Design and Implementation of Intelligent Control Software
for a Dough Kneader”, 3rd International Conference on System-integrated Intelligence: New Challenges for
Product and Production Engineering, SysInt,2016, ISSN: 2212-0173
[4] HasbiApaydm, SukruKitis, “An Automation System Design for Dough Kneaders and Dosing Machines with
Microprocessor Based and 5 Flows”, International Journal of Applied Mathematics, Electronics and Computers,
2014, ISSN: 2147-8228, PP No. 7-9
[5] Amit B Solanki, “DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC FASTFOOD MACHINE”, International
Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research”, Vol. 3, No. 3, July 2014, ISSN 2278 – 0149, PP No.
146-148
[6] Tanner, R.I., Qi, F., Dai, “Bread dough rheology: an improved damage function model”, Rheologica Acta, 2011, PP
No:75–86
[7] Sofou, S., Muliawan, E.B., Hatzikiriakos, S.G., Mitsoulis, “Rheological characterization and constitutive modeling
of bread dough”, Rheologica Acta 2008, PP No.:369–381.
[8] A W Birley, B Haworth and J Batchelor, “Single-Screw Extrusion the Extruder Characteristic”, Physics of Plastics:
Processing, Properties and Materials Engineering, Hanser, Vol. 4,1992
[9] T.R. Gupta, “Individual heat transfer modes during contact baking of Indian unleavened flat bread (chapati) in a
continuous oven”, Journal of Food Engineering 47,2000, pp. 313-319
[10] T. R. Gupta, “Specific heat of indian unleavened flat bread (chapatti) at various stages of cooking, Journal of Food
Process Engineering 13”,1990, pp.217-227

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 9


IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijec@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5984

AUTHORS

Ms. Manisha Nilkanth received the B.E. degree in Electronics from Shivaji University in 2005 and M.E.
degree in Electronics from Pune University in 2013. she is working in Digital systems. Now She is Assistant
Professor in Army Institute of Technology, Pune, which is affiliated to Savitrbai Phule Pune University.

Vivek Rajan Verma pursuing B.E degree in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering from Army
Institute of Technology, Pune, which is affiliated to Savitrbai Phule Pune University. Now he is working in
Embedded Systems and designs
.

Rakshanda Singh pursuing B.E degree in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering from Army Institute
of Technology, Pune, which is affiliated to Savitrbai Phule Pune University. Now she is working in Embedded
Systems and designs.

.
Sumit Kumar Singh pursuing B.E degree in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering from Army
Institute of Technology, Pune, which is affiliated to Savitrbai Phule Pune University. Now he is working in
Embedded Systems and designs

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 10

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