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A

Summer Training Project Report


On

“Employees
Employees Motivation ”
Of

Cadbury India Ltd. Malanpur Industrial area,


Malanpur, Bhind (M. P.)

IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF


MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
2009

Affiliated to Jiwaji University, Gwalior

Submitted to : Submitted by
Mrs. Ritu Singh ROSHNI SHARMA
(HOD) MBA Roll No. 3102
NRIITM Gwalior MBA (HR) II sem
NRIITM Gwalior
INDEX
Acknowledgement

Chapter-1 Introduction
1.1. About of Company 1
1.2. Brief History 1
1.3. Cadbury manufacturing 3
1.4. Malnapur Factory 6
1.5 Chocolate Market in India 7
1.6 Base Chocolate Ingredients 10

Chapter-2 Role of motivation for employees training and its


effectiveness

2.1. Abstract 18
2.2. Initial Interview Data 24
2.3. Application evaluation results 25
2.4. Discussion 26
2.5. Competitive attitudes 27
2.6. Focus on extrinsic motivation 28
2.7. The superiority of intrinsic motivation 28
2.8. Allow self-initiated activities 29

Chapter-3 Data Analysis and Findings


3.1. Literature Review 33
3.2. Data Collection 40
3.3. Parameter Used 42
3.4. Graphical Representation of the Responses 44

Chapter-4 Conclusion and Suggestions


4.1. Findings 51
4.2. Suggestion 52
4.3. Limitation & Methodology 55
4.4. Conclusion 58

Questionnaire 61
Bibliography 64
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

No work is possible without the “Grace of God”, guidance of teachers, blessing


of elders, love and encouragement of family member and friends.

I would like to acknowledge with thanks the genuine interest and faith shown by
our director who truly deserve the credit for providing inspiration to each
student in their summer training.

I am thankful to the HR Department of Cadbury India Limited and specially Mr.


Atul Jha (HR Manager) who gave me time out of their busy schedule to help e
administer my task.

In the completion of this report, I have drawn heavily on the vast amount
of literature in the field of personnel management, industrial relation and human
resource development. Naturally, I owe a deep intellectual debt to numerous
authors who have significantly enhanced my understanding on various issues in
Human resource management through their rich contribution in this field.

Above all, I heavily Thank my Father and my mother for their love, the
constant encouragement and support of my brother and friends.

Last but not least I would be special gratitude to our all friends who
heartening me to complete this project.
Chapter 1
Introduction of Cadbury
1.1 ABOUT THE COMPANY
Cadbury, a subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes is a dominating player in
the Indian chocolate market with strong brands like Dairy Milk, Five Star, Perk
etc. Dairy milk is in fact the largest chocolate brand in India. Cadbury India
Limited, now stands only second to Cadbury UK Limited in sales of Dairy
Milk. The company is pushing the gifting segment, through occasion linked
gifts. Chocolates contribute to 64% of Cadbury’s turnover. Confectionery sales
accounting for 12% of turnover, is contributed largely by Eclairs. Cadbury also
has a strong brand Bourn Vita the malted health drink category, which accounts
for 24% of turnover.

1.2 BRIEF HISTORY


Fifty years ago, the real taste of chocolate as we know it today, landed on
Indian shores. An event that carried forward the entrepreneurship and vision
born as far back as 1824, when John Cadbury set up shop in Birmingham (UK)
to sell among other things – his own cocoa concoction. From these modest
beginnings emerged Cadbury Schweppes – that is today the leading
manufacturer of confectionery and beverages in the United Kingdom. A
company that has its presence in over 200 countries worldwide and has made
the name ‘Cadbury’ synonymous with cocoa products in countries across the
planet.

This is the brand that came to India in 1947 to a nation that was in its infancy, a
market that was ready for the world and a people that were open to new ideas,
new products.

Within a year of being set up as a trading concern, Cadbury fry India was
incorporated as a Private Limited company, set up for processing imported
chocolates and Bourn vita. The same year saw the launch of Cadbury’s Milk
chocolate for millions of Indians.

Through 50 years of investment in capital and marketing, the scale and scope of
our operations has expaned to cover a range of brands in the chocolate, sugar
confectionery and malted food drinks segments. We have a majority share in the
Indian chocolate market and a significant presence in sugar confectionery and
food drinks.

Today Cadbury India Ltdl, a subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes employs over


200 people across the country. And operates in one of the fastest growing
chocolate markets for Cadbury Schweppes group across the globe.
1.3 ABOUT CADBURY’S MANUFACTURING
FACILITY AT MALANPUR

In 1989, the company began its manufacturing operations at its newest and most
modern plant at malanpur near Gwalior in M.P. The factory is located on 24
acres of land which is taken on lease from M.P. Audyogid Vikas Nigam.

Nearby Industries

The Malanpur belt has a host of other industries located in the region. Some of
the prominent industries are :
• Godrej
• SRF
• CT Cotton
• Kodak
• LG Hotline
• Supreme Viny1

Area of the Factory


Total plot area : 101170.55
Built up area : 13211.85 sq.m
Lawn area : 40000 sq.m

Cadbury Malanpur – products


Equipped with the state of art technology and backed constant investment, this
the Cadbury’s Malanpur unit manufactures a range of liquid milk chocolate and
variety of enrobed chocolate products.
• Dairy Milk
• Eclairs
• 5 Star
• Gems
• Perk

Employees
The factory has a young workforce with the average age of an employee being
28 years. The employees the following number of personnel :
Line Operates : 267
Engg. Operates : 42
Executive Officers : 46
Managers : 9

Skill Level of Workforce


All operates in the factory are IITTs and professionally qualified.

Policies
The unit practices the policies and guidelines as laid down by it’s parent
company Cadbury Schweppes plc. The following practices are in place and
diligently observed by the company :
• HACCP (Good manufacturing Practices )
• Prerequisites
• Risk Management
• Quality policy
• Safety policy
• Environment policy
The above is audited from time to time by the Group Technical.

Contact Numbers:
Telephone No’s Factory : (07539) 2283803-807/509401-403
Fax No. : (07539) 2283802
Factory Manager : (07539) 2283801 (Direct Line)

Address:
Cadbury India Limited
Plot No. 25, Malanpur Industrial Area
Village Gurikha, Tehsil Gohad
Distt. Bhind, Pin – 477116

Professional Association
The unit is a member of the following bodies :-
• M.P. Chamber of Commerce & Industry
• Malanpur Industries Association
• MP AKVN
• Cll
• Quality Circle Federation of India.
Community Development
The unit has also taken up many community development initiatives for the
surrounding area along with M/s Sambhav a prominent NGO like , the primary
school at Gurikha village for the local children.
1.4 MALANPUR FACTORY
In 1989 the company stated manufacturing operations from its third and newest
factory at Malanpur near Gwalior in M.P.

Using the most modern state of the art technology, the unit today manufactures
range of liqud milk chocolate and a variety of enrobed chocolate products.
Factory in 8 phases
1988-89 - Eclairs & Gems
1994-95 - 5 Star
1997 - Perk
2001 - Chocolate expansion
2005 - Fruity Gems
2006 - Ulta Perk
2008 - Short
2009 - Éclair Sticks
LOCATION : Plot No. 25, Malanpur Industrial area, Malanpur
distt. – Bhind.
Telephone No. : 07539-83803, 83804
Parent Company : Cadbury Schweppes International UK
Total Area 24 Acres – Constructed 8.5 Acre
1.5 CHOCOLATE MARKET IN INDIA
Chocolate market is estimated to be around 1500 crores(AC Nielson)
growing at 18-20% per annum.
Cadbury is the market leader with 72% market share
The per capita consumption of chocolate in India is 300 gram compared
with 1.9 kilograms in developed markets such as the United Kingdom.
Over 70 per cent of the consumption takes place in the urban markets.
Margins in the chocolate industry range between 10 and 20 per cent,
depending on the price point at which the product is placed.
Chocolate sales have risen by 15% in 2007 to reach 36000 tonnes
according to one estimate. Another estimate puts the figure at 25000
tonnes.
The chocolate wafer market (Ulta Perk etc) is around 35% of the total
chocolate market and has been growing at around 13% annually.
As per Euromonitor study, Indian candy market is currently valued at
around USD 664 million, with about 70% or USD 461 million, in sugar
confectionery and the remaining 30% or USD 203 million, in chocolate
confectionery.
Entire Celebrations range has a market share is 6.5% .
The global chocolate market is worth $75 billion annually.
Consumers can choose from wide range of chocolates, which initially
was limited to Milk chocolates like Dairy Milk and Milky Bar. In past
few years we have seen so many SKUs with almonds, raisings and all sort
of nuts. And how can we forget latest 5 star crunchy and Ulta Perk, which
has opened new windows for consumers.
WHAT IS CHOCOLATE ?
Cocoa
Cocoa plant is a small tree having pods on the main trunk as well as on the
branches. Pods is long, narrow, flat part which contain the seeds and usually
having thin skin. Cocoa pods after harvesting are cautiously opened. The beans
and mucc8lage are scoped out and subjected to natural fermentation either in
heaps, wooden boxes. Fermentation generally take 5-10 days. At the end of
fermentation, the pulp breaks down and there is a change in the of the seeks
from pale yellow to brown. The endogeneous enzymes activated by the heat
fermentation brings out changes in protein and polyphenols in the kernel. The
beans are then dried to six to eight percent moisture level in sun or artificial
dryers.

The dried beans are cleaned sorted roasted. Roasting develops the
characteristic flavour, after roasting the beans are passed through corrugated
rollers to break their shells and removed by winnowing. The cotyledons are
known as ‘nibs’. This nibs are used for the manufacturing of cocoa and
chocolate. The nibs are ground using stone mills to fine paste or liquor. The heat
produce during grinding causes cocoa fat to melt and the melted fat carries with
it, in suspensions, finely ground particles of cocoa. This is known as cocoa
mass’, chocolate liquor’ or bitter chocolate’. This mass solidifies at about 300C .

Cocoa mass is very rich in fat ( 50-55 percent) and cannot be used
directly for the preparation of any beverage. It is subjected to filter pressing to
separate out a major part of fat (cocoa butter). The amount of fat left in the
pressed cake can be varied by the conditions of pressing. The pressed cake is
used for producing cocoa power.
CHOCOLATE : Cocoa mass not treated with alkali is generally used for the
manufacture of chocolate. There are many types of chocolate depending upon
the level of cocoa mass, added cocoa butter, sugar, milk, and other ingredients.
Plain chocolate is mass processed with cocoa butter and sugar. Plain chocolate
contains 40-55 percent sugar and 32-42 percent fat.

COCOA BUTTER : Cocoa butter which accounts for more than 50 percent
of cocoa bean is a valuable by product of the cocoa industry. The butter is a pale
yellow liquid with a characteristic odour and flavor of chocolate. It is brittle at
temperature below 250C , softens in the hand and melts (340C) in the mouth. It
is not greasy to touch , it is rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid,
stearic
and higher acids).
1.6 BASE CHOCOLATE FOR 5-STAR & PERK

COCOA BUTTER + COCOA MASS + 1. SMP


2. FCMP
3. SUGAR

ADD ONE BY ONE

TWO ROLL REFINER PARTICLE SIZE


200 MICRON

PARTICLE SIZE FIVE ROLL REFINER


25 MICRON

CONCH
1. LOADING
2. DRY CONCHING
3. PASTING
4. LIQUEFYING
5. FLAVOUR MIXING
6. DISCHARGING

STORAGE & SEIVING

TRASFER TO LINE
INGREDIENTS

• Emulsifier :
Lecithin is used as a emulsifier, an emulsifier often added to chocolate
during the manufacturing process to give it a smooth, fluid consistency.
Lecithin stabilizes fat drops and keeps them from congealing and
separating. The majority of lecithin used in chocolate is derived from
soybeans, naturally occurs in egg yolks and some vegetables.
• Palm oil
• Flavouring agent
• SMP
• Sugar :
Added as a sweetener.
It caramelizes with heat, its helps the product to become brown.
It also increases the tenderness of the product.
• Slat
Salt act as a antimicrobial agent,
It also impart taste to the product.
It also absorb moisture, act as a dehydrating agent.
• Cocoa butter
• Cocoa solid
• Hydrogenated vegetable oil
• Edible gum
• Soya flour
• Invert sugar
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

CHOCOLATE CORN FLAKES


AND RICE
CRIPS

BLENDER VIBRATORY
ELEVATOR

TROUGH
CONVEYOR

RIBBON
BLENDER (ITS HOLD THE CEREAL)

FRAPPE+ CONVEYOR (cru


CREAM nchy hopper)

NAUGA SPREADING OF
CERALS OVER
NAUGA

CARAMEL
COATING
COOLING
TUNNEL -1
CUTTER (VERTIC
AL CUTTING)

FENNING BELT REWORK

CUTTER (HORIZONTAL CUTTING

BELT

ENROBING

COOLING
TUNNEL-2

MATERIAL
CHECK

WRAPPING
CARAMEL MAKING

MILK POWDER + HOT WATER AT + VANASPATI

E-MILK
(EMULSIFIED
MILK)

LIQUID PRE MIX INVERT SUGAR


BATCH VESSEL & SUGAR

HOLD

PRE DISSOLVER
(650C)

CARAMEL
COOKER

CARAMEL
FOAMING SYRUP MAKING
WATER AT
850C (440LT)

SOYA FLOUR SCREW CALCIUM


(100 KG) CONVEYOR HYDROOXIDE
(10.5 KG)
(ADD SOYA FLOUR WHEN WATER
TEMPERATURE < 700C )
MIXING
(15-20 MIN)

STIRRING
(UP TO 7 HRS)
SALT

FOAMING +
AGENT (37 KG) SUGAR
LIQUID (34 KG)
GLUCOSE
(86 KG)
+ FOAMING +
SYRUP
INVERT SUGAR GUAR GUM
(15 KG ) (2.8 KG)
FRAPPE MAKING

WATER + SUGAR + LIQUID


(30 LT) (94 KG) GLUCOSE -93 KG

SUGAR SYRUP
AT 80 0C (80 KG OF SUGAR SYRUP

COOKER – 1
(1000C)

FOAMING
SYRUP COOKER-2
(1280C)
(WHEN TEMP.OF SUGAR
SYRUP REACHES 1250C
F.S. IS INTRODUCED COOLING IN
IN BEATER VACCUM (TEMPERATURE REDUCE TO
(25 GK) 1170C)

DOSING BEATER (COMPRESSED AIR)


TANK
FRAPPE

PRESSURE
VESSEL (HOLD)
CREAM AND NAUGA MAKING

VANASPATI + SMP + COCOA


POWDER

CREAM

NAUGA FRAPPE

SOP FOR REWORK

1. Take 20 kg of conditioned coated rework and break it into small pieces.


2. then visually check the rework for the presence of any foreign material
like laminate, plastic threads etc. and remove the same if it exists.
3. pass the broken through the metal detector.
4. put the broken rework in the Stephen blender and blend it in the
following manner:
i. blend for 10 sec. at a slower speed and then add 2kg of
vanaspati in it.
ii. Blend for 5 sec. at faster speed.
iii. Blend for 10 sec. at faster speed.
remove all the material from the blender into a bucket using a scrapper:
Chapter 2
Role of Motivation for Employees Training and its Effectiveness
THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION WHEN MANAGING
CREATIVE WORK
2.1 ABSTRCT
While implementing and evaluating computer support for corporate
creativity it was noticed that the sheer presence of technology does not
guarantee usage. Factors such as organizational culture and management
attitudes seem to have an equally important role, and this observation called for
a more focused analysis of the motivational aspects of crativity management.
Based on literature and empirical data, four managerial advice to promote
corporate creativity are presented : abandon reward system; officially recognize
creative initiatives ; encourage self-initiated activities, and ; allow redundancy.

1. A NEED FOR CRATIVITY


The importance of creativity in industry has risen dramatically during the
last few decades. During the peak of the industrial era, a company could
prosper from slowly developing and refining one single product or
service. The inereasing pace with which business now reshapes itself
propelled by the new capabilities offered by information technology (IT)
places higher demand on the organizational members to be able to see,
and grasp, new opportunities. Globalization, and the competition that
accompanies it, further adds to the need for crativity in an entrepreneurial
way, and it is argued that employees of tomorrow will be valued more for
their ability to create new knowledge than for being able to manage
known facts [1,2,3]. Creativity will therefore become a quality of
increasing importance and a vital branch of knowledge management
(K.M.). although crativity is highly unpredictable it can be promoted. If
you in a library start reading book after book looking for a particular
word, you cannot predict when and where it will show up, but you know
with certainty that you will eventually find it. However, by carefully
choosing what shelf to start from, you may increase the probability for
the sought word to turn up. Similarly, managing crativity is about raising
the probability for creative acts to happen by stimulating the factors that
works in favour of crativity.
Traditional suggestion systems
The traditional way to address this need for continual improvements
has been to implement some form of suggestion system ad to
encourage employees to submit improvement proposals to it. These
proposals and ideas are then typically attended to and reviewed by
Proposal –Handling Committees (PHCs). Good suggestions are
usually rewarded in some way , while not so good proposals are
rejected. However, there are scrious shortcomings with such systems.
Firstly, there is a problem of communication. Suggestions are seldom
shared within the organization. Good ideas may be implemented
locally but remain unheard of in other parts of the organization,
resulting in the “reinventing –the-wheel”- syndrome. Other ideas may
be prematurely rejected due to the proposer’s problem to accurately
communicate the vision that he or she has, or the PHC’s limited
capacity to understand and appreciate the quality of a perhaps
innovative – and thus unusual – suggestion. Had these ideas only been
made public, they could have started other creative ideas elsewhere in
the organization. Secondly, many ideas are never proposed at all due
to several reasons. One reason generally recognized as a serious
performance blocker is evaluation apprehension: the fear of being
evaluated by ones’ peers. We are reluctant to present silly ideas if we
ridk losing face in front of our colleagues. Instead, we keep our
potentially revolutionary ideas to ourselves, again missing an
opportunity for organizational benefits. Another reason is the
threshold an official suggestion system constitutes: we may feel that
our idea is not worthy of being submitted as an official proposal or we
may lack the ability or motivation to write-up our proposals in the
form required for suggestions to be accepted.

An alternative approach
The work described here has been aimed at improving corporate
creativity by designing and implementing IT support for a
brainstorming – based approach to idea generation. By applying the
principles underpinning brainstorming as posited by Osborn i.e..
quantity over quality; elaboration on other’ ideas; and absence of
criticism, I hoped to address the problems mentioned above by
providing a complement to the suggestion systems traditionally used
in industry. Having a desire not only to the suggestion systems
traditionally used in influence the processes undr study, my research
approach may be described as an action case. This hybrid is a mix of
understanding and change, designed to balance the trede-offs between
being either an observer capable of making interpretations or a
researcher involved in creating change in practice. Therefore, this
research takes place in a real industry setting. Diffusions and adoption
of technology depends not only on technology itself, but also on
structural and cognitive factors such culture, motivation, trust, and
mindset. KM systems in particular must not be seen as stand-alone
systems but as a symbiosis between social processes and technology.
Amabile has singled out motivation to be the key factor for creativity
and I shall therefore limit my discussion to elaborate on motivation
and its managerial implications. To provide the reader with a
background I shall shortly describe the prototype system implemented
by giving a conceptual description of it. I thereafter present some
empirical data from my interviews before ending the paper with a
discussion and a conclusion.

2. WORK ON BRAINSTORMING
Since introduced by Osborn in 1953, brainstorming has been widely used
in industry and busiess as a technique for idea eneration and problem
solving. However, in contrast to its popularity stands the result of several
studies that consistently show that nominal brainstorming, i.e. the
aggregated work of individuals working simultaneously but without
contact witheach other , outperform group brainstorming. Three main
reasons for this have been identified. Ffirstly, there is evaluation
apprehension, which refers to a situation when the group members are
reluctant to express their perhaps unpopular or politically incorrect
suggestions or poorly developed ideas in fear of being judged or
evaluated by peers or managers. Secondly, social loafing occurs when
group members intentionally limit their contributions and rely on other
group members to do the job. Thirdly and finally, there is the problem of
production blocking, .e. the result of group members having to wait for
others to finish before they can offer their own ideas. While waiting deas
may become obsolete or forgotten, or, in order not to forget, people
concentrate on and rehaearse their own ideas instead of participating and
generating more and new ideas. Electronic brainstorming was introduced
as an attempt to address these three problems. In EBS, the participants
use networked computers to send ideas to and read ideas from the group.
By allowing anonymous idea entry the evaluation apprehension problem
is avoided. The logging capability of computer software helps reduce the
social loafing since. Information on the relative performance of each
individual may be made salient. Finally, since participants are using
individual computer terminals, idea entry and sharing may be performed
by all users simultaneously, thus eliminating much of the production
blocking observed in face-to-face brainstorming. Though apparently
solving the three main problems mentioned above, it has been suggested
that EBS only outperform nominal brainstorming when used in large
groups. Despite this suggestion not much research has been done on
really large groups.

3. THE MINDPOL PROTOTYPE


In response to the call for more study on large groups Mind pool is an
intranet application available for the entire organization ( See for details
about its predecessor). The most fundamental design principles for Mind
pool are that work is carried out asynchronously, users are anonymous
but yet able to contact, and the entire organization may be addressed,
instead of just a group of a selected few. The idea is to mimics the
creative atmosphere found in brainstorm sessions, where no suggestions
are turned down but instead used to spawn new and possibly even better
ideas. Unlike ordinary EBS sessions, Mind pool supports asynchronous
brainstorming. Users do not have to be active simultaneously, which
removes the temporal restriction present in other media, e.g. chat forums.
The system further allows the proposer to be anonymous while yet
providing a mechanism for letting people contact them. The reasons for
anonymity are two; firstly, it eliminates evaluation apprehension and thus
enables users to submit proposals without risking making fools of
themselves – a fact known to have a positive effect on the amount of
ideas. Secondly, not revealing the contributor helps separating effect on
the amount of ideas. Secondly, not revealing the contributor helps
separating personalities from the issues, thus promoting a more objective
evaluation, especially so when power differences exist among the
participants. Suggestions are submitted as emails and added to a web
page. The web is accessible from all platforms and the persistent nature
also allows the idea to linger long enough for it to be found by many
different people in different locations and contexts, thereby allowing
ideas to develop long after the point of introduction. The possibilities to
add comments directly to the proposal, as is the case in news groups, is
absent in Mind pool. This helps shielding the new idea from public
negative critique. Still, a mechanism that made it possible to contact the
propose either to ask for or to provide more information was provided.
Though the latter may contain criticism, the original idea remains
publicly available and can serve as a seed for others, while the critique is
not displayed. The fact that each contributor can be tracedaalso enables
individual recognition, which is otherwise a problem in anonymous EBS
systems.

4. EMPIRICAL RESULTS
Before installing and evaluating Mind pool , I needed to set a base line
for my later experiments by interviewing the employees about their views
on creativity, suggestion systems, and management. Below, I first present
the results from the 10 semi-structured interviews before reporting from
the prototype evaluation.
2.2 INITIAL INTERVIEW DATA
A malter student conducted ten semi-structured interviews with
employees of a large Swedish IT company. These interviews, lasting
approximaltely 40 minutes, included both members of the Proposal\-
Handling Committee (PHC), i.e. the people responsible for evaluating
submitted ideas, and ordinary office workers. All interviews were taped
and analyzed by the author.
Most respondents stressed the importance of stimuli of some kind
to spark creativity, and mentioned the interaction with other people as an
important source. Aside from the shared view of “input from people” as
being an important stimuli a diversity of other situations were mentioned
during the interviews: facing a challenging task; going to conferences;
visiting other companies; looking at different applications; or doing
physical workout. “It’s more difficult to be creative when you really have
to” is an utterance that well depicts the common view of the interviewees,
that creativity is highly situated and spontaneous. All respondents
believed that a suggestion submitted to the PHC had to be both concrete
and well thought through to be considered. “it has to be serious stuff.
Which makes you a bit reluctant to submit” said one respondent who
believed the threshold for participating was too high. Some also conveyed
it as meaningless to submit suggestions since somebody else had
probably already thought of the same idea and already suggested it.
Several respondents complained about not having time for extraordinary
activities, or to do things outside their immediate duties; “You don’t have
time to, like speculate, or be creative in a general sort of way.
We’re too tightly governed by budgets and deadlines”. Another
interviewee pointed out that “if you have too much to do you can’t be
creative any more”. It was/ also suggested that there should be a
separately designed forum alongside the suggestion system where/
creative people would be “allowed to spend time” trying to develop ideas
they have. To be recognized as a creative person and allowed entry to
such a group would be like becoming one of the “Knights of the Round
Table”, said one respondent.

2.3. APPLICATION EVALUATION RESULTS


Mind pool was implemented on the corporate intranet and tested
during four weeks. Though the application was available to everybody in
the corporate group we explicitly invited 32 users to test the application.
Among these 32 were the 10 people interviewed earlier. Not all invited
users tried the application but the log files revealed that 52 different users
accessed the application, indicating that it was found by people other that
only those invited. Most people did only read the suggestions without
making suggestions of their own. This, however, was an expected
behavior. Mindpool received 22 suggestions during the four week test
and 14 of these were submitted the very first week. The 22 ideas were
submittewd by eight different uses. The prototype was no immediate
success even if some user thought of it as potentially useful; “I think this
is good, if onlyyou get going and get it up to speed sort of. You don’t
want to be the first one to contribute”.
Several interviewees, however, saw Mindpool and the traditional
suggestion system as competitors; “if you have a good idea, why post it
here instead of submitting it to the PHC? There you might get a reward
and you know you’ll get an anser”. A similar comment was; “if I post my
idea on this site, someone might steal it and send it to the suggestion
system. Those who saw Mindpool as a complement to the suggestion
system found another problem (which also was raised during the work
with Mindpool’s predecessor. What will happen if an initial idea
submitted by a inspires someone else (B) to generate a better idea, which
then is modified by yet another person (C) to a really great idea that
receives acknowledgement by the PHC and renders a gratification?
Should only the last person get the credit? What about the other two (A
and B) who got the idea started ? those who had not tested Mindpool
blanmed it not having time: “I haven’t got round to it. If you don’t do it
right away you forget about it. We haven’t time to be crative on pure
speculation”.

2.4. DISCUSSION
The design of Mindpool, with its distributed and asynchronous
nature, enables company wide brainstorming through the use of web
technology. Mindpool eliminates the need of large facilities and
simultaneous sessions, thereby, in theory, allowing company-wide
continuous brainstorming. The novel blurring of boundares between
electronic brainstorming and ordinary work activities should have a
positive effect on creativity. In practice, however, this has not been
observed.
2.5. COMPETITIVE ATTITUDES
Perceiving Mindpool and the suggestion system as competitors is
very unfortunate from an organizational point of view. There is an
obvious risk that neither A, B, nor C, as discussed above, would have
managed to crate the useful idea on their own, in isolation. The final idea
was the result of the interaction of A, B. and C, a social knowledge
creation process that required the combined input from all three parties.
For example, one user contributes with A, which may be an idea, a
suggestion or even just a remark; “ All email is driving me crazy. Can’t
we throw out our email system;” this somewhat unrealistic suggestion
may be observed by another user and spawn a process in that persons
unconscious mind that later results in B: “Must all this For-Your-
Information email really be email? Aren’t there any other channels?” note
that A and B do not connect visibly- there is no mechanism in our
prototype grouping or linking suggestions. This is must be so because
even the user suggesting B may no be aware of the mental link from A. in
practice, there may be weeks or even months between A and B.
suggestion B may in a similar manner eventually lead to C. which in turn
inspires D and E, and so forth. None of these suggestions or ideas needs
to be “good” or “useful’ in a practical sense, eventually, however, this
cumulative process leads to a point where a useful, constructive, practical
suggestion can be identified. In a traditional suggestion system only the
last person would receive acknowledgement and all the previous
contributors would be ignored. Such an approach encourages employees
to keep ideas to themselves. If instead all users were rewarded for
participating there would be no reason to hold back any ideas.
2.6. FOCUS ON EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Practical experiences of Mindpool are yet in their early stages but
the tentative results analyzed this far are consistent with the findings
derived from the work with its predecessor. Organizational members
express a concern for not receiving the financial reward that the final
suggestion might generate. This concern can be attributed to the use of a
suggestion system based on extrinsic motivation. It should be noted that
the suggestion system in use remunerates the proposer of a good idea
with financial compensation corresponding to half of the company’s first
year’s savings, which might come to a substantial amount of money.
During 1999, the company under study spent approximately USD 45000
on rewards. It was thus argued that if users A and B above are not
acknowledged, they are instead encouraged to keep their ideas to
themselves to try to develop them into what C managed to come up with
however, not many employees actually contribute to the suggestion
system that is in use. During 1999, the PHC received suggestions from
226 of the +2400 employees, which means that less than 10 percent of the
members participated actively consistent research findings show that the
reliance on extrinsic motivation limits participation to typically 10-15
percent of the employees, as opposed to 70-80 percent when no reward
system is used , or when recognition is kept to a symbolic level.

2.7. THE SUPERIORITY OF INTRINSIC


MOTIVATION
This strong correlation between the use of intrinsic motivation and
high participation in the improvement process suggests that other forms
of acknowledgement should be used. A form of reward that seems to be
more appropriate is being allowed to work with what one finds
interesting. It so appears that when people are primarily motivated by
their interest in the work and the enjoyment of that activity, they are more
creative than they are when primarily driven by some goal imposed on
them by others. The use of extrinsic motivation such as rewards or
bonuses tend to cause a focus on the reward rather than on the task at
hand, and winning the reward becomes more important than finding the
most creative solution. Overwhelming empirical findings in line with
these are reported from the field of social psychology of creativity and are
referred to in the literature as the intrinsic motivation principle. To be
allowed to work with one’s own ideas is a reward in it self and ould
therefore be used to replace extrinsic motivation in form of money.
Rewarding creative work requires a delicate balancing /between intrinsic
and extrinsic motivation, and must be done skillfully. Whatever reward is
chosen, it should be used to recognize the competence or the work ability
of the group or individual, and the reward should be used to motivate
further work and not act as a bribe. Encouraging work-focused feedback
and discouraging excessive initial critique of new ideas foster a positive
attitude towards creativity. By demonstrating that innovations and
creativity are valued by communicating the potential of the work and
accomplishments that have been made, intrinsically motivated employee
initiatives cold be further propelled.

2.8. ALLOW SELF-INITIATED ACTIVITIES


Self-initiated activities are powerful because they are driven
primarily by intrinsic motivation. When employees are allowed to, and in
fact encouraged to, pick and pursuits their own projects, they are driven
by their personal interests. Research in a corporate setting has shown that
professional interests rather than espoused theory is what motivates
people. A management strategy to promote creativity would be to present
and motivate the direction for work but leave the individuals to conduct
the work as they see fit. Employees should further be matched up with
projects according to their interests or where their competence is
challenged and developed. Planned actions can only take an organization
in directions already anticipated. To reach the unexpected, the company
must go beyond what is scheduled and put its trust in the unplanned
actions that often are the result of user initiatives. Every unanticipated
activity begins as an unofficial task, and very often, if not always, these
unanticipated and unofficial activities are indeed also user initialted. The
expression “Skunk Works” was coinded during the second World War
by the aircraft manufactufacturer Lockhed Martins to describe a situation
where a small group of technician wer allowed to work outside the
established bureaucracy and with minimal management control. It has
been shown that creativity and innovation is aided by low forma-lisation
and large degrees of freedom, especially during the initial stages. It is also
recognized that creativity often requires extra-ordinary dedication and
commitment, and that most employees would willingly do far more than
the company could possibly ask of them if only they were allowed to
work with things in which they were really interested. A company should
therefore allow, and encourage, their employeses to act as autonomously
as possible and support as much unofficial skunk work as it can. To be
really effective, however, a system that promotes such entrepreneursip
must not be restricted to any particular group, as was the case at
Lockheed, but reach everyone in the organization, since it cannot be
determined in beforehand who will be creative.
2.9. THE NEED FOR REDUNDANCY
Although it is not desirable to reinvent the wheel from scratch,
repeating all the error previously made, it is often necessary to allow
every one to build their own wheel. This is due to the strong relationship
between knowledge and action. Learning – by- doing is the only way to
acquire certain knowledge, and this suggests that enough redundancy
should be allocated to allow for such experimenting. However, corporate
settings with deadlines and resource constrains do seldom allow for much
spontaneous self-initiated activities, as testified by the quoted respondent
earlier. Tight budgets and deadlines are denying the employees the ability
to follow-up on the hunches they get, or to be “creative on speculation” as
one respondent put it. The fact that today’s Iean organizations do to allow
the redundancy that is so vital to knowledge creation has also been
recognized by the literature. To set free the desire to initiate creative acts
that already exists within most people, the company must take
appropriate actions. For example, Toshiba and 3M allow their employees
to devote 15 percent of their time to self-initiated activities.
Chapter 3
Data Analysis and Findings
Data Analysis & Finding
The management of people at work is an integral part of the management
process. To understand the critical importance of people in the organization is to
recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous. An
well-managed organization usually sees an average worker as the root source of
quality and productivity gains. Such organizations do not look to capital
investment, but to employees, as the fundamental source of improvement. An
organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals, an
effective
organization will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of
commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. In order to make
employees satisfied and committed to their jobs in academic and research
libraries, there is need for strong and effective motivation at the various levels,
departments, and sections of the library.
Motivation is a basic psychological process. A recent data-based
comprehensive analysis concluded that competitiveness problems appear to be
largely motivational in nature. Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and
learning, motivation s a very important element of behaviour. Nevertheless,
motivation is not the only explanation of behaviour. It interacts with and acts in
conjunction with other cognitive processes. Motivating is the management
process of influencing behaviour based on the knowledge of what make people
tick. Motivation and motivating both deal with the range of conscious human
behaviour somewhere between two extremes:
• Reflex actions such as a sneeze or flutter of the eyelids: and
• Learned habits such as brushing one’s teeth or handwriting style (Wallace
and Szilag 1982:53).
Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes,
directs, and sustains behaviour and performance. That is , it is the process of
stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. New way of
stimulating people is to employ effective motivation which makes workers
more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. Money is not the only
motivator. There are other incentives which can also serve as motivators.
Specific employee attitudes relating to job satisfaction and organizational
commitment are of major interest to the field of organizational behaviour
and the practice of human resources management. Attitude has direct impact
on job satisfaction. Organizational commitment on the other hand, focuses
on their attitudes towards the entire organization. Although a strong
relationship between satisfaction and commitment has been found, more
recent research give more support to the idea that commitment causes
satisfaction. However, mot studies treat satisfaction and commitment
differently, especially in light of things like downsizing that are part of
modern organizations.
3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very


important part of understanding behaviour. Luthans (1998) asserts that
motivation should not be thought of as the only explanation of behaviour,since
it interacts with and acts in conjunction with other mediating processes and with
the environment.Luthan stress that, like the other cognitive process, motivation
cannot be seen.All that can be seen is behaviour,and this should not be equated
with causes of behaviour.while recognizing the central role lf motivation, Evans
(1998) states that many recent theories of organizational behabiour find it
important for the field to re-cmphasize behaviour. Definitions of motivation
abound. One thing these definitions have in common is the inclusion of words
such as “desere”,”want”,”wishes“,”aim”,”goals”,”needs”,and”
incentives”.Luthan (1998) defines motivation as, “a process that starts with a
physiological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is
aimed at a goal incentives”. Therefore, the key to understanding the process of
motivation lies in the
meaning of, and relationship anong,needs, drives, and incentives.Relative to
this, Minner,Ebrahimi,and watchel,(1995)atate that in a system sense,
motivation consists of these three interacting and
interdependent
elements,i.e.,needs, drives, and incentives.

Managers and management researchers have liog believe that believe


that organizational goals are unattainable without the enduring commitment of
members of the organizations.Motivation is a human
psychological
characteristic that conteibutes to a persons degree of
commitment
(stoke,1999).It includes the factors that cause,channel, and sustain human
behaviour in a particular committed direction. Stoke, in adeyemo (1999) goes
on to say that there are basic assumptions of motibation practices by managers
which must be understood. First,that motivation is commonly.Second,
motivation is one of several factors that go into a persons performance (e.g.,as a
lebrarian).factors such as ability, resources, and conditions under which one
performs are also important. Third, managers and researchers alike assume that
motivation is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment. fourth,
motivation is a tool with which managers can use in organizations.If managers
know what drives the people workers to perform by fulfilling or appealing to
their needs.To Olajide (2000),”it is goal-directed, and therefore cannot be
outside the goals of any organization whether public,private,or non-profit”.

Strategies of Motivating Workers

Bernard in Stoner, et al. (1995) accords dye recognition to the workers


saying that,”the ultimate test of organizational success is its to create values
sufficient to compensate for the burdens imposed upon resources
contributed.”Bernard looks at workers, in particular librations, in an organized
endeavor,putting in time era of the information superhighway, employers of
information professionals or librarians must be careful to meet their needs.
Otherwise, they woll discover they are losing their talented and creative
professionals to other organizations who are ready and willing t meet their
needs and demands. the question here is what strategies can used to motivate
information professionals, particularly librations? The following are strategies:

salary,wages and conditions of service: To use salaries as a motivator


effectively, personnel managers must consider four major components of a
salary structures. These are the job rate, which relates to the importance the
prganization attaches to each job; payment, which encourages workers or
groups by rewarding them accor ding to theier perfoemance personal or special
allowances, associated with factors such as scarcity of particular skills or
vertain
categories of information professionals or librarians, or It is also important to
ensure that the prevailing pay in other library or information establishments is
taken into consideration in determining the pay structure of their organization.

money: Akintoye (2000) asserts that money temains the most significant
motivational strategy. As far back as 1911.Frederick Taylor and his scientific
management associate described money as the most important factors in
motivating the industrial workers to achieve greater productivity. Taylor
advocated the establishment of inventive wage systems as a means of
stimulating workers to higher performance, commitment, and eventually
satisfaction. Money possesses significant motivating power in as much as it
symbolizers intangible goals like security ,power prestige, and a feeling of
accomplishment and success.Katz, in Sinclair,et al.(2005) demonstrates the
motivational power of money through the process of job choice. He explains
that money has the power to attract,retain, and motivate individuals towards
higher performance. For instance,if a librarian or information professional has
another job offer which has identical job characteristics with his current job,but
greater financial reward ,that warder would in all probability be motivated to
accept the new job offer.Banjoko(1996)states that many managers use money to
reward or punish workers .This is done through the (e.g.,premature retirement
due to poor performance).The desire to be promoted and earn enhanced pay
may also motivate employees.

staff Training: No matter how automated an organization or a library may be,


high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the
workforce.Staff training is indispensable is an indespensable strategy for
motivating workere. The library organization must have good training
programme. This will give the librarian or information professional
opportunities for self-improvement and development to meet the challenges and
requirements of new equipment and techniques of performing a task

Information Availability and Communication: One way managers can


stimulate morivation is to give relevant information on the consequences of
their action on others (Olajide,2000).To this researcher it seems that there is no
known organization in which communicate,cooperate,and collaborate with one
another. Information availability brings to bear a powerful peer pressure,where
two or more people running together will runners.By sharing
information,subordinates compete with one another.
Studies on work motivation seem to confirm that it improves
workers’performance and satisfaction.For example,Brown and
Shepherd(1997)examine the charecreristics of the work of teacher-librarians in
four mmajor categories: Knowledge base, technical
skills,values,and beliefs.He reports that they will succeed in meeting this
challenge only if they are motivated by deeply-held values and beliefs regarding
the development of a shared vision. vinokur,jayarantne,and Chess (1994)
examine agency-influenced work and employment conditions, and asses their
impact on social workers’job satisfaction.While Colvin(1998)shows that
financial incentives will get people to do more of what they are
doing,Silverthorne(1996)investigates motivation and managerial styles in the
private and public sector. The results indicate that there is a little difference
between the motivation needs of public and private sector employees, managers,
and non-managers.

Job satisfaction

Locke and Luthan (1976) give a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as


pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the apparaisal of ones job
or job expereience.job satisfaction is a result of employee’s perception of how
well their job provides those things that are verwed as important. According to
(Mitchell and Lasan,1987),it is generally recognezed in the organizational
behaviour field that job satisfaction there are three important demensions to job
satisfaction *Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation.
As such it cannot be seen, it can only be inferred.
* job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed
expectation. For instance,if organization participants feel that they are working
much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards they
will probably have a negative attitudes towards the work, the boss and or
coworkers .On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated very well and
are being paid equitably,they are likely to have positive attitudes towards the
job.
*job satisfaction represents several related attitudes which are most important
characteristics of a job about which people have effective response. These to
Luthans are: the word
itself,pay,promotion opportunities, supervision and coworkers.

job satisfaction of the libraian naturally depends on the economically, social and
cultural conditions in a given country (Ebru,1995).A librarian who can get a
sufficient wage will be faced with the problem of maintaining his or her
family’s life. This problem puts the librarian far from being sarisfied. Especially
the social facilities (transportation services,and consumer cooperarives-cash
boxes) are sufficient because of the economec conditions. Low wages add lack
of status and social security affect motivation.job satisfaction cannot be talk of
where there is absence of motivation.job satisfaction of the librarian who has an
important place in the information society will affect the quality of the service
he renders. In this respect, the question of haw the material and moral element
affect the job satisfaction of the librarians gains importance (Ebru,1995).
job satisfaction is so important in that its absence often leads to lethargy and
reduced organizational commitment (Levinson,1997,Moser,1997).Lack of job
satisfaction is a predictor of quitting a job (Alexander,Litchtenstein and
Hellmann,1997;jamal,1997). Sometimes workers may quit from public to the
private sector and vice versa.At the other times the movement is from one
profession to another that is considered a greener pasture.This later is common
in countries grapplign with dwindling economy and its concomitant such as
poor conditions of service and late payment of salaries (Nwagwu,1997
Other researchers (e.g.MacDonald,1996;O’Toole,1980)argue in favour of
the control of job satisfaction by factors intrinsic to the workers. Their
arguments are based on the idea that workers deliberately decide to find
satisfaction in their jobs and perceive them as worthwhile.

Organizational Commitment

A wide variety of definitions and measure of organizational commitment exist.


Beekeri,Randal,and Riegel(1995)defined the term in a three demensions:
1.a strons desire to remain a member of a particular organization;
2.a willingness to exert high levels of efforts on behalf of the organezation;
3.a define belief in and acceptability of the values goals of the organization
To Northeraft and Nealr (1996),commitment is an attitude reflecting an
employee’s loyalty to the organization,and an ongoing process through which
organization members express their concern for the organization and its
continued success and well being.

organization commitment is deterined by a number of factor, including personal


factors (e.g,age,tenure in the orgnization, disposition, internal or external
control attributions); organizational factors (availability lf alternatives). All
these things affect subsequent commitment (North craft and Neale,1996).

Monday, porter and Steer (1982) see commitment as attachment and


loyalty. these authors describe three components of commitment;
• an identification with the goals and values of the organization;
• a desire to belong to the organization;and
• a willingness to display deport on behalf of the organization.
A similar definition of commitment emphasizes the importance of behavior in
creating it. Salancik (1977) conceives commitment as a state of being in which
an individual becomes bound by his actions and it is these actions that sustain
his activities and involvement. From this definition, it can be inferred that three
features of behaviour are important in binding individuals to act; visibility of
acts, the extent to which the outcomes are irrevocable; and the degree to which
the person undertakes the action voluntarily. To Salancik therefore, commitment
can be increased and harnessed to obtain
Based on the multidimensional nature of organizational commitment,
there is growing support for a three-component model proposed by Meyer and
Allen (1991).All three components have implications for the continuing
participation of the individual in the organization. The three components are:

Affective commitment: Psychological attachment to organization.


Continuanvce Commitment : Costs associated with leaving the organization.
Normative Commitment :Perceived obligation to remain with
the
organization.
the following research questions were developed to guide the study.
1.What is the relationship between work motivation, job satisfaction?
2.will there be difference in the commitment of library personnel based on their
years of experience?
3.2 DATA COLLECTION

• Primary data
• Secondary data
Primary data
It was collected through questionnaire prepared contains relevant questions that
are both close ended and opened. Individual and group interviews also under
taken with difference consumers,
I have collected mainly the Primary Data for my study by utilizing the
questionnaire and interview methods.

Secondary data
These data are collected from published sources such as Magazines, NEWS
papers, several books, and also from the help of web site
www.hdfcsl.com

(A)Sampling plan of the study:


Sample size:
Sample size refers to number of elements to be included in the study several
qualitative factors should also be taken into consideration when determining the
sample size. These include the nature of research, number of variable, and
nature of analysis, sample size used in similar studies incidence rates,
completion rates, and resources constraints.
During the process of the study, survey has been conducted on 100 retailers.
Sampling method:
The researcher had choice between probability and non probability
sampling methods. In this study a simple non probability method namely
convenience sampling was adopted.
For my study I have selected Non-probability method in which I selected
convincing sampling method.

(B) FIELD WORK:


Survey was done in cadbury
The data was collected over a period of 45 days within using well structured
questionnaire. The respondents were contacted at their respective retail outlets
in various parts of the city.
Editing:
Editing is the process of examining errors when there is some inconsistency in
the responses as entered in the questionnaire or where it contains partial or
vague answers.
Coding:
Coding is necessary to carryout the subsequent operations of tabulating and
analyzing data. If coding is not done, it will not be possible to reduce a large
number of heterogeneous responses into meaningful categories with the result
that the analysis of data would be weak and ineffective and without proper
focus.
Tabulation:
Tabulation comprises sorting of the data into different categories and counting
the number of cases that belong to category the simplest way to tabulate is to
count the number of responses to one question. This is called univeriate
tabulation. Where two or more variables are involved in tabulation, it is called
bivariate or multivariate tabulation. In marketing research projects and generally
both types of tabulation are used.
3.3 PARAMETER USED
For grading the responses Likert scale was used and five responses were given
the numerical grades in the following way.
RESPONSES GRADES GIVEN
SA = strongly agree 5
A = agree 4
NO = no opinion 3
DA = disagree 2
SDA = strongly disagree 2

Tabular representation of feedback

Question No of No of No of No of No of
Score
no. responses responses responses responses responses Obtained out
as SA as A as No as DA as SDA
of 125
1 5 20
60
2 25
100
3 5 5 15
45
4 5 20
62
5 14 1 10
79
6 10 15
70
7 25
125
8 10 15
110
9 15 10
74
10 24 1
124
11 13 12
76
TOTAL 59 108 1 92 15 925
Following parameter was used to decide the level of motivation.

Score gained on likert scale Level of motivation


Below 50% Pathetic
Between 50-70% Poor
Between 70-90% Good
Above 90% Average

On the basis of the above scales and parameters it is found that in Cadbury the
level of motivation is lying in the range of poor.

For finding the factors behind this unexpected result another survey was done in
the form of interviews to know the view of management about the above and
the responses were gathered during the formal discussion.
3.4 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE
RESPONSES ( PIE CHARTS )

QUESTION ( 1)

1
2

QUESTION ( 2)

1
2
QUESTION (3)

1
2

QUESTION ( 4)

1
2
QUESTION ( 5)

1
2

QUESTION ( 6)

1
2
QUESTION (7)

1
2

QUESTION ( 8)

1
2
QUESTION (9)

1
2

QUESTION ( 10)

1
2
QUESTION ( 11)

1
2

QUESTION ( 12)

1
2
Do you ? Yes No
1. Thank personally, timely, often & sin cerely N
2. Take time to meet and listen to staff N
3. provide feedback N
4. Encourage new ideas and initiative Y
5. Explain how employee fits into organization’s Y N
6. Involve employees in decisions N
7. Provide ownership in their work
8. Recognize, reward, and promote based on Y
performance
9. Give chance to learn new skills Y
10. Celebrate successes !!!! Y
11. Encourage teem work N

The above response were given on the basis of availability of the plan for each
in the table.
Chapter 4
Conclusion and Suggestions
4.1 FINDINGS
According to the four ARCS categories and determines whether subjects
are under or over motivated in each case.

• ATTENTION – People may be bored and not paying attention OR they


may be over stimulated by requirements and are paying attention to too
many things at once.

• RELEVANCE – People may have been placed in jobs in which they


have no intrinsic interest, or jobs that hold no promise of advancement on
their desired career paths. By contrast, unnecessary mistakes can result
when one’s career path depends solely on one’s success with a specific
task in a current job.

• CONFIDENCE – Can be too high or too low, Low confidence people


may have the skills but may lack the persistence when the tasks become
challenging. High confidence people may have less skill or ability than
they think making them cocky. A result is resitance to learning and
making mistakes without noticing or understanding that they have done
so.

• SATIFACTION- Dissatisfaction can result from expectations that were


too negative or positive. For this reason, it is most appropriate to talk
about satisfaction potential when doing audience analysis. When people
are put into an undesired situation, their satisfaction potential is often
low, no mater how god the experience proves to be. By contrast, those
who believe a given job opportunity is going to be perfect in every way
are often disappointed with the reality.
4.2 SUGGESTION

Following is the guideline suggested for the organization


Developing a Motivational system.

This chapter provides an overview of major influences on motivation, as well as


guideline for designing motivational systems. It describes the major components
of human motivation that must be considered in the process of either selecting
appropriately motivated people or creating a motivating environment. It also
describes a problem solving approach to developing motivational conditions.
The material incorporates the systems approach used in the ARCS model but
extends it to the environment of performance improvement.
Motivated Person
A person who is motivated to work, for example, is one who:
Finds sources of variety and curiosity in the job regards the job as personally
meaningful and as contributing to the fulfillment of important goals finds
challenges in the work has the confidence to be stimulated by these challenges
and gains feelings of satisfaction and respect in addition to extrinsic rewards.
Motivation
Can be viewed from a holistic perspective – as one of the factors that influence
human performance and that can be positively influenced by the design of a
motivational system. Is not really a nebulous, uncontrollable human
characteristic can be seen as a manageable part of a comprehensive approach to
improving and sustaining desirable human performance.
Role of motivation of Performance
Motivation is one of three major influences on performance; capability and
opportunity are the other two. The amount and quality of a person’s
performance are determined by whether s/he has these kinds of stimuli and
support. Elements of all three must be present for people to have a positive level
of performance.
1. internal motivation and motivational support from the environment
(motivation)
2. knowledge and skills needed to do the job (capability)
3. tools, resources, conducive working conditions, feedback, and other
environmental factors that make it possible to do the job properly and well
(opportunity).

Basic Concepts and Terminology


When considering a process of either selecting appropriately motivated people
or creating a motivating environment, the HP technologist should understand
three assumptions that underlie systematic motivational design.
1. people’s motivation can be influenced by external events.
2. motivation of performance is a means, not an end.
3. systematic design and implementation can predictably and measurably
influence motivation.

Components of Motivation (ARCS Model)


Holistic approachs like the ARCS model are grounded in the research literature
on human motivation and its ability to integrate successful practices within
motivational categories. The systematic motivational design process has been
validated in numerous contexts. The four major categories and a number of
subordinate ones can be used to represent the components of human motivation:

Developing a Motivational System


The ARCS model is an example of how to develop a holistic motivational
system for workplace and classroom settings. Motivational systems must solve
motivation problems AND sustain desirable levels of motivation. There are
following steps organized in.

Steps in Motivational Design


1. Course information
2. Audience information
3. Audience analysis
4. Course analysis
5. Objectives and measures
6. Preliminary design
7. Final design
8. Development and testing.
9. Analysis
10. Design
11. Implementation and evaluation
4.3 LIMITATION & METHODOLOGY
Attention : Strategies for arousing and sutainign curiosity and interest
Perceptual Arousal What can I do to capture their interest ?
Learn : Ask question; create paradox; stimulate inquiry .
Work : Provide stimulation.
Relevance : Strategies that link to learner’s / employee’s needs, interests, and
motives Goal Orientation how can I best meet my learner’s /employee’s need?
Learn: Develop goals with learners, demonstrate utility of instruction .
Work: Develop the perception of being best at something: set goals with
employees motive Matching How and when can I provide my
learners/employees with appropriate choices,
Responsibilities, and influences ?
Learn: Use authentic exercises; match individual and group activities to
learning styles.
Work: Use competition based on standards defined by benchmarks or internal
expectations.
Familiarity how can I tie the instruction to the learner’s /employee’s
experience?
Learn: Use concrete examples and analogies to relate material to learner’s
lives.
Work : Provide ways for employees to work cooperatively to achieve goals.
Confidence : Stratetgies that help students/employees develop positive
expectations.
Performance
Requirements
How can I assist in building a positive expectation for success?
Learn: Explain learning requirements, criteria for success and assessments
Work: Share control in where worker can be responsible for achieving goals

Success :
Opportunities
How will the learning experience support or enhance the student’s/employee’s
beliefs in their competence?

Learn: Provide frequent and varied experiences that increase learning success
Work: Build your belief that you can lead your employees to success (Self-
fulfilling prophecy)

Personal Control how will the learners/employees clearly know their success is
based upon their.
Effots and abilities?
Learn: Give learners chance to make decisions and help them associate success
to effort and ability.
Work: Set challenging but achievable goals and quotas
Satisfaction : Strategies that provide extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement ofr
effort.
Natural
Consequences
How can I provide meaningful opportunities for learners/employees to use their
newly acquired knowledge/skill?
Learn: Give learners opportunities to use new skills in natural, authentic
settings.
Works: Give employees feedback related to their personal growth and
meaningfulness of effort.
Positive
Consequences
What will provide reinforcement to the learner’s/employee’s success?
Learn: Use praise, positive feedback when appropriate, symbolic rewards, and
incentives.
Work: Use symbolic rewards that are recognized and valued by other; use
incentives.
Equity how can I assist the students/employees in anchoring a positive feeling
about their.
Accomplishments?
Learn: Use fair testing and grading practices, and be sure tests are authentic.
Work : Provide incentives and feedback consistently and fairly.
4.4 CONCLUSION
When large sums of money are at stage, employees are discouraged from
sharing thoughts and ideas with their peers. Instead, individuals are keeping
their tentative thoughts to themselves, trying to work out soething really
rewarding. This situation causes a focus on the reward rather than on being
innovative. Further, the obvious risk is that the employee may never arrive at he
groundbreaking conclusion on her own, without intetaction and dialogue with
other humans. This motivates the following proposal: p1: Abandon extrinsic
motivation in form of financial compensation.

Creativity requires an organizational culture that fosters openness,


sharing, and interaction. To establish and maintain such a culture, top
management must “walk the talk” and officially recognize and encourage such
behaviour. Management should further show that risk-taking and failure is okay.
They must understand “the distinction between intelligent failure and stupid
mistakes”. The reward mechanism must be such that all ideas are recognized,
since they all contain something potentially good. While e do not want to
reward mistakes, we should still acknowledge and encourage the imagination
that underpins them. This leads to proposition 2:P2: Officially recognize
creative initiatives and achievements since this is reward in itself. Most people
are prepared to do far more than any manager can possibly ask for if only they
are intrinsically motivated by genuine interest in the work. Frontline-employees
are confronted with new customer.

Requirements and notices new business opportunities much earlier than


does management. By the time an emerging trend has reached top executive
level, been converted to official corporate strategy, and communicated back to
the employees, it may be too late. Instead, seize the opportunity by empowering
the frontline-employees to act autonomously according to proposition 3:P3:
Encourage entrepreneurship by allowing and supporting user-initiated activities.
When deadlines and budgets are cut so tight that the employees barely manage
to do what is expected they have very small chances of beign truly creative.
Creativity requires people to do unexpected things and go beyond what is
planned for. This can be summarized as in our final proposal:

Money and Employee Motivation

Abstract – Research consistently substantiates the effectiveness of financial


incentives on job performance, although companies need to consider the issue
of job quantity versus quality and also be aware of the limitations of financial
incentives. Employees can have vastly different motives for acquiring wealth –
including using money to fulfill psychological needs. Thus, it is not surprising
that money alone is less an effective motivator for employees than when it is
used in conjunction with non-financial reinforcements. We review the nuances
of financial incentives and make basic recommendations that can form the basis
of best practice compensation and incentive policies.

“Acceptance is more important to me than money”

Understanding Materialism
Materialism is defined simply as when a person values money, wealth and
possessions over other things in life. Studies have consistently shown that a
materialistic focus in life is associated with a lower psychological well-being.
Even though individuals who are very poor financially demonstrate increased
happiness when their income rises, intensity of desire for wealth remains
negatively correlated with psychological wellbeing.

Financial Incentives in the Workplace


No one works for free, nor should they. While pursuing money based on
negative motives can lead to a poorer psychological well-being, this is not the
same as pursuing money to provide securityand comfort for oneself and family.
Obviously, employees want to earn fair wages and salaries, and employers want
their workers to feel that is what they are getting. To that end, it is logical
that
employees and employers alike view money as the fundamental incentive for
satisfactory job performance.

“Show me the money, show me respect and show me attention or show me the
door.”
Questionnaire
QUESTIONNAIRE

1. My job is interested.
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
2. My boss is supportive.
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
3. The work I do is recognized and appreciated by superiors.
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
4. My job contains responsibilities.
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
5. Working conditions are good in premises.
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
6. There are opportunities to grow and learn new
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
7. My job is secure
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
8. My salary is at par with others in the industry
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
9. I have the authority up to some extent
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
10. Co-workers are supportive.
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
11. I get the feed back of my performance and try to improve it.
a. SA
b. A
c. NO
d. DA
e. SDA
A questionnaire was prepared after discussing with the management. The
questionnaire was based upon the need hierarchy theory of motivation given by
fallow.
SA = strongly agree
A = agree
NO = no opinion
DA = disagree
SDA = strongly disagree
Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS AND PERODICALS :

1. ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR BY STEPHANS ROBINSON

2. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BY ASHWATHAPA

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY BY C.R. KOTHARI

4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY BY S. THANULINGUM

5. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BY LUTHANS

WEB SITES VISITED

www.goolge.com

www.cadbury.com

www.motivation.com