Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 112

Mitochondrial genome analysis of ectopistes


Submitted by
Sabahat batool

In the Partial Fulfillment for the Degree of M.Sc. Biotechnology



University of Central Punjab

Supervisory Committee

We the Supervisory Committee, certify that the contents and the form of thesis submitted by
Sabahat batool have been found satisfactory and recommend it for the evaluation of the Thesis
Evaluation Committee for the award of degree of M.Sc. Biotechnology.

Supervisor ______________________________
Assistant Professor/Lecturer
Faculty of Life Sciences, UCP

Co-Supervisor ______________________________
Assistant Professor/Lecturer
Faculty of Life Sciences, UCP
University of Central Punjab

Examination Committee

The thesis viva of Sehar Sikander (L1F15MCBT0019) was held on 18-10-17 at Faculty of Life
Sciences, University of Central Punjab. The Supervisory and Thesis Evaluation Committee gave
satisfactory remarks on the thesis and viva and were approved for the award of the degree of
M.Sc. Biotechnology.

Thesis Evaluation Committee

1- Dr. Javed Iqbal Wattoo ________________

2- Dr. Muhammad Saqib Shahzad ________________

3- Dr. Muhammad Naveed ________________

4- Dr. Asma Zafar ________________

5- Ms. Hira Mubeen ________________

__________________________ _______________________

Dr. Javed Iqbal Wattoo Prof. Dr. Mushtaq A. Saleem

Head of Department of Biotechnology Dean Faculty of Life Sciences
Faculty of Life Sciences, UCP University of Central Punjab
University of Central Punjab


I Sabahat batoool (L1s17mcbt0013) declare that the contents of my thesis entitled

“mitochondrial genome analysis of ectopistes migratorious” are based on my own research
findings and have not been taken from any other work except the references and has not been
published before.

I also undertake that I will be responsible for any plagiarism in this thesis.

Sehar Sikander
University of Central Punjab

Plagiarism Report

This is to certify that I have examined the Turnitin report of the thesis entitled “Mitochondrial
genome analysis of ectopistes”. The overall similarity index obtained from the Turnitin software
is 15%.


“Dedication, Determination and Hard work will feed life into your dreams.”

LaDonna M. Cook

First of all, I thank ALLAH for His countless blessings and to reunite and renovated through
these ages that have approved me to grow to this stage of learning awareness and principles.

I dedicate my thesis to my parents, siblings, supervisor, research fellows, and friends for
supporting me with love and helpfulness

The mitochondrion is an critical and essential cell organelle which provides

approximately 90% electricity for the organism and plays some of essential roles in cell

capabilities. Recent research found that mitochondrial distribution in somatic cells is

homogenously scattered in the course of the cytoplasm, while the distribution in a few

stem cells and mature oocytes is perinuclear. These findings suggested that the spatial

distribution of mitochondria can be associated with their everyday capabilities. Similarly,

Bavister has hypothesized that this periuclear localization of mitochondria may

additionally indicate the pluripotency of stem cells. but mitochondrial distribution has not

been tested in embryonic stem cells to date. My thesis investigates the distribution of

mitochondria all through development in mammalian cells and proposes experiments to

determine and evaluate the spatial distribution of mitochondria in embryonic stem cells

and differentiated cells using fluorescence staining of MitoTracker green to test

Bavister’s speculation. similarly, studies suggested that mitochondrial distribution is

mediated by way of the cytoskeleton in better eukaryotes. consequently, a further goal of

my research become to cope with the results of cytoskeletal disruptors on mitochondrial


First of all, I am very thankful to my Lord, ALLAH ALMIGHTY for his limitless blessings He
bestowed on me that made me able to do this work. It is a great blessing that MUHAMMAD
(S.A.W.) is my Prophet and all praises are for Him who made education compulsory for every
men and woman.

I am greatly thankful to my beloved parents whose prayers and efforts helped me a lot and
motivated me during this period.

I would like to express my deepest feelings to my Dean, Prof. Dr Mushtaq A. Saleem and my
research supervisor Dr. Javed Iqbal Wattoo, Faculty of Life Sciences at the University Of
Central Punjab. His intellectual supervision, kind and generous guidance and special attention to
my work had contributed greatly in completing research.

I would also like to thank the experts who were involved in the validation survey for this
research project: Haleema Mehmood and Iqra Rabeel. Without their passionate participation
and input, the validation survey could not be successfully conducted.

I take this opportunity to record our sincere thanks to all the faculty members of Faculty of Life
Sciences for their help and encouragement.

I would like to present my sincere thanks to my parents, siblings, and to my research fellows and
to my close friends for always encouraging and inspiring me. I am very thankful to them.

ABSTRACT ...................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................... vi
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ............................................................... ix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................... x
A. Focus of Thesis ....................................................................................... 2
B. Significance ............................................................................................. 4
AND DEVELOPMENT..................................................................6

A. Spermatogenesis .................................................................................... 7
B. Oogenesis ............................................................................................... 8
C. Fertilization .............................................................................................. 9
D. Preimplantation Development ............................................................... 12
E. Implantation........................................................................................... 15

III. THE MITOCHONDRION AND ITS FUNCTIONS .................................18

A. Structure ............................................................................................... 19
B. Origin .................................................................................................... 21
C. Biogenesis ............................................................................................ 22
D. Inheritance ............................................................................................ 23
E. Biochemistry.......................................................................................... 23
F. Mitochondrial Polarity ............................................................................ 25
G. Function ................................................................................................ 26
H. Mitochondrial-Related Diseases and Disorders .................................... 27
I. Role in Gametogenesis and Development............................................ 31

IV. MITOCHONDRIAL DISTRIBUTION ...........................................38

A. Role of the Cytoskeleton ....................................................................... 39

B. Distribution in Somatic Cells.................................................................. 40
C. Distribution during Oogenesis, Fertilization and Preimplantation
Development ......................................................................................... 41

STEM CELLS ............................................................................47
A. Embryonic Stem Cells ........................................................................... 48
B. Bavister’s Hypothesis ............................................................................ 49
C. Possible Reasons for Perinuclear Mitochondria in Stem Cells ............. 51
D. Hypothetical Experiments Designed to Test Bavister’s Hypothesis ...... 53
i. Research Objectives .......................................................................... 53
ii. Materials ............................................................................................ 53
iii. Research Method ............................................................................. 54
iv. Expected Results .............................................................................. 56
VI. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS ..........................60
A. Conclusions........................................................................................... 61
B. Future Directions ................................................................................... 62

LITERATURE CITED .......................................................................64


Figure 1. From human oogenesis to implantation 16

Figure 2. Mammalian blastocyst. 17

Figure 3. Schematic diagram of mitochondrial structure. 36

Figure 4. Schematic diagram of bioenergetic pathways in mitochondria.


Figure 5. Diagram showing location of mitochondria in a typical somatic cell..


Figure 6. Distribution of mitochondria during oogenesis and fertilization in

mammalian oocytes 46

Figure 7. Preparation of cultured embryoinc stem (ES) cells. 57

Figure 8. Measurement of mitotracker fluorescence intensity 58

Figure 9. Mitochondrial distribution in mouse lung epithelial (MLE-15) cells

ATP: adenosine-5'-triphosphate

ATSC: adult rhesus macaque stromal cell line

BSA: bovine serum albumen

DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole

DMEM: Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium

ER: endoplasmic reticulum

ES cells: Embryonic stem cells

FBS: fetal bovine serum albumen

GSH: glutathione

GV: germinal vesicle

GVBD: germinal vesicle breakdown

ICM: inner cell mass

IVF: in vitro fertilization

iPSCs: induced pluripotent stem cells

LIF: Leukemia inhibitory factor

MES: mouse embryonic stem cells

Met I: metaphase I

Met II: metaphase II

MFs: microfilaments

MLE-15: mouse lung epithelial cells

MPF: mitosis-promoting factor or maturation-promoting factor

mtDNA: mitochondrial genome or DNA

MTs: microtubules

NEAA: non essential amino acids

NFAT: nuclear factor of activated T cells

NO: nitric oxide

OXPHOS: oxidative phosphorylation

PBS: phosphate-buffered saline

ROS: reactive oxygen species

TNF: tumor necrosis factor



A. Focus of Thesis

Mitochondria are known as “the strength house of the cellular,” due to the fact

they provide energy for the cell. Mitochondria generate adenosine-5'-

triphosphate (ATP) from carbohydrates, proteins and fats that are

obtained by means of organisms of their diet to provide energy for

biological sports. regular mitochondrial distribution is essential for

numerous mobile functions which includes intracellular calcium

homeostasis, mobile signaling and apoptosis (Hales et al., 2004;

Katayama et al., 2006; Cerveny et al., 2007).

As “the energy house for cells,” mitochondria play important roles at some

stage in gametogenesis, fertilization and embryonic improvement

(Smith et al., 2005; Katayama et al., 2006; Dumollard et al., 2009; Van

Blerkom et al., 2009). lately, researchers found there had been

translocations of mitochondria in the course of early embryonic

developmental ranges, which implicate mitochondrial distribution, in

playing an critical function at some stage in oogenesis and early

embryonic development (Barnett et al., 1996; sun et al., 2001;

Katayama et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2009). those facts result in the
questions: Is the spatial distribution of mitochondria essential for

mitochondrial function? What position does mitochondrial spatial

distribution play in gametogenesis and embryogenesis? My research

will assessment the current literature to cope with these questions.

records on mitochondrial distribution during gametogenesis and

development will be gathered and analyzed.

In 2006, Bavister et al. hypothesized that mitochondrial distribution is specific

in stem cells and somatic cells, and that perinuclear localization of

mitochondria may be and indicator for “stemness.” therefore, my

research objectives are to decide and evaluate the spatial distribution

of mitochondria in an undifferentiated cellular kind such as mouse

embryonic stem cells (MES cells), and a differentiated mobile kind

including mouse lung epithelial cells (MLE-15). in addition, research

shows in maximum better eukaryotes that mitochondrial distribution is

mediated by means of the cytoskeleton (Haggeness et al., 1978).

curiously, the cytoskeleton affects mitochondrial activity inclusive of

mitochondrial respiratory hobby, fusion and fission (Boldogh and Pon,

2007). while research have targeted on mitochondrial-cytoskeletal

interactions, much less focus has been on their role in differentiation

and development of disorder. consequently, a further intention of my

studies is to study the literature to take a look at the outcomes of

cytoskeletal disruptors on mitochondrial arrangement. This study will

assist elucidate the behaviors of mitochondrial distribution throughout

differentiation; and show the effect of the cytoskeleton on mitochondrial


My thesis investigates the distribution of mitochondria at some point of

improvement in mammalian cells. To offer historical past facts for my

thesis in order that the mitochondrial distribution at some stage in

stages of gametogenesis, fertilization and preimplantation

improvement will be understood higher, first a literature overview of

gametogenesis and improvement will be provided in bankruptcy II.

subsequent a precis of the mitochondrion together with its shape,

biochemistry and function may be mentioned in chapter III. chapter IV

addresses how the distribution of mitochondria changes during

oogenesis and improvement. bankruptcy V discusses Dr. Barry

Bavister’s speculation that mitochondrial distribution may be a hallmark

of "stemness," and proposes experiments that might be used to deal

with this hypothesis. ultimately, bankruptcy VI addresses conclusions

and future instructions.

B. Significance

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are specific cellular populations with the

potential to go through both self-renewal and differentiation (Odorico et

al., 2001). they have got the ability to be used to treat a ramification of

diseases (Levy et al., 2004; Faulkner and Keirstead, 2005). although

mitochondria play vital roles in normal cellular function, their

distribution, interaction with the cytoskeleton as well as their position at

some stage in differentiation have not been examined in ES cells.

consequently, my research to apprehend the spatial distribution of

mitochondria in gametes, undifferentiated and differentiated cells may

also reveal specific differences among those cell sorts to be able to

allow us a higher know-how in stem cell biology, and can offer novel

targets for stem mobile therapy. besides addressing the distribution of

mitochondria for the duration of differentiation, this take a look at can

even demonstrate the impact of the cytoskeleton on mitochondrial

spatial association. This observe may additionally cause a higher

expertise of mitochondria in improvement, so that a appropriate

remedy for mitochondria-related issues may be advanced. sooner or

later yet importantly, this examine assessments Bavister’s hypothesis

that the arrangement of mitochondria modifications after fertilization to

meet the power needs of cells as development progresses (Lonergan

et al., 2007). If Bavister’s hypothesis holds proper, mitochondrial

distribution can be an thrilling, modern-day indicator for “stemness” of




Gametogenesis is the procedure in which primordial germ cells go through

meiosis and differentiate to come to be mature gametes.

Spermatogenesis is the formation of the male gamete, the sperm.

Oogenesis is the formation of the female gamete, the ovum or egg

mobile (Gilbert, 2006). each of these strategies may be described in

element under.

A. Spermatogenesis

In mammals, sperm broaden within seminiferous tubules within the testes and

are stored in the epididymis (Heller and Clermont, 1963). numerous

steps arise for the duration of spermatogenesis (Gilbert, 2006). First,

diploid male germ cells known as spermatogonia (a sort of stem

mobile) undergo mitosis at some stage in spermatocytogenesis to grow

to be number one spermatocytes. Then every primary spermatocyte

undergoes two rounds of meiosis in the course of spermatidogenesis

to shape four spermatids. After that, the spermatids go through

spermiogenesis. in the course of this procedure, every spermatid

produces a flagellum, condenses the nucleus, develops a mid-piece,

and differentiates right into a mature sperm.

Mitochondria translocate at some point of spermatogenesis. In germ cells and

spermatocytes of mammals, mitochondria are scattered all through out

the cytoplasm. however, at the side of formation of the flagellum, the

mitochondria begin to build up across the flagellum inside the mid-

piece of the sperm. eventually, a mature sperm has formed with a

flagellum that has grown from the centriole pair inside the neck, a mid-

piece containing mitochondria that shape a ring across the base of the

axoneme, and a head containing a tremendously condensed nucleus

with an acrosome on the anterior cease. The mitochondria positioned

within the mid-piece of the sperm offer ATP needed to whip the

flagellum and propel the sperm (Gilbert, 2006). at some point of

spermiogenesis in Drosophila, mitochondria in early spermatids

combination and fuse into massive organelles that wrap around each

different to shape a giant complicated structure referred to as the

Nebenkern (Benard and Karbowski, 2009). The protein mitofusin

(Fzo1) is needed for mitochondrial fusion in the course of Nebenkern

formation. Mutations within the fzo gene prevent mitochondrial fusion

for the duration of Nebenkern formation and the mutant lies are sterile.
B. Oogenesis

In mammals, oocytes broaden inside follicles inside the ovary (Fig. 1; Eppig

and O’Brien, 1996). primary oocytes are fashioned earlier than start in

the fetus by using mitosis of primordial germ cells known as oogonia

(Gilbert, 2006). every diploid number one oocyte is contained inside

the number one follicle and arrests in prophase I of meiosis. at some

point of this period, the primary follicle enlarges because of synthesis

of RNA and organelles for later oocyte boom, fertilization and

preimplantation improvement. The large nucleus of the primary oocyte

is referred to as the germinal vesicle (GV). whilst the follicle cells

develop and divide to from a bigger follicle, the primary oocyte

additionally grows larger. Then germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD)

occurs all through first meiosis (Meiosis I). The primary oocyte divides

right into a haploid secondary oocyte and a haploid first polar body,

that are both contained within a mature follicle. at some stage in

ovulation, the secondary oocyte is launched from the ovary and enters

the oviduct (Fig. 1). The secondary oocyte is arrested in metaphase II

(Met II) till fertilization. After fertilization, the secondary oocyte

undergoes a 2nd meiotic division (Meiosis II) to create an ovum and a

2nd polar frame (Fig. 1).

Meiotic competence is the oocytes’ ability to complete meiosis (Motlik et al.,

1984). it will decide whether or not oocytes can mature. Meiotic

competence may additionally rely on the spatial association of

mitochondria. atypical distribution of mitochondria turned into

determined to result in arrest of oocyte development (Wang et al.,

2009). therefore, proper mitochondrial distribution at some stage in

oocyte maturation is vital for similarly improvement and is a

determinant for oocyte excellent (Wang et al., 2009). the primary and

second polar bodies crumble later to discard the extra chromosomes.

As in spermatogenesis, each processes of mitosis of primordial germ

cells and follicular cells, and meiosis of oocytes require ATP. besides

that, mitochondria also offer ATP for glutathione (GSH) production,

which helps detoxify the mobile in the course of oocyte maturation

(Dumollard et al., 2009).

C. Fertilization

Fertilization is the fusion of haploid gametes to reconstitute a diploid cell with

the potential to come to be a new man or woman (Gilbert, 2006).

Fertilization is not a moment or an event, however a series of

occasions from touch of gametes to the activation of improvement

(Gilbert, 2006). while the oocytes are mature, they will be ovulated

from the ovary and input the oviduct (Fig. 1). The sperm also travel

from the vagina to the oviduct to fulfill the oocytes. at some point of this

trek, capacitation of sperm takes place so the sperm advantage the

capability to fertilize the egg. The important riding force for the ride of

sperm from the vagina to the oviduct is the muscular hobby of the

uterus (Gilbert, 2006). Sperm motility is vital as soon as sperm arrive

within the oviduct (Gilbert, 2006). ATP furnished by mitochondria are

crucial for sperm motility. latest studies observed that mtDNA mutation
can lead to impaired spermatogenesis and impaired sperm motility

(Shamsi et al., 2008).

Fertilization takes place in the upper third of the oviduct (Fig. 1). The fertilized

egg cell is known as a zygote (Gilbert, 2006). Fertilization starts

offevolved from the contact of sperm and egg. Sperm have a cap-like

structure at their anterior part of their head called the acrosome. once

the sperm reaches the zona pellucida an extracellular matrix which

surrounds the oocyte, it'll trigger the acrosome reaction. Acrosomal

enzymes like acrosin and hyaluronidase are released to digest the

zona pellucida in order that the sperm can penetrate the zona

pellucida. After that, a part of the sperm’s plasma membrane (at the

equatorial phase) fuses with the oocyte’s plasma membrane, and the

contents of the sperm which include the sperm nucleus and sperm

mitochondria are delivered into the ooplasm. An exception is the

chinese hamster: the tail and mid-piece of the sperm continue to be

outdoor the oocyte after fertilization (Ankel-Simons and Cummins,

1996). In most species, the nuclei in mature sperm are pretty

condensed and genetically inactive. at some point of fertilization, the

sperm nucleus decondenses and is reactivated (Wright, 1999). After

fertilization, the activated sperm nucleus undergoes a sequence of

morphological and biochemical changes and turns into the male

pronucleus, at the same time as the oocyte chromosomes grow to be

the lady pronucleus these ameliorations such as decondensation of the

sperm nucleus and meeting of the pronuclear envelope are ATP-

established (Raskin et al., 1997; Collas and Poccia, 1998). once

decondensed, the sperm DNA can start transcription and replication

straight away (Gilbert, 2006). with the aid of 15 hours after fertilization,

the 2 pronuclei migrate collectively; the pronuclear envelopes gradually

disappear and the chromosomes from the sperm and oocyte intermix

(Gilbert, 2006). Pronuclear migration and apposition require

participation of the cytoskeleton including microtubules and actin

(Maro, 1985; Branzini et al., 2007).

This entire procedure of fertilization, from ovulation, the movement of the

sperm, the changes of the sperm nucleus and pronuclear DNA

replication require a large amount of ATP, that is provided by way of

mitochondria. It has now not been decided whether sperm

mitochondria produce ATP while within the ooplasm. that is an issue

due to the fact sperm mitochondria are notion to degrade in the

ooplasm, and consequently do now not make a contribution their

mtDNA to the embryo.

There are a couple of instances of maternal inheritance of mtDNA discovered

in mammals (Hutchison et al., 1974). the everyday mammalian sperm

mid-piece includes approximately 50-75 mitochondria with one replica

of mtDNA in each. In evaluation, the oocyte consists of round 10 5 to

10 8 mitochondria which exceed that of sperm with the aid of a factor

of as a minimum 10 3 . consequently, a simple clarification of maternal

inheritance is the paternal contribution of mtDNA is diluted via that of

the maternal (Ankel-Simons and Cummins, 1996).

D. Preimplantation Development

After fertilization, the zygote enters preimplantation development which

includes formation of the zygote, cleavage, activation of the embryonic

genome, and the start of cell differentiation (Kanka, 2003). This level

takes three to four days in mice, 5 to 7 days in people (Lanza, 2006).

Upon activation of mitosis-promoting aspect (MPF), cleavage is

initialized inside the zygote (Gilbert, 2006). The zygote undergoes first

mitosis and divides right into a 2-cellular degree, four-cell stage, 8-cell

degree and sixteen-cell stage embryo that's referred to as morula (Fig.

1). The morula is a stable ball of cells. The embryos go through

cleavage stages inside the oviduct (Fig. 1). because the zygote

divides, the cells come to be smaller. The early embryo does no longer

boom in size throughout those first few cleavages. consequently, the

morula is the equal size because the zygote (Gilbert, 2006).

An critical occasion known as compaction takes place on the eight-mobile

stage (Maro et al., 1990; Gilbert, 2006). throughout compaction, cells

boom their adhesion by means of forming tight junctions, adherent

junctions and hole junctions between the man or woman blastomeres.

As a end result, the blastomeres flatten upon every other. The

cytoskeleton plays a role for the duration of compaction. Microfilaments

facilitate microtubule redistribution throughout compaction and the

corporation of the actin additionally adjustments all through

preimplantation development (Albertini et al., 1987; Maro et al., 1990).

After compaction, the embryo emerges because the morula (Fig. 1).

The following level is the blastula which in mammals is referred to as a

blastocyst (Gilbert, 2006). at some stage in the blastocyst degree, a

technique named cavitation happens, at some stage in which fluid is

transferred across the outer blastomeres to shape a fluid crammed

hollow space known as the blastocoel. The blastocyst is the degree at

which differentiation of the embryo starts offevolved. two cellular kinds

are gift inside the blastocyst: inner cellular mass (future embryo) and

trophoblast (future placenta) (Fig. 2).

Expression of several genes including Cdx2, eomesodermin, Oct4, and

Nanog ends in differentiation of the two cell sorts inside the blastocyst

(Gilbert, 2006). Oct4 stimulates the morula cells to grow to be inner

cellular mass and no longer trophoblast, whilst Nanog works at the

subsequent differentiation occasion, promoting the ICM cells to

become the pluripotent embryonic epiblast and stopping the ICM cells

from differentiating into hypoblast (Gilbert, 2006). further, Oct4, Nanog

and Sox2 are key elements in maintaining pluripotency in ES cells

(Pan and Thomson, 2007). Oct4 expression is initiated on the late 4-

mobile degree and becomes restrained to the internal mobile mass

(ICM) of the blastocyst. In contrast, Nanog transcripts are first detected

inside the compacted morula and turn out to be restrained to the ICM.
Homozygous Nanog mutant embryos deliver upward push to an ICM,

but they fail to keep pluritpotency inside the cells of the epiblast which

instead differentiate into primitive endoderm cells causing embryo

demise (Facucho-Oliveria and St. John, 2009). these information

advise that Nanog cooperates with Oct4 and Sox2 at some point of

late preimplantation and early submit-implantation embryogenesis to

hold the pluripotency of the epiblast cells (Facucho-Oliveria and St.

John, 2009).

Cdx2 and eomesodermin are involved in trophoblast formation (Gilbert,

2006). on the 8-cellular stage, Oct4, eomesodermin and Cdx2 are

expressed in every blastomere. at the blastocyst stage, Cdx2 and

eomesodermin expression is constrained to the trophoblast cells.

Eomesodermin stimulates expression of genes that shape trophoblast

(Gilbert, 2006). Cdx2 blocks Oct4 and Nanog expression inside the

trophoblast, thereby maintaining the trophoblast cells.

Developmental competence is the ability of the zygote to go through everyday

development. The activation of the embryonic genome referred to as

zygotic gene activation is an crucial event that must occur following

fertilization. Zygotic gene activation occurs at exclusive developmental

ranges in numerous species (Schultz et al., 1995). as an example, it

happens at the two-cell level within the mouse and four-mobile level in

the human (Gilbert, 2006). Microarray evaluation identified four,562

genes that were differentially expressed inside the preimplantation

embryo, consisting of Cdk2, Cap1 and Ube2j2 (Jeong et al., 2006).

Developmental competence relies upon on a regular mitochondrial

distribution. research research with mice have found a mild but

enormous decrease in ATP content at some stage in development

from the 1-mobile or 2-cell stage to 4-cell and 8-mobile embryos. The

ATP content material remained steady in morulae and early

blastocysts, but changed into decreased considerably in past due

blastocysts simply before implantation (Spielmann et al., 1984). these

effects advocate a want for ATP for the duration of preimplantation

development, which isn't always unexpected to look for the reason that

mitochondria offer strength for nearly all mobile sports in eukaryotes

(Smith et al., 2005).

E. Implantation

After approximately four-5 days of development, the embryo emerges from

the oviduct at the blastocyst degree (Fig. 1). After the blastocyst

hatches from the zona pellucida, it is prepared to implant inside the

endometrium of the uterus (Fig. 1; Gilbert, 2006). Gastrulation takes

place at some point of later tiers of implantation. all through

gastrulation, the 3 embryonic germ layers are formed with the aid of

differentiation of the ICM and cellular migration. Implantation and

gastrulation need actively functioning mitochondria considering they

require a variety of power inside the shape of ATP.

Figure 1. From human oogenesis to implantation. In mammals, oocytes

increase inside follicles in the ovary. when the oocytes are mature,

they may be ovulated from the ovary and input the oviduct. at some

stage in ovulation, the secondary oocyte is launched from the ovary

and enters the oviduct. The secondary oocyte is arrested in metaphase

II (Met II) till fertilization. Fertilization occurs within the higher 1/3 of the

oviduct. After fertilization, the zygote enters preimplantation

development. The zygote undergoes first mitosis and divides right into

a 2-mobile level, four-cell degree, 8-cell level and sixteen-cellular stage

embryo that's known as morula. the next stage is the blastula which in

mammals is referred to as a blastocyst. After approximately four-five

days of development, the embryo emerges from the oviduct at the

blastocyst level. The blastocyst is now ready to implant within the

endometrium of the uterus.

Figure 2. Mammalian blastocyst. mobile types are present inside the

blastocyst: internal mobile mass (destiny embryo) and trophoblast

(destiny placenta).


A. Structure

Mitochondria are essential and important organelles in eukaryotic cells. There

may be loads to heaps of mitochondria in step with mobile (Freitas,

1999). as an example, there are 1000-2000 mitochondria consistent

with cell in liver cells (Alberts et al., 1994). some cells inclusive of sea

urchin sperm have a single mitochondrion (Ardon et al., 2009).

Mitochondria variety from 1–10 micrometers in diameter (Freitas, 1999;

Campbell and Reece, 2005). they may be surrounded by means of a

double-membrane machine such as inner and outer membranes (Fig.

three). those membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer and

proteins much like that of the eukaryotic plasma membrane (Alberts et

al., 1994). The outer membrane contains porin proteins which form

channels which are permeable to water-soluble molecules which might

be 5 kDa or less (Ha et al., 1993). The inner membrane has a high

protein content and contains the phospolipid, cardiolipin, but lacks

porins (Alberts et al., 1994; Cooper and Hausman, 2006). The inner

and outer membranes are separated by using an intermembrane area.

It has a similar ionic attention to the cytosol (Alberts et al., 1994). the

gap enclosed by the internal membrane is called the matrix. The matrix

consists of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and enzymes

chargeable for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). it is rich in

protein. The internal membrane is folded inward to the matrix cristae.

This will increase the floor region of the internal mitochondrial

membrane improving the function of this organelle. The cristae are

numerous and prominent when mitochondria are energetic (Alberts et

al., 1994).

Mitochondria are particular a number of the cytoplasmic organelles because

they include their personal DNA (Cooper and Hausman, 2006). The

fission and fusion of mitochondria are beneath the manipulate of each

the nuclear genome and their own genome (Benard and Karbowski,

2009). Mitochondria are semi-independent and self-producing


The mtDNA has several characteristics. First, it is circular like bacteria, which

could be proof for the starting place of mitochondria (Cooper and

Hausman, 2006). Secondly, it has a few genetic code versions.

Mitochondria use a barely one-of-a-kind genetic code from the “typical”

genetic code (Cooper and Hausman, 2006). for example, AGA and

AGG are general for arginine in mammals; however in mtDNA, they're

for a prevent condon. In every other example, UGA is widespread for a

stop condon, but encodes for tryptophan in mitochondria. 1/3, there are

a couple of copies of mtDNA (2-10) in line with mitochondrion (Wiesner

et al., 1992). subsequently, the scale of mtDNA can vary drastically

among specific species. as an instance, the scale of mtDNA is 6 kb to

seventy seven kb in protists, 19 kb to 100 kb in fungi, 187 kb to 570 kb

in plant life, commonly greater than two hundred kb in people, and less

than forty kb (normally 13 kb to 22 kb) in maximum different animals

(Bullerwell and grey, 2004). notwithstanding sizable versions in

genome length, the coding feature of the mtDNA has remained rather

stable. flora have large mtDNA. An example is the most important

sequenced plant mtDNA up to now: Arabidopsis thaliana mtDNA,

which is 367 kb and encodes for fifty seven proteins (Unseld et al.,

1997). however, they do no longer seem to include extensively more

genetic records. The genome enlargement is accounted for often by

using large intergenic regions, repeated segments, introns, as well as

via incorporation of foreign DNA (plastid, nuclear and plasmid DNAs).

In fashionable, mtDNA codes handiest for genes worried in the

mitochondrial translation apparatus, electron transport and OXPHOS

(Bullerwell and gray, 2004). for instance, human mtDNA is

tremendously small and has sixteen,569 bp. It has 37 genes and not

using a introns and encodes 13 peptides (Anderson et al., 1981). The

13 peptides localize to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Human

mtDNA additionally encodes for two rRNA (16S and 12S rRNA) and 22

tRNAs which are required for translation of the proteins encoded by

means of mtDNA (Pérez-Martínez et al., 2008). The D loop carries a

transcriptional promoter sequence. The rest of the proteins observed in

mitochondria are encoded via the nuclear genome which has

approximately 1,500 mitochondrial-related genes (Lonergan et al.,

B. Origin

The beginning and evolution of mitochondria remains controversial. but, the

maximum popular hypothesis is the endosymbiotic concept of Lynn

Margulis (Sagan, 1967). it is idea that primordial eukaryotic cells have

been not able to metabolically use oxygen. sooner or later, they had

been colonized by using primitive aerobic micro organism that provided

oxidative metabolism to the primordial eukaryotic cells. In return, the

primitive eukaryotic cells furnished for the micro organism which

sooner or later advanced into mitochondria. Endosymbiotic concept

posits mitochondria are the direct descendants of a bacterial

endosymbiont (alpha-Proteobacteria) that have become mounted at an

early stage in a nucleus-containing host mobile (gray et al., 1999). This

symbiotic dating is assumed to have evolved 1.7-2 billion years in the

past (Feng et al., 1997). The capability of those micro organism to

behavior respiratory benefited the host cells, so it's miles considered

as an evolutionary benefit.

numerous pieces of evidence help the endosymbiotic principle (gray et al.,

1999). First, mtDNA is circular which isn't like nuclear DNA and is just

like DNA of micro organism. except that, the mitochondrion is set the

equal size as a bacterium. also, mitochondria carry numerous enzymes

and delivery structures just like the ones of prokaryotes. The ultimate

piece of proof is from the genome. In current years, the genomes of a

huge form of mitochondria and micro organism have been sequenced.

DNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic creation information assist a

monophyletic foundation of the mitochondria from an alpha-

proteobacteria ancestor (Bullerwell and gray, 2004).

C. Biogenesis

Binary fission is the procedure via which mitochondria reproduce (Benard and

Karbowski, 2009). Their duplicate is not always timed with the cell

cycle. alternatively, strength demands of the mobile seem to dictate

mitochondrial replication in that more mitochondria are present when

electricity needs are excessive along with in the course of workout.

New mitochondria can also shape by using fusing together (Benard

and Karbowski, 2009). The importance of this now not understood.

D. Inheritance

Mitochondrial inheritance is uncommon and not like that of the nuclear

genome. The nuclear genome exhibits biparental inheritance wherein

each daughter cell receives a duplicate of the nuclear genome. in the

course of fertilization, the ovum and sperm make a contribution to the

genome equally. In contrast, mitochondria showcase uniparental

inheritance in maximum organisms. even though the sperm contributes

one or extra mitochondria to the zygote, they may be ubiquitinated and

actively degraded. consequently, sperm mitochondria do not make a

contribution genetic facts to the embryo (Sutovsky et al., 1999).

instead, mitochondria are maternally inherited.

E. Biochemistry

The primary function of mitochondria is to generate useful energy in the form

of ATP for cellular activities (Fig. 4). They do this by the process of

OXPHOS in which carbohydrates, proteins and fats that are obtained

by organisms in their diet are broken down and converted into ATP

(Cooper and Hausman, 2006). About 90% of the energy the organism

uses for various activities is produced by mitochondria (Pike and

Brown, 1984).

Mitochondria produce ATP by a chemiosmotic mechanism (Cooper and

Hausman, 2006). In this process, carbohydrates and fats obtained by

the organism are used for energy production. The carbohydrates first

split into pyruvate in the cytosol through glycolysis (Fig. 4). Then the

pyruvates are transported into the mitochondrial matrix where they are

oxidized into acetyl-CoA and enter the citric acid cycle (also known as

the TCA cycle). Fats are converted to fatty-acyl-CoA and transported

into the matrix where they are oxidized to Acetyl-CoA and enter the

TCA cycle.
The enzymes for the citric acid cycle in the matrix oxidize the acetyl-CoA to

carbon dioxide, and produce three molecules of NADH and one

molecule of FADH2, which are used as a source of electrons for the

electron transport chain. The electrons released by NADH are

transferred through the electron transport chain by complex I,

cytochrome c, and complexes III and IV. Electrons released by FADH2

are transferred through the electron transport chain by complexes II

and III, cytochrome c, and complex IV. A proton gradient is created in

the intermembrane space which is pH 7 compared to pH 8 in the

matrix. The energy stored in the proton gradient then drives the

synthesis of ATP when the protons flow back to the matrix through

complex V that is also called ATP synthase. This coupling of ATP

synthesis and proton flow is called chemiosmosis (Cooper and

Hausman, 2006).
F. Mitochondrial Polarity

Mitochondrial polarity ( Ψm) refers to the ability distinction across the inner

mitochondrial membrane (Van Blerkom et al., 2002). The importance of

mitochondrial polarity is a determinant of numerous mitochondrial

functions, which include law of ionic fluxes and ATP liberation, and

consequently reflects mitochondrial pastime (Van Blerkom et al., 2002;

Wang et al., 2009). it's also the using force for different activities,

together with mitochondrial protein translocation and change, cloth

delivery, strength transition, and intercellular contact and communique

(Huang et al, 2002; Van Blerkom et al., 2006). Mitochondria that look

morphologically homogenous in differentiated cells and in mouse and

human oocytes may be distinguished based totally on Ψm as visualized

with mitochondria-unique potentiometric fluorescent probes which

include JC-1 (Van Blerkom et al., 2002, 2009). The mitochondria with


Ψm are often pericortical (Van Blerkom et al., 2002). therefore, despite the fact

that morphologically homogenous, mitochondria may be functionally

heterogeneous. The significance of adjustments in mitochondrial Ψm

isn't always well understood; however, it can relate to the presence of

touch factors among cells, or the want for excessive activating

mitochondria inside the cortex in guidance for cytokinesis.

G. Function

Except this traditional feature of electricity production as defined above, latest

studies indicates that mitochondria are worried in calcium homeostasis,

cellular signaling, oxygen sensing and apoptosis (Duchen, 1999;

Chandel and Schumacker, 2000). as an instance, mitochondria also

take part in calcium garage and the shipping of Ca2+ (Berridge et al.,

1998; Hanjnoczky et al., 2007). while mitochondria are close to the

plasma membrane, they are able to modify Ca2+ entry. when

mitochondria are near the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that's the

fundamental web page of calcium storage, the mitochondria are worried

in Ca2+ propagation. recent studies discovered that mitochondria

modify calcium signaling and the Ca2+ -established nuclear aspect of

activated T cells (NFAT) pathway whose target genes are essential for

embryonic heart improvement (Cao and Chen, 2009).

Mitochondria additionally play a position in programmed cell death – apoptosis

(Duchen, 1999). when the Bcl-2 proteins on mitochondrial membranes

come across DNA harm, they set off Bax proteins, which cause the

mitochondrion to release cytochrome C, and other proteins, which

cause downstream apoptosis indicators like caspases. This in the end

results in destruction of the mobile. for this reason mitochondrion –

mitochondrion interactions are essential for apoptotic signals. further,

mitochondria are observed to translocate all through the tumor necrosis

aspect (TNF)-caused apoptosis in HeLa cells (Domnina et al., 2002).

This indicates mitochondrial area may additionally play a function inside

the system of apoptosis.

H. Mitochondrial-Related Diseases and Disorders

Mitochondrial diseases and issues of the mitochondrial respiration chain may

be resulting from mutations of both mtDNA or the nuclear genome

(DiMauro, 2004). there are numerous signs and symptoms of

mitochondrial sicknesses with various reasons (Wallace, 1999). They

can be found in various frame regions and the disorder varies from

man or woman to individual. Many organs may be affected in

mitochondrial diseases which include the cells of the brain, nerves,

muscle mass, kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, ears, or pancreas. One or

extra organs could be affected in unique sufferers, so the ailment can

variety in severity from moderate to fatal. The symptoms might

encompass poor growth, muscle weak spot, visible or listening to loss,

mental retardation, heart, liver or kidney disorder, diabetes, breathing

or gastrointestinal disorders, weight problems, Leber’s hereditary optic

neuropathy, Leigh syndrome or even infertility (Wallace, 1999;

Schapira, 2006). Maximum mitochondrial illnesses are inherited and

the inheritance patterns vary from Mendelian to maternal inheritance in

addition to a aggregate of the two (Wallace, 1999). The important

reasons of mitochondrial diseases are nuclear DNA defects, mtDNA

defects, or a mixture of both defects. as an instance, deletions in

mtDNA and tRNA factor mutations motive cardiomyopathies (Arbustini

et al., 1998) and diabetes (Suzuki et al., 1997; Liou et al., 2003). The

genotype-to-phenotype correlations in mitochondrial diseases are

complicated because the identical mutation can result in a couple of

phenotypes, and the same phenotype can end result from numerous
one of a kind mutations. similarly, the distribution of mtDNA mutations

varies from being present in all tissues to simplest being located in

unique cells or tissues (Schapira, 2006). Besides DNA defects,

mitochondrial Ψm declination also can cause mitochondrial-related

problems (Wang et al., 2009). In Alzheimer's ailment, cyclical

mitochondrial Ψm fluctuation linked to electron transport, F0F1 ATP-

synthase and mitochondrial Na+/Ca+2 trade are determined to be

reduced (Thiffault and Bennett, 2005). In some instances,

mitochondrial sicknesses can be caused by using medicines or toxic

materials (Schapira, 2006).

The mitochondrion is such a vital organelle. Defects in mtDNA or disorder of

OXPHOS or different features of mitochondria save you the mobile

from functioning typically. as an example, if one of the multi-subunit

complexes on the electron transportation chain along with ATP

synthase has defects in structure, chemiosmosis can't occur and ATP

isn't produced. A current observe found that defects in human

complicated I result in electricity generation issues, and additionally

result in neurodegenerative sickness (Lazarou et al., 2009). The cells

be afflicted by energy crisis. what is extra, the incompletely burned

meals might collect in the cell as poison to damage the frame even

further. for instance, free radicals along with reactive oxygen species

(ROS) is probably produced and cause oxidative strain (Schapira,

2006; Dumollard et al., 2009). The most important region for ROS era

is complicated III (Chen, 2003). but, considering a superb number of

genes are concerned, the biochemical mechanisms of mitochondrial

diseases are various.

Mitochondrial disorder is also concerned in mammalian getting old and

carcinogenesis (Wallace, 1999). numerous types of cancers have

mtDNA mutations. The innovative accumulation of mtDNA mutations

during a lifetime has been suggested to make a contribution to aging

and carcinogenesis (Chinnery et al., 2002; Trifunovic and Larsson,

2008). as a minimum 271 cancer mutations had been determined in

conserved positions of mtDNA, and 70 of them appeared in multiple

tumour (Santos et al., 2008). As referred to earlier, immoderate ROS

generation can cause oxidative pressure, that's one of the important

reasons for DNA damage. therefore, it is simple to understand the

innovative accumulation of mtDNA mutations in mitochondrial ailment

patients which can be even worse. except inflicting aging and most

cancers, the modern accumulation of mtDNA mutations additionally

cause a few age-associated dysfunctions which decrease oocyte

quality in order that mitochondrial feature may be seen as a parameter

to assess oocyte great (Wang et al., 2009).

One extraordinary function in mitochondrial sicknesses caused by mtDNA

mutations is they can cause ultrastructural changes of mitochondria,

like reduction of the amount of cristae membranes due to depletion of

mtDNA (Gilkerson et al., 2000) and swelling mitochondria with sparse

cristae in transmission electron microscopic research of cultivated

human pores and skin fibroblasts harboring 3 exclusive pathologic

mtDNA factor mutations (Brantová et al., 2006). when the scientific

traits and ultrastructural capabilities of skeletal muscle in mitochondrial

cytopathies were tested with a transmission electron microscope, there

was an excess proliferation and unusual shape of mitochondria. a few

mitochondria have been enlarged or contained a couple of granules or

paracrystalline structures (Zhang et al., 2009). these ultrastructural

changes are treasured in the prognosis of mitochondrial issues.

moreover, those effects additionally discovered the tight dating

between mitochondrial shape and characteristic.

further to the tight relationship of mitochondrial shape and mitochondrial

sicknesses, current studies observed mitochondrial diseases also are

associated with mitochondrial dynamics. The balance of mitochondrial

fusion and fission that are opposing forces are critical for cellular

survival (Benard and Karbowski, 2009). Mutations in mitochondrial

fusion genes MFN2 and OPA1 reason frequent neurodegenerative

sicknesses. in addition, impaired MFN2 expression also causes

different diseases inclusive of type 2 diabetes or vascular proliferative

disorders (Liesa et al., 2009). Presently, mitochondrial-associated

diseases can not be cured and the treatment for those sicknesses

continues to be very constrained. The remedy for mitochondrial

sicknesses is fairly individualized because of the complexity of

numerous reasons. positive diet and enzyme treatment plans might be

useful for a few patients like Coenzyme Q10, diet B circle of relatives,
nutrition C, biotin, vitamin E and different antioxidants (Przyrembel,

1987). but, using antioxidants in mitochondrial sicknesses has now not

been tested in medical trials but (Schapira, 2006). because many

mitochondrial disorders are maternally inherited, a these days

proposed treatment for inherited mitochondrial ailment is embryonic

mitochondrial transplantation and gene therapy (Kyriakouli et al.,

2008). those methods have only been attempted in cellular cultures

and have showed promise. but, they may be nonetheless far from

clinical utility.

I. Role in Gametogenesis and Development

Mitochondrial fusion is crucial for formation of the Nebenkern and mutations

which inhibit mitochondrial fusion cause sterility of mutant flies (Benard

and Karbowski, 2009). ATP manufacturing is essential for sperm

motility. As defined in bankruptcy II, sperm deliver mitochondria of their

midpiece to offer energy for fertilization. A current research have a look

at determined that mtDNA mutation can result in impaired

spermatogenesis and impaired sperm motility (Shamsi et al., 2008).

Mitochondria play a significant role in oogenesis and early embryonic

improvement due to the fact they provide ATP for the techniques from

oogenesis to implantation. in addition, mitochondria additionally offer

ATP for the procedures of mitosis and meiosis inside the events of

DNA replication, breakdown and formation of the nuclear membrane,

and mitotic spindle actions. Mitochondria seem like required for oocyte

and embryo upkeep and improvement (Wang et al., 2009). as an

example, the mitochondrial fusion proteins, Mfn1 and Mfn2 are

important for embryo survival in Mfn1-/- and Mfn2-/- knockout mice

(Benard and Karbowski, 2009). There are numerous examples that

mitochondrial dysfunction reasons infertility. In mouse oocytes,

mitochondrial dysfunction can bring about preimplantation embryo

arrest after in vitro fertilization (Thouas et al., 2004).

The range of mitochondria adjustments all through improvement from the

oocyte level to implantation (Van Blerkom, 2009). The actual variety of

mitochondria in keeping with oocyte or blastomere is notably arguable,

and thus far has no longer been hooked up so that there may be a

consensus among researchers (Van Blerkom, 2009). Estimates of

mitochondrial quantity based on mtDNA replica number in line with

mitochondrion (which additionally appear to vary with meiotic

competence and improvement) do now not accept as true with

estimates primarily based on morphometry the use of tissue sections

and transmission electron microscopy (Van Blerkom, 2009). what is

regular, however, is that mitochondrial numbers decline in dangerous

oocytes, and oocytes from women of superior maternal age. this could

relate to the maternal-age associated decline in meiotic and

developmental competence (Van Blerkom, 2009). The assisted

reproductive method of cytoplasmic transfer has been proven to repair

oocyte fitness (Von Blerkom, 2009). in this method, cytoplasm

containing mitochondria from the oocyte of a younger, wholesome

character is transferred to an oocyte of advanced maternal age, and

oocyte fitness is restored (Wang et al., 2009). This indicates that there

may be an age-related difference in cytoplasm, which may be based

totally on mitochondrial activity.

Facucho-Oliveira et al. (2007) claim that there's no mtDNA replication until

postimplantation. this means that mtDNA reproduction number does no

longer boom, but ought to decline because of mtDNA mutation or

harm. this will depart oocytes incredibly at risk of mitochondrial

dysfunction (Facucho-Oliveira et. al., 2007; Wang et al., 2009).

Further to a threshold quantity of mitochondria being important for meiotic

competence and developmental competence, defects in actual

mitochondrial shape result in a decline in meiotic competence. as an

example, defects in mitochondrial shape which include swelling or

disrupted cristae purpose a decrease in meiotic competence and boom

in infertility in women of superior maternal age (Wang et al., 2009).

moreover, mitochondria exchange shape throughout improvement and

that is important for developmental competence (Van Blerkom, 2009).

The relative level of mitochondrial Ψm is important for everyday fertilization

and early embryonic improvement (Van Blerkom et al., 2006, 2007).

Mitochondria in oocytes and preimplantation embryos may have one of

a kind mitochondrial Ψm. excessive-polarized pericortical mitochondria

may have a role in the acquisition of oocyte competence and the

regulation of early developmental tactics (Van Blerkom et al., 2002),

while low-polarized mitochondria are associated with mitochondrial

dysfunction and unusual embryos (Wilding et al., 2001). A recent

examine located mitochondrial Ψm in human and mouse oocytes may

be regulated by competition among oxygen and nitric oxide (NO) (Van

Blerkom et al., 2008). it has been advised that NO from cumulus cells

depresses ATP manufacturing in mitochondria, and this is vital for

ovulation to arise (Wang et al., 2009).

Mitochondria also regulate intracellular calcium and proapoptotic factors

throughout these procedures (Wang et al., 2009). A nearby transient

boom in free Ca2+ can cause an growth or lower in mitochondrial

breathing locally in mouse oocytes (Van Blerkom, 2009). Intracellualr

Ca2+ (similarly to ATP) is crucial for nuclear envelope breakdown at

some stage in meiotic maturation in oocytes (Wang et al., 2009). this is

regular with a position of mitochondria in retaining intracellular calcium

homeostasis (Duchen, 1999).

Every other instance that mitochondria play a primary function all through

early embryonic improvement is that mammalian embryonic cells have

a low glucose metabolism at the earliest levels of development. both

glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway are suppressed, so the

citric acid cycle of mitochondria is the fundamental supply to lessen

equivalents (or electron donors, along with NADH) that are utilized in

antioxidant protection (Dumollard et al., 2009). therefore, mitochondrial

disorder in embryos could be very probably to cause developmental


The features of mitochondria decline as the organism a long time. it's been

proposed that ROS may cause oxidative pressure in mitochondria

(Schapira, 2006). this can bring about mutations in mtDNA, ensuing in

a reduction of copies of mtDNA, and the reproduction and growth of

mtDNA harm and misfolded enzymes. when the ratio of everyday

mitochondria to dysfunctional mutant mitochondria falls underneath the

threshold, the mobile cannot get enough strength from mitochondria

and programmed cellular death may be activated. In support of this

concept, ROS could make the oocyte dangerous (Wang et al.,2009).

Figure 3. The Schematic diagram on the mitochondrial structure.

Figure 4. The Schematic diagram of the bioenergetic path ways in the



A. Role of the Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is involved inside the distribution of mitochondria (Katayama

et al., 2006; Kabashima, 2007). The cytoskeleton is a network of

protein filaments extending throughout the cytoplasm, and is

determined in all eukaryotic cells. The cytoskeleton gives a structural

framework for the cells, maintains cellular shape, and positions of

organelles (Pollack and Kopelovich, 1979). in addition, it's far

concerned in a ramification of cell activities consisting of cellular

moves, transportation, exchange of energy, cellular department,

mobile differentiation, or even sign transduction (Liu et al., 2002).

The cytoskeleton has three fundamental varieties of protein filaments:

microfilaments (MFs), intermediated filaments, and microtubules

(MTs). MFs, that are also referred to as actin filaments, are made by

way of polymerization of actin monomers to form F actin. In evaluation,

MTs are made through polymerization of proteins referred to as tubulin.

MTs are assembled from reversible polymerization of dimers of two

types of tublin proteins, α-tubulin and β-tubulin. MTs in maximum cells

increase outward from a microtubule-organizing middle known as

centrosome. MTs play a position in a spread of mobile procedures.

Mitochondrial actions and morphology are regulated via MTs (Linden

et al., 1989). throughout mitosis, MTs shape the mitotic spindle for

chromosome separation (Cooper and Hausman, 2006). each MFs and

MTs are required for completion of cytokinesis (Larkin and Danilchik,


Actin and tubulin polymerization have been notably studied in vitro. There are

unique tablets to block their assembly. as an instance, colchicine and

nocodazole cause disassembly of MTs via binding to tubulin thereby

inducing depolymerization (Leach et al., 2005), whereas cytochalasin

B and cytochalasin D disrupt MFs with the aid of binding to the barbed

quit of an actin filament thereby preventing monomer addition and slow

the fee of filament polymerization (Bonder and Mooseker, 1986). those

capsules have been used to benefit insight into the capabilities of the


B. Distribution in Somatic Cells

Mitochondria are dynamically disbursed in cells and make use of cytoskeletal

tracks and motor proteins for their moves (Frederick and Shaw, 2007).

appropriate mitochondrial distribution is essential for mobile survival

and developmental competence of embryos (Katayama et al., 2006;

Nagai et al., 2006). The spatial corporation of mitochondria has been

proven to rely upon MTs in neurons and pig embryos (solar et al.,

2001). several mobile capabilities need accurate mitochondrial

distribution. as an example, at some point of cytokinesis, identical

mitochondrial distribution is critical to ensure viability of daughter cells,

on account that they're crucial organelles that offer electricity for all

cellular sports (Hales, 2004). on the other hand, mitochondrial

distribution is confined by means of the arrangement of the

cytoskeleton. these interactions of mitochondria with the cytoskeleton

are vital for normal mitochondrial function (Boldogh and Pon, 2007).

In differentiated somatic cells, mitochondria are distributed homogeneously.

for example, mitochondria are scattered all through the cytoplasm of

those differentiated cells (discern 5). In porcine fetal fibroblast cells,

mitochondria aren't scattered for the duration of the cytoplasm, but

form a meshwork filling the complete cell. further, this localization relies

upon on microtubules, for the reason that nocodazole treatment leaves

mitochondria tightly positioned around the nucleus in a dot-like sample

(Katayama et al., 2006). the use of exclusive cytoskeletal modulators,

other research have proven mitochondrial distribution relies upon on

microfilaments. In two-mobile embryos of golden hamsters, microtubles

and microfilaments have been found to govern mitochondrial

distribution at the same time (Kabashima, 2007). In -cellular embryos

of golden hamsters, ordinary mitochondrial distribution is perinuclear

with some mitochondria at the mobile cortex. After nocodazole

treatment, mitochondria have been observed to extend into the

subcortical place and aggregated in patches. After cytochalasin D

treatment, there were less mitochondria on the cell cortex, suggesting

that mitochondria moved back around the nucleus. After a remedy of

both inhibitors, mitochondrial distribution became found to be similar to

the sample after cytochalasin D remedy (Kabashima, 2007).

C. Distribution during Oogenesis, Fertilization and

Preimplantation Development

Several studies have tried to clarify the relationship between mitochondrial

distribution and oogenesis, fertilization and preimplantation

development. The studies found the distribution patterns of

mitochondria are stage- and cell-cycle-specific (Fig. 6). Homogeneous

and heterogeneous spatial arrangements are two major mitochondrial

distribution patterns in oocytes (Wang et al., 2009).

Research on mitochondrial distribution in pig oocytes using MitoTracker

Green FM stain showed that during oogenesis, GV and Met II oocytes

have scattered mitochondrial distribution. However, during fertilization

and preimplantation development, pronuclear embryos, 4-cell embryos

and blastocysts have a perinuclear mitochondrial arrangement (Sun et

al., 2001). Therefore, mitochondria translocate during normal

development. The dramatic translocation of mitochondria upon

fertilization suggests that the change may be triggered by the

fertilization event.
Even primary oocytes have a different mitochondrial distribution than mature

oocytes. A recent research study on mitochondrial distribution in

canine oocytes found that the primary oocyte in the GV stage has a

different mitochondrial distribution than Met II stage oocytes (Valentini

et al., 2009). The GV stage oocytes have three types of mitochondrial

distribution. The first type of distribution is small aggregates diffused

throughout the cytoplasm; the second type is diffused tubular

networks; the third type is pericortical tubular networks. However, most

Met II stage oocytes showed a diffused tubular mitochondria network.

Besides the mitochondrial distribution pattern difference, they provided

a possible explanation for it: the changes in the mitochondrial

distribution pattern in immature canine oocytes is related to the

reproductive cycle stage (Valentini et al., 2009).

Similar to pig and canine oocytes, evidence of stage- and cell cycle-specific

mitochondrial distribution were also found in mouse and human

oocytes (Van Blerkom, 2009). In GV stage mouse oocytes,

mitochondria are largely uniformly distributed throughout the

cytoplasm. However, from GVBD to metaphase I (Met I), the

mitochondria begin to surround the newly condensed chromosomes as

a sphere and form a perinuclear distribution. In Met II oocytes

mitochondria are randomly and uniformly distributed. The perinuclear

distribution returns after fertilization. It becomes more obvious after

fertilization in two-cell embryos (Van Blerkom, 2009).

In addition to changes in density of mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane

potential can also vary. Recent studies showed the transition of

mitochondria from homogeneous to heterogeneous is correlated with

the cumulus apoptosis during oogenesis and different developmental

stages (Wang et al., 2009).

Mitochondria are even involved with developmental competence. An example

is abnormal mitochondrial distribution in Met II mouse oocytes leads to

reduced developmental competence. In a recent study, a treated group

of Met II oocytes of mtGFP-tg mice were frozen in liquid nitrogen for 5

minutes and thawed (Nagai et al., 2006). This treated oocytes showed

a significantly lower developmental competence when they were

compared with normal, untreated control oocytes. The control oocytes

showed perinuclear mitochondrial staining, and these oocytes when

fertilized had a high developmental competence. The treated oocytes

had randomly clumped mitochondria in the cytoplasm, and poor

developmental competence. The meiotic arrest in the oocytes with

abnormal mitochondrial distribution may be due to abnormal

distribution of ATP (Nagai et al., 2006). Moreover, another study found

the loss of developmental competence due to oocyte mitochondrial

dysfunction. This might be overcome by cytoplasmic transfer of normal

mitochondria into the oocyte (Nagai et al., 2004). In the same manner,

abnormal mitochondrial distribution also causes loss of meiotic

competence in human oocytes. During in vitro fertilization (IVF),

abnormal mitochondrial distribution that had dense clusters of

mitochondria in human oocytes arrested meiosis prematurely (Van

Blerkom, 2009).

The spatial translocation of mitochondria during development leads to the

question: Is the spatial distribution of mitochondria important for their

function? This is not well understood so far. Several possible

explanations were proposed based on the results from research, which

will be addressed in more detail in Chapter V.

Figure 5. Diagram displaying vicinity of mitochondria in a typical somatic

mobile. A bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell become triple-

categorized for the nucleus (blue) with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole

(DAPI), microtubules (inexperienced) with anti–α-tubulin mouse IgG2b

monoclonal antibody prelabeled with the Zenon® Alexa Fluor® 488

Mouse IgG2b labeling package and the mitochondria (red) with anti-

OxPhos complicated V subunit a, mouse IgG2b monoclonal antibody

(A21350) prelabeled with the Zenon® Alexa Fluor® 555 Mouse IgG2b

labeling kit. Mitochondria are scattered throughout the cytoplasm of this

differentiated cell. Diagram primarily based on fluorescence

micrographs from www.invitrogen.com.

Figure 6. Distribution of mitochondria in the course of oogenesis and

fertilization in mammalian oocytes. The black spots constitute

mitochondria. GV, germinal vesicle level; HPM, high potential

(polarized) mitochondria; GVBD, germinal vesicle breakdown degree;

M I, metaphase I; M II, metaphase II; PN, pronuclear degree. primarily

based on sun et al., 2001; Valentini et al., 2009; and Van Blerkom,




A. Embryonic Stem Cells

ES cells are cultures of cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst

or earliest morula degree embryos (Wright, 1999; Fig. 7). they've the

potential to undergo self-renewal and differentiation, and have the

capability to offer upward push to a whole organism and to all cell

lineages (Abbondanzo et al., 1993; Odorico et al., 2001). thanks to the

feature of immortality, ES cells are capable of limitless, undifferentiated

proliferation in vitro and may be maintained for years in non-stop

tradition (Thomson et al., 1998; Hoffman and carpenter, 2005).

ES cells have their precise gene expression. the important thing pluripotent

factors are Oct4 and Sox2. Oct4 is the grasp regulator and needs to be

maintained at a particular expression level that allows you to preserve

pluripotency (Niwa, 2000). besides the 2 fundamental key elements,

Nanog is likewise an important transcription aspect that is regulated by

using Oct4 and P53, and at the identical time works collectively with

Oct4 and Sox2 to control the downstream gene law and hold

pluripotency. those key elements form a regulatory network to restrict

every other’s expression degree, that is important to preserve the

properties of ES cells (Pan and Thomson, 2007). therefore, those

pluripotent elements Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog are regularly used as

marker genes in charactering ES cells.

except their specific gene expression, the capability to form a teratoma, which

is a tumor product of cells from all 3 germ layers, is another

characteristic of ES cells (Thomson et al., 1998). recent research

suggest perinuclear mitochondrial distribution can be another

characteristic of ES cells (Lonergan et al., 2006; Facucho-Oliveria and

St. John, 2009). This exciting finding can be mentioned extra inside the

next section.

ES cells have medical significance for they may doubtlessly offer a limiteless

supply for tissue regeneration and tissue transplantation (Wright, 1999)

and observe in cellular alternative treatment options (Hoffman, 2005).

Conversely, whilst a stem cell mutates, it can end up a most cancers

mobile sustaining its increase and spreading hastily (Reya et al.,

B. Bavister’s Hypothesis

Despite the fact that the spatial distribution of mitochondria with admire to the

cytoskeleton has been studied in several cellular sorts, it has no longer

been examined in ES cells. The contribution of mitochondria to stem

cellular viability and differentiation must be vitally essential in view in

their crucial roles in all different cell sorts. current research on

translocation of mitochondria inside the oocyte for the duration of

fertilization has proven that mitochondria cluster around the pronuclei

and can continue to be in a perinuclear pattern at some point of

embryonic improvement (sun et al., 2001). This strongly shows a key

position for mitochondria in ES cells, because this clustering appears

to be crucial for ordinary embryonic improvement. furthermore, ES

cells are derived from blastocysts. Bavister and associates have

hypothesized that mitochondrial perinuclear clustering persists via

preimplantation embryonic development into the stem cells, and that

this localization is indicative of stem cellular pluripotency (Lonergan et

al., 2006). My initial information using the protocols defined below in

segment D confirmed that mitochondrial distribution in MLE-15 cells is

a meshwork across the nucleus. this is supportive of Bavister’s

hypothesis. but, the real mitochondrial distribution in ES cells desires to

be investigated. If the effects also assist Bavister’s speculation,

mitochondrial distribution ought to in all likelihood be an interesting,

modern-day marker for ES cells. Bavister’s group has counseled that

due to the fact zygotes and cleavage degree embryos which includes

blastocysts have perinuclear staining of mitochondria, ES cells may

have perinuclear staining, indicating that the perinuclear localization of

mitochondria can be a hallmark of “stemness.”

Once they examined mitochondrial arrangement in an person stem mobile

line, Bavister et al. determined perinuclear staining, indicating that the

hypothesis holds genuine for grownup stem cells (Fig. 8; Lonergan et

al., 2006). additionally they stated that due to the fact that handiest

stem cell lines Rhesus & human were examined, many more cell

traces will want to be investigated to look if the hypothesis holds. it's far

crucial with the intention to stumble on correct stem cells with self

assurance in particular on the grounds that many are suboptimal on

account that they are derived from “leftovers” from IVF clinics, and

human ES cells may additionally sooner or later be used


Recently, studies agree that pluripotency seems to be associated with

anaerobic metabolism (Facucho-Oliveria and St. John, 2009). further,

small and immature mitochondria with a perinuclear distribution is an

vital characteristic of ES cells (Facucho-Oliveria and St. John, 2009).

This characteristic may even observe for the radical technique of

generating human and mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

results of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog expression might not be enough to

finish they're pluripotent. The mitochondrial homes must be

investigated earlier than concluding iPSCs are pluripotent (Facucho-

Oliveria and St. John, 2009).

C. Possible Reasons for Perinuclear Mitochondria in

Stem Cells

There are a number of capacity motives for the stem cells to have a

perinuclear distribution of mitochondria. First, perinuclear distribution

matches the OXPHOS needs of differentiating cells. The ATP content

material in human ES cells and an adult rhesus macaque stromal

mobile line (ATSC) had been decrease whilst cells have been stem-

like, however improved four-fold in human ES mobile line and 5-fold

inside the monkey ATSC cell line upon differentiation. some other

advantage of perinuclear mitochondrial distribution at the stem cell

stage is that the mitochondrion and nucleus interaction could be less

difficult (e.g., the nuclear genome codes about 1500 mitochondrial-

related genes). moreover, import and export of macromolecules

throughout the nuclear pores involve the energy-established Ran

monomeric G protein shipping machine (Cooper and Hausman, 2006).

Positioning mitochondria close to the nucleus might provide the

electricity for this procedure in an efficient way. in the end, perinuclear

arrangement of mitochondria would possibly buffer the nucleus from

fluctuations in Ca2+ stages happening within the cytoplasm (Lonergan

et al., 2007).
Given that the principle functions of mitochondria are ATP synthesis and

calcium deliver, the mitochondrial distribution within the oocyte can

also result from the high call for of ATP and calcium in the course of

cytoplasmic maturation (Wang et al., 2009). The perinuclear

arrangement of mitochondria at some stage in embryonic development

is very probable to due to the excessive strength call for round nucleus

(Wang et al., 2009). consequently, it's far distinctly possible that the

redistribution of mitochondria from perinuclear in stem cells to

scattered thoughout the cytoplasm in somatic cells is because of the

localized alternate of strength demand.

The iPSCs generated via described elements from mouse or human fibroblast

cells have been established to have ES cellular morphology, particular

gene expression such as Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog and had been

capable of teratoma formation (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006; Yu et

al., 2007). but, every other critical feature of pluripotency has no longer

been examined but -- whether iPSCs have immature mitochondria with

a perinuclear distribution. For the large amount of records referred to

above, there are motives to accept as true with that iPSCs indeed are

pluripotent. consequently, if we perform the defined experiments in

iPSCs, the staining of mitochondria ought to exhibit perinuclear

distribution simply as ES cells do.

D. Hypothetical Experiments Designed to Test

Bavister’s Hypothesis

Given the want to become aware of healthy ES cells, it is important to know

the mitochondrial arrangement in wholesome ES cells, and whether or

not this is an indicator of “stemness.” the subsequent experiments are

proposed to check Bavister’s speculation.

Research Objectives

1. Decide and compare the spatial distribution of mitochondria with

appreciate to the nucleus and cytoskeleton in MES cells and a

differentiated cell line, MLE-15 cells. to analyze pluripotency of iPSCs

as regards to mitochondrial properties, mouse iPSCs generated from

fibroblast cells as described in Takahashi and Yamanaka (2006) may

be used.

2. recognize the spatial association of mitochondria all through

differentiation with the aid of staining of mitochondria in MES cells and

MLE-15 cells.

3 determine whether or not mitochondrial distribution is cytoskeletal-

dependent after disruption of the cytoskeleton in MES cells and MLE-

15 cells.

For undifferentiated cells, MES cells might be used. For differentiated cells,

MLE-15 (mouse lung epithelial) cells could be used. For iPSCs, mouse

iPSC-MEF will be used.

Research Method

To research the spatial arrangement of mitochondria at some point of

differentiation and ailment, the following strategies are proposed.

a) mobile tradition. MLE-15 cells might be cultured in Dulbecco’s changed

eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% warmness-inactivated

fetal bovine serum (FBS) and a hundred U/mL penicillin-streptomycin.

MES cells will be cultured in DMEM containing ninety mL ES-certified

FBS, 6 mL non-essential amino acids (NEAA), 6 mL GlutaMax, 6 mL a

hundred U/mL penicillin-streptomycin, 6 uL β-mercaptoethanol, and

500 uL recombinant eukemia inhibitory thing (LIF) in 500 ml DMEM.

both mobile sorts can be cultured at 37ºC in five% CO2 in humidified


b) Immunofluorescence microscopy. to visualise mitochondria, nuclei and

the cytoskeleton, fluorescence staining could be used. Cells connected

to microscope slides (in a skinny glass backside sterile way of life dish)

could be fixed in 70% ethanol for 10 minutes, and rehydrated in

blocking off solution containing phosphate-buffered saline, (PBS, pH

7.2 ) and 0.3% bovine serum albumen (BSA). Tubulin will be detected

with a mouse monoclonal anti-tubulin antibody (E7 antibody,

Developmental Hybridoma studies financial institution, college of Iowa),

and actin can be detected the usage of a mouse monoclonal anti-actin

antibody (Mab-five; LabVision agency Fremont, CA). both antibodies

might be diluted 1:one hundred in blockading answer and detected the

usage of a TRITC-conjugated goat-anti-mouse secondary antibody.

constant cells might be incubated for 1 hr at 37oC in primary antibody

(either anti-tubulin or anti-actin antibody), washed twice in PBS,

incubated 1 hr at 37oC in secondary antibody, and mitochondria

stained for 30 min with 1 mM MitoTracker (Molecular Probes,

Invitrogen) in PBS accompanied by means of staining for 30 min in 5

ug/ml DAPI in PBS to expose the nucleus. Cells will be established in

Vectashield (an anti-fade agent) and viewed with a conventional

fluorescence microscope using the UV, FITC and Rhodamine filter out

sets, or an Olympus Fluoview FV1000 confocal laser scanning

microscope (Olympus the usa Inc., Melville, ny). The poor manage will

include omission of the number one antibody from the protocol, and

the immunostaining facts in comparison with the poor manage to

determine antigen localization.

c) Mitochondrial localization during cytoskeletal disruption. To disrupt the

cytoskeleton MES and MLE-15 cells could be transferred into DMEM

media supplemented with 10-one hundred µM colchicine to disrupt

microtubules (or cytochalasin B to disrupt microfilaments), and cultured

for six hr. After fixation as above, samples can be stained as follows.

For samples handled with colchicine, anti-tubulin antibody can be used

for first antibody. For samples handled with cytochalasin B, anti-actin

antibody might be the first antibody, observed by using secondary

antibody as above, and MitoTacker and DAPI staining. Cytoskeletal

and mitochondrial styles in treated and untreated cells may be in

comparison to reveal the role of the cytoskeleton in mitochondrial

association in the course of differentiation.

Expected Results

To illustrate feasibility of the use of Mitotracker FM green and DAPI to localize

mitochondria and nuclei, respectively, MLE-15 cells were double-

categorized with those dyes (Fig. nine). Mitochondria appear restrained

to the cytoplasm and are absent from the nucleus. this is steady with

Bavister’s hypothesis. as a consequence the fluorescent dyes are

feasible for use with MLE-15 cells.

Staining for mitochondria the usage of MitoTracker FM inexperienced is

predicted to reveal differences in mitochondrial distribution in mouse

undifferentiated and differentiated cells. treatment with the cytoskeletal

disrupters (nocodazole, colchicine, cytochalasin B) must display

mitochondrial distribution is mediated by using the cytoskeleton. MES

cells are anticipated to show off perinuclear mitochondrial distribution,

and cytoskeletal disrupters are anticipated to in addition pay attention

mitochondria around the nucleus. MLE-15 cells will exhibit perinuclear

or random, scattered mitochondrial distribution, and cytoskeletal

disrupters need to concentrate mitochondria across the nucleus. The

iPSCs will showcase perinuclear mitochondria distribution simply as

the MES cells do. this would show a role of the cytoskeleton in

maintaining the spatial distribution of mitochondria.

Figure 7. Education of cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells. whilst inner mobile

mass cells are removed from the blastocyst and placed in subculture,

the cells continue to exist and are known as ES cells.

Figure 8. measurement of mitotracker fluorescence depth. Passage eleven

adult rhesus macaque stromal cells (ATSC) have been stained with 50

nM Mitotracker to reveal mitochondrial region. Cells were considered

with fluorescence microscopy at six hundred x magnification. The cell

outer edge is outlined with a black line. The mobile nucleus is proven

in blue. The black dots across the nucleus constitute mitochondrial

staining. The crimson lines are the axes of the graph displaying the

volume of fluorescence depth (inexperienced line) throughout the cell.

the acute mitochondrial fluorescence around the nucleus drops

precipitously toward the cellular periphery, indicating the ATSC cell has

a perinuclear mitochondrial arrangement. (Recreated from Lonergan et

al., 2006)

Figure 9. Mitochondrial distribution in mouse lung epithelial (MLE-15) cells.

Cells stained with 1 mM MitoTracker to localize mitochondria (A) and

five ug/ml DAPI to visualise DNA (B) have been regarded at 60x with

traditional fluorescence microscopy. C suggests mitochondria

(inexperienced) and nuclei (blue) concurrently. Mitochondria seem

limited to the cytoplasm and are absent from nuclei.



A. Conclusions

Mitochondria play a critical position in oogenesis and development in

mammalians. that is because mitochondria no longer most effective

provide ATP for these developmental approaches, however

mitochondria additionally alter calcium signaling and apoptosis, which

might be vital in embryonic development. there is a subcellular

mitochondrial heterogeneity. Morphologically homogenous

mitochondria may be functionally heterogeneous, on account that they

can still be outstanding on the idea of mitochondrial Ψm. The

importance of this isn't understood.

Patients with mitochondrial-associated diseases have diverse signs and

symptoms with diverse reasons. due to the complicated causation of

mitochondrial sicknesses, there is no therapy for them to date, and the

treatments are notably individualized and nevertheless very restricted.

presently, embryonic mitochondrial transplantation and gene therapy

are the 2 proposed strategies of treatment. however, they're each

experimental in vitro. similarly, mitochondrial transplantation is not

possible in adults.
Mitochondrial distribution patterns in oocytes are stage- and mobile-cycle-

unique. There are two primary mitochondrial distribution styles in

oocytes, homogeneous and heterogeneous based totally on

mitochondrial spatial distribution and polarity. Perinuclear mitochondrial

distribution is suggested to signify the maturation of the oocyte. there

may be growing evidence in numerous unique mammalian species

(mouse, dog, pig, human) assisting a mitochondrial distribution

alternate from scattered to perinuclear at some stage in maturation of

oocytes so that development may be continue further, in any other

case there might be a meiotic arrest. therefore, mitochondrial

distribution plays a relevant role in setting up meiotic competence.

because of the correlation of mitochondrial distribution and oocyte

meiotic competence, mitochondria can be visible as symptoms for

evaluation of oocyte first-rate in replica.

In summary, from the records of latest research on mitochondrial distribution,

Bavister’s speculation may be very in all likelihood to hold proper. So

the perinuclear mitochondrial distribution could possibly be used as a

ultra-modern marker for ”stemness.” My proposed studies on

comparison of mitochondrial distribution in mouse MLE-15 and MES

cells is designed to test Bavister’s speculation and cause a higher

expertise of mitochondrial conduct in development. knowledge the

function of the cytoskeleton will also be crucial. This studies might be

of cost in finding therapy for various mitochondrial sicknesses and

most cancers, and could aid in information ES mobile characteristic.

B. Future Directions

The spatial distribution of mitochondria in MES cells wishes to be determined

and compared with the distribution of mitochondria in MLE-15 cells to

test if Bavister's hypothesis holds proper. Experiments need to be

achieved to take a look at outcomes of the cytoskeletal modulators,

nocodazole, colchicine or cytochalasin on mitochondrial association a

good way to decide the interaction of mitochondrial distribution and the


After clarifying the mitochondrial distribution in the course of improvement in

mammalian cells, the reasons for mitochondrial translocation at some

point of development and the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial

translocation all through differentiation deserve similarly investigation in

order that we can get a higher understanding of developmental

strategies with reference to mitochondria. The greater we understand

approximately these mechanisms, the much more likely for us to find

therapy or even a cure for mitochondrial disorders. a few research has

suggested that mitochondrial translocation is related to reproductive

cycle levels. latest studies discover that not only the mitochondrial

distribution, however the heterogeneity of shape and Ψm of

mitochondria may be important for mitochondria to characteristic

generally. those claims need further confirmation in a ramification of

mobile types.

Abbondanzo, S. J., Gadi, I., and Stewart, C. L. (1993). Derivation of

embryonic stem cell lines. Meth. Enzymol. 225: 803-823.

Albertini D. F., Overstrom E. W., and Ebert K. M. (1987). Changes in the

organization of the actin cytoskeleton during preimplantation

development of the pig embryo. Biol. Reprod. 37: 441-451.

Alberts B., Johnson A., Lewis J., Raff M., Roberts K., and Walter P. (1994).

Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Publishing Inc., New York.

Anderson S., Bankier A. T., Barrell B. G., de Bruijn M. H., Coulson A. R., Drouin

J., Eperon I. C., Nierlich D. P., Roe B. A., Sanger F, Schreier P. H., Smith

A. J. H., Staden R., and Young I. G. (1981). Sequence and organization of

the human mitochondrial genome. Nature 290: 457-465.

Ankel-Simons F., and Cummins J. M. (1996). Misconceptions about

mitochondria and mammalian fertilization: Implications for theories on

human evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93: 13859–13863.

Apel K., and Hirt H. (2004). Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative

stress, and signal transduction. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 55: 373-399.

Arbustini E., Diegoli M., Fasani R., Grasso M., Morbini P., Banchieri N., Bellini O.,

Dal Bello B., Pilotto A., Magrini G., Campana C., Fortina P., Gavazzi
A., Narula J., and Vigano M. (1998). Mitochondrial DNA mutations and

mitochondrial abnormalities in dilated cardiomyopathy. Am. J. Pathol.

153: 1501-1510.

Ardón F., Rodríguez-Miranda E., Beltrán C., Hernández-Cruz A., and Darszon

A. (2009). Mitochondrial inhibitors activate influx of external Ca 2+ in

sea urchin sperm. BBA-Bioenergetics 1787: 15-24.

Barnett D.K., Kimura J., and Bavister B.D. (1996). Translocation of active

mitochondria during hamster preimplantation embryo development

studies by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dev. Dyn. 205: 64–72.

Bavister B. D. (2006) The mitochondrial contribution to stem cell biology.

Reprod. Fert. Develop. 18: 829-838.

Benard G., and Karbowski M. (2009). Mitochondrial fusion and division:

regulation and role in cell viability. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 20: 365-374.

Berridge M., Bootman M., and Lipp P. (1998). Calcium-A life and death signal.

Nature 395: 645-648.

Boldogh I. R., and Pon L. A. (2007). Mitochondria on the move. Trends Cell

Biol. 17: 502-510.

Bonder E. M., and Mooseker M. S. (1986). Cytochalasin B slows but does not

prevent monomer addition at the barbed end of the actin filament. J.

Cell Biol. 102: 282-288.

Brantová O., Tesarová M., Hansíková H., Elleder M., Zeman J., and Sládková

J. (2006). Ultrastructural changes of mitochondria in the cultivated skin

fibroblasts of patients with point mutations in mitochondrial DNA.

Ultrastruct. Pathol. 30: 239-245.

Branzini C., Lavolpe M., Nodar F., and Rawe V. Y. (2007). Visualization of

cytoskeleton components during fertilization in mammals. F ertil. Steril.

88: 1435-1436.

Bullerwell C. E., and Gray M. W. (2004). Evolution of the mitochondrial

genome: protist connections to animals, fungi and plants. Curr. Opin.

Microbiol. 7: 528–534.

Campbell, N. A., and Reece J. B. (2005). Biology. 7 th ed. Pearson Benjamin

Cummings, San Francisco, CA .

Cao X., and Chen Y. (2009). Mitochondria and calcium signaling in embryonic

development. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 20: 337-345.

Cerveny K. L., Tamura Y., Zhang Z., Jensen R. E., and Sesaki H. (2007).

Regulation of mitochondrial fusion and divison. Trends Cell Biol. 17:


Chandel N. S., and Schumacker P. T. (2000). Cellular oxygen sensing by

mitochondria: old questions, new insight. J. Appl. Physiol. 88: 1880-


Chen Q., Vazquez E. J., Moghaddas S., Hoppel C. L., and Lesnefsky E. J.

(2003). Production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria: central

role of complex III. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 36027-36031.

Chinnery P. F., Samuels D. C., Elson J., and Turnbull D. M. (2002).

Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations in ageing, cancer, and

mitochondrial disease: is there a common mechanism? Lancet 360:


Collas P., and Poccia D. (1998). Remodeling the sperm nucleus into a male
pronucleus at fertilization. Theriogenology 49: 67-81.

Cooper G. M. and Hausman R. E. (2006). The Cell: a molecular approach. 4th

ed. ASM Press and Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.

DiMauro S. (2004). Mitochondrial diseases. BBA-Bioenergetics 1658: 80– 88.

Domnina L. V., Ivanova O. Yu., Cherniak B. V., Skulachev V. P., and Vasiliev J.

M. (2002). Effects of the inhibitors of dynamics of cytoskeletal

structures on the development of apoptosis induced by the tumor

necrosis factor. Biochemistry-Moscow 67: 737-746.

Duchen M. R. (1999). Contributions of mitochondria to animal physiology:

from homeostatic sensor to calcium signaling and cell death. J. Physiol.

516: 1-17.

Dumollard R., Carroll J., Duchen M. R., Campbell K., and Swann K. (2009).

Mitochondrial function and redox state in mammalian embryos. Semin.

Cell Dev. Biol. 20: 346-353.

Eppig J. J., and O'Brien M. J. (1996). Development In vitro of mouse oocytes

from primordial follicles. Biol. Reprod. 54: 197-207.

Facucho-Oliveira J. M. and St. John J. C. (2009). The relationship between

pluripotency and mitochondrial DNA proliferation during early embryo

development and embryonic stem cell differentiation. Stem Cell Rev.

Rep. 5: 140–158.
Facucho-Oliveira J. M., Alderson J., Spikings E. C., Egginton S., and St. John

J. C. (2007). Mitochondrial DNA replication during differentiation of

murine embryonic stem cells. J. Cell Sci. 120: 4025-4034.

Faulkner J., and Keirstead H. S. (2005). Human embryonic stem cell-derived

oligodendrocyte progenitors for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

Transpl. Immunol. 15: 131-142.

Feng D. F., Cho G., and Doolittle R. F. (1997). Determining divergence times

with a protein clock: update and reevaluation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

USA 94: 13028-13033.

Frederick R. L., and Shaw J. M. (2007). Moving mitochondria: establishing

distribution of an essential organelle. Traffic 8: 1668-1675.

Freitas, Jr. R. A. (1999). Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes

Bioscience, Georgetown, TX.

Gilbert S. F. (2006). Developmental Biology. 8th ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc.,

Sunderland, MA.

Gilkerson R. W., Margineantu D. H., Capaldi R. A., and Selker J. M. (2000).

Mitochondrial DNA depletion causes morphological changes in the

mitochondrial reticulum of cultured human cells. FEBS Lett. 474: 1-4.

Gray M. W., Burger G., and Lang B. F. (1999). Mitochondrial Evolution.

Science 283: 1476-1481.

Guérin P., Mouatassim S. El., and Ménézo Y. (2001). Oxidative stress and

protection against reactive oxygen species in the pre-implantation

embryo and its surroundings. Hum. Reprod. Update 7: 175-189.

Ha H., Hajek P., Bedwell D. M., and Burrows P. D. (1993). A mitochondrial

porin cDNA predicts the existence of multiple human porins. J. Biol.

Chem. 268: 12143-12149.

Haggeness M. H., Simon M., and Singer S. J. (1978). Association of

mitochondria with microtubules in cultured cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

USA 75: 3863-3866.

Hales K. G. (2004). The machinery of mitochondrial fusion, division, and

distribution, and emerging connections to apoptosis. Mitochondrion 4:


Hanjnoczky G., Saotome M., Csorda G., Weaver D., and Yi M. (2007). Calcium

signaling and mitochondrial motility. Nov. Fou. Symp. 287: 105-117.

Heller C. G., and Clermont Y. (1963). Spermatogenesis in man: an estimate

of its duration. Science 140: 184-186.

Hoffman L. M., and Carpenter M. K. (2005). Characterization and culture of

human embryonic stem cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 23: 699-708.

Huang S., Ratliff K., and Matouschek A. (2002). Protein unfolding by the

mitochondrial membrane potential. Nat. Struct. Biol. 9: 301-307.

Hutchison C. A., Newbold J.E., Potter S. S., and Edgell M. H. (1974). Maternal

inheritance of mammalian mitochondrial DNA. Nature 251: 536-538.

Jeong H.-J., Kim H. J., Lee S.-H., Kwack K., Ahn S.-Y., Choi Y.-J., Kim H.-G.,

Lee K.-W., Lee C.-N., and Cha K.-Y. (2006). Gene expression profiling

of the pre-implantation mouse embryo by microarray analysis:

Comparison of the two-cell stage and two-cell block. Theriogenology 66:


Kabashima K., Matsuzaki M., and Suzuki H. (2007). Both microtubules and

microfilaments mutually control the distribution of mitochondria in two-

cell embryos of golden hamsters. J. Mamm. Ova Res. 24: 120-125.

Kanka J. (2003). Gene expression and chromatin structure in the pre-

implantation embryo. Theriogenology 59: 3–19.

Katayama M., Zhong Z., Lai L., Sutovsky P., Prather R. S., and Schatten H.

(2006). Mitochondrial distribution and microtubule organization in

fertilized and cloned porcine embryos: implications for developmental

potential. Dev. Biol. 299: 206-220.

Kyriakouli D. S., Boesch P., Taylor R. W., and Lightowlers R. N. (2008).

Progress and prospects: gene therapy for mitochondrial DNA disease.

Gene Ther. 15: 1017-1023.

Lanza R. P. (2006). Essentials of Stem Cell Biology. Academic Press, London.

Larkin K., and Danilchik M. V. (1999). Microtubules are required for completion

of cytokinesis in sea urchin eggs. Dev. Biol. 214: 215-226.

Lazarou M., Thorburn D. R., Ryan M. T., and McKenzie M. (2009). Assembly

of mitochondrial complex I and defects in disease. BBA-Mol. Cell Res.

1793: 78-88.

Leach R.N., Desai J.C., and Orchard C.H. (2005). Effect of cytoskeleton

disruptors on L-type Ca2+ channel distribution in rat ventricular

myocytes. Cell Calcium 38: 515–526.

Levy Y. S., Stroomza M., Melamed E., and Offen D. (2004). Embryonic and

adult stem cells as a source for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease. J.

Mol. Neurosci. 24: 353-386.

Liesa M., Palacin M., and Zorzano A. (2009). Mitochondrial dynamics in

mammalian health and disease. Physiol. Rev. 89: 799-845.

Linden M., Nelson B. D., Loncar D., and Leterrier J. F. (1989). Studies on the

interaction between mitochondria and the cytoskeleton. J. Bioenerg.

Biomembr. 21: 507-518.

Liou C. W., Huang C. C., Lee C. F., Lin T. K., and Wei Y. H. (2003). Low

antioxidant content and mutation load in mitochondrial DNA A3243G

mutation-related diabetes mellitus. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 102: 527-


Liu L., Xue S., and Liu H. (2002). Cell Biology. 1st ed. The Higher Education


Lonergan T., Bavister B., and Brenner C. (2007). Mitochondria in stem cells.

Mitochondrion 7: 289-296.

Lonergan T., Brenner C., and Bavister B. (2006). Differentiation-related

changes in mitochondrial properties as indicators of stem cell

competence. J. Cellular Physio. 208: 149-153.

Maro B. (1985). Fertilization and the cytoskeleton in the mouse. Bioessays 3:


Maro B., Kubiak J., Gueth C., de Pennart H., Houliston E., Weber M., Antony

C., and Aghion J. (1990). Cytoskeleton organization during oogenesis,

fertilization and preimplantation development of the mouse. Int. J. Dev.

Biol. 34: 127-137.

Motlik J., Crozet N., and Fulka J. (1984). Meiotic competence in vitro of pig

oocytes isolated from early antral follicles. J. Reprod. Fertil. 72: 323-


Nagai S., Kasai T., Hirata S., Hoshi K., Yanagimachi R., and Huang T. (2004).

Cytoplasmic transfer in the mouse in conjunction with intracytoplasmic

sperm injection. Reprod. Biomed. Online 8: 75-80.

Nagai S., Mabuchi T., Hirata S., Shoda T., Kasai T., Yokota S., Shitara H.,

Yonekawa H., and Hoshi K. (2006) Correlation of abnormal

mitochondrial distribution in mouse oocytes with reduced

developmental competence. Tohoku. J. Exp. Med. 210: 137-144.

Niwa H., Miyazaki J., and Smith A. G. (2000). Quantitative expression of Oct-

3/4 defines differentiation, dedifferentiation or self-renewal of ES cells.

Nat. Genet. 24: 372-376.

Odorico, J. S., Kaufman, D. S., and Thomson, J. A. (2001). Multilineage

differentiation from human embryonic stem cell lines. Stem Cells 19:


Pan G., and Thomson J. A. (2007). Nanog and transcriptional networks in

embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Cell Res. 17: 42-49.

Pérez-Martínez X., Funes S., Camacho-Villasana Y., Marjavaara S., Tavares-

Carreón F., and Shingú-Vázquez M. (2008) Protein synthesis and

assembly in mitochondrial disorders. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 8: 1335-


Pike R., and Brown M. L. (1984). Nutrition: an Integrated Approach.

Macmillan, New York, NY.

Pollack R. E., and Kopelovich L. (1979). The cytoskeleton in cultured cells:

coordinate in vitro regulation of cell growth and shape. Meth. Achiev.

Exp. Pathol. 9: 207-230.

Przyrembel H. (1987). Therapy of Mitochondrial Disorders. J. Inher. Metab. Dis.

10: 129-146.
Raskin D. M., Wright D. J., and Wright S. J. (1997). Sea urchin sperm nuclear

enlargement and shape transformations are differentially regulated in

vitro. J. Exp. Zool. 277: 401-416.

Reya T., Morrison S. J., Clarke M. F., and Weissman I. L. (2001). Stem cells,

cancer, and cancer stem cells. Nature 414: 105-111.

Sagan L. (1967). On the origin of mitosing cells. J. Theor. Biol. 14: 225-274.

Santos C., Martlnez M., Lima M., Hao Y. J., Simoes N., and Montiel R. (2008).

Mitochondrial DNA mutations in cancer: a review. Curr. Top Med.

Chem. 8: 1351-1366.

Schapira A. H. V. (2006). Mitochondrial disease. Lancet 368: 70–82.

Schultz R. M., Worrad D. M., Davis Jr W., and De Sousa P. A. (1995).

Regulation of gene expression in the preimplantation mouse embryo.

Theriogenology 44: 1115-1131

Shamsi M. B., Kumar R., Bhatt A., Bamezai R. N., Kumar R., Gupta N. P.,

Das T. K., and Dada R. (2008). Mitochondrial DNA mutations in

etiopathogenesis of male infertility. Indian J. Urol. 24: 150-154.

Smith L. C., Thundathil J., and Filion F. (2005). Role of the mitochondrial

genome in preimplantation development and assisted reproductive

technologies. Reprod. Fert. Develop. 17: 15–22.

Spielmann H., Jacob-Mueller U., Schulz P., and Schimmel A. (1984).

Changes of the adenine ribonucleotide content during preimplantation

development of mouse embryos in vivo and in vitro. J. Rerod. Fert. 71:

Sun Q. Y., Wu G. M., Lai L., Park K. W., Day B., Prather R. S., and Schatten

H. (2001). Translocation of active mitochondria during porcine oocyte

maturation, fertilization and early embryo development in vitro. Reprod.

122: 155-163.

Sutovsky P., Leyen K. V., McCauley T., Day B. N., and Sutovsky M. (1999).

Degradation of paternal mitochondria after fertilization: implications for

heteroplasmy, assisted reproductive technologies and mtDNA

inheritance. Reprod. BioMed. Online 8: 24-33.

Suzuki Y., Taniyama M., Muramatsu T., Atsumi Y., Hosokawa K., Asahina T.,

Shimada A., Murata C., and Matsuoka K. (1997). Diabetes mellitus

associated with 3243 mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) mutation: clinical

features and coenzyme Q10 treatment. Mol. Aspects. Med. 18: 181-


Takahashi K., and Yamanaka, S. (2006). Induction of pluripotent stem cells

from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors.

Cell 126: 663-676

Thiffault C., and Bennett, Jr. J. P. (2005). Cyclical mitochondrial ΔΨm

fluctuation linked to electron transport, F0F1 ATP-synthase and

mitochondrial Na+/Ca+2 exchange are reduced in Alzheimer's disease

cybrids. Mitochondrion 5: 109-119.

Thomson J. A., Itskovitz-Eldor J., Shapiro S. S., Waknitz M. A., Swiergiel J. J.,

Marshall V. S., and Jones J. M. (1998). Embryonic stem cell lines

derived from human blastocysts. Science 282: 1145-1147.

Thouas G. A., Trounson A. O., Wolvetang E. J., and Jones G. M. (2004).

Mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse oocytes results in preimplantation

embryo arrest in vitro. Biol. Reprod. 71: 1936-1942.

Trifunovic A., and Larsson N. G. (2008). Mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause

of ageing. J. Intern. Med. 263: 167-178.

Unseld M., Marienfeld J. R., Brandt P., and Brennicke A. (1997). The

mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 57 genes in

366,924 nucleotides. Nat. Genet. 15: 57-61.

Valentini L., Iorga A. I., Santis T. D., Ambruosi B., Reynaud K., Chastant-

Maillard S., Guaricci A. C., Caira M., and Dell’Aquila M. E. (2009).

Mitochondrial distribution patterns in canine oocytes as related to the

reproductive cycle stage. Anim. Reprod. Sci. [Epub ahead of print]

Van Blerkom J. (2009). Mitochondria in early mammalian development.

Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 20: 354-364.

Van Blerkom J., and Davis P. (2007). Mitochondrial signaling and fertilization.

Mol. Hum. Reprod. 13: 759-770.

Van Blerkom J., Cox H., and Davis P. (2006). Regulatory roles for

mitochondria in the peri-implantation mouse blastocyst: possible origins

and developmental significance of differential DeltaPsim. Reproduction

131: 961-976.

Van Blerkom J., Davis P., Mathwig V., and Alexander S. (2002). Domains of

high-polarized and low-polarized mitochondria may occur in mouse and

human oocytes and early embryos. Hum. Reprod. 17: 393–406.

Van Blerkom J., Davis P., and Alexander S. (2003). Inner mitochondrial

membrane potential (ΔΨm), cytoplasmic ATP content and free Ca2+

levels in metaphase II mouse oocytes. Hum. Reprod. 18: 2429–2440.

Van Blerkom J., Davis P., and Thalhammer V. (2008). Regulation of

mitochondrial polarity in mouse and human oocytes: the influence of

cumulus derived nitric oxide. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 14: 431-444.

Wallace D. C. (1999). Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse. Science 283:


Wang L., Wang D., Zou X., and Xu C. (2009). Mitochondrial functions on

oocytes and preimplantation embryos. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B. 10:


Wiesner R. J., Ruegg J. C., and Morano I. (1992). Counting target molecules

by exponential polymerase chain reaction, copy number of

mitochondrial DNA in rat tissues. Biochem. Bioph. Res. Comm. 183:


Wilding M., Dale B., Marino M., di Matteo L., Alviggi C., Pisaturo M. L.,

Lombardi L., and De Placido G. (2001). Mitochondrial aggregation

patterns and activity in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

Hum. Reprod. 16: 909-917.

Wright S. J. (1999). Human embryonic stem-cell research: Science and

ethics. Am. Sci. 87: 352-361.

Yu J., Vodyanik M. A., Smuga-Otto K., Antosiewicz-Bourget J., Frane J. L.,

Tian S., Nie J., Jonsdottir G. A., Ruotti V., Stewart R., Slukvin I. I., and

Thomson J. A. (2007). Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from

human somatic cells. Science 318: 1917-1920.

Zhang Z. Q., Sun Y. L., Niu S. T., Liang X. H., and Wang Y. J. (2009). Clinical

characteristics and ultra-structural features of skeletal muscle in

mitochondrial cytopathies. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 89: 1185-1188.