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1.’HRM is individual oriented”- comment

Ans:- HRM is process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. It
tries to secure the best from people by winning their whole hearted cooperation. In short, it may be
defined as the art of procuring developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of
an organization in an effective and efficient manner.

Individually oriented: It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages them to give
their best to the organizations. It motivates employees through a systematic process of recruitment,
selection, training and development coupled with fair wage policies.

3. “HRP prepares people for future chalanges.” –comment.

Ans:- Human resource planning is about ensuring that the organization has the employees it will need in
the future, in the right jobs, with the right skills, and it's one of the most challenging types of planning we
cover on this site. In fact, it may be the most complex kind of planning a company can undertake.
Consider the following points:
1.Human resource planning can only be as good as the ability of the company to predict what will happen
OUTSIDE the company, economic trends, upturns, downturns, what competitors are doing, and a raft of
other things the company has no control over.
2.The pace of change is so quick in the workplace that it's hard to predict what skills (and therefore, what
employees, will be needed in even the near future.
3.People make decisions about their own careers, whether to stay or go, and these days, there's much
more movement of employees from company to company
4.Company growth (or for that matter, contraction) is difficult to predict in today's world. Successful
companies can crash and burn quickly, or lose revenue, resulting in a need to layoff staff in an
uncontrolled and unplanned way.

4. Reason for fluctuation in supply of HR.

Ans:- Human resources planning uses forecasts about product and service demand and insights about
internal labor fluctuations to measure the appropriate supply of labor for a firm's operations. Being able to
correctly approximate labor availability and needs is crucial. Labor surplus or shortage can be realized if
the workforce does not match up with present infrastructure and needs.

Most human resources departments rely on external metrics to gauge the demand for labor, since the
ultimate cause of demand comes from consumer preferences. When consumers demand more of a product
or service, firms have an incentive to increase their output to maximize profits. This can lead to hiring
more employees and innovating to realize economies of scale.Labor supply, on the other hand, comes
from internal movements as much as external factors. Transitional matrices can be used to spot employee
movements over time. Businesses need to track turnover – not just when it happens, but when it might
happen.Human resources planning involves strategies to address imbalances in labor supply and demand.
In the face of additional labor needs, companies can encourage overtime work, hire temporary employees,
outsource, engage in new retraining programs or find other ways to improve productivity.
5. “Recruitment is a positive process”- Comment.
Ans:- Recruitment is a positive process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating
them to apply for the jobs in the organisation. When more persons apply for jobs then there will
be a scope for recruiting better persons.
Process of Recruitment:
(i) Searching out the sources from where required persons will be available for recruitment. If
young managers are to be recruited then institutions imparting instructions in business
administration will be the best source.

(ii) Developing the techniques to attract the suitable candidates. The goodwill and reputation of
an organisation in the market may be one method. The publicity about the company being a
professional employer may also assist in stimulating candidates to apply.

(iii) Using of good techniques to attract prospective candidates. There may be offers of attractive
salaries, proper facilities for development, etc.

(iv) The next stage in this process is to stimulate as many candidates as possible to apply for
jobs. In order to select a best person, there is a need to attract more candidates.

7. Why is training and development is needed in an organization?

Ans:- Training presents a prime opportunity to expand the knowledge base of all employees, but
many employers in the current climate find development opportunities expensive. Employees
attending training sessions also miss out on work time which may delay the completion of

a. Improved employee performance – the employee who receives the necessary training is
more able to perform in their job. The training will give the employee a greater
understanding of their responsibilities within their role, and in turn build their confidence.

b. Improved employee satisfaction and morale – the investment in training that a

company makes shows employees that they are valued. The training creates a supportive

c. Addressing weaknesses – Most employees will have some weaknesses in their

workplace skills. A training program allows you to strengthen those skills that each
employee needs to improve.

d. Consistency – A robust training and development program ensures that employees have
a consistent experience and background knowledge. The consistency is particularly
relevant for the company’s basic policies and procedures.

e. Increased productivity and adherence to quality standards – Productivity usually

increases when a company implements training courses. Increased efficiency in processes
will ensure project success which in turn will improve the company turnover and
potential market share.
8. Define the term incentives.

Ans:- Anything that can attract an employee’s attention and motivate them to work can be called
as incentive. An incentive aims at improving the overall performance of an organization.
incentive is system of payment emphasizing the point of motivation, that is, the imparting of
incentives to workers for higher production and productivity.
Incentives can be classified into three categories:
a. Financial incentives:-Some extra cash is offered for extra efficiency. For example,
profit sharing plan and group incentive plans
b. Non-financial incentives:-When rewards or prizes are provided by the organization to
motivate the employees it is known as non-financial incentives.

c. Monetary and non-monetary incentives:-Many times, employees are rewarded with

monetary and non-monetary incentives that include promotion, seniority, recognition for
merits, or even designation as permanent employee.

10. Errors in performance appraisal.

Ans:- Errors of performance appraisal are:-

a. Central Tendency Error- Some supervisors tend to rank all employees at about average,
regardless of an employee’s performance. A supervisor who believes in never rating an employee
as excellent is demonstrating central tendency error.

b. Contrast Error- Supervisors who rate subordinates as they compare against each other rather
than how they compare against the performance standards commit contrast error.

c. False Attribution- False attribution is the tendency to attribute bad performance to internal
causes and good performance to external causes. In other words, if an employee performs well,
it’s because the employee had help, such as a good leader; and if the employee performs badly,
it’s because the employee did something wrong, such as procrastinate.

d. Halo Effect- The halo effect is when a supervisor forms a positive impression of an employee's
skill in one area and then gives her high ratings across all rating criteria. Humans tend to view
some traits as more important than other traits.
e. Leniency Error- Leniency error is the tendency of a supervisor to rate an employee higher than
what his performance warrants.
11.What is Collection Bargaining and its importance in HRM?
Ans:- Collective Bargaining is the process by which a group of employees negotiate with the
employer in order to bring about an agreement that regulates working conditions. The interests of
the employees are generally represented by the members of a trade union to which the employees
belong. This collective bargaining model rests on the worker's representatives submitting
proposals that they consider ideal, but show willingness to settle for less, and the management
willing to concede more than what they publicly acknowledge.


a. Increase the economic strength of unions and management.

b. Secure a prompt and fair settlement of grievances.
c. Lay down fair rates of wages and norms of working conditions;
d. Achieve an efficient operation of the plant;
e. Promote the stability and prosperity of the industry;
12. What is succession planning and career planning? Its difference.


Career planning encourages individuals to explore and gather information, which enables them
to synthesize, gain competencies, make decisions, set goals and take action. It is a crucial phase
of human resource development that helps the employees in making strategy for work-life

Features of Career Planning and Career Development:

1. It is an ongoing process.

2. It helps individuals develop skills required to fulfill different career roles.

3. It strengthens work-related activities in the organization.

4. It defines life, career, abilities, and interests of the employees.

5. It can also give professional directions, as they relate to career goals.

Succession Planning is defined as the systematic process of recognizing and creating future
leaders who are able to take the position of the old ones when they leave the organization due to
retirement, resignation, termination, transfer, promotion or death.

In finer terms, it is a modern technique followed by many companies, that concentrates on

identifying the prospects, out of many employees in the organisation, who might be possible
successors, for the key positions.

Need for Succession Planning

Succession Planning is a part and parcel of the Human Resource Planning, which acknowledges
that the employees may or may not work with the organization in the future. And so to be at the
safer side, a succession plan is developed to analyse the vacancies which might take place when
an employee leaves the organization, the business areas which might be affected, job
requirements and the skills of the existing incumbent.
13. What is Trade Union? Its objectives

ANS:- The existence of a strong and recognized trade union is a prerequisite to industrial peace.
Decisions taken through the process of collective bargaining and negotiations between employer
and unions are more influential. Trade unions play an important role and are helpful in effective
communication between the workers and the management. They provide the advice and support
to ensure that the differences of opinion do not turn into major conflicts. The central function of
a trade union is to represent people at work. But they also have a wider role in protecting their
interests. They also play an important role in organizing courses for their members on a wide
range of matters. Seeking a healthy and safe working environment is also prominent feature of
the trade union.
Trade Unions are important to workers for the following reasons:

2. Trade Unions strengthen workers’ demand for better labour and industrial legislation. Better
medical facilities, welfare schemes, annual leave, insurance and other benefits are the results.

7. Workers’ individual rights and liberties are better protected by trade unions. It protects women
employees against sexual harassment.

8. Trade Unions in advanced countries often provide educational support and training for skill

9. Trade unions can negotiate with management for mutual give and take in matters of increased
productivity. When there is higher demand of production trade unions can negotiate better
remuneration, so that both workers and managements benefited.

10. Since trade unions protect their interests, workers can remain motivated and their economic,
social, political well being are taken care of.

(15 MARKS)
1. What are the managerial functions and operational functions of HRM.

Ans:- Some of the major functions of human resource management are as follows: 1. Managerial
Functions 2. Operative Functions 3. Advisory Functions.

Human Resource or Personnel Department is established in most of the organisations, under the
charge of an executive known as Human Resource/Personnel Manager. This department plays an
important role in the efficient management of human resources.The personnel department gives
assistance and provides service to all other departments on personnel matters. Though personnel
or human resource manager is a staff officer in relation to other departments of the enterprise, he
has a line authority to get orders executed within his department.

1. Managerial Functions:
The Human Resource Manager is a part of the organisational management. So he must perform
the basic managerial functions of planning, organising, directing and controlling in relation to his

There functions are briefly discussed below:

a. Planning: To get things done through the subordinates, a manager must plan ahead.
Planning is necessary to determine the goals of the organisation and lay down policies
and procedures to reach the goals.
b. Organizing:-Once the human resource manager has established objectives and
developed plans and programs to reach them, he must design and develop organisation
structure to carry out the various operations.

c. Directing: The plans are to be pure into effect by people. But how smoothly the plans
are implemented depends on the motivation of people.
d. Controlling: Controlling is concerned with the regulation of activities in accordance
with the plans, which in turn have been formulated on the basis of the objectives of the

2. Operative Functions:
The operative functions are those tasks or duties which are specifically entrusted to the human
resource or personnel department. These are concerned with employment, development,
compensation, integration and maintenance of personnel of the organisation.

The operative functions of human resource or personnel department are discussed below:
a. Employment: The first operative function of the human resource of personnel
department is the employment of proper kind and number of persons necessary to achieve
the objectives of the organisation.
b. Development: Training and development of personnel is a follow up of the employment
function. It is a duty of management to train each employee property to develop technical
skills for the job for which he has been employed.

c. Compensation: This function is concerned with the determination of adequate and

equitable remuneration of the employees in the organization of their contribution to the
organizational goals.

3. Advisory Functions:
Human resource manager has specialized education and training in managing human resources.
He is an expert in his area and so can give advice on matters relating to human resources of the

He offers his advise to:

a. Advised to Top Management: Personnel manager advises the top management in

formulation and evaluation of personnel programs, policies and procedures
b. Advised to Departmental Heads: Personnel manager offers advice to the heads of
various departments on matters such as manpower planning, job analysis and design,
recruitment and selection, placement, training, performance appraisal, etc.

2. Challenges of HRM

Ans:- There are number of human resource management challenges that need to be address as it
is an important function of any organization. These HR challenges might be environmental
challenges, organizational challenges and individual challenges, etc. Following are the broad
categories of the Human Resource Management challenges in the today’s competitive world.

1. Environmental Challenges
2. Organizational Challenges
3. Individual Challenges

Environmental Challenges:

The environmental challenges are related to the external forces that exist in the outside
environment of an organization & can influence the performance of the management of the
organization. These external forces are almost out of control of the management of the
organization. These can be regarded as threats to management & should be handled in a
proactive manner.

environmental challenges.
1. Rapid Change
2. Work Force Diversity
3. Globalization
4. Legislation
5. Technology
6. Job & Family Roles
7. Lack of Skills

Organizational Challenges

The organizational challenges for the HRM are related to the factors that are located inside the
organization. Although these challenges are evolved as a byproduct of the environmental
challenges but these can be control by the management of the organization to much extent. The
proactive HR managers take notice of such challenges in advance and take corrective measures
before these would convert into serious issues. The human resource management challenges
within the organization include competitive position & flexibility, organizational restructuring &
issues of downsizing, the exercise of self managed teams, development of suitable organizational
culture etc. When the workforce of an organization is effectively used in combination with other
factor of production, the opportunities of the environment are availed & the threats are
eliminated. The competitive position of the organization can be influenced by the policies of HR
in the following ways.

 Controlling Costs
 Improving Quality
 Developing Distinctive Capabilities
 Restructuring

Individual Challenges

The decisions related to the specific individual employees are included in the individual
challenges for the HRM. The organizational issues are also affected by the fact that how
employees are treated within the organizations. The problems related to the individual level are
as follow.

 Productivity
 Empowerment
 Brain drain
 Ethics & social responsibility
 Job insecurity
 Matching people & organization

3. “HRP is more than matching demand and supply gap”- Do you agree, justify your answer.
Ans:- The Human Resource Planning is a process of forecasting the organization’s demand for and
supply of manpower needs in the near future.

1. Determining the Objectives of Human Resource Planning: The foremost step in every process is the
determination of the objectives for which the process is to be carried on. The objective for which the
manpower planning is to be done should be defined precisely, so as to ensure that a right number of
people for the right kind of job are selected.

The objectives can vary across the several departments in the organization such as the personnel demand
may differ in marketing, finance, production, HR department, based on their roles or functions.

2. Analyzing Current Manpower Inventory: The next step is to analyze the current manpower supply in
the organization through the stored information about the employees in terms of their experience,
proficiency, skills, etc. required to perform a particular job.

Also, the future vacancies can be estimated, so as to plan for the manpower from both the internal (within
the current employees) and the external (hiring candidates from outside) sources. Thus, it is to be ensured
that reservoir of talent is maintained to meet any vacancy arising in the near future.

3. Forecasting Demand and Supply of Human Resources: Once the inventory of talented manpower is
maintained; the next step is to match the demand for the manpower arising in the future with the supply or
available resources with the organization.

Here, the required skills of personnel for a particular job are matched with the job description and

4. Analyzing the Manpower Gaps: After forecasting the demand and supply, the manpower gaps can be
easily evaluated. In case the demand is more than the supply of human resources, that means there is a
deficit, and thus, new candidates are to be hired.
5. Employment Plan/Action Plan: Once the manpower gaps are evaluated, the action plan is to be
formulated accordingly. In a case of a deficit, the firm may go either for recruitment, training,
interdepartmental transfer plans whereas in the case of a surplus, the voluntary retirement schemes,
redeployment, transfer, layoff, could be followed.
6. Training and Development: The training is not only for the new joinees but also for the existing
employees who are required to update their skills from time to time.

After the employment plan, the training programmes are conducted to equip the new employees as well as
the old ones with the requisite skills to be performed on a particular job.

7. Appraisal of Manpower Planning: Finally, the effectiveness of the manpower planning process is to be
evaluated. Here the human resource plan is compared with its actual implementation to ensure the
availability of a number of employees for several jobs.

At this stage, the firm has to decide the success of the plan and control the deficiencies, if any.
4. Techniques of HR demand forecasting

Ans:- human resource demand forecasting is the process of estimating the future quantity and
quality of people required. The basis of the forecast must be the annual budget and long-term
corporate plan, translated into activity levels for each function and department. In a
manufacturing company, the sales budget would be translated into a production plan giving the
number and type of products to be produced in each period. From this information, the number
of hours to be worked by each skilled category to make the quota for each period, would be
computed. Once the hours are available, determining the quality and quantity of personnel will
be the logical step.

Forecasting Techniques: HR Forecasting techniques vary from simple to sophisticated ones.

Before describing each technique, it may be stated that organisations generally follow more than
one technique. The techniques are:

1. Ratio-trend analysis- This is the quickest HR forecasting technique. The technique involves
studying·past ratios, say, between the number of workers and sales in an organisation and
forecasting future ratios, making some allowance or changes in the organisation or its methods

2. Regression analysis- This is similar to ratio-trend analysis in that forecast is based on the
relationship between sales volume and employee size. However, regression analysis is more
statistically sophisticated. A firm first draws a diagram depicting the relationship between sales
and workforce size

3. Work study techniques- Work-study techniques can be used when it is possible to apply
work measurement to calculate length of operations and the amount of labor required. The
starting point in a manufacturing company is the production budget, prepared in terms of
volumes of saleable products for the company as a whole, or volumes of output for individual

4. Delphi technique- Delphi Technique Named after the ancient Greek Oracle at the city of
Delphi, the Delphi technique is a method of forecasting personnel needs. It solicits estimates of
personnel needs from a group of experts, usually managers.
5. What are the factors affecting HRP?

Ans:- Factors Affecting HRP : HRP is influenced by several considerations. The more
important of them are :

1. Type and strategy of organization.

2. Organizational growth cycles and planning.
3. Environmental uncertainties.
4. Time horizons.
5. Type and quality forecasting information.
6. Nature of jobs being filled.
7. Off-loading the work.

Type of organization: The type of organization determines the production process and number
and type of staff needed. Manufacturing organizations have a more complex structure compared
to service organization. It goes without saying that the HRP differs according to the nature of the

Strategy of organization: The human resource needs of an organization depend on the strategic
plan adopted by it. For example, growth of the business calls for hiring of additional labour,
while mergers will need a plan for layoffs.

Environmental Uncertainties: HR managers rarely have the privilege in a stable and

predictable environment. Political, social and economic changes affect all organizations.
Personnel planners deal with environmental uncertainties by carefully formulating recruitment ,
selection, and training and development policies and programmes. Balancing mechanisms are
built into the HRM programme through succession planning , promotion channels, layoffs,
flextime, job sharing , retirement, VRS and other personnel related arrangements.

Time period: Yet another major factor affecting personnel planning is the horizon. On one hand,
there are short-term plans spanning six months to one year. On the other hand, there are long-
term plans which spread over three to twenty years. The exact time span, however, depends on
the degree of certainty prevailing in an organization’s environment. Plans for companies
operating in an unstable environment, computers for example, must be for a short period. Plans
for others where environment is fairly stable, for example a university plans, may be long-term.
In general , the grater the uncertainty, the shorter the plan’s time horizon and vice versa.

Information: The type and quality of information used in making forecast is an important factor
influencing Human Resource Planning. In the absence of a well-developed information
mechanism Human Resource Planning is just impossible. Accurate and timely human resource
information system helps in getting better quality personnel.
Nature of jobs being filled: Job vacancies are very common and arise due to promotions,
retirements, termination of services, growth, expansion, etc. HRP is required to ensure that
suitable candidates are recruited.Off-loading: This implies giving part of the organizations work
to outside parties. If an organization prefers off-loading to recruitment of more people. Human
Resource Planning is not required.

6. What are the internal and external sources of recruitment?


The Internal Sources of Recruitment mean hiring people from within the organization. In other
words, seeking applicants for the job positions from those who are currently employed with the

In any organization, following are the most common internal sources of recruitment:

1. Transfer: Transfer means shifting an employee from one job to another, typically of similar
nature, without any change in his rank and responsibility. The purpose of an employee transfer is
to enable him to get well-versed with the broad-based view of the organization which is essential
for the promotions in future.
2. Promotion: Promotions are the most common form of internal recruitment wherein the
employees are moved to the upper levels of the organization with more responsibility and
prestige. When the higher level positions fall vacant companies recruit from within the
organization so as to capitalize one of the following benefits:
 The employee is familiar with the working of the organization.
 Less cost is incurred as compared to hiring the person from the external sources.
 The chances of selection are bright since the performance card of the individual is readily
available with the firm.
 It boosts the morale of the employee.
 The others in the organization also get motivated to work harder to get promoted to the higher
levels of the organization.

3. Employee Referrals: The present employees can refer their friends and family to the job. They
are well aware of the organizational culture, working conditions and job requirements. If they
find their friends or family suitable for such position can recommend their names to the
management for recruitment.


The External Sources of Recruitment mean hiring people from outside the organization. In
other words, seeking applicants from those who are external to the organization.

There are several methods for external recruiting. The firm must carefully analyze the vacant
positions and then use the method which best fulfills the requirement. Following are the different
types of external sources of recruitment:

1. Media Advertisement: The advertisement is the most common and preferred source of external
recruiting. The ads in newspapers, professional journals, give a comprehensive detail about the
organization, type, and nature of job position, skills required, qualification and experience
expected, etc
2. Employment Exchange: The employment exchange is the office run by the government
wherein the details about the job seekers such as name, qualification, experience, etc. is stored
and is given to the employers who are searching for men for their organizations.
3. Direct Recruitment: The direct recruitment also called as factory gate recruitment is an
important source of hiring, especially the unskilled workers or badli workers who are paid on a
daily-wage basis.
4. Casual Callers: The casual callers, also called as unsolicited applications are the job seekers
who come to the well-renowned organizations casually and either mail or drop in their job
applications seeking the job opportunity.
5. Educational Institutions or Campus Placement: Creating a close liaison with the educational
institutes for the recruitment of students with technical and professional qualifications has
become a common practice of external recruitment.
6. Labor Contractors: This is the most common form of external recruitment wherein the labor
contractors who are either employed with the firm or have an agreement to supply workers to the
firm for the completion of a specific type of a task.
7. Walk-Ins: This is again a direct form of recruitment wherein the prospective candidates are
invited through an advertisement to come and apply for the job vacancy
8. E-recruiting: The e-recruiting means searching and screening the prospective candidates
electronically. monster.com, shine.com, etc. are some of the well renowned online job portals.
9. Management Consultants: There are several private management firms that act as a middleman
between the recruiter and the recruit
7. What are the two types of training?


The On-the-Job Training is a technique wherein the workers, i.e., operative staff, is given the
direct instructions to perform their jobs on the actual work floor.

The workers can learn the skills that are required to be performed in the actual work conditions
and also gets accustomed to the working environment. Also, the organizations need not to bear
any additional cost of setting up a classroom or a simulated setup for imparting training to the
workers, away from the actual work floor, as in the case of Off-the -Job training.

1. Coaching: Under this method, the superior or an experienced staff gives instructions to the
workers to perform a job. It is one-to-one training designed for the workers where they can find
answers to their queries through the instructions and demonstrations given by the superior.
2. Mentoring: This training is given to the managerial level people, wherein the senior or the
manager gives instructions to the immediate subordinate to carry out the day to day functioning.
3. Job Rotation: Under the job rotation, an employee is often shifted to the other related jobs, with
the intention to make him well versed with other job backgrounds.
4. Job Instructional Training: Under this training, a trainer designs a step by step training
program, wherein the worker is given the instructions to perform the job as required.
5. Understudy: Here, the superior gives training to the subordinate as an understudy or an assistant
who is likely to perform a superior’s job in case of the vacancy arising out of superior’s
retirement, transfer, promotion or death.
6. Apprenticeship: This type of training is generally given to the people in crafts, trade and
technical fields that require a long-term learning before they actually gain the proficiency in their
respective disciplines.


The Off-the-Job Training is the training method wherein the workers/employees learn their job
roles away from the actual work floor.

Simply, off-the-job training comprises of a place specifically allotted for the training purpose
that may be near to the actual workplace, where the workers are required to learn the skills and
get well equipped with the tools and techniques that are to be used at the actual work floor.

1. Special lectures: This is also called as classroom training wherein the employees are given
lectures about the job requirements and the necessary skills required for implementing the job.
2. Simulation: Under this training, the trainee is required to learn the operations of machines and
equipment, that are reasonably designed to look similar to those installed at the actual work
3. Vestibule Training: This type of training is specifically given to the technical staff, office staff
and the employees who learn the operations of tools and equipment assembled at a place away
from the actual work floor.
4. Case Studies: Under this method, the trainees are given the situation or a problem in the form of
a case study, and are required to solve it as per their learning from the training program.
5. Role playing: This type of training is essential in case of customer services. Under this, the
trainees assume roles and enact as per the given situations.
6. Management Games: Under this method, the trainees are divided into groups and then they are
presented with the simulated marketplace or the situations, wherein they are required to apply
their learning and solve the problems accordingly.

8. “Selection is a negative process”- Comment.

Ans:- Yes, as selection is choosing from among the candidates the ones, who best meet a
position’s requirements and eliminating the ones who are not suitable. To achieve this target,
candidates arl required to take a series of tests and interviews in different stages. At each stage,
many candidates are eliminated and only a few candidates move to the next stage. The process of
elimination continues till the right ones are finalised. The above scenario clearly establishes the
fact that selection is the process, through which unsuitable candidates are rejected and suitable
ones are chosen. Therefore, it is regarded as a negative process.

9. What are the process of selection?

Ans:- The Selection is a process of picking the right candidate with prerequisite qualifications
and capabilities to fill the jobs in the organization.

The selection process is quite lengthy and complex as it involves a series of steps before making
the final selection. The procedure of selection may vary from industry to industry, company to
company and even from department to department. Every organization designs its selection
process, keeping in mind the urgency of hiring people and the prerequisites for the job vacancy.

Selection Process
The selection procedure comprises of following systematic steps:

1. Preliminary Interview: The preliminary interview is also called as a screening interview

wherein those candidates are eliminated from the further selection process who do not meet the
minimum eligibility criteria as required by the organization.
2. Receiving Applications: Once the individual qualifies the preliminary interview he is required
to fill in the application form in the prescribed format. This application contains the candidate
data such as age, qualification, experience, etc. This information helps the interviewer to get the
fair idea about the candidate and formulate questions to get more information about him.
3. Screening Applications: Once the applications are received, these are screened by the screening
committee, who then prepare a list of those applicants whom they find suitable for the
4. Employment Tests: In order to check the mental ability and skill set of an individual, several
tests are conducted. Such as intelligence tests, aptitude tests, interest tests, psychological tests,
personality tests, etc. These tests are conducted to judge the suitability of the candidate for the
5. Employment Interview: The one on one session with the candidate is conducted to gain more
insights about him. Here, the interviewer asks questions from the applicant to discover more
about him and to give him the accurate picture of the kind of a job he is required to perform.
6. Checking References: The firms usually ask for the references from the candidate to cross
check the authenticity of the information provided by him.
7. Medical Examination: Here the physical and mental fitness of the candidate are checked to
ensure that he is capable of performing the job. In some organizations, the medical examination
is done at the very beginning of the selection process while in some cases it is done after the final
8. Final Selection: Finally, the candidate who qualifies all the rounds of a selection process is
given the appointment letter to join the firm.

10. Grievances handling process and model.

Ans:- The Model Grievance Procedure

The Model Grievance Procedure was formulated in pursuance to the Code of discipline adopted
by the 16th Session of the Indian Labour Conference in 1958. Most of the grievance procedures
now a day are built around the Model Grievance Procedure with certain changes to suit the size
and special requirements of an enterprise.

The model Grievance Procedure provides for five successive time-bound steps. These are as

1. An aggrieved employee shall first present his grievance verbally in person to the officer
designated by the Management for this purpose. An answer shall be given to him within 48 hours
of the presentation of the complaint.
2. If the worker is not satisfied with the decision of this officer or fails to receive an answer within
the stipulated period, he shall in person or by his departmental representative, if required, present
his grievance to the head of the department designated by the management for this purpose. And
he will get the answer within 3 days of the presentation of his grievance.
3. If the decision of the departmental head is unsatisfactory, the aggrieved worker may request the
forwarding of his grievance to the Grievance Committee, which shall make its recommendations
to the management within 7 days of the worker’s request. The final decision of the management
shall be communicated to the worker within the stipulated period (3 days) by the Personnel
4. A revision of his grievance can be done if the decision is not satisfactory. The management shall
communicate its decision within a week.
5. If no agreement is possible the union and the Management may refer the grievance to voluntary
arbitration within a week from the date of receipt by the worker of the management’s decision.