Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

International Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science

Vol. 6(2), pp. 527-535, June, 2019. © www.premierpublishers.org, ISSN: 2167-0449

Research Article

Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian


Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Fekadu Amsalu
Holetta Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Email: fekiamsalu@gmail.com

Growing of Ethiopian mustard, as an oilseed and leaf vegetable require genetic improvement
which relies on its genetic diversity. The experiment was executed to analyse genetic and
morphological diversity of Ethiopian mustard land races at Holetta agricultural research center.
Forty-nine genotypes collected from different agro ecologies were analyzed using morphological
traits in order to assess the genetic and morphological diversity that exists in these materials.
The experiment was carried out in a simple lattice design. The analysis of variance showed that
there were significant differences among genotypes for all traits compared except seed yield per
plant, fresh leaf biomass per plant topped at 40, 50 and 60 days of growth and number of intact
leaves at flowering. The significant difference indicates the existence of genetic variability among
the accessions that is important for selection and breeding. For yield component traits, high
genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variations was observed in seed yield per plot and oil
yield. This shows that selection of these traits based on phenotype, may be useful for yield
improvement. The highest heritability in broad sense was recorded for thousand seed
weight(68.80%), followed by days to flowering (65.91%), stand percent (63.14%), linolenic acid
(62.58%), days to maturity(60.43%), plant height (59.63%), palmitic (58.19%), linoleic (57.46%),leaf
area (52..09%), oil content (50.33%), leaf width (48.29%),leaf length(46.28%), oil yield(44.84%),
fresh leaf biomass at 50 days of topping(43.40%), seed yield per plot(42.99%), number of leaves
at vegetative state(40.48%), seed yield of 50 days growth stage topped plants(38.85%) and primary
branches (34.20%). This suggests that large proportion of the total variance was due to high
genotypic variance. Hence, a good progress can be made if some of these traits are considered
as selection criteria for the improvement of yield, yield component and vegetative traits. The
present study revealed the presence of considerable variability among genotypes for all traits
compared except seed yield per plant, fresh leaf biomass per plant topped at 40,50 and 60 days
of growth and number of intact leaves at flowering. These conditions indicate that there is good
opportunity to improve these characters using the tested genotypes.

Keywords: Ethiopian mustard, Genetic diversity, Genetic advance, Heritability, Morphological Diversity

INTRODUCTION

The genus Brassicaas a whole is believed to have nigra (BB) (n=8) and B. oleracea (CC) (n=9) and
originated around the Mediterranean, Eastern Afghanistan underwent further chromosomal doubling (UN, 1935). It is
and the adjoining portion of Pakistan and North-Eastern partially amphidiploid with genome constitution BBCC.
Africa (Hemigway, 1976). The genus includes six
economically important species, namely, Brassica rapa, B. In Ethiopia, among the highland oilseeds, Ethiopian
oleracea, B. nigra, B. juncea, B. napus, and B. carinata mustard stands third next to niger seed and linseed in total
(Doweny and Röbbelen, 1989). Ethiopian mustard production and area (CSA, 2013/2014). Its area and
(2n=34) is believed to have originated in the highlands of production are estimated to 44041.34 hectares and
the Ethiopian plateau and the adjoining portion of East 62450.266 tons, respectively, at private peasants’ holdings
Africa and the Mediterranean coast (Gomez-Campo and level, with an average productivity of 1.418 tons/ha (CSA,
Prakash, 1999). It evolved as a natural cross between B. 2013/14). It is often grown on well-drained and organic
Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Amsalu F. 528

matter rich soils. Ethiopian mustard is well adapted to cool, MATERIALS AND METHODS
long growing season and high rainfall areas at elevation
between 2200 and 2800 meters. In these areas, the Experimental site
temperature and rainfall range from 12 to 18 0C and 500 to
1200 mm, respectively during the growing season (i.e., The experiment was conducted at Holetta Agricultural
June to December). It grows well in either a heavy sandy Research Center (HARC) during 2013/2014 cropping
loam or light clay soils with a good drainage system season from June to December 2013. Holetta (West
(Getinet and Nigussie, 1997). Shewa Zone of Oromia Region) is located at latitude 9 o N
and longitude 38o E, altitude of 2400msl and situated 30km
The crop is traditionally used for many purposes, such as West of Addis Ababa. It is one of the representatives of oil
greasing traditional bread-baking clay pan, curing certain seed Brassica growing areas in the central highlands of
diseases (treating certain ailments and stomach upset) Ethiopia (Nigussie and Mesfin, 1994). The area has mean
and as a source of vegetable relish (Nigussie, 2001). For annual rainfall of 1059 mm and temperatures of 23oC
the small-scale farmers, it is a security crop, because it is (maximum) and 8oC (minimum). The soil type is Nitisols
a source of food and income at the time of acute food and (normally deeper and dusky red or dark red in color) with
income shortage that mostly occurs at the middle of the soil PH in the range of 6.0 -7.5 (Nigussie and Mesfin,
main rainy season. It is the only highland oil seed 1994).
vegetable crop that can be consumed by defoliating its
leaves or sold to generate income after a month of sowing. Description of test materials
In many parts of the country, boiled and chopped leaves
A total of forty-nine mustard land races that include one
along with very delicate young stems are mixed with butter,
local check and one standard check were used in this
and served along with cheese and 'kitifo' (slightly cooked,
study. The majority of the accessions represent the
heavily chopped, and buttered beef).
national collection from different major mustard growing
regions of the country and that are maintained at HARC.
Major production constraints of the Ethiopian mustard are:
The accessions were obtained kindly from Holetta
lack of high yielding early maturing varieties, high erucic
agricultural research center of highland oil crops
acid (C22: 1) content in seed oil and high glucosinolate
improvement project. The details of the accessions used
content in the meal (EARO, 2000). The major challenge in
in the experiment are given in Table 1.
Ethiopian mustard breeding programmes is to improve the
seed oil and meal quality characteristics to meet Canola
Experimental design, management and season
quality standards apart from the development of high
yielding early maturing varieties. (Getinet et al., 1994).
The experiment was executed from June 2013 to
Selection is one of the important breeding methods which
December 2013. The experiment was laid out in simple
utilize the existing genetic variability in the population.
lattice design with two replications. A plot of four central
Selection by plant breeders or by farmers can be intense
rows each three-meter long and 30cm spacing between
and has resulted in major improvements. However,
rows were used for data collection. Each replication had
continued success through selection can only be realized
seven blocks and each block was represented by seven
in so far as new variability is available for selection (Copper
plots. The path between blocks was 2 m and the spacing
et al., 2001). Such variability provides adaptability, which
between plots with in sub-blocks was also 0.6m. Standard
is the capacity for genetic change in response to selection
package of practices were followed to raise a good crop.
(Sigmmonds, 1962). Genetic variability is therefore
essential for crop improvement. through characterization
I. Data collected on plot basis
of Ethiopian mustard lines for vegetative agro-
morphological traits. Jane Muthoni, (2010) reported great
1. Days to flowering (Df): The numbers of days from date
variation in leaf number per plant, leaf bloom and leaf
of sowing to a stage at which 50% of the plants in a plot
blade blistering. Similarly, genetic variation in this crop was
open flower.
studied by Muhamad et al., 2013 using 33 agro-
2. Days to maturity (Dm): The number of days from date
morphological characters. According to their findings the
of sowing to a stage at which 50% of the plants have
largest variation was for seed yield followed by plant
reached physiological maturity. It is the time when 50%
height, glucosinolate content, main raceme length,
of the capsules change their color into brown.
silique/main raceme and erucic acid. The low productivity
3. Seed yield per plot (SYPP): Seed yield per plot
of Ethiopian mustard is mainly due to lack of high yielding
measured in grams after moisture of the seed was
genotypes. Hence, research efforts to improve seed yield
adjusted to 7 percent.
of Ethiopian mustard using suitable selection criteria is
4. Oil content (Oc): The proportion of oil in the seed to total
indispensable. Therefore, the present study was executed
oven dried seed weight measured by nuclear magnetic
with the objective of assessing genetic diversity through
resonance spectroscope as described by Oregon state
morphological traits
university seed laboratory proudly procedures.
www.seedlaboregonstate.ed/node/158.

Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 529

Table 1. List of 49 Ethiopian mustard genotypes used in the study and their origin
No. Accession number Area of collection Altitude(m) Latitude Longitude
1 PGRC/E 20001 West Wollega/Arjo 2420 08-44-00N 36-40.00E
2 '' 20002 Bale Zone/Kitu 2500 06-.59.00N 39-12-00E
3 '' 20004 South Gonder/Liba 1980 12-.05-00N 37-44-00E
4 '' 20005 South Gonder/Debretabor 1830 11-57-00N 37-37-00E
5 '' 20006 South Gonder/Debretabor 1980 11-50-00N 37-37_00E
6 '' 20007 North Gonder/Woger/Dabat 2500 * *
7 '' 20017 West Gojiam /Awi /Dangila 1980 11-.20-00N 36-58-00E
8 '' 20056 West Shewa/Jibatenamecha 2200 09-01-00N 38.-20-00E
9 '' 20065 West Shewa/Jibatenamecha 2200 08-58-00N 37-30.00E
10 '' 20066 West Shewa/Ambo 1950 08-.59.00N 37-48-00E
11 '' 20067 West Shewa/Ambo 2010 08-.58-00N 37-52-00E
12 '' 20076 SNNP/Wenago 1853 06-23-00N 38-20-00E
13 '' 20077 South East Tigray/Inderta 2000 13-29-00N 39-30.00E
14 '' 20112 West Gojam/JabiTehnan 1980 10-.39.00N 37-24-00E
15 '' 20117 West Shewa/Jibatnamecha 2050 08-.58-00N 38-01-00E
16 '' 20127 West Shewa/chelia 1700 09-03-00N 37-10-00E
17 '' 20133 West Shewa/Menagesha 2600 09-11-00N 39-09.00E
18 '' 20134 West Shewa/Jibat 2200 08-.58.00N 37-30-00E
19 '' 20146 West Gojam/Bahirdarzuria 1980 11-.25-00N 37-12-00E
20 '' 20165 West Gojiam/Awi/Dangila 1980 11-20-00N 36-58-00E
21 '' 20166 West Gojiam/Awi/Dangila 1980 11-20-00N 36-58.00E
22 '' 21008 Arsi/Gedeb 2380 07-.12.00N 38-09-00E
23 '' 21012 West shewa/Dendi 2900 09-.14-00N 38-53-00E
24 '' 21017 West Shewa/Gendbert 2470 09-43-00N 37-46-00E
25 '' 21026 West GojiamAwi/Dangila 2000 11-18-00N 36-58.00E
26 '' 21035 West Gojam/Sekela 2540 10-.50-00N 37-04-00E
27 '' 21037 West Gojiam/Awi/Dangila 2165 11-.14-00N 36-51-00E
28 '' 21068 Bale/Adaba 2500 07-01-00N 39-25-00E
29 '' 21157 SNNP /South omo 2830 06-19-00N 38-52-00E
30 '' 21225 East Gojam/Enemay 2000 10-.32-00N 38-09-00E
31 '' 208411 West Gonder/Debretabor 2150 11-.50-00N 37-35-00E
32 '' 229665 West Gojam/Burie 2050 10-33-00N 37-34-00E
33 '' 237048 Arsie-Robe 2350 07-08-00N 40-00.00E
34 '' 241907 South Gonder/Fogera 1825 12-.01-00N 37-43-00E
35 '' 241910 South Gonder/Farta 2289 11-.49-00N 38-00-00E
36 '' 242856 Arsi zone /Sherka 2360 07-32-64N 39-37-87E
37 '' 242858 Arsi zone /Sherka 2360 07-34-27N 39-31-24E
38 '' 243738 South Wollo/Desiezuria 2928 11-08-00N 39-13-00E
39 '' 243739 South Wollo/Tenta 2950 11-.14-00N 39-15-00E
40 '' 21256 West Gojam/Bahirdarzuria 1940 11-16-00N 36-59-00E
41 '' 243750 Wollo/kalu 2020 11-45-00N 39-47.00E
42 '' 2243756 South Gonder/ Debark 3115 11-.08.00N 37-56-00E
43 '' 243761 Gonder Zuria 2050 12-.19-00N 37-33-00E
44 '' 243763 South Gonder/Kemkem 2070 11-57-00N 37-37-00E
45 '' 208556 West Shewa/AdisAlem 2200 * *
46 '' 208585 East Shewa/yerer 1600 * *
47 Yellow dodolla Bale/Dodolla 2500 06-.59-00N 39-12-00E
48 (ZemX Yellow Dodolla ) Cross 2400 09-00-00N 38-00-00E
49 Local check Holetta area 2400 09-00-00N 38-00-00E
Source: Holetta highland oil crops research program, *=information not found

5. Thousand Seed weight (Tsw): The weight of1000 8. Oil quality trait analysis: oil quality traits were measured
seeds from randomly sampled grains. by NIRS. Three grams of each genotypes of seeds was
6. Oil yield (Oy): The amount of oil in grams obtained by scanned by NIRS to determine palmic, stearic, oleic,
multiplying seed yield per plot by corresponding oil linoleic, linolenic and erucic acid compositions on
percent. percentage basis.
7. Stand percent (SP): The proportion of plants at
vegetative stage and at harvest as visually assessed in
percentage.
Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Amsalu F. 530

II. Data collected on plant basis.  2 p =  2 g +  2e


MSg − MSe
These data were collected from five plants randomly  2g =
selected from the central rows of each plot and averaged r
for statistical analysis. Where,  2
g =Genotypic variance
1. Leaf petiole length (cm): average measurements of  P = Phenotypic variance
2

the leaf petiole length from bottom, middle and top of


five plants. From each leaf starting from base to the  2 e = Environmental (error) variance or Error mean
apex of the leaf blade excluding leaf part was square
measured at full vegetative/flowering stage. MSg = mean sum square due to genotypes (accessions)
2. Leaf length (cm): average measurements of the leaf MSe =mean sum square of error (environmental
length from bottom, middle and top of five plants.
From each leaf starting from the base to the apex of variance)
leaf blade excluding petiole was measured at full r = number of replications
vegetative/flowering stage. 2p
PCV = __
x100
3. Leaf width (cm): An actual measurement across the x
Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV),
widest portion/section of the same leaf was at full
vegetative/flowering stage.  2g
GCV = __
x100
4. Number of leaves per plant: Average number of intact x
leaves counted from five randomly selected plants at Genotypic coefficient of Variation (GCV),
__
vegetative or flowering. x = Population mean of the character being evaluated
5. Leafarea: was measured using leaf area meter from
bottom, middle and top of five plants for three leaf
Heritability (in broad sense)
blade.
6. Fresh leaf bio mass. The leaves of five randomly
Heritability in the broad sense for quantitative characters
selected plants from the two rows adjacent to the
was computed using the formula suggested by Singh and
border rows were defoliated manually on the 40th, 50th
and 60th days planting. Defoliation was done without Chaudhary (1985):
harming the growing tip of the plants. The freshly  2g
H = x100
harvested leaf biomass was measured with a sensitive 2p
balance. Seed yields of these leaf topped plants were Where, H= heritability in the broad sense.
recorded respectively.
7. Number of Primary branches per plant (PB): The ( 2
g ) = Genotypic variance and
average number of primary branches per plant was
counted from five randomly selected plants.
( 2
p ) = Phenotypic variance.
8. Number of Secondary branches per plant (SB): The
average number of secondary branches per plant was Expected genetic advance (GA)
counted from five randomly selected plants.
9. Plant height (PHT): The average height of five The genetic advance (GA) for selection intensity (K) at 5%
randomly selected plants was measured in was calculated by the formula suggested by Allard (1999)
centimeters from the ground surface to the top of the as:
main stem at maturity. GA = K   P  H
10. Seeds yield per plant (SYPPL): The weight of the
seeds of the five randomly selected plants measured 
Where, GA = expected genetic advance, p =phenotypic
in grams that are divided by five. standard deviation on mean basis, H= Heritability in broad
11. Seeds yield of leaf defoliated of five plants on days sense, K =selection differential (k=2.06 at 5% selection
(40, 50 and 60) were measured in grams and divided intensity)
by the respective plants
Genetic advance (as percent of mean) (GA) was
Estimation of phenotypic and genotypic variability computed to compare the extent of predicted genetic
advance of different traits under selection using the
The variability present in the population was estimated by formula:
simple measures, namely, mean, standard error, and
phenotypic and genotypic variances and coefficients of GA
variations. The phenotypic and genotypic variances and GAM = ___
100
coefficients of variation was also estimated as per the X
procedure suggested by Burton and De Vane (1953) as __

follows: Where, x =population mean of the quantitative character,


GAM =genetic advance as percent of mean.
Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 531

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION flowering, date of maturity, seed yield per plot, oil content,
oil yield, number of seed per plant, thousand seed weight,
The analysis of variance for the 28 traits studied is given number of primary branches, number of secondary
in Table 2. The analysis of variance showed that there branches, plant height,palmatic, stearic, oleic, linoleic,
were significant differences among genotypes for all traits linolenic and erucic acidfound the similar results. Variation
studied except seed yield per plant, fresh leaf biomass per in fatty acid compositions among the Ethiopian mustard
plant topped at 40, 50 and 60 days of growth stage and germplasm accessions has also been reported by
number of intact leaves at flowering. The significant Nigussie et al. (1999) and Adefris (2005). Besides, genetic
difference indicates the existence of genetic variability variability of Ethiopian mustard for days to flowering and
among the accessions that is important for selection and plant height has been reported by Getahun (1988) and
breeding. Similarly Yared,(2010) studied thirty six Erena (2001) as well as days to maturity by Erana(2001).
genotypes of mustard for different traits such as date of

Table 2: Mean squares for different sources of variations for 28 genetic and morphological traits of Ethiopian mustard
Characters Genotype (48) Block (12) Replication(1) Intera-block error (36)
Date of flowering 141.98** 6.39 0.91 9.96
Date of maturity 284.69** 45.67 84.5 44.36
Seed yield per plot 503441* 925530 7543862 231667
Oil content 3.4446** 1.3825 217.51 1.1283
Oil yield 108661* 167934 2098030 46331
Seed yield per plant 18.2377* 15.9527 88.2551 9.6692
Thousand seed weight 0.1939** 0.06957 0.1111 0.06942
Seed yield at 40 date of topping 0.2544ns 0.1951 3.530 0.17997
Seed yield at 50 date of topping 0.245ns 0.2628 1.9715 0.1314
Seed yield at 60 date of topping 0.3633ns 0.1902 5.7315 0.3056
Stand percent 208.34** 721.28 4676.83 23.4813
Number of primary branches 9.8346* 6.07095 24.7004 6.1063
Number of secondary branches 0.3389* 4.0816 4.0816 0.2421
Plant height 1004.12** 1102.13 2812.5 169.46
Petiole length 11.6242** 2.7005 32.229 2.6565
Leaf length 6.1553** 2.072 22.6368 2.4629
Leaf width 5.8638** 1.8471 22.5408 2.1336
Leaf area 7.3403** 2.0052 25.0026 2.1764
Number of leaf intact at flowering 354.12ns 185.86 969.26 179.31
Fresh leaf biomass at 40 date of topping 2092.69ns 32923.9 9601.02 1120.07
Freshleaf biomass at 50 date of topping 4322.45ns 3934.41 5683.46 1957.18
Freshleaf biomass at 60 date of topping 3599.61ns 7416.95 29440 3129.77
Palmic acid 0.2691** 0.0661 0.0072 0.05179
Stearic acid 0.034** 0.0073 0.0002 0.00757
Oleic acid 2.2211** 1.1983 4.1164 0.598
Linoleic acid 2.2839** 1.5701 4.1291 0.4673
Linolenic acid 11.342** 1.444 7.3909 1.3781
Erucic acid 7.165** 4.959 23.078 1.846
*, ** significant at p = 0.05 and 0.01 significance level, respectively; ns= non-significant, numbers in ( ) indicates degree
of freedom

Genotypic and Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation broad sense, expected Genetic advances and genetic
Estimates of genotypic and phenotypic variances: advances as percent mean of the characters studied are
presented in Table3.Estimated genetic variance ranged
The amount of genotypic and phenotypic variability that from 0.0132 square units for stearic to 135887square units
exists in a species is essential in developing better for seed yield (Table3). The genotypic variance took
varieties and in initiating a breeding program. Genotypic relatively much of the total variances for seed yield
and phenotypic coefficients of variation are used to (135887), oil yield (31166),fresh leaf biomass at 50 days
measure the variability that exists in a given population topping (1182.6),fresh leaf biomass at 40days topping
(Burton and Davane, 1953). Estimated variance (486.31), plant height (417.33), days to maturity (120.16),
components, Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and stand percent (92.429) and days to flowering (66.01)
phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV),Heritability in square units. These effects were also detected from high
Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Amsalu F. 532

heritability estimates for these characters (Table 3). On the generally classified heritability estimates as low (5-10%),
other hand, relatively lower variances share of the total medium (10-30%) and high (30-60%). Based on this
variance were observed for Stearic acid (0.0132),seed classification, the traits with high heritability estimates
yield from 40,50,60 days of leaf topped (0.0372, 0.599, includesthousand seed weight (68.80%),days to
0.0289 square units respectively) and palmitic acid flowering(65.91%), stand percent(63.14%),linolenic acid
(0.1807 square unit), indicating the greater share of (62.58%), days to maturity (60.43%), plant height
environmental variance in the total variability.Likewise (59.63%),palmitic acid (58.19%) linoleic(57.46%),stearic
phenotypic variance ranged from 0.04159square unitsfor acid (56.39%), petiole length(56.03%), erucic acid
stearic to 735108 square unitsfor seed yield. Phenotypic (54.32%), oleic acid (53.65%), oil content(50.53%), leaf
coefficients of variation ranged from 2.09% for thousand area (52.09%), leaf width(48.29),leaf length(46.28%), oil
seed weight to 191.78%for seed yield per plot. Genotypic yield(44.84%),fresh leaf biomass at 50 days of
coefficients of variation ranged from 1.10%for seed yield topping(43.40%), seed yield per plot(42.99%) ,number of
at 40 days of toppingto 82.46% for seed yield per plot.Days intact leafs (40.48%), seed yield at 50 days growth stage
to flowering (151.94, 66.01), Days to maturity (329.05, topped plants(38.85%), fresh leaf biomass of topped at 50
120.16), seed yield per plot (735108, 135887), stand days of growth stage(38.91) and number of primary
percent (231.82,92.42), plant height (1173.58,417.33), oil branches per plants (34.20%).. Thousand seed weight
yield (154992, 31165), and fresh leaf biomass at 40days was found to be the most heritable trait in the genotype,
(3212.76, 486.31), at 50days (6279.63, 1182.6) and at 60 with heritability of 68.80%, followed by days to maturity
days (6729.38, 234.92) of topping showed high phenotypic (65.91%) and stand percent (63.14%). This indicates that
and genotypic variances square units respectively, phenotypic selection for these traits would be effective for
indicating that the genotypes could be reflected by the the expression of these traits in the succeeding
phenotype and the effectiveness of selection based on the generations. Therefore, good improvement can be made if
phenotypic performance for these traits. Likewise, some of these traits are considered as selection criteria in
Yared(2010) reported high genotypic and phenotypic future breeding program. High heritability values for
variance for days to flowering, days to maturity, plant thousand seed weight, days to flowering, days to maturity,
height, erucic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid plant height, linoleic, erucic acid, stearic and palmatic acid
and oil content in Ethiopian mustard. Low genotypic content of seeds recorded in the current study was also
variance as compared to environmental variance was recorded by Yared(2010)and Abebe(2006).According to
recorded in square units for traits such as stearicacid Singh(1993), if the heritability of a character is high,
(0.0132). thousand seed weight(0.062) , palmitic acid selection for such character is fairly easy as selected
(0.01087), number of secondary branches per plant character will be transmitted to its progeny. This is
(0.0484), seed yield at 40(0.037),at 50(0.059) and at because there would be a close correspondence between
60(0.029) days of growth stage of topping, petiole the genotype and phenotype due to a relatively smaller
length(4.483), leaf length(1.846),leaf width(1.865), leaf contribution of the environment to the genotype. At the
area(2.582), oleic acid (0.811), linoleic acid (0.908), same time seed yield at 40 days topping(29.27%),
linolenic acid (4.98), erucic acid (2.65) and oil content secondary branches per plant (28.86%), seed yield of
(1.158). However, high genotypic coefficients of variation plants topped leaves at 60 days of growth stage (20.77%)
(GCV) and phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were and fresh leaf biomass at 60 days of growth stage topped
founding traits such as seed yield per plot (82.46%, (18.83%) exhibit medium heritability estimates.
191.78%) and oil yield per plot (60.00%, 133.81%)
respectively, which means selection of these traits based Genetic advance
on phenotype characteristics may be useful for seed yield
and oil yield improvement. This result agrees with the The genetic advance as the percentage of the mean at 5%
findings of Abebe (2006) and Aytac and Kinaci (2009). selection intensity is presented in Table 3. Estimates of
genetic advance as percent of mean at 5% selection
Heritability in the broad sense intensity ranged from 0.22% for stearic acid to 806
.89kg/ha for seed yield per plot. Relatively highest genetic
Breeders can make rapid progress where heritability is advance was observed for seed yield per plot
high by using selection methods that are dependant solely 806.89(kg/ha), seed oil yield per plot (378kg/ha) and the
on phenotypic characteristics (e.g. mass selection). lowest genetic advance was predicted for stearic acid
However, where heritability is low methods of selection content (0.22%). Genetic advance as a percent mean
based on families and progeny testing are more effective ranged from 4.12% for leaf area to 57.18% for petiole
and efficient. Heritability estimated using the total genetic length (Table 3). Within this range, a relatively high genetic
variance is called broad sense heritability. Broad sense advance as a percent mean was observed for petiole
Heritability of differenttraits studied is presented in Table length (57.18%) and seed yield per plants (56.65%)
3. In this study, heritability values were found to be followed by fresh leaf biomass at 50 days defoliation
sufficiently high for most important yield component traits (55.09%).High genetic advance with high heritability was
and it indicates that improvement in yield can be achieved observed for seed yield per plot and seed oil yield which
through the selection of these traits. Dabholkar (1992)
Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 533

may be because of the presence of both additive and non- followed by leaf area 4.12%. Low genetic advance as
additive gene action (Liang et al., 1972). Those traits percent means observations in this study indicates that
having medium heritability along with high genetic charactersprobably were under environmental influence
advance could be improved using breeding procedure than the genotypic expression and that selection based on
such as pedigree method. The lowest genetic gain as these traits would be unsuccessful for improving program.
percent of means was observed for oil content 5.08 %
Table 3. Components of variance, coefficients of variability, heritability and genetic advance and Genetic advance percent
of mean of studied traits
GA GA/Grand
Character δ2g δ2e δ2ph GCV PCV h2b k = 5% mean *100
k 5%
Date of flowering 66.01 85.93 151.94 8.41 12.76 65.91 14.36 15.39
Date of maturity 120.16 208.89 329.051 8.18 13.53 60.43 20.24 11.26
Seed yield per plot 135887 599221.00 735108 82.46 191.78 42.99 806.89 40.37
Seed yield per plant 4.2843 23.62 27.9069 7.15 18.25 39.18 4.75 56.65
Thousand seed weight 0.062 0.07 0.131 1.44 2.09 68.80 0.43 14.36
Stand percent 92.429 139.39 231.821 10.38 16.43 63.14 17.36 20.23
Number of primary branch 1.8642 14.08 15.9409 4.09 11.97 34.20 3.35 30.10
Number of secondary branch 0.0484 0.53 0.581 1.21 4.20 28.86 0.59 17.81
Plant height 417.33 756.25 1173.58 15.18 25.45 59.63 37.97 20.96
Oil yield 31165 123827.00 154992 60.00 133.81 44.84 378.38 43.71
Seed yield of 40 date topped plant 0.0372 0.40 0.4344 1.10 3.74 29.27 0.51 16.51
Seed yield of 50 date topped plant 0.0599 0.30 0.3622 1.45 3.73 38.85 0.55 20.33
Seed yield of60 date topped plant 0.0289 0.64 0.6689 1.07 5.17 20.77 0.53 21.40
Petiole length 4.4839 9.80 14.2807 7.95 14.18 56.03 4.06 57.18
Leaf length 1.8462 6.77 8.6182 4.66 10.07 46.28 2.87 33.72
Leaf width 1.8651 6.13 7.9974 5.67 11.74 48.29 2.82 48.63
Leaf area 2.582 6.93 9.5167 1.82 3.50 52.09 3.20 4.12
Number of leaf intact at flowering 87.405 446.03 533.43 11.10 27.41 40.48 21.09 29.70
Fresh leaf biomass at 40 date of topping 486.31 2726.45 3212.76 22.05 56.68 38.91 50.74 50.74
Freshleaf biomass at 50 date of topping 1182.6 5097.00 6279.63 29.49 67.95 43.40 74.93 55.09
Freshleaf biomass at 60 date of topping 234.92 6494.46 6729.38 12.68 67.89 18.68 50.89 34.86
Palmic acid 0.1087 0.21 0.32089 1.69 2.91 58.19 0.62 16.32
Stearic acid 0.0132 0.03 0.04159 1.20 2.13 56.39 0.22 23.89
Oleic acid 0.8116 2.01 2.8191 2.94 5.48 53.65 1.77 18.78
Linoleic acid 0.9083 1.84 2.7512 2.28 3.96 57.46 1.80 10.31
Linolenic acid 4.9822 7.74 12.7205 6.39 10.21 62.58 4.05 33.19
Erucic acid 2.65935 6.352 9.0115 2.46 4.53 54.32 3.18 7.23
Oil content 1.1582 3.41 4.5729 1.64 3.27 50.33 2.18 5.08
δ2g = Genotypic variance, δ2e = Error variance, δ2ph = Phenotypic variance, GCV = Genotypic coefficient of variability,
PCV = Phenotypic coefficient of variability, h2b = Broad sense heritability, GA = Genetic advance and K = Selection
intensity
CONCLUSION per plot, oil yield and fresh leaf biomass topped at 60 days
of topping stage. But low PCV was detected for thousand
In this study, 49 Ethiopian mustard genotypes acquired seed weight, stearic and palmatic acid. Generally, the
from diverse zones/regions of Ethiopia were evaluated in magnitudes of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV)
simple lattice design with two replications at Holetta and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were high for
Agricultural Research Center, West Shewa zone, with the seed yield per plot and oil yield.
objective of estimating the genetic variability, heritability,
genetic advance for yield and its related charactersand to Heritability in broad sense estimates were high for
assess genetic diversity through morphological traits. The thousand seed weight, days to flowering, stand percent,
analysis of variance showed the presence of highly linolenic, days to maturity, plant height, palmatic, linoleic,
significant differences among the tested genotypes for stearic, erucic acid, petiole length, oleic and leaf area.
majority of the characters considered, indicating the Similarly, the heritability values of secondary branches,
existence of genetic variability among the tested seed yields of 40 days leaf topped plants, yields of 60 days
genotypes for these characters. High phenotypic leaf topped plants and fresh leaf biomass at 60 days
coefficient of variation (PCV) was recorded for seed yield topping were also medium. Genetic advance as percent of
Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Amsalu F. 534

the mean (GAM) was high for petiole length, seed yield per Erena Aka. 2001. Kulumsa agricultural research center
plants and fresh leaf biomass of plants topped/defoliated highland progress report for the period 200l.
at 40,50 days of growth stage where as the rest shows low GetahunMulat. 1988. Diversity of Brassica species in
GAM below 50%. Ethiopia with especial emphasis onBrassicacarinata.
In: Oil Crops News Letter. No. 5. The IDRC Oil Crops
The present study revealed the presence of considerable Net Work for East Africa and South Asia, IAR, Addis
variability amonggenotypes for all traits compared except Ababa, Ethiopia.
seed yield per plant, fresh leaf biomass per plant topped Getinet, A. and A. Nigussie. 1997. Highland Oil Crops: a
at 40,50 and 60 days of growth stage and number of intact two-decade research experience in Ethiopia. Research
leaves at flowering. These conditions indicate that there is report No. 30. Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis
good opportunity to improve these characters using the Ababa, Ethiopia. 30p.
tested genotypes.It is also suggested that further work on Getinet, A., G. Rakow, J.P. Raney and R.K. Downey.
crossing and pedigree selection among the genotypes 1994. Development of zero erucic acid Ethiopian
studied is needed in order to get the desired level of oleic, mustard through an interspecific cross with zero erucic
linoleic, linolenic and erucic acid content for both food and acid oriental mustard. Can. J. Plant Sci. 74: 793-795
non-food industry, while improving other seed yield Gomez-Campo, C. and S. Prakash. 1999. Origin and
components and morphological traits. domestication of the Brassica. pp. 33-58. In: Gomez-
Campo C (ed.). Biology of Brassica Coenospecies.
Further similar study on variability of metric characters Elsevier, Amsterdam.
using biotechnological tools would also help in Hemingway, J.S. 1976. Mustards Brassica species and
substantiating the results obtained. Sinapsis alba (Cruciferae). In: Evolution of Crop Plants.
N.W. Simmounds (ed.) Longan. London. 339p.
Jane Muthoni. (2010). Characterization of Ethiopian
REFERENCES Mustard(Brassica carinataA. Braun)lines for vegetative
agromorphological traits at Arusha,Tanzania.Jornal of
Abebe Delesa. 2006. Genetic Variability and Association Horti and forestry Vol.2(1)pp.002006
Among Seed Yield and Yield Related Traits in Ethiopian Liang, G.H., C.R. Reddy and A.D. Dayton.1972. Heterosis,
mustard (Brassica carinataA. Braun) at Kulumsa, inbreedign depression and heritability estimates in a
Arsi. An M.Sc. Thesis Presented to the School of systematic series of grain sorghum genotypes. Crop
Graduate Studies of Alemaya University. 75p. Sci. 12(4):409-411
AdefrisTeklewold. 2005. Diversity Study Based on Quality Muhamad Zat, Nahida Zakir, Ashia Rabbani and Zabat
Traits and RAPD Markers and Investigation of Shinwari ,2013. Assesement of genetic variation in
Heterosis in Ethiopian Mustard. Ph.D. diss. Georg- Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun)
August Univ. of Göttingen, Germany. 161p. gerplasm using multivariate techniques. pak.J.Bot
Allard, R.W. 1999. Principles of plant breeding. 2th ed. 45(51)583-593.
New York, John Wiley & Sons, 254 p. ISBN 978-0-471- NigussieAlemayehu. 2001. Germplasm diversity and
02309-8. Genetics of Quality and Agronomic Traits in Ethiopian
Aytaç, Z. and G. Kınac. 2009. Genetic variability and Mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun). Ph.D. Thesis,
association studies of some quantitative characters in George-August University of GÖttingen, Germany
winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). African Journal Nigussie, A., H. Becker and G. Gebeyehu. 1999. Genetic
of Biotechnology, 8 (15): 3547-3554. variability in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinataA.
Burton, G.W. and E.H. de Vane. 1953. Estimating Braun) for quality characteristics. 10th International
heritability in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) from Rapeseed Congress, Canberra, Australia.
replicated clonal material. Agron. J. 45: 478-481 NigussieAlemayehu and MesfinAbebe. 1994. Relative
Copper, H.D., C. Spillane and H. Hogkin. 2001. importance of some managmnet factors in seed and oil
Broadening the Genetic bases of crop production. FAO, yields of Ethiopian mustard (Brasica carinata Braun.)
IPGRI. and Rapeseed (Brasicanapus L.). Ethiop. J. Agric.
CSA (Central Statistical Authority). 2013/14. Report on Sci. 14: 27-36
land utilization: Private peasant holdings, 'Meher' SAS Institute INC., 2002- 2008. SAS*STAT, users guide,
season. Statistical bulletin. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. version 9.2, Cary N.C., SAS INC
Dabholkar, A.R. 1992. Elements of biometrical genetics. Sigmmonds, N.W. 1962. Variability in crop plants, its use
Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, India.431p. and conservation. Biological reviews, 37: 422-465
Doweny R.K. and G. RÖbbelen. 1989. Brassica Species. Singh, R.K. and B.D. Chaydhary. 1985. Biometrical
In RÖbbelen G, Doweny RK and Ahri A (eds) Oil crops methods in quantitative genetic analysis
of the world. McGraw-Hill New York. pp. 339-359 U.N. 1935. Genome analysis in Brassica with special
EARO (Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization). reference to the experimental formation ofB. napusand
2000. Crop Research Directorate, High land oil crops peculiar mode of fertilization. Jpn. J. Bot. 9: 389-452
research strategy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. www. Seed laboratory Oregon state university. Oil, Protein
and moisture Determination using NMR
Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 535

Yared Semahegn. 2010. Genetic diversity and


Relationship among Association among Ethiopian
mustard (Brassica carinataA. Braun) genotypes
based on their agronomic and quality Traits in at Holetta
Agricultural research, An M.Sc. Thesis Presented to the
School of Graduate Studies of Jima University. 75p.

Accepted 17 September 2018

Citation: Amsalu F (2019). Genetic and Morphological


Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa.
Braun) Landraces. International Journal of Plant Breeding
and Crop Science, 6(2): 527-535.

Copyright: © 2019: Amsalu F. This is an open-access


article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original author and source are cited.

Genetic and Morphological Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinataa. Braun) Landraces