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Chapter 6 FATIGUE FAILURE THEORIES Tt Sof e 4 © cok o 8 4 3 8 2 oo Se 5 so “ | 5 sop Kg 4 3 gly 3 sof ¢ ‘a 4 E Tees \ oN\ - 508 CLASS 2 STEEL $ 2 isss crate Sol ° etd sheet 4 ol poi yas “reo G1 of 05 Oa 08 08 OT OB OF 10 RATIO OF MINIMUM STRESS AND MaxMUM stress, ZMK @ FIGURE 6-24 Ffect of Mean Sess on Fatigue Threshold Stes Intensity Factor Range (ron Fe 9.6 p,285. 5 Baron ard Ae, rac ana Hogue Conn Sct, renee Hal, Englevoos CI, R987, rh tions, etc., are made, This is obviously a costly process but serves to provide the most realistic data possible, applying the test to actual shapes, sizes, and materials rather than to laboratory specimens, 6.6 _ ESTIMATING FATIGUE FAILURE CRITERIA. ‘The best information on @ material's fatigue strength at some finite life, or its endur- ance limit at infinite life, comes from the testing of actual or prototype assemblies of the design as described above. If this is not practical or possible, the next best infor- mation comes from fatigue tests of specimens taken from the particular material as it is manufactured for the part (ie., as cast, forged, machined, etc.). Failing this, published fatigue strength data may be available in the literature or from the material manufac- turers, but these data will be for small, polished specimens tested in controlled environ- 327 328 FIGURE 6-22 MACHINE DESIGN = An Integrated Approach Boeing 757 Fatigue-Test Fixture for Wing and Fuselage Assembles. (Courtesy of Bocing Commercial Aplane Co, Seattle, Wash) ‘ments, In the absence of even these data, it will be necessary to make some estimation of the endurance limit or fatigue strength of the material based on data available from monotonic tests. This may be limited to information on the material’s ultimate strength, Sur and yield strength Sy. Estimating the Theoretical Fatigue Strength 5, or Endurance Limit 5, If published data are available for the fatigue strength Sy: or endurance limit Sof the ‘material, they should be used and the correction factors discussed in the next section then applied to them. Published fatigue strength data are typically from fully reversed bending or axial loading tests on small, polished specimens. If no fatigue strength data are available, an approximate Sy or Scan be crudely estimated from the published ul- timate tensile strength of the material. Figure 6-23 shows the relationships between Sy and Sp for wrought steels (a), wrought and cast irons (b), aluminum alloys (c), and wrought copper alloys (d). There is considerable scatter, and the lines are fitted approxi- ‘mately to the upper and lower bounds, At high tensile strengths, the fatigue strengths tend to “top out” as described above. From these data, approximate relationships can be stated between Sy, and Sp or S,:. These relationships for steels and aluminum alloys ‘were stated in the previous section as equations 6.2 and are repeated here for conve- Chapter 6 FATIGUE FAILURE THEORIES 329 z 3S wset Faw ° Oe S ‘ © warps Fae ° 2 3 = 310 “ (2) Aluminum & Alloys 3 “ = 10 cme & Alloys & Sass ° Relation Between Unnotched Rotating-Bending Fatigue Stength and Ultim: (From P16 Foes atigue of ea, Pergaman Pret, London, 963