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By Mary Ann L. Tolibao

TOPIC/ LESSON Chapter 1: Basic Concept of Disaster and Disaster Risk

CONTENT STANDARD The learners demonstrate an understanding of the concept of disaster and
disaster risk; nature of disaster; and effects of disaster.
PERFORMANCE STANDARD The learners relate the concept of disaster with daily life.
LEARNING COMPETENCIES The learners shall be able to:
 explain the meaning of disaster (DRR11-IIIa-1);
 differentiate the risk factors underlying disasters (DRR11-IIIa-2);
 describe the effects of disaster on one’s life (DRR11-IIIa-3);
 explain how and when an event becomes a disaster (DRR11-IIIa-4);
 identify areas/location exposed to hazards that may lead to disasters
(DRR11-IIIa-5); and
 analyze disaster from the different perspectives (physical, psychological,
socio-cultural, economic, political, and biological) (DRR11-IIIa-6).
SPECIFIC LEARNING At the end of the lesson, the learners will be able to:
OUTCOMES/ OBJECTIVES 1. define disaster;
2. differentiate natural phenomenon, natural hazard and natural disaster;
3. explain when does a natural event becomes a hazard;
4. explain when does a hazard becomes a disaster;
5. explain the relationship of hazard, disaster and vulnerability in
estimating the disaster risk;
6. create a profile of a natural phenomenon through group discussion and
7. establish understanding of hazard and disaster in a situation through a
pair quiz.
TIME ALLOTMENT 180 mins, November 6-7, 2018
REFERENCE Disaster Readiness and Risk Reduction Textbook by Rolly E. Rimando (pages 1-9)

I. Procedure:
Teacher’s Activity Student’s Activity

Everyone is requested to please stand up for the prayer. (one student will lead the prayer)

Before you take your seats, kindly pick up some pieces of

papers and arrange your chairs properly.

Now, let’s check your attendance. Do we have absentees

today? (checking of attendance)

I am glad that all of you are present today.

Good morning, class? Good morning, ma’am.

A. Preliminary Activity
Learning Task 1- Introduction/Review
For our first lesson, we will be learning the concept of Disaster is something that has negative effect on
disaster and disaster risk. When you hear about disaster, human and human’s property, ma’am.
what comes into your mind? What is your knowledge
about the disaster?

That’s correct! You probably have gotten used to hearing From what I have learned ma’am, the Philippines
news about typhoons, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions hosts frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
happening every now and then. Many of us might have because of its position within the “ring of fire” which
also experienced disaster due to some natural events. So, is at the edge of the most dynamic tectonic plates.
let me ask you, why is it that the Philippines is considered
as one of the world’s most disaster-prone countries?
Yes, that’s true. What else? It also lies along the western edge of the Pacific Ocean
which lies along the natural path of the planet’s
fiercest typhoons, ma’am.
Surely, it is not simply because of many natural events Yes, ma’am. A disaster also happens because the
that visit us so often, right? What do you think? people are not/has not been informed about the
danger it may cause. Other problem includes lack of
preparation and planning on the incoming disaster.
Very good. That’s a great idea

Now, what is your idea about natural phenomenon, A natural phenomenon ma’am is somewhat a natural
natural and natural disaster? “event” such as the solar eclipse. For natural hazard,
it may have something to do with an event that can
bring danger to human and the surrounding property.
And disaster, I think it is the effect/impact because of
the presence of a hazard.
That’s a very good understanding.

Learning Task 2-Motivation

For you to differentiate natural phenomenon, natural
hazard and natural disaster, try to evaluate each
situation below.

Direction: Identify weather the following examples states Student’s answer:

a Natural Phenomenon, Natural Hazard or Natural 1. Natural Phenomenon ---Earthquake
Disaster. 2. Natural Hazard
3. Natural Disaster
1. An earthquake which causes no damage beyond
knocking over few bookshelf items.
2. A flashflood, landslide, or avalanche which
occur in unpopulated region causing no damage
to human or structure.
3. A drought--- thousands of individuals leave their
homes and hundreds die of starvation.

B. Lesson Proper:
Learning Task 3- Activity
Now class, let us have another activity that will let you Activity 1
discover various natural phenomenon and the concept of (Group Discussion and Presentation)
disaster risk. Do this by group.

Activity 1.
1. List some natural phenomena that you can think of.
2. Explore the website of the following to add to your
• PHIVOLCS (Philippine Institute of Volcanology
and Seismology)
• PAGASA (Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical
and Astronomical Services Administration)
• MGB (Mines and Geosciences Bureau)
3. Create a profile for each event using the following
 Where does this kind of event occur?
 What causes the natural phenomenon?
 How much warning is there?
 Can it cause damage to people and
environment? If so, what sort of damage can it
 How are different people (ex. Students, farmers,
labors, and office employees) affected when a
natural event strikes your community? Who
would be most affected?
 Does a reported natural phenomenon affect
people all the time?
 How strong are the most damaging event? List
five examples.
 How big should a natural phenomenon be for it
to be considered a hazard? Does size even
 Why people live in areas affected by natural
 How could people prevent disasters when a
natural hazard strike?
4. Each group’s profile shall be shared to the whole

Additional instruction:
Each group will choose one phenomenon that is different
from the other group. For the presentation of the group
task, each group should provide pictures or illustration of
the chosen phenomenon.

Activity 2. Activity 2.
Below is the disaster risk model. Explain the relationship Estimating Disaster Risk:
between hazard, disaster, and vulnerability. As the disaster risk model implies, the magnitude of
the disaster depends on:
 The severity of the natural event;
 The quantity of exposure of the elements at risk
which includes lives and properties; and
 Vulnerability level or quality of exposure.

The model can be expressed as:

Disaster Risk= Hazard x Exposure x Vulnerability
According to this formula, if there is no
hazard, then the risk is null (the same if population or
vulnerability is null).

Learning Task 4- Analysis

Based on your group discussion on given activity, we Ma’am, a natural event can be likened to a weak
learn that we certainly cannot prevent such as volcanic concrete fence that could collapse even with just a
activities, earthquake, typhoons, and landslide from slight push. It does not pose a threat to anything or
happening. However, natural events do not anybody if there is nothing or no one is nearby. Once
automatically become a hazard, much less cause you park a car or stand beside it, it becomes a hazard.
disaster. Explain when does a natural event become a The threat of damage, injury, and even death now
hazard? exists.

Very good. Now, explain when does a hazard becomes a Ma’am, a disaster happens when the probable
disaster? destructive agent, the hazard, hits a vulnerable
populated area. A natural event like a volcanic
eruption or tsunami which hits an uninhabited area
does not qualify as a disaster. It becomes a disaster
only if it hits vulnerable population and properties—
in short, if there are victims.

What will be the disaster risk when more people on Ma’am, the magnitude of disaster is expected to
hazardous areas and urban centers continue to grow increase.
along the path of hazard events?

How can you say that? The risk of losing lives or causing injury to people and
losing or damaging property due to a hazard increases
as the levels of exposure and vulnerability increases.
As shown in the diagram ma’am, it seeks not only to
express the chance of the disaster happening but also
to quantify the impact.
Then, what is your understanding on exposure and Exposure refers to people and property that being
vulnerability? exposed to hazard. On the other hand, vulnerability
refers to factors such as physical, social, economic
and environmental, that increase the susceptibility to
the impact of a hazard.
Learning Task 5-Abstration
Answer questions below. Answers:
1. Explain how this event become a hazard? 1. The natural event which is the wave action on the
cliff become a hazard since this will cause a
potential danger to human that is standing on
top of the cliff.
2. A natural event such as the tsunami becomes a
hazard as it poses a threat to human. After a
tsunami hits the populated area, it is no longer
just a hazard but a disaster with victims and
destruction or damages all over the place.
2. Explain and transformation of a Natural Event 3. Mitigation and preparedness measures will result
into a Disaster. Give an example. in the reduction of vulnerability and thus, in
3. How to minimize/reduce disaster risk of disaster risk. Also, the level of vulnerability and
exposure and vulnerability? exposure can be reduced by keeping people and
property away as far as possible from hazard.
Learning Task 6-Application
Answer the following questions. Do this by group.
1. Name three natural phenomena that your
community consider as hazard. Explain why
they are considered as hazards.
2. Explain what is meant by “Buildings kill people,
not earthquakes”.
3. Is the large magnitude of a natural hazard a
guarantee for a disaster? Why or why not?
4. Explain how seemingly harmless normal river
flows in the middle of a rapidly developing city
can later cause a disaster?
5. Given that the occurrence of potentially
hazardous natural phenomena cannot be
prevented, discuss in terms of the elements of
disaster risk ways by which disasters and
disaster risk can be minimized.

II. Assessment
Direction: Indicate on the space provided for answer A, whether each of the following item is a hazard or a
disaster. For answer B, choose whether it is hydrological atmospheric, geologic, biologic, or man-made. (2pts
each number).
1. A super typhoon with storm surge affecting Leyte.
A. _______________; B. ______________
2. A typhoon passing over a remote and unpopulated island.
A. _______________; B. ______________
3. A flood in a rural area which floods the roads but does not affect any houses.
A. _______________; B. ______________
4. A volcano erupting in isolation in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
A. _______________; B. ______________
5. An avalanche in a ski resort.
A. _______________; B. ______________

Answer Key
1. A. Disaster; B. Atmospheric
2. A. Hazard; B. Atmospheric
3. A. Hazard; B. Hydrological
4. A. Hazard; B. Geologic
5. A. Disaster; B. Geologic
III. Assignment
Below are some of the impacts of disaster. Explain your understanding and give (2) examples for each
of the impacts. Write this on your notebook.

 Medical effects
 Damage to critical facilities
 Disruption of transportation
 Economic impact
 Global environmental change
 Social and political impact

Submitted to:

Principal, SHS-SJIT Main