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VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS FOR DC WELDING: UDC 621.

791
CALIBRATION AND FUNCTION TESTING 621.317.72

Key words: Voltmeter, ammeter, welding, calibration, testing

CONTENTS 7.3.3 Expression of results 5


7.4 Amplitude and frequency response testing of
1 SCOPE 1 ammeters 6
2 FIELD OF APPLICATION 1 7.4.1 Apparatus for amplitude and frequency
response testing of ammeters 6
3 DEFINITIONS 1 7.4.2 Test procedure 6
4 TEST REPORT 2 7.4.3 Expression of results 6

5 CALIBRATION OF VOLTMETERS 3 ANNEX A 7


5.1 Principle 3
5.2 Apparatus for calibration of voltmeters 3
5.3 Procedure 3 1 SCOPE

6 CALIBRATION OF AMMETERS 3 This NORDTEST method describes procedures for calibration


6.1 Principle 3 of voltmeters and ammeters which are to be used for measure-
6.2 Direct calibration of ammeters 3 ments of voltage and current during direct current are welding.
6.2.1 Apparatus for direct calibration of ammeters 3 It also describes test procedures to verify the fitness of an
6.3 Calibration of ammeters with removable shunt 3 instrument for measurements during direct current arc
6.3.1 Apparatus for calibration of ammeters with welding.
removable shunt 4
6.4 Calibration of clamp on ammeters 4
6.5 Calibration procedure for ammeters 4 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION
7 FUNCTION TESTING OF VOLTMETERS AND Calibration procedures and test procedures in this method are
AMMETERS 4 intended to be used for calibration and function testing of
7.1 Scope 4 voltmeters and ammeters which shall be used for measure-
7.2 Testing of averaging time for voltmeters and ments during direct current arc welding. This method is in-
ammeters 4 tended to be used for calibration of voltmeters with an uncer-
7.2.1 Testing of averaging time for voltmeters 4 tainty of ±1-2 % and ammeters with an uncertainty of ±2-3 %.
7.2.2 Testing of averaging time for clamp on If instruments with a smaller uncertainty shall be calibrated,
ammeters with no removable clamp on the uncertainty for the standards has to be adjusted corre-
probe and shunt ammeters with no spondingly.
removable shunt 4
7.2.3 Testing of averaging time for clamp on
ammeters with removable clamp on probe 3 DEFINITIONS
and shunt ammeters with removable shunt 5
Arithmetic mean:
7.2.4 Expression of results from testing of
averaging times 5 The arithmetic mean value of repeated measurements R1,
7.3 Amplitude and frequency response testing of R2...Rn under the same conditions shall be calculated as:
voltmeters 5
7.3.1 Apparatus for amplitude and frequency
-
R =
R 1 +R 2 + ...R n
n (1)
response testing of voltmeters 5
7.3.2 Test procedure 5

Published by NORDTEST Tekniikantie 12, FIN-02150 ESPOO FINLAND Phone +358 9 455 4600 Fax +358 9 455 4272
ISSN 0283-717X Proj. 1124-93 www.nordtest.org
NORDTEST METHOD NT ELEC 028 2

Calibration: Standard deviation of mean value (sm):

Comparison of an instrument with a standard in order to record


deviations from the standard. At least three independent read- (4)
ings must be taken at each calibration point.
n is the number of measurements taken at the same calibration
point under the same conditions.
Calibration point:

A reading from an instrument where a calibration takes place. True value (T):

True value in this document is the output from or the reading


Current (A): on the standard.

Electrical current.
Uncertainty (a):

Error (q): Uncertainty for instruments and standards given as maximum


limits which normally will not be exceeded.
Difference between true value (T) and the average of the
readings at the_ same calibration point on the instrument which
is calibrated (R). The error shall be calculated as a percentage Total uncertainty(u):
of the reading as: The total uncertainty of the calibration is a combination of the
- uncertainty of the reference (a), the resolution of the instrument
R-T
q= _
_ 100% (2) and the uncertainty of the readings (sm). According to WECC
R Doc.19 the total reported uncertainty is stated as the calcu-
lated standard deviation multiplied by two. Thus the total
Resolution (r): uncertainty u at each calibration point shall be calculated as:
For a digital instrument the resolution is considered to be one
increment of the number on the indicator, provided that the
(5)
indicator does not fluctuate by more than one increment with
zero input to the instrument.
Voltage (V):
For an analog instrument the resolution (r) shall be obtained
from the ratio between the width of the pointer and the centre- Electrical voltage
to-centre distance between two adjacent scale graduation
marks (scale intervals).

r = ratio . scale interval 4 TEST REPORT


The test report shall include the following information:
A spacing of 2.5mm or greater is required for the estimation of
a resolution of one-tenth of a scale division. a. Name and address of testing laboratory

b. Identification number of test report


Standard:
c. Name and address of the organisation or the person who
An instrument, a voltage source or a current source with known ordered the test
accuracy which is traceable to higher national or international
standards. d. Name of manufacturer of the instrument which is calibrated

e. Type and serial no. of the instrument which is calibrated


Standard deviation of readings(s): f. Test method
With repeated measurements R1, R2,....Rn under the same g. Any deviations from the test method
conditions at the same calibration point the sample standard
deviation for that calibration point shall be calculated as: h. Date of the test

_ _ _ _ i. Identification of the standards used


k=n (Rk - R)2 (R1-R)2+(R2-R)2 ... +(Rn-R)2
s= Σ n-1
=
n-1 j. Environmental conditions during the test
k=1
k . Test results in SI units
(3)
I. Uncertainty of the calibration results and the calculation
If the number of repeated measurements at each calibration
method for the uncertainty
point is less than 10, a correction of s in accordance with Annex
A must be made. m. Date and signature
NORDTEST METHOD NT ELEC 028 3

The calibration results shall be given in a table containing the 6 CALIBRATION OF AMMETERS
readings of the standard, the readings of the instrument which
6.1 Principle
is calibrated, the error at each calibration point (except for zero)
and the standard deviation at each calibration point if relevant. The ammeter which is to be calibrated is compared with the
output from a current standard. The uncertainty of the output
At each calibration point the arithmetic mean value shall be
from the current standard must not be greater than ±0.5 % of
calculated by using Equation (1) and the standard deviation
the setting.
shall be calculated by using Equation (3).
If the uncertainty of the standard is greater than ±0.5 % of the
The error q at each calibration point (except for zero) shall be
setting, an ammeter with uncertainty less than ±0.5 % of the
calculated by using Equation (2) and the total uncertainty for
reading can be used as a standard. The short term stability of
the calibration shall be calculated by using Equation (5).
the current source must be sufficient to give stable readings
on this ammeter. Three different methods of calibration are
described below. The method to be used depends on the
5 CALIBRATION OF VOLTMETERS
current standard and the ammeter which shall be calibrated.
5.1 Principle
The voltmeter which is to be calibrated is compared with the
6.2 Direct calibration of ammeters
output from a voltage standard. The uncertainty of the output
from the voltage standard must not be greater than ±0.2 % of The instrument set-up for this calibration is shown in Fig. 2.
setting.
The output from the current standard is connected to the input
If the uncertainty of the standard is greater than ±0.2 % of the of the current shunt or with one turn through the clamp-on
setting, a voltmeter with uncertainty less than ±0.2 % can be current probe.
used as standard. The short term stability of the voltage source
This method shall be used if the current standard can supply
must be sufficient to give stable readings on this voltmeter. The
enough current to calibrate the ammeter to 100 % of the range
instrument set-up is shown in Fig. 1.
which shall be calibrated. If this is not the case, methods
described in 6.3 or 6.4 shall be used.

VOLTAGE VOLTMETER
STANDARD

CURRENT AMMETER
Fig. 1. Calibration of voltmeter. STANDARD

Fig. 2. Direct calibration of ammeter.

5.2 Apparatus for calibration of voltmeters


A DC voltage standard which can be set to voltages from 1 V 6.2.1 Apparatus for direct calibration of ammeters
to 100 v.
A direct current standard which can be set to currents within
The uncertainty of the output voltage from the standard must the range for the calibration (see procedure 6.3).
not be more than ±0.2 % of the setting.
The uncertainty of the output current from the standard must
If the uncertainty of the output from the voltage standard is not be more than ±0.5 % of the setting.
greater than ±0.2 % of the setting, a DC voltmeter with uncer-
tainty less than ±0.2 % of the reading can be used as standard. If the uncertainty of the output from the current standard is
greater than ±0.5 % of the setting, a direct current ammeter
with uncertainty less than ±0.5 % of the reading can be used
5.3 Procedure as standard.
The instrument shall be calibrated in accordance with the
following procedure from 1-100 V:
The instrument shall be calibrated in at least 6 points on the 6.3 Calibration of ammeters with removable shunt
most frequently used range to establish the linearity of the
Ammeters with removable shunt can be calibrated indirectly
voltmeter. The calibration points should be equally spaced
by removing the shunt and simulating the output from the shunt
over the range (0-20-40-60-80-100 % of the range).
by an output from a voltage standard. The disadvantage of this
The voltmeter shall be calibrated in at least one point on the method is that the shunt will not be included in the calibration.
other ranges which are to be calibrated. On ranges which are The long term stability of shunts is normally greater than that
calibrated in only one point this calibration shall be between of the instrument, and therefore this method can be used for
80 % and 100 % of the range. calibrations between calibrations of the shunt. If the current
NORDTEST METHOD NT ELEC 028 4

standard can supply sufficient current to perform a direct The calibration points should be equally spaced over the range
calibration described in 6.2, this method should be used since (0-20-40-60-80-100 % of the range).
this will give a calibration of the complete current measuring
The ammeter shall be calibrated in at least one point on the
equipment.
other ranges which are to be calibrated. On ranges which are
For indirect calibration of ammeters with a voltage standard calibrated in only one point this calibration shall be between
the reading (R) on the ammeter will be the voltage input (Vin) 80 % and 100 % of the range. Ammeters which can measure
multiplied by the scaling for the shunt (A/V): current in both directions shall be calibrated in both directions.

R = Vin * A/V (6)


7 FUNCTION TESTING OF VOLTMETERS AND
AMMETERS
6.3.1 Apparatus for calibration of ammeters with
7.1 Scope
removable shunt
When welding with DC the current will be a direct current with
A DC voltage standard which can be set to voltages necessary
a superimposed alternating current, and the voltage will be a
for the calibration.
direct voltage with a superimposed alternating voltage. Both
The uncertainty of the output voltage from the standard must the current and the voltage will have irregular waveforms, and
not be more than ±0.2 % of the setting. their maximum values can be more than twice the mean
values. An instrument which shall be used for measuring
If the uncertainty of the output from the voltage standard is
welding current and welding voltage with sufficient accuracy
greater than ±0.2 % of the setting, a DC voltmeter with uncer-
must have an averaging time (time constant) of 1-2 seconds.
tainty less than ±0.2 % of the reading can be used as standard.
Methods to test whether the instrument has a suitable averag-
ing time are described in Section 7.2.
6.4 Calibration of clamp on ammeters Instruments which contain electronic circuits shall be tested in
If the current standard has sufficient current output to perform a way that will reveal their response to real welding current and
a direct calibration, the method described in 6.2 shall be used. welding voltage. Methods for such tests are described in
If this is not the case multiple turns through the current clamp Section 7.3.
can be used. The reference current will then be the output from Moving coil instruments with no electronic circuits will correctly
the current source multiplied by the number of turns through measure the mean value of an irregular waveform, and the
the current clamp. function test described in Section 7.3 is therefore not relevant
Many current clamps are sensitive to the position of the current for such an instrument.
conductor in the opening of the clamp. This sensitivity must be
checked before the calibration takes place. The following 7.2 Testing of averaging time for voltmeters and
procedure should be used for this check:
ammeters
Adjust the current to about 80% of the selected range on the
7.2.1 Testing of averaging time for voltmeters
ammeter. Move the conductor to different positions in the
opening of the clamp. Record the highest (H) and lowest (L) Connect the output from a pulse generator to the input of the
readings. Calculate the uncertainty (s p ) related to the position voltmeter. Set the pulse width to approximately 1.0 s, and the
of the current conductor in the opening of the clamp by using frequency to approximately 0.5 Hz. Set the pulse amplitude to
the equation below. The calculated uncertainty sp is one stan- 0 V and 50 ± 10 V, as shown in Fig. 3, to give a mean value of
dard deviation as a percentage of the reading on the instru- 20-30 V. For an instrument with an averaging time of 1-2 s the
ment which is calibrated. The calculated uncertainty s p and the variations in the reading will be ±20-40 % of the mean value.
position of the current conductor during the calibration shall be Record the highest and lowest values during a period of at
stated in the certificate. least 30 s.

(H - L)100
sp = U or I
(H + L)√3 (7)
, _ .._._....................... _...______...____............ .

6.5 Calibration procedure for ammeters


Arrange ammeter and standard as described in Clause 6.2,
6.3 or 6.4.

The instrument shall be calibrated in accordance with the


following procedure:

The ammeter shall be calibrated in at least 6 points on the most Time


frequently used range to establish the linearity of the ammeter. Fig. 3. Voltage or current for average time testing.
NORDTEST METHOD NT ELEC 028 5

7.2.2 Testing of averaging time for clamp on ammeters shorter than recommended. The following criteria and equa-
with no removable clamp on probe and shunt tion shall be used for classifying averaging times.
ammeters with no removable shunt Calculated variations ±20-40 %: averaging time is within
The averaging time is normally not related to the range, and it recommended range.
is therefore adequate to test the instrument on one range, Calculated variations <±20 %: averaging time is longer than
preferably the lowest. To have an impression of how the recommended.
instrument responds to input variations the instrument should Calculated variations >±40 %: averaging time is shorter than
be exposed to a known input signal. A principle diagram of a recommended.
circuit which can produce such a signal is shown in Fig. 4. Set
(RH - RL)100 %
the pulse width to approximately 1.0 s, and the frequency to c = (8)
(RH+RL)
approximately 0.5 Hz. The amplitude should preferably be set
to the range of the ammeter. For a mean value measuring where
ammeter the mean value of the readings shall be the pulse
c is the calculated percentage variation which shall be used
amplitude divided by 2. For an instrument with an averaging
to classify the averaging time
time of 1-2 s the variations in the reading will be ±20-40 % of
the mean value. Record the highest and lowest values during RH is the highest reading during the averaging time test
a period of at least 30 s. RL is the lowest reading during the averaging time test.

7.3 Amplitude and frequency response testing of


voltmeters
7.3.1 Apparatus for amplitude and frequency response
testing of voltmeters
A principle diagram of the test setup is shown in Fig. 5. The
voltmeter will be exposed to a direct voltage with a superim-
posed alternating voltage. The direct voltage should be ap-
Fig. 4. Principle circuit for averaging time testing of ammeters.
proximately 90 % of the range which the voltmeter is going to
be tested on. The amplitude of the alternating voltage shall be
the same as the direct voltage. It must be possible to alter the
7.2.3 Testing of averaging time for clamp-on ammeters frequency of the alternating voltage between 20 Hz and 2000
with removable clamp-on probe and shunt Hz. A time record of the voltage is shown in Fig. 7.
ammeters with removable shunt
When the clamp-on current probe or the shunt is disconnected
from the ammeter the ammeter can be tested with the output
from a pulse generator.
~-4(--j
Connect the output from the pulse generator to the input of the
ammeter. Set the pulse generator to output positive pulses with OSCILLATOR POWER
20-2000 Hz AMPLIFIER DC-VOLTAGE
reference to 0 V. Set the pulse width to approximately 1.0 s, SOURCE

and the frequency to approximately 0.5 Hz. Set the amplitude Fig. 5. Principle circuit for amplitude and frequency response
of the pulse generator to give readings on the ammeter around testing of voltmeters.
50 % of the range. For an average measuring instrument the
mean value of the readings should be the pulse amplitude
scaled to ampere and divided by 2. For an instrument with an
averaging time of 1-2 s the variations in the readings will be 7.3.2 Test procedure
±20-40 % of the mean value. Record the highest and lowest
Connect the voltmeter to the test circuit shown in Fig.5.
values during a period of at least 30s.
The output from the test circuit shall be set to direct voltage
output only. Adjust the voltage until the reading on the
7.2.4 Expression of results from testing of averaging voltmeter is approximately 90 % of the range of the voltmeter.
times
Record the reading of the voltmeter (d).
The test results given as percentage variations from the mean
values shall be calculated and recorded in the test results. Set the AC generator to 50 Hz and adjust the amplitude of the
Equation (8) below shall be used for the calculations. alternating voltage to the same voltage as the direct voltage
and record the reading of the voltmeter (a).
The test results shall classify the averaging time as being
within the recommended range, larger than recommended or Calculate the ratio m = a/d
NORDTEST METHOD NT ELEC 028 6

A mean value measuring voltmeter will indicate the same 7.4.2 Test procedure
voltage as when only the direct voltage was connected. An
Connect the ammeter to the test circuit shown in Fig. 6.
r.m.s. measuring voltmeter will indicate the direct voltage
multiplied by 1.2. Sweep the frequency of the alternating The output from the test circuit shall be set to direct current
voltage between 20 Hz and 2000 Hz. output only. Adjust the current until the reading on the ammeter
is approximately 90 % of the range of the ammeter.

Record the reading of the ammeter (d).

7.3.3 Expression of results Set the AC generator to 50 Hz and adjust the amplitude of the
alternating current to the same current as the direct current
The following shall be given as the result of test 7.3:
and record the reading of the ammeter (a).
The ratio (m) calculated in 7.3.2. Calculate the ratio m = a/d
The maximum deviation as a percentage of the reading at 50 A mean value measuring ammeter will indicate the same
Hz in the range 20-1000 Hz and the frequency for the reading. current as when only the direct current was connected. An
Recommended maximum deviation less than ±2 %. r.m.s. measuring ammeter will indicate the direct current mul-
tiplied by 1.2.
The maximum deviation as a percentage of the reading at 50
Hz in the range 1000-2000 Hz and the frequency for the Sweep the frequency of the alternating current between 20 Hz
reading. Recommended maximum deviation less than ±10 %. and 2000 Hz.

7.4.3 Expression of results


7.4 Amplitude and frequency response testing
The following shall be given as the result of test 7.4:
of ammeters
The reading (a) in 7.4.2.
7.4.1 Apparatus for amplitude and frequency response
The ratio (m) calculated in 7.4.2.
testing of ammeters
The maximum deviation from (a) as a percentage of the
A principle diagram of the test setup is shown in Fig. 6. The reading at 50 Hz in the range 20-1000 Hz and the frequency
ammeter will be exposed to a direct current with a superim- for the reading. Recommended maximum deviation less than
posed alternating current. The direct current should be ap-
±3 %.
proximately 90 % of the range which the ammeter is going to
be tested on. The amplitude of the alternating current shall be The maximum deviation from (a) as a percentage of the
the same as the direct current. It must be possible to alter the reading at 50 Hz in the range 1000-2000 Hz and the frequency
frequency of the alternating current between 20 Hz and 2000 for the reading. Recommended maximum deviation less than
Hz. A time record of the current is shown in Fig. 7. ±10 %.

U or l

OSCILLATOR POWER
20-2000 H z DC-POWER Direct voltage or
AMPLIFIER
SUPPLY direct current

Fig. 6. Principle circuit for amplitude and frequency response


testing of ammeters.

Fig. 7. Voltage of current for frequency response testing.


NORDTEST METHOD NT ELEC 028 7
ANNEX A

CORRECTION OF THE SAMPLE STANDARD DEVIATION S WHEN


THE NUMBER OF READINGS AT EACH CALIBRATION POINT IS
LESS THAN TEN
In the case of less than ten readings at each calibration point s in Equation (3) shall be
multiplied by the factor given in Table 1.

Table 1

1.3
7 1.3
8 1.2
9 1.2