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Lahore University of Management Sciences

MATH 451 – Graph Theory 
Spring Semester 2011‐12 
Instructor  Faqir M Bhatti 
Room No.  118 
Office Hours  TBA 
Email  fmbhatti@lums.edu.pk 
Telephone  042 35608013/35608226 
Secretary/TA   TBA 
TA Office Hours  Will be decided later. 
Course URL (if any)  TBA 
Course Basics 
Credit Hours  Three 
Lecture(s)  Nbr of Lec(s) Per Week  two  Duration  75 minutes 
Recitation/Lab (per week)  Nbr of Lec(s) Per Week    Duration   
Tutorial (per week)  Nbr of Lec(s) Per Week    Duration   
Course Distribution 
Elective  Elective 
Open for Student Category  Third year 
Close for Student Category  First Year and Second year 
 The chief aim of this course is to give a coherent introduction to graph theory. Some advanced topics are included.
Commonly used proof techniques are included and illustrated in details. Analyzing a few problems and finding their optimal
solutions by converting them into graphs is also one of the purposes of this course.
This course is suitable for undergraduate and graduate and beginning graduate in Mathematics, Computer Science, Physics
and Chemistry.
    Pre-Requisite: Math 221 Linear Algebra  

    To develop interest in graph theory and its many applications in other scientific fileds. 

Lahore University of Management Sciences
Learning Outcomes 
   -be able to understand the structures of graphs..
-be able to understand the applications of graph theory.
    -be able to understand the specific proof techniques to prove results in graph theory. 

Grading Breakup and Policy 
Home Work: 
Quiz(s):  14       25% 
Class Participation: 
Attendance:      10% 
Midterm Examination:  25% 
Final Examination:          40% 
Examination Detail 
Yes/No: Yes 
Combine Separate: 
Duration: 75 minutes 
Preferred Date: 
Exam Specifications: Closed Book/Closed Notes, Calculator allowed, but not Graphical 
Yes/No:   Yes 
Combine Separate: 
Final Exam  Duration: Two hours 
Exam Specifications: Closed Book/Closed Notes, Calculator allowed, but not Graphical 
Recommended  Objectives/ 
Lecture  Topics 
Readings  Application 
-J.A Bondy and U.S.R Murty  
What is a graph, Simple graphs, Graph ‘Graph Theory’, Springer
and their Representations, Isomorphism 2008
and automorphisms, Labelled graphs,
Graphs arising from other structures, -Lecture Notes on Graph
Incidents Graphs, Union and Theory.
Lecture1‐4  Intersection Graphs ,Cartesian Product,
Directed graphs  - Jonathan Gross and Jay
       Yellen : ‘Graph Theory
and its Applications’,
CRC Press, London
Sub-graphs and Supergraphs, spanning
Lecture 5‐6  and induced sub-graphs, Decomposition
and coverings, Edge cuts and bonds,
even sub-graphs, Graph reconstruction
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Walks and connection, Cut edges,    
Connection to diagraphs, Cycle double
Lecture 7‐8  covers

Forests and Trees, Spanning Tree,

Calay’s formula, Fundamental Cycles
Lecture 9‐11  and Bonds, Co-tree, Trees and Distance.
Applications of Tree
Cut vertices, Separations and Blocks,    
Ear Decompositions, Strong
Orientations, Directed Ear
Lecture 2‐13 
Decompositions, Even Cycles
Vertex Connectivity, Fan Lemma, Edge
Lecture 15‐17  Connectivity, Three-connected graphs,
Sub- modularity, Determining, Chordal
graphs, Simplicial vertices 
Plane and Planar graphs, Duality,    
Lecture  18‐20  Euler’s formula, Bridges, Kuratowski’s
Chromatic numbers, Critical graphs,    
Girth and chromatic number, Perfect
graphs, List colorings’, The adjacency
Lecture 21‐23 
polynomial, Chromatic polynomial.
Applications of vertex colorings
Edge colouring number, Vizing’s    
theorem, Snarks, Covering by perfect
Lecture 24‐25  matching, List edge coloring,
Applications of edge colorings.
Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian    
graphs, Non-Hamiltonian planar
Lecture 26‐28  graphs, Path exchanges parity,
Hamilton cycles in graphs.
One or two topics on eigenvalues of    
Note:   graph may be added if time permits.
Lahore University of Management Sciences
Textbook(s)/Supplementary Readings 

1. J.A Bondy and U.S.R Murty ‘Graph Theory with Applications’, North Holland,1982
2. Jonathan Gross and Jay Yellen : ‘Graph Theory and its Applications’, CRC Press, London 1999
3. R. J Wilson Introduction to Graph Theory Prentice
Hall Wesley(1996).
4. Douglas B West Introduction to Graph Theory
(2001) Prentice Hall