Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

1

Running Head: CAREER ADAPTABILTY

Locus of Control and Career Adaptability among Undergraduate Students

Ryan D. Duffy

The University of Maryland


2

Locus of Control and Career Adaptability among Undergraduate Students

Abstract

The current study examined the direct relation of locus of control to career adaptability as well as

its indirect relation as a mediator for other established predictors with a sample of 1991

undergraduate students. Students endorsing greater personal control were more likely to view

themselves as adaptable to the world of work. Additionally, the degree to which students’

supportive relationships, self esteem, and positive outlook on their future career related to

adaptability was tempered by students’ perceptions of control in their lives. In line with the

theoretical work of Blustein (2006), it is suggested that the sense of personal control in an

individual’s life may be an important construct to consider in career related research and

counseling.

Keywords: Locus of control, career adaptability, social support, self-esteem, career optimism
3

Locus of Control and Career Adaptability among Undergraduate Students

Career adaptability is defined as the, “readiness to cope with the predictable tasks of

preparing for and participating in the work role and with the unpredictable adjustments prompted

by changes in work and working conditions” (Savickas, 1997, p. 254). Introduced by Savickas

(1997) as a replacement for Super’s (1955) notion of career maturity, adaptability represents a

critical skill in an individual’s ability to navigate the career decision making process and the

world of work (Savickas, 1997). Despite the clear importance of this construct, relatively little

empirical research has been completed to date on this variable. In fact, a search on PsycINFO

found only 10 articles in peer reviewed journals with career adaptability in the title. The goal of

the current study is to thoroughly examine one potential predictor of adaptability, locus of

control, and explore its direct relation to adaptability as well as its indirect relation as a mediator

for other established predictors.

Along with adaptability, locus of control represents a critical variable in vocational

development. The degree to which an individual perceives they have an internal locus of control

(being able to freely make one’s own life decisions) versus an external locus of control (one’s

life decisions being determined by someone of something outside oneself) is proposed to affect

an individual’s career decision making process and work satisfaction (Duffy & Dik, in press).

Research has shown that high school and college students with an internal locus of control have

higher levels of career decision self-efficacy, higher career aspirations, greater career

decidedness, and less career choice anxiety (Lease, 2004; Millar & Shevlin, 2007; Weinstein,

Healy, & Ender, 2002). More extensive research in adult populations has shown that those who

feel in control of their lives are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs and perform better at

work (See Judge, 2009 for a review).


4

The recent theoretical work by Blustein and colleagues (e.g. Blustein, 2006; Blustein et

al., 2005; Blustein et al., 2008; Duffy & Dik, in press) has pushed scholars to focus on how a

lack of control in one’s life may affect career development throughout the lifespan. Blustein

(2006) proposes that our traditional vocational development theories overestimate the degree to

which individuals have choice in their career decision making Blustein et al. (2008) stated,

“many people do not have the privilege of selecting work that corresponds with their personal

interests and attributes or that is a viable forum for the expression of their self concept” (p. 298).

Bluestein’s work provides the framework from which we draw our hypotheses. Namely,

individuals may not feel able to adapt to their career if they feel little control in their lives and

other important predictors of adaptability may be tempered if individuals endorse a low sense of

personal control.

In the current study, we seek to study the locus of control-adaptability relation among a

college student sample, as these individuals are at a developmental point where the building of

career related skills such as adaptability are critical. Efforts have been made to understand what

predicts components of adaptability for college students (i.e. career exploration, career self-

efficacy). Students who feel supported, are goal oriented, are religious or spiritual, have high

vocational aspirations, have a high sense of personal power, and have a positive emotional

disposition are more likely to explore the world of work and feel confident in their career

decision making (Bartley & Robitschek, 2000; Creed, Fallon, & Hood; 2009; Duffy & Blustein,

2005; Hirschi, 2009; Kenny & Bledsoe, 2005). In turn, aspects of adaptability have been shown

to predict positive youth development and negatively relate to concerns about one’s future career

(Creed et al., 2009; Skorikov, 2007).


5

Several studies have attempted to specifically explore the relation of adaptability and

locus of control. Using a sample of German high school students, Hirschi (2009) found an

internal locus of control to moderately correlate with adaptability at two time points. Other

research has positively correlated locus of control with components of adaptability, including

problem focused coping (Weinsten, Healy, & Ender, 2002), career decision self-efficacy (Luzzo,

Funk, & Strang, 1996), and career competence (Daniels, Clifton, Perry, Mandzuk, & Hall, 2006).

This research suggests that individuals who feel more personal mastery over their lives may be

more able to adapt to the world of work.

Additionally, we sought to examine the extent to which locus of control serves as a

mediator between adaptability and previously established predictors, in accordance with

Blustein’s (2006) theoretical arguments. We reviewed the literature to identify constructs that

had previously been found to correlate with adaptability and had been mediated by locus of

control in their relation to other outcomes. We identified three constructs that fit these criteria:

social support, self-esteem, and optimism. We felt that each of these constructs represented

distinct factors that could each potentially account for unique variance in adaptability.

Additionally, these variables tap important components of Super’s (1955) career development

theory, including relationships, personality, and perceptions of self.

Social support pertains to the degree to which an individual feels generally supported by

others (Zimet et al., 1988). Hirschi (2009) found social support to moderately correlate with

adaptability at two time points. Using a sample of 245 first year college students, Creed et al.

(2009) found significant other, family, and friend support to weakly correlate with the planning

and self exploration components of adaptability. In a similar study, though in this case using a

sample of 322 ninth grade students, Kenny and Bledsoe (2005) found support received from
6

teachers, parents, friends, and peers to each weakly to moderately correlate with four constructs

they grouped as indicators of adaptability: identification with school, perceptions of barriers,

outcome expectations, and career planning. Finally, several studies have found that the extent to

which support relates to coping, subjective well-being, and academic performance is mediated by

an individual’s perception of control (Cao & Zeng, 2008; Ross & Broh, 2000; Valentiner,

Holahan, & Moss, 1994). Findings from these studies suggest that students are more capable of

adapting to the work world when supported by those close to them, and that social support may

be mediated by locus of control in relation to well being and academic outcomes.

Self-esteem pertains to an individual’s degree of positive or negative sentiment towards

themselves (Rosenberg, 1965). It seems plausible that those who generally feel more positive

about themselves would feel more able to cope with challenges throughout the career

development process. Using a sample of 416 employed workers, McArdle, Waters, Briscoe, and

Hall (2007) found self-esteem to weakly-moderately correlate with aspects of adaptability (i.e.

career self-efficacy, identity awareness). Using samples of high school students, Patton, Bartrum,

and Creed (2004) found self esteem to weakly to moderately correlate with career planning and

exploration in both male and females. Most generally, using a college student sample, Betz and

Klein (1996) found self esteem to correlate with both domain specific and generalized self-

efficacy, a critical component of adaptability for college students. The relation of self esteem to

outcome variables such as academic achievement, psychological distress, and depression has

also been found to be mediated by an individual’s sense of personal control (Lu & Hung-Luan,

1998; Ormel & Schaufeli, 1991; Stupinsky et al., 2007).

The final variable assessed in the present study is career optimism, or the degree to which

individual’s have a positive disposition about their future career. We chose to assess this
7

construct as it represents a career related positive disposition, and generally speaking a positive

disposition has been shown to relate to a slew of favorable outcomes (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998).

Using a sample of 663 college students, Rottinghaus, Day, and Borgen (2005) found optimism

and adaptability to correlate at the .48 level. Other studies exploring predictors of adaptability

have used constructs similar to career optimism. For example, Patton et al. (2004) found general

optimism to weakly-moderately correlate with career planning and exploration. Additionally,

Hirchi (2009) found a positive emotional disposition to weakly correlate with adaptability at two

time points. Locus of control has been found to mediate optimism or a positive disposition to

numerous outcome variables, including health perceptions and subjective well being (Lang &

Heckhausen, 1998; Peterson & De Avila, 1995; Peterson & Seligman, 1987). These studies

suggest that individuals who have a positive outlook or positive disposition are more likely to be

adaptable and that the relation of a positive outlook to health and well-being outcomes may be

mediated by locus of control.

The Present Study

Much of the research on adaptability has used various definitions of the term and a wide

range of methods to measure the construct. In the present study, we measure adaptability using

Rottinghaus et al.’s (2005) Career Future’s Scale, to address our first aim of examining the locus

of control-adaptability relation. Rottinghaus et al. (2005) define adaptability as the ability to cope

with and capitalize on changes in the world of work. Based on previous studies, we hypothesize

that locus of control will moderately correlate with career adaptability. Additionally, in line with

the theoretical propositions outlined by Blustein and colleagues (Blustein, 2006; Blustein et al.,

2005; Blustein et al., 2008), and previous studies focused primarily on well being, academic, or

health outcomes, we hypothesize that the relation of already established predictors of


8

adaptability (social support, self-esteem, optimism) will be mediated by an individual’s general

sense of control; the effect of these variables on adaptability will be substantially lowered after

accounting for locus of control. More plainly, we believe that the degree to which self-esteem,

social support, and career optimism relate to adaptability will be tempered by how much control

individuals feel they have in their lives. This hypothesis naturally assumes that all four variables

will significantly relate to adaptability and social support, self-esteem, and career optimism will

significantly relate to locus of control (Frazier, Tix, & Barron, 2004).

Method

Participants

Participants were 1991 incoming first-year students at a large, mid-Atlantic, public

university. Overall, 943 were male (47%) and 1040 were female (52%). Additionally, 1207 of

the participants were White (61%), 270 Black (14%), 289 Asian American (15%), and 113

Latina/o (6%). The average age of participants was 18.05 (SD = 1.42).

Instruments

Career adaptability. The career adaptability subscale from the Career Futures Inventory

(CFI, Rottinghaus, Day, & Borgen, 2005) was used to measure career adaptability. Adaptability

refers to the ability to cope with and capitalize on changes in the world of work and this subscale

contained 11 items (Rottinghaus et. al, 2005). Each item was measured on 5-point Likert scale

ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Example items include, “I can adapt to change

in my career plans” and “I can overcome potential barriers that may exist in my career”. In their

instrument development study, Rottinghaus et. al (2005) found Adaptability to relate positively

with extraversion, conscientiousness, positive affect, and skills confidence. The subscale also
9

was found to have strong internal consistency reliability (.85). For the current study, the subscale

had an estimated internal consistency reliability of .87

Career optimism. The Optimism subscale from the Career Futures Inventory (CFI,

Rottinghaus et al., 2005) was used to measure career optimism. Rottinghaus et al. defined career

optimism as a positive disposition about one’s future career development. Each item on was

answered on 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Example

items include, “Thinking about my career inspires me” and “I am eager to pursue my career

dreams”. Rottinghaus et al. found that Optimism related positively with extraversion,

conscientiousness, positive affect, and skills confidence and had strong internal consistency

reliability (.87). For the current study, the estimated internal consistency reliability of the

Optimism subscale was .89

Locus of control. The extent to which participants generally felt in control of their lives

was measured by Lachman and Weaver’s (1998) Sense of Control Scale. This scale is composed

of two subscales, Mastery (4 items) and Perceived Constraints (8 items). Example items from

each of these subscales are, “I can do just about anything I set my mind to” (Mastery) and “I

have little control over the things that happen to me” (Perceived Constraints). Each item was

answered on a 7-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Lachman and Weaver

(1998) found each of these subscales to correlate with life satisfaction (r = .30, -.40), depressive

symptoms (r = -.27, .48), and health (r = .22, -.29). The subscales were also found to have

adequate internal consistency reliability (.70, .86). For the current study, the estimated internal

consistency of the entire scale was .87

Self-esteem. Rosenberg’s (1965) 10-item self esteem scale (RSE) was used to assess an

individual’s overall sense of self value. Participants were asked to answer these 10 items of a 4-
10

point Likert scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Example items include, “I feel that I

have a number of good qualities” and “I take a positive attitude toward myself”. The RSE has

been used in thousands of studies since its development, and Rosenberg (1965) initially found it

to have strong internal consistency reliability (.93) and to negatively correlate with anxiety and

depression. For the current study, the estimated internal consistency reliability was .87.

Social Support. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was

used to measure the degree to which an individual generally feels supported in their life (Zimet,

Dahlem, Zimet, & Farely, 1988). The 12-item scale consists of three 4-item subscales assessing

family support, friend support, and significant other support. Participants were asked to respond

to each of these items on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

Examples of items include, “I get the emotional support and help I need from my family” and

“My friends really try to help me.” Reliability estimates for the total scale and friends, family,

and significant other subscales were .88, .85, .87, and .91, respectively. Test-retest reliabilities

after 2 to 3 months were .75 for the Friends subscale, .85 for the Family subscale, .72 for the

Significant Other subscale, and .85 for the Total scale (Zimet et al., 1988). In terms of construct

validity, total scale scores (which were used in the present study) have been found to correlate

with lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms (Clara, Cox, Enns, Murray, & Torgrudc,

2003; Zimet et al., 1988). The reliability coefficient of the total scale was .92 in our sample.

Procedure

Data for this study were collected through the University New Student Census (UNSC),

an annual survey given to incoming first year students the summer prior to their entrance to the

university. Upon committing to school enrollment, all incoming students were sent an email by

the University’s Provost Office during the summer requesting their participation in this research
11

project. Within this email was a link to an online survey where students were presented with an

informed consent form and, if consent was given, were directed to login to the survey. The

survey consisted of approximately 230 questions and students were informed that they could

cease participation at any time and were directed to not include any identifying information on

the survey. The instruments used in the current study were a subset of the entire survey.

Results

Correlations were computed to determine the interrelationships amongst adaptability and

the four predictor variables. As seen in Table 1, adaptability was found to moderately correlate

with self esteem (r = .44), social support (r = .35), and career optimism (r = .48) and was found

to strongly correlate with locus of control (r = .54). Locus of control was found to moderately

correlate with social support (r = .42) and strongly correlate with self esteem (r = .54) and career

optimism (r = .51).

Next, three hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess locus of control as a

potential mediator. Frazier, Tix, and Barron (2004) proposed that in order to test a mediator

hypothesis, one must show that the predictor (social support/self-esteem/optimism) is correlated

with the criterion variable (career adaptability), the predictor is correlated with the mediator

(locus of control), the mediator is correlated to the criterion, and that after the mediator effect is

controlled for, the relation of the predictor to the criterion variable is significantly lower. As seen

in Table’s 2, 3, and 4, all hypothesized path coefficients were found to be significant. In step one

of the regressions, social support, self-esteem, and optimism were each found to significantly

predict adaptability and in step two each were found to predict locus of control. In step three of

each regression, locus of control was found to significantly predict adaptability and locus of

control was found to substantially reduce the strength of relations between social support, self-
12

esteem, career optimism, and adaptability. The Beta value drops for each predictor after

including locus of control were as follows: social support (.35 to .15), self-esteem (.44 to .22),

and career optimism (.48 to .26). These findings confirm all four of Frazier et al.’s criteria.

Two additional steps were completed to determine the strength and direction of these

mediation effects. A Sobel’s test (Baron & Kenny, 1986) was performed for each of the three

equations to assess the significance in reduction between the predictors and adaptability after

including locus of control. All drops were found to be significant: social support (15.94, p <

.001), self esteem (16.82, p < .001), and career optimism (16.10, p < .001). Additionally,

alternative hypotheses were tested to explore if the predictor variables (social support, self-

esteem, optimism) were in fact functioning as the mediators between locus of control and

adaptability. Results indicated that when using social support, self-esteem, or optimism as

mediators, the changes in the relations of locus of control and adaptability were less substantial.

Specifically, the Beta value drops for the locus of control-adaptability relations are as follows,

based on the specific mediator: social support (.55 to .48), self-esteem (.54 to .43), and career

optimism (.55 to .41).

Discussion

Career adaptability and locus of control represent two critical variables in vocational

psychology, and the current study sought to explore how these two are related among

undergraduate students. The strong bivariate relation found between locus of control and

adaptability suggests that students who generally feel a sense of personal control over lives may

be more inclined to perceive themselves as adaptable in their careers. Considering both Savickas’

(1997) and Rottinghaus et al’s (2005) definitions of adaptability, this finding may speak to how

adaptability represents feeling a sense of control over changes or challenges in the work domain.
13

Individuals who have an internal locus of control may be able to more easily navigate the world

of work by proactively adjusting themselves to fit expectations. For college students in

particular, having an internal locus of control at this stage of life may be especially critical given

the increased importance of adaptability throughout the career development process.

The confirmation of the mediation hypotheses supported prior research in non-work

domains as well as the theoretical propositions by Blustein (2006). Indeed, locus of control was

seen to partially mediate the relation of established predictors to adaptability. The degree to

which students’ supportive relationships, self-esteem, and positive outlook on their future career

related to adaptability was tempered by students’ perceptions of control in their lives. This

finding adds to studies by Hirschi (2009) and Kenny and Blesdoe (2005), suggesting control

perceptions might need to be considered when examining the support-adaptability relation. More

tentatively, given the rich literature in vocational psychology which highlights the importance of

supportive relationships for an individual’s career across the lifespan (Schultheiss, Kress, Manzi,

& Glasscock, 2001; Whiston & Keller, 2004), locus of control may be an important variable to

consider.

The mediating role of locus of control in the relation of career optimism and self-esteem

to adaptability also adds to previous research by McArdle, Waters, Briscoe, and Hall (2007),

Hirschi (2009), and Patton Bartrum, and Creed (2004), whereby control perceptions may need to

be accounted for. Self-esteem and optimism represent highly studied variables in psychology,

and locus of control has been tied to each of these variables when examining their relation to

academic and well-being outcomes (Lang & Heckhausen, 1998; Ormel & Schaufeli, 1991;

Stupinsky et al., 2007). This is the first study we are aware which to ties these variables together

in such an order with a career related variable as an outcome, and may speak to the importance
14

of accounting for control perceptions when examining linkages between personal traits and

vocational outcomes.

Implications and Limitations

The theoretical work of Blustein and colleagues (Bluesin, 2006; Blustien et al., 2005;

Blustein et al., 2008; Duffy & Dik, in press), along with the importance of studying predictors of

adaptability, served as the main impetuses for the present study. Blustein (2006) and Duffy and

Dik (in press) proposed that a variable often absent from career development theory and research

is that of volition, or the extent to which one feels the freedom of choice in their lives. Though

not precisely measuring volition, locus of control is analogous in measuring external versus

internal control perceptions. Given locus of control’s strong overlap with adaptability, and its

ability to mediate several established predictors, the results of this study may have important

implications for career counselors and future researchers.

From a counseling perspective, the results of this study highlight the importance of

addressing a client’s general feelings of control in their lives. For adult clients to be able to

effectively adapt to changes in their work environment, or for students to be flexible in their

career decision making process, it is important that they have an internal locus of control. Doing

so may foster the notion that the ability to adapt is under their own power, and not governed by

external factors. Counseling techniques have been established within the change, attribution, and

feminist literatures to facilitate the development of a more internal locus of control (McWhirter,

1994; Peterson, Maier, & Seligman, 1995; Porchaska, Norcross, & DiClemente, 1995).

From a research perspective, it may be important for researchers to continue to include

locus of control, or similar variables, in studies attempting to explore what contributes to

adaptability. Locus of control might be a variable that researchers control for when trying to
15

account for variance in adaptability, as it may measure a more global, trait like quality that

relates to individuals’ perceptions of control across a wide range of areas, including work.

Additionally, along with previous recommendations (Blustein, 2006; Duffy & Dik, in press)

researchers are advised to consider assessing control perceptions in all studies on vocational

choice, especially when using participants who have extensive barriers. For example, it would be

interesting to test how well studied variables such as interests, self-efficacy, values, and

personality relate to career choice after accounting for control perceptions; it may be that

individuals with a more external locus of control have much more difficulty linking these

variables to their actual career choice.

Finally, the results of the present study need to be taken with a number of limitations.

First, the participants were at the beginning of their college career, and as such are in the stage of

preparing for the world of work and not necessarily fully participating in it. Second, given that

the data were collected cross sectionally, it is difficult to fully determine the directionality of the

constructs assessed. As such, while we can confidently say that adaptability and locus of control

are strongly related in the present sample, it is unknown to what degree one causes the other.

Third, given the low amount of research examining models of adaptability, we chose to assess

how each of the predictor variables independently related to adaptability. Future research might

attempt to combine these variables into a unified model, where the effects of each of these

predictors can be explored after controlling for other variables.


16

References

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social

psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Bartley, D. F., & Robitschek, C. (2000). Career exploration: A multivariate analysis of

predictors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 63-81.

Betz, N. E., & Klein, K. L. (1996). Relationships among career self-efficacy, generalized self-

efficacy, and global self-esteem. Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 47-57.

Blustein, D.L. (2006). The psychology of working: A new perspective for career development,

counseling, and public policy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Blustein, D. L., Kenna, A. C., Gill, N., & DeVoy, J. E. (2008). The psychology of working: A

new framework for counseling practice and public policy. Career Development

Quarterly, 56, 294-308.

Blustein, D., McWhirter, E., & Perry, J. (2005). An emancipatory communitarian approach to

vocational development theory, research, and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 33,

141-179.

Cao, K., & Zeng, Y. (2008). Relationship between social support, psychological control and

subjective well-being of college students. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16,

195-197.

Clara, I. P., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., Murray, L. T., & Torgrudc, L. J. (2003). Confirmatory

factor analysis of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support in clinically

distressed and student samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 81, 265-270.

Creed, P. A., Fallon, T., & Hood, M. (2009). The relationship between career adaptability,
17

person and situation variables, and career concerns in young adults. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 74, 219-229.

Daniels, L. M., Clifton, R. A., Perry, R. P., Mandzuk, D., & Hall, N. C. (2007). Predicting

student teachers’ competence and career uncertainty: The role of career anxiety and

perceived control. Social Psychology of Education, 9, 405-423.

DeNeve, K.M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: a meta-analysis of 137 personality

traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197–229.

Duffy, R.D., & Blustein, D.L. (2005). The relationship between spirituality, religiousness, and

career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 429-440.

Duffy, R.D., & Dik, B.J. (in press). Beyond the self: External influences in the career

development process. The Career Development Quarterly.

Frazier, P., Tix, A., & Barron, K. (2004). Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling

psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 115-134.

Hirschi, A. (2009) Career adaptability development in adolescence: Multiple predictors and

effect on sense of power and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 145-

155.

Judge, T. A. (2009). Core self-evaluations and work success. Current Directions in

Psychological Science, 18, 58-62.

Kenny, M. E., & Bledsoe, M. (2005). Career adaptability in context: The role of support,

barriers, and peer school beliefs. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 257-272.

Lachman, M.E., & Weaver, S.L. (1998). The sense of control as a moderator of social class

differences in health and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74,

763-773.
18

Lang, F. R., & Heckhausen, J. (2001). Perceived control over development and subjective well-

being: Differential benefits across adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 81, 509-523

Lease, S. H. (2004). Effect of locus of control, work knowledge, and mentoring on career

decision-making difficulties: Testing the role of race and academic institution. Journal of

Career Assessment, 12, 239-254.

Lu, L., & Wu, H. (1998). Gender-role traits and depression: Self-esteem and control as

mediators. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 11, 95-107.

Luzzo, D. A., Funk, D. P., &. Strang, J. (1996). Attributional retraining increases career

decision-making self-efficacy. The Career Development Quarterly, 44, 378-386.

McArdle, S., Waters, L., Briscoe, J. P., & Hall, D. T. (2007). Employability during

unemployment: Adaptability, career identity and human and social capital. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 71, 247-264.

McWhirter, E. H. (1994). Counseling for empowerment. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling

Association.

Millar, R., & Shevlin, M. (2007), The development and factor structure of a career locus of

control scale for use with school pupils. Journal of Career Development, 33, 224-249.

Ormel, J. & Schaufeli, W.B. (1991). Stability and change in psychological distress and their

relationship with self-esteem and locus of control: a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal

of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 288-299.

Patton, W., Bartrum, D. E., & Creed, P. A. (2004). Gender differences for optimism, self-esteem,

expectations and goals in predicting career planning and exploration in adolescents.

International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 4, 193-209


19

Peterson, C., & De Avila, M. (1995). Optimistic explanatory style and the perception of

health problems. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 128-132.

Peterson, C., Maier, S.F., & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the

Age of Personal Control. New York: Oxford University Press.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M.E.P. (1987). Explanatory style and illness. Journal of Personality,

55, 237-265.

Prochaska, J. O., Norcross, J. C., & DiClemente, C. C. (1995). Changing for good. New York:

Avon.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton

University Press.

Ross, C. E., & Broh, B. A. (2000). The role of self-esteem and the sense of personal control in

the academic achievement process. Sociology of Education, 73, 270-284.

Rottinghaus, P. J., Day, S. X., & Borgen, F. H. (2005). The Career Futures Inventory: A measure

of career-related adaptability and optimism. Journal of Career Assessment, 13, 3-24.

Savickas, M. L. (1997). Adaptability: An integrative construct for life-span, life-space theory.

Career Development Quarterly, 45, 247-259.

Schultheiss, D. E. P., Kress, H. M., Manzi, A. J., & Glasscock, J. M. J. (2001). Relational

influences in career development: A qualitative inquiry. The Counseling Psychologist,

29, 214-239.

Skorikov, V. B. (2007). Continuity in adolescent career preparation and its effects on adjustment.

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 8-24.

Stupnisky, R. H., Renaud, R. D., Perry, R. P., Ruthig, J. C., Haynes, T. L., & Clifton, R. A.
20

(2007). Comparing self-esteem and perceived control as predictors of first-year college

students' academic achievement. Social Psychology of Education, 10, 303-330.

Valentiner, D., Holahan, C. & Moos, R. (1994). Social support, appraisals of event

controllability, and coping: An integrative model. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 66, 1094-1102.

Weinstein, F.M., Healy, C.C. & Ender, P.B. (2002). Career choice anxiety, coping and perceived

control. Career Development Quarterly, 50, 339-350.

Whiston, S. C. & Keller, B. K. (2004). The influences of the family of origin on career

development: a review and analysis. The Counseling Psychologist, 32, 493–568.


21

Table 1: Correlations of Career Adaptability and Locus of Control, Self Esteem, Social Support,

and Career Optimism.

1 2 3 4 5

1. Career Adaptability -

2. Locus of Control .54 -

3. Self Esteem .44 .54 -

4. Social Support .35 .42 .42 -

5. Career Optimism .48 .51 .42 .33 -

M 45.30 66.33 33.45 49.79 39.72

SD 5.08 10.17 4.54 7.90 7.21

Note. All correlations significant at the p < .01 level.


22

Table 2: Locus of Control as a Mediator between Social Support and Career Adaptability (N =

1604).

Predictor Model R Model R² t df B SE B β

Step 1: Career Adaptability

Social Support .35 .12 15.11 1648 .35 .02 .35*

Step 2: Locus of Control

Social Support .42 .18 18.68 1642 .42 .02 .42*

Step 3: Career Adaptability

Social Support 6.45 1603 .15 .02 .15*

Locus of Control .56 .32 21.23 1602 .49 .02 .48*

* p < .01
23

Table 3: Locus of Control as a Mediator between Self Esteem and Career Adaptability (N =

1451).

Predictor Model R Model R² t df B SE B β

Step 1: Career Adaptability

Self Esteem .44 .19 19.75 1638 .44 .02 .44*

Step 2: Locus of Control

Self Esteem .54 .29 25.65 1629 .54 .02 .54*

Step 3: Career Adaptability

Self Esteem 8.90 1590 .22 .02 .22*

Locus of Control .57 .33 17.55 1589 .43 .02 .43*

* p < .01
24

Table 4: Locus of Control as a Mediator between Career Optimism and Career Adaptability (N =

1451).

Predictor Model R Model R² t df B SE B β

Step 1: Career Adaptability

Career Optimism .48 .23 21.95 1641 .48 .02 .48*

Step 2: Locus of Control

Career Optimism .51 .26 24.20 16.33 .52 .02 .51*

Step 3: Career Adaptability

Career Optimism 11.14 1598 .26 .02 .26*

Locus of Control .59 .35 17.33 1597 .41 .02 .41*

* p < .01