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Questions

Define and compare the terms: species, population, biotic community, abiotic environmental factors,
and ecosystem.
The population is a set of organisms of the same species that live in a certain area. A species is a set of
organisms with similar characteristics and ability to reproduce, which may include one or more populations. The
community is the set of different populations that share the area where they live, interacting with each other. The
ecosystem is a defined space where the interactions between a community and its environment take place.
Environmental factors are classified as abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living), both must be in constant balance,
since the alteration of any of them would unbalance the whole framework in the environment. The abiotic factors
are: humidity, temperature, light, wind, pH, soil type, salinity, etc.
How are the biosphere, biomes, ecosystems and echo tones similar and different?
The Biosphere corresponds to the largest ecological system, with the highest level of biological organization,
conformed by all the life areas of the world and their interactions; that is, considering all the ecosystems that
exist on Earth and the places on the planet where life takes place. The ecosystems that gradually overlap in a
transitional region are known as eco-tone, which shares many species and characteristics of the adjacent
ecosystems. Similar or related ecosystems are grouped into larger classes called biomes.
Cite the three main categories of organisms that make up the biotic structure of ecosystems and explain
the function that each one performs.
Producers are integrated by organisms, which have the capacity to transform substances into organic food, a
function that within an ecosystem are the only ones that possess it, they are also called autotrophs.
Consumers: they feed on organic substances already elaborated by other organisms, that is to say of substances
elaborated by the producers or by other consumers and in relation to their diet they are known as heterotrophs.
Decomposers: when a plant or an animal dies, the bodies are disintegrated by other organisms, the
decomposers, represented by bacteria and fungi, and debris, represented by small worms, earthworms,
protozoa, snails, slugs, millipedes, etc.
Cite four categories of consumers present in the ecosystems and state what functions they perform.
- Primary consumers: they are herbivorous organisms that feed on producers, such as rodents, insects, pigeons,
teros, cows, sheep, etc.
- Secondary consumers: they are carnivorous organisms that feed on primary consumers. By their diet they are
called carnivores. Within this group we find zooplankton, some fish, opossums, snakes, frogs, etc.
- Tertiary consumers: are those who eat other carnivores, such as raptors and cats. Within this group we find
the omnivores that consume both vegetables and animals.
- Saprofitos or detrivors, feeds on plant materials, such as leaves, branches, fallen trunks and dry grass.
Point out the similarities and differences between saprophytes and decomposers in terms of what they
do, how they do it, and the organisms that comprise each category.
Saprophytes feed on dead plant materials, such as leaves and dried grass, and detritus decomposers such as
fungi and bacteria secrete digestive enzymes that break down organic matter into simple sugars that are
absorbed as nutrients.
All organisms can be classified into two categories. Name them and describe their characteristics.
Autotrophs: they are the only ones that have the ability to fix light energy using water and CO2 to build
increasingly complex molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, which serve both to form their own
structure, and to produce their corresponding food.
Heterotrophs: they are not able to make their own food, so they nourish themselves with materials produced by
other beings or even directly from other beings.
What is the distinction between food chains, food webs and plots and trophic levels?
In the ecosystem, the remains of organisms, waste and excrement that accumulate are consumed by fungi and
bacteria. In doing so, they decompose them into simple substances, which are integrated into the soil or water,
where the producing organisms use them in the preparation of their food. All the organisms are "linked" because
each one feeds on the previous one. We call this sequence the food or trophic chain.
Food chains and networks are cycles that allow matter and energy to move from one level to another. The
starting point is solar energy, carbon dioxide, water and soil nutrients that plants use to make their food by means
of photosynthesis. Energy flows through the ecosystems of photosynthetic producers at various levels of
consumers; each category of organism is called the trophic level.
Describe three associations that are not food.
Mutualism: association which occurs when two species are related for mutual benefit.
Symbiosis: refers to the fact of living together and does not specify any damage or benefit between species.
Competition Associations: They occur rarely, because each species tends to specialize and adapt to its own
habitat or niche.
What is climate and how does it influence the formation of biomes?
The climate is a conditioning element, it is constituted by the temperature, the atmospheric pressure, the winds
and the precipitations, which are modified by factors like: latitude, altitude and relief, the distribution of earth and
waters, and even by the currents marinas that affect a place. Humidity is the supreme factor that determines the
biome that sustains each region. These factors are determining factors in the formation of the biomes that are
found on Earth, such as; the tundra, the taiga, the temperate forest, the tropical rain forest, the desert, the
meadow, and the ocean. Each one is very different from the others.
What are microclimates and how do they influence the diversity of species in ecosystems?
The set of climatic conditions that prevail in localized areas, that is to say, climatic phenomena can be studied
in a range that goes from a cave, an island, a valley, a mountain, etc.
What factors besides abiotics act as limiting factors?
Biotic factors such as the distribution of plants by the presence of certain herbivores, particularly insects and
parasite fungi, cause the absence of a plant community that provides adequate food for another species.