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Optimization and management of energy power Flow in Hybrid

Electrical Vehicles.
G. Gruosso*
*Politecnico di Milano,
Dipartimetno di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria,
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32 -I 20133 Milano (Italy),
Email: giambattista.gruosso@polimi.it, tel. +390223993696

The first one are useful to implement strategy that start

Keywords: Energy Management, Optimisation, Hybrid from the measured parameter of the vehicles and determine
Electrical Vechicle. the best configuration predefined by a set o rule. The second
one are best suited for forecasting the behavior of the systems
Abstract starting from measured parameter on the vehicles, but also
considering the external conditions, the mission profile and
The use of optimization algorithm for the management of the driver habits[1-5].
energy on vehicles electrical, is an innovative argument in the The use of algorithms for the optimization of the
field of the transports. In this context, beginning from an management of energy on vehicles electrical, is a central
accurate model of electrical device, is necessary to identify topic in the field of the transports. In these strategies, the
the performances so as to reproduce the physical behavior of optimization is made by minimizing a cost function. The
the considered vehicle. designer describes this function including the all the
Particularly it is necessary to start from a model that takes parameters of interest and generally, for HEVs, fuel
into account several details including Battery and all the consumption, emissions and generated torque. The global
electrical loads. optimum solution, however, is found using future and past
knowledge of power demands and, therefore, over a fixed
1 Introduction driving cycle. By doing so, it is quite clear that online
realtime management cannot be performed, although the
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) were recognized by all to
solutions could be used to create enough data to serve as basis
be the alternative today to conventional vehicle, once the
for rule-based algorithms and also, then, to allow algorithm
combination of electric motor and internal combustion engine
performances comparison. Anyway, some real-time
(ICE) can achieve better fuel consumption, as well as
optimizations are being studying taking into account only the
pollutant emissions compared to conventional. Many
instantaneous optimization of the cost function, finding, thus,
researches and studies have been developed so that the hybrid
a local optimum point.
configuration can achieve the best result possible. In this way,
A hybrid electric vehicle is defined as a vehicle in which
batteries, electric motors and even conventional ICES must be
propulsion is provided by two different propulsion system:
adapted-i.e. designed or re-size-to meet the performance.
the internal combustion engine and the electric motor[1]. The
However, none of this could be feasible without a control
traditional propulsion system cooperate with an electric
strategy who oversees the behavior of each component. HEV
traction device powered by an electrochemical accumulator.
battery must supply the electric motors and also provide
Typically, the primary source is the internal combustion
energy for more electrical equipment, that now cover a role
engine that transforms the chemical energy of the fuel into
important and fundamental in the vehicle. Thus, a control
mechanical energy, or subsequently into electric energy via
strategy must be developed in order to coordinate the two
an electric generator. The auxiliary energy source provides
main power sources, battery and ICE, able to choose the right
energy to the electric motor. In order to realize a strategy that
operating point by considering actual external situations and
optimizes the consumption of energy flowing in the whole
State of driven components. It is quite clear that to reduce fuel
system, we studied the vehicle, the devices and components
consumption, a well-posed control strategy must be chosen.
present on board the vehicle. The hybrid electric considered is
The algorithm must be capable of manage in a smart and
a mixed system that presents two different power sources that
efficient way the use of the different power sources of the
have different characteristics and have to cooperate to provide
vehicle, while keeping the State of Charge (SOC) of the
the requested amount of energy. The energy management is
battery in between the desired upper and lower boundaries -
an open loop problem in which the input signal—that is, the
all of it based on the power demanded by the driver. Usually
requested power, which has to follow a desired trajectory
they are separated in two main groups, such as Rule-Based
defined by vehicle’s speed, is known. The objective of the
and Optimization-Based.

problem becomes the determination of a control variable that The growing interest in this technology brought to the
defines the correct partialization of the two energy sources, definition of two more configurations:
and thus, the operational mode of the vehicle.

2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle configuration

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle in which
propulsion energy is available from two or more kinds of
energy storage systems or converters and at least one of them
can deliver electrical energy. Ordinary people have already in
mind that a HEV is simply a vehicle having two propulsion
system: an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric
motor (EM).
To present the characteristics of the vehicle considered in
these pages we proposed a description of the existing hybrid

Figure 3: Series-Parallel Configuration.

Figure 1: Series Configuration.

Figure 4: Complex Configuration.

These two configurations are an evolution of the basic series

and parallel hybrid. “Series-parallel” hybrid system
incorporates the feature of both series and parallel HEVs, but
involving an additional mechanical link compared with the
series hybrid and also an additional generator compared with
the parallel hybrid. “Complex” hybrid system involves a
complex configuration that can’t be classified into the above
three kinds. The complex hybrid seems to be similar to the
series-parallel hybrid, since the generator and electric motor
are both electric machinery. However, the key difference is
due to the bidirectional power flow of the electric motor in
Figure 2: Parallel Configuration. the complex hybrid and the unidirectional power flow of the
generator in the series-parallel hybrid.
The “series” one is the most similar configuration of the In our study we consider a hybrid series vehicle. The internal
classical electric vehicle, the key ideas are: provide traction combustion engine (ICE) is directly coupled with the electric
power directly from the electric motor and arrange a system generator, it produces power from the combustion process of
that can store energy. On the other hand, “parallel” hybrid, is the fuel and deliverers it as electric energy to the electric
more similar to conventional vehicle: traction power is motor for the traction. Usually the start up of the ICE is
provided by the internal combustion engine and the electric realized with the energy present in the energy storage system.
motor is used as a power supply in case of peak power. The decoupling between the mechanical axle of the ICE and

the traction wheel produce an increment of the global time management cannot be performed, although the
efficiency of the vehicle. In this configuration, there is the solutions could be used to create enough data to serve as basis
possibility to provide exclusively electric mode for short drive for rule-based algorithms and also, then, to allow algorithm
path. One of the most important element in a vehicle like this performances comparison. Anyway, some real-time
is the energy storage system, that must be dimensioned to optimizations can be done by taking into account only the
achieve all the power request of every single components instantaneous optimization of the cost function, finding, thus,
installed on board, and that is able to store energy produced a local optimum point. In order to do so evolutionary
by breaking system. The interface between ICE, electric optimization algorithms are used as global search techniques,
motor and energy storage system is provided by a power thus they can overcome the drawbacks of the traditional
electronic unit on which can be implemented energy optimization methods. Among the main evolutionary
management strategies. optimization approaches it is worth mentioning the Genetic
Algorithm (GA) and the Particle Swarm Optimization
3 Control Strategy and algorithm (PSO)[6-7].
These algorithms are iterative techniques with strong
In this contest the energy management is a problem in which stochastic bases and consequently their performances are
the cost function (request power), that has to follow a desired evaluated in terms of average speed of convergence. The use
trajectory can be considered predefined or stochastic. The of these techniques, requiring a relevant number of the fitness
first one condition is related to every driving cycles that are function evaluations, needs particular care if, as in this case,
repeatable in with it is to implement a rule-based management the cost function is computationally expensive.
strategy. On the other hand most of driving mission are not
easily determined, and require a real time optimisation able to 4 Results
perform the right management strategy, taking into account
vehicle status and external parameters. The objective of the Starting from available information of the vehicle a
problem is determine control variables that define the quasistatic model has been developed in Matlab Simulink.
operating mode and thus the correct mix of the propulsion The main objective of the analysis is the energy flow
sources. management, so we focused our attention to the variation of
The first step of the process is to model the function that links requested and available power during a normal operating
the driving parameter to the energy consumption of the cycle. The complete model is presentes in figure 5 .
system seen as combination of traction power and auxiliary 1) Driving Cycle: The first block of the model is the
system power, and then decide how to split energy between Driving Cycle which describes the speed of the vehicle in
the two different power sources in order to satisfy some specific road condition during a fixed period of time. The
external constraints. considered driving cycles are standards defined in Europe
Introducing two parameter for power sources, the energy [8]:
balance equation can be written as: • Braunschweig City Driving Cycle
• European Transient Cycle (ETC)
D Pbatt (t) + E PICE (t)  J Paux (t)  GPTr (t) 0 (1) For the first one we obtain the correct data, for the second one
we realize a similar one that reproduce approximatively the
characteristics of the cycle.
where Ptr is the traction power, Paux is the power requested by The Braunschweig City Driving Cycle cycle was developed at
auxiliary systems, Pbatt and PICE are respectively the available the Technical University of Braunschweig. It is a transient
power of battery and internal combustion engine. driving schedule simulating urban driving with frequent stops.
Battery power can be considered as the state variable that The cycle is performed on a chassis dynamometer. The
describe the behaviour of the secondary power source (the Braunschweig Cycle had been frequently used in various
primary is the ICE power). Knowing battery capacity and research projects, as well as for some equipment certification
maximum input and output power of the battery, should programs. With the introduction of the transient ETC cycle,
reasonably give and receive power when requested. the role of the Braunschweig cycle has diminuished.
This behaviour is ruled by the D parameter, that could be Comparison studies indicated that the ETC produces about
positive or negative, respectively when it sends power and it 40% lower power output and 30-70% lower regulated
receives power for charging. Starting from these emissions than the Braunschweig cycle. The European
consideration it is clear that the optimisation problem act on Transient Cycle (ETC) has been introduced, together with the
the variables D , E ,J ,G but underlies to the constraints due ESC (European Stationary Cycle), for emission certification
to the required driving cycle, battery status and Ice emissions. of heavy-duty diesel engines in Europe starting in the year
In these strategies, the optimization is made by minimizing 2000. The ETC cycle has been developed by the former FIGE
a cost function. The designer describes this function including Institute, Aachen, Germany, based on real road cycle
the all the parameters of interest and generally, for HEVs, fuel measurements of heavy duty vehicles. Different driving
consumption, emissions and generated torque. The global conditions are represented by three parts of the ETC cycle,
optimum solution, however, is found using future and past including urban, rural and motorway driving. The duration of
knowledge of power demands and, therefore, over a fixed the entire cycle is 1800s. The duration of each part is 600s.
driving cycle. By doing so, it is quite clear that online real-

• Part one represents city driving with a maximum 80% of its SOC. This is a new technical solution that can
speed of 50 km/h, frequent starts, stops, and idling. provide a longer battery life although we do not have precise
• Part two is rural driving starting with a steep experimental and technical informations. In this case it is
acceleration segment. The average speed is about 72 km/h possible to provide fast battery charge without reducing
• Part three is motorway driving with average speed of battery life, because we are not discharging completely the
about 88 km/h. battery pack. In this simulation we considered normal
Braunschweig City Driving Cycle,.
The results obtained in this simulation can provide interesting
consideration on the use of battery for traction in a vehicle
where it is not installed to provide this feature. The simulation
on this driving cycle can not determine if it is more useful to
work exclusively in electric mode or continue working hybrid
in a situation like this, however it is possible to arrange a
certain driving period in zero emission modality.
Considering the same strategy, it has been realized a
Figure. 5. Matlab Simulink series hybrid model simulation also for the European Transient Cycle. This
driving cycle is composed by three different parts, the
interesting solution is to provide traction power by the battery
in urban driving condition. Also in this case the simulation
has been realized considering two different kinds of recharge:
a fast one and a normal one. The other simulation is realized
considering normal charge, so providing less constant power
from ICE to charge the battery, figure 16. Urban driving is
still realized in pure electric mode, although battery is not
completely recharged in suburban driving, and in motorway
Figure 6. Braunschweig City Driving Cycle driving, where power request is higher and the internal
combustion engine does not succed in providing traction and
recharge power.

Figure. 7. Modified European Transient Cycle

The first step for the comprehension of system dynamics and

implementable strategies is the knowledge of the power Figure 8. Battery charge and discharge cycle Braunschweig
requested by the vehicle. City Driving Cycle: 100%-80% SOC
In Braunschweig City Driving Cycle we considered the
possibility to work, where possible, always in electric mode.
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