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CHAPTER 1 LESSON 1 TRIVIA …

I. STARTING POINTS
UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS
LET SEE…
Balot, for example, is a delicacy in the Philippines. Provide an information arguing that balot is a
unique cultural icon of the Filipinos.
And then, share your answers & perspectives in the class.
ACQUISITION
of knowledge
LAS:
Concept Definition Map
LAS:
Consolidation of Data
Answer the following questions orally.
MAJOR ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND CULTURAL VARIATIONS
GENDER VS. SEX
According to WHO (2013), gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities,
and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men, women, LGBT, and among
others.
HETEROSEXUAL VS. HOMOSEXUAL
Heterosexual – a person with this gender is inclined to be sexually attracted to a person of the
opposite sex.
Homosexual – when a person is sexually attracted to a person of the same sex.
GAY VS. LESBIAN
Gay – a male who is romantically and sexually attracted to another male.
Lesbian - a female who is romantically and sexually attracted to another female.
BISEXUAL VS. ASEXUAL VS. POLYSEXUAL VS. PANSEXUAL
Bisexual – there are some individuals who are attracted to both sexes.
Asexual – there are some who are totally incapable of being attracted to any sex.
Polysexual – individuals who are attracted to multiple types of gender.
Pansexual – who accommodate all types of gender.
TRANSGENDER VS. TRANSSEXUAL
Transgender – their sexual orientation is not related to their genitalia.
Transsexual – these individuals believe that the discord between their internal gender and the
gender role that they have to perform can be addressed through medical sexual reassignment.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASS
Varies between societies as the ideas associated with being poor or rich differ based on the
collected experiences of individuals.
In the Philippine Context:
- mahirap
- medyo mayaman
- sakto lang
- mayaman
RELIGION
The belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or
gods.
A pursuit or interest to which someone ascribes supreme importance.
ETHNICITY VS. NATIONALITY
Nationality refers to a group of people who share the same history, traditions, and language.
Is the identity that is tied to being part of a nation or country.
BREAKFAST AROUND THE WORLD
The Holistic Study of Humanity: Anthropology
Scope of Anthropology
Derived from the Greek word ANTHROPOS and LOGOS, which means study of human and the
respective cultures where they born and actively belong to.
It is considered as the father/grandfather of all social sciences (like sociology, economics, and
psychology).
The Holistic Study of Humanity: Sociology
Scope of Sociology
It is the study of society, social relationships, and social institutions.
Makes us aware that when we make decisions. (independent-minded according to choices we
make out of our own free will).
The Holistic Study of Humanity: Political Science
Scope of Political Science
Politics is allied with government which is considered as the ultimate authority.
It is primary role of the government to rule the society by stipulating and transmitting the basic
laws that will supervise the freedom of its people.
POWER, ORDER, JUSTICE
SOCIAL REALITIES: BEHAVIOR AND PHENOMENON
1. Why do people do such a thing?
2. What makes it normal and acceptable to some people in some places and unacceptable to
others in other places?
IN GENERAL…
Situation 1 – behavioral example of most young people who feel that the company of other
young people is more meaningful and exciting.
Situations 2 & 5 – they are about a set of practices.
Situation 3 – related to a group-based practice (health and religion).
Situation 4 – is about the lifestyle associated with a specific sexual preference/romantic
arrangement.
VALUES & BELIEFS AS BEHAVIOR MOTIVATORS
 Are the criteria people use in assessing their daily lives, arranging their priorities in life, and
choosing between alternatives courses of action.
 important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good
or bad or desirable and undesirable.
 principles or standards of behavior.
IN GENERAL…
Scenarios 1 & 5 – infiltration of technology
Scenario 2 – political and cultural practices
Scenario 3 – family patterns
Scenario 4 – volunteerism/ personal expression of political principle
PERFORMANCE TASK:
LEARNING STATION
LEARNING TARGET/S: Identifying and explaining comprehensively the definition and concepts
of anthropology, sociology, and political science.
CHAPTER 1 LESSON 2 AND CHAPTER 2 LESSON 1
TRIVIA …
II. THE SOCIAL AS
“DRIVER OF INTERACTION”
THREE DIFFERENT WAYS IN STUDYING SOCIETY
1. By mapping the social forces Impinging (affecting) on social actors;
2. By rehearsal the structures and components of cultural practices and traditions; and
3. By exposing the asymmetrical (unequal/distorted) power distribution among members of
social communities and organizations.
HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
French Revolution
SOCIOLOGY
ANTHROPOLOGY
Anthropology as a science seeking to “uncover principles of behavior that apply to all human
communities…”
Focuses on human diversity around the world.
Looking for “culture universal…”
THE THREE SOCIOLOGISTS IN THE HISTORY…
1. Auguste Comte
2. Karl Marx
3. Emil Durkheim
AUGUSTE COMTE
AUGUSTE COMTE
SCHOOLOFLIFE-SOCIOLOGY\SOCIOLOGY - Auguste Comte.mp4
KARL MARX
KARL MARX
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\POLITICAL THEORY - Karl Marx.mp4
EMIL DURKHEIM
EMIL DURKHEIM
SCHOOLOFLIFE-SOCIOLOGY\SOCIOLOGY - Émile Durkheim.mp4
OTHER SOCIOLOGISTS …
SCHOOLOFLIFE-SOCIOLOGY\SOCIOLOGY - Max Weber.mp4
SCHOOLOFLIFE-SOCIOLOGY\SOCIOLOGY - Theodor Adorno.mp4
SCHOOLOFLIFE-SOCIOLOGY\SOCIOLOGY - Alexis De Tocqueville.mp4
WHAT IS THEORY?
THEORY
- IN GENERAL, “a theory is a wide-ranging set of explanations of an important feature of nature that is
backed up by facts…”
- When we formulated a theory, we are making predictions about a phenomenon that is yet to
happen.
- IN SOCIOLOGY, “a theory is a set of general assumptions about society that guides sociological
thinking and research which allows us to analyze effectively any dimension of society…”
MARCO VS. MICRO PERSPECTIVE
Macro View – the study of human society by focusing on the large social phenomena or “the big
picture,” such as social institutions and inequality to and how it operates.
Micro View – where the people interact with one another or looking at the situational patterns of
social interaction.
THE THREE MAJOR THEORIES IN SOCIOLOGY
1. Functionalism/ Structural-Functionalism Theory
2. Conflict Theory
3. Symbolic Interactionism Theory
FUNCTIONALISM/ STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALISM THEORY
-
ROBERT MERTON (1910-2003)
CONFLICT THEORY
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM THEORY
LAS: FILLING IN THE CIRCLE
LEARNING TARGET/S: (a) categorizes the different concepts, phenomenon, and situation in the
society; and (b) identifies the different elements, processes, and dynamics of society.
WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE?
- Politics is associated with how power is gained and employed to develop authority and influence on
social affairs.
- it is allied with government is considered as the ultimate authority. Its is the primary role of the
government to rule the society by stipulating and transmitting the basic laws.
POLITICAL THEORIES PART ONE
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\HISTORY OF IDEAS - Capitalism.mp4
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\POLITICAL THEORY - Adam Smith.mp4
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\POLITICAL THEORY - John Locke.mp4
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\POLITICAL THEORY – Friedrich Hayek.mp4
POLITICAL THEORIES PART TWO
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\POLITICAL THEORY - Henry David Thoreau.mp4
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\POLITICAL THEORY – Jean-Jacques Rousseau.mp4
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\POLITICAL THEORY - Niccolò Machiavelli.mp4
SCHOOLOFLIFE-POLITICS\POLITICAL THEORY - Thomas Hobbes.mp4
LAS: EDITORIAL ESSAY WRITING
LEARNING TARGET/S:
(a) to explains the social, political, and cultural contexts of a particular phenomenon, issue or problem
faced by the Filipinos at the present time;
(b) to explains how the social sciences disciplines, namely sociology, anthropology, and political
science can help understand the issue;
(c) demonstrates an open and critical perspective on the importance of studying issues/phenomenon
through the use of the observation and reflection; and
(d) explains how issues/problems can be understood through the use of the social, political, and
cultural lens.
MECHANICS & SCORING RUBRICS
- Pages 29-31
- Contreras, A. et.al. (2016) The Padayon Series: Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics. Quezon
City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.
CHAPTER 2 LESSON 2
TRIVIA …
SOCIETY
&
CULTURE
LAS:
THINK, PAIR, SHARE
LEARNING TARGET/S: (a) Describes society and culture as a complex whole.
SOCIAL CHANGE
SOCIETY
Is formally defined as constituting a fairly large number of people who are living in the same territory,
are relatively independent of people outside their area.
Participate in a common culture.
CULTURE
If you ask 100 anthropologists to define culture, you’ll get 100 different definitions.
E.B. Tylor in 1871: “Culture, or civilization, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief,
art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of
society.”
 SCENARIO 1: When the US firm Gerber started selling baby food in Africa they used the same
packaging as in the US, i.e. with a picture of a baby on the label. Sales flopped and they soon
realized that in Africa companies typically place pictures of contents on their labels.
 SCENARIO 2: Pepsodent tried to sell its toothpaste in South East Asia by emphasizing that it
"whitens your teeth." They found out that the local natives chew betel nuts to blacken their
teeth which they find attractive.
 SCENARIO 3: The film "Hollywood Buddha" showed a complete lack of cultural sensitivity by
causing outrage and protest on the streets of Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Burma when the
designer of the film's poster decided to show the lead actor sitting on the Buddha's head, an
act of clear degradation against something holy.
 SCENARIO 4: The concept of Big Brother was somehow taken to the Middle East. The show
was pulled of the air after its first few episodes due to public protests and pressure from
religious bodies stating the show's mixed sex format was against Islamic principles.
 SCENARIO 5: A golf ball manufacturing company packaged golf balls in packs of four for
convenient purchase in Japan. Unfortunately, the number 4 is equivalent to the number 13
due it sounding like the word "death". The company had to repackage the product.
IN GENERAL …
Culture comes in many shapes and sizes.
It includes areas such as politics, history, faith, mentality, behavior and lifestyle.
The examples above demonstrate how a lack of cultural sensitivity led to failure.
CONCEPTS: CULTURE AND SOCIETY
The relationship between society and culture is stressed by Ralph Linton:
A society is an organized group of individuals.
A culture is an organized group of learned responses.
The individual is a living organism capable of independent thought, feeling, and action.
A society cannot exist apart from culture.
HOLISTIC UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE
The are many definitions of the word “Culture”.
Derives from the Latin word “Colere” – which means: Cultivate, to settle, e.g. agriculture, horticulture.
Culture is developed within the individual as well as the outside environment.
It is continually changing and dynamic.
Culture is reflected in communication patterns.
Culture is way of acting, a way of behaving.
Culture is a collective phenomenon.
People who grow up in similar environment tend to share common attitudes and behave in similar
ways.
Culture is not inherited, it is learned.
LAS:
CRITICAL THINKING
LEARNING TARGET/S: (a) Raises questions toward a holistic appreciation of cultures and societies.

THE WHAT, HOW, AND WHY OF CULTURE


CULTURE SHOCK
FUNCTIONS OF ETHNOCENTRISM
1. Encourages the solidarity of a group.
2. Hinders the understanding or the cooperation between groups.
3. Conflict of course often leads to social change.
REMEMBER …
When you judge the behavior & beliefs of people who are different from you…
stop ethnocentric behavior, you must stop judging others who are different from you;
When you believe that there are primitive cultures, especially if their way of life is different from
yours…
you have to unlearn that your culture is superior and all other cultures are inferior;
When you believe that some cultures are backward if they lack of technology of your own culture…
remember that there are no primitive/backward cultures.
CULTURAL RELATIVISM
Cultural anthropologists have, however, pushed for cultural relativism, the principle that all cultures
must be understood in terms of their own values and beliefs, not by the standards of another.
Under this principle, no culture is better than any other and cultures can only be judged on whether
they are meeting the needs of their own people.

XENOPHOBIA
Intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries.
Three Levels of Uniqueness in Human Mental Programming
PERSONALITY
LAS:
CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE
LEARNING TARGET/S:
(a) Identifies aspects, characteristics as well as functions. of culture and society.
(b) Becomes aware of why and how cultural relativism mitigates ethnocentrism.
(c) Identifies forms of tangible and intangible heritage and the threats to these.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
(HERBIG: 1998)
Functional: each culture has a function to perform; its purpose is to provide guidelines for behavior of a
group of people
Social Phenomenon: human beings create culture; culture results from human interaction and is unique
to human society
Prescriptive: culture prescribes (sets down or imposes) rules of social behavior
Learned: culture is not inherited; it is learned from other members of the society
Arbitrary: cultural practices and behaviors are subject to judgment. Certain behaviors are acceptable in
one culture and not acceptable in other culture
Value Laden: culture provides values and tells people what is right and wrong
Facilitates Communication: culture facilitates verbal and nonverbal communication
Adaptive/ Dynamic: culture is constantly changing to adjust to new situation and environment; it
changes as society changes and develops
Long Term: culture is developed thousands of years ago and it was accumulated by human beings in the
course of time and is the sum of acquired experience and knowledge
Satisfy Needs: culture helps to satisfy the needs of the members of a society by offering direction and
guidance
(Source: Reisinger, 2003, p.14)
SUBCULTURES
 Dominant culture consists of several subcultures
 Subcultures can be based on race, ethnicity, geographic region or economic or social class
 Race: a genetic or biological similarity among people (Asians, Caucasians, etc.)
 Ethnicity: a wide variety of groups of people who share a language, history and
religion and identify themselves with a common nation or cultural system
 Geographical region: geographic differences within countries or similarities between
countries
 Economic and social class: differences in the socio-economic standing of people
 Each subculture community exhibits characteristic patterns of behavior that distinguish it
from others within a parent culture
 Each subculture provides its members with a different set of values and expectations as a
result of regional differences
LAS:
CRITICAL THINKING
LEARNING TARGET/S: (a) Explains the meaning, forms and characteristics of culture and cultural
interaction, as well as (b) to understands the importance of learning cross culture awareness in the
real-life world.

REMINDERS:
PLEASE SEARCH THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING TERMINOLOGIES BELOW:
(SERVES AS YOUR REVIEW STRATEGY)

1. Society
2. Culture
3. Ethnocentrism
4. Xenophobia
5. Xenocentrism
6. Cultural Relativism
7. Culture Shock
8. Enculturation
9. Acculturation
10. Subculture
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