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Certificate Of Completion

This is to hereby certify that Aditya Shetty S has satisfactorily completed


the chemistry investigatory project on “Determination of the Dosage of
Bleaching Powder Required for Sterilization of Different Samples of
Water” prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
for the All India Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (AISSCE) for
grade XI for the year 2018-19.

DATE OF EXAMINATION : ____/____/__________

SIGNATURE OF PRINCIPAL : ____________________

SIGNATURE OF INTERNAL EXAMINER : ____________________

SIGNATURE OF EXTERNAL EXAMINER : ____________________

REGISTRATION NUMBER : 1102’A’


I am deeply thankful to my school NAVKIS EDUCATIONAL
CENTRE, our Respected Principal Mrs. Lalitha Murthi and all
the teachers who have given me the opportunity and
encouragement to do this project.
I take this opportunity to acknowledge my chemistry teacher,
Mrs. Lakshmi Prasanna and our laboratory assistant,
Mrs. Hemavathi for providing me valuable support, guidance
and advice on the planning and excecution of the project.
I would also like to thank my parents and friends for the
smooth completion of the project.

Name : Aditya Shetty


Signature : _______________
Date : ___/___/________
Place : Bangalore
SL PAGE
NO.
CONTENTS NO.
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 AIM 8
3 APPARATUS 9
4 CHEMICALS 10
5 PROCEDURE 11
6 OBSERVATION 15
7 CALCULATION 19
8 RESULT 22
9 PRECAUTION 23
10 SOURCES OF ERROR 23
Water is the major constituent of all living beings.
Water is necessary to sustain all types of life. The water
used for drinking purpose by human beings should
full the following conditions :
1. It should be colourless.
2. It should not possess any smell.
3. It should contain any harmful dissolved salts such as
nitrates, mercury salts, lead salts.
4. It should not be contain any living organism such as
algae, fungus, bacteria etc.

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Sterilization of Water

In order to obtain water for drinking purpose, water is


first treated with alum whereby clay and other colloidal
particles go precipitated the suspended impurities are
then removed by filtration and the clear water obtained
is subjected to some suitable treatment to destroy
harmful germs and bacteria.
These bacteria cause many dangerous disease such as
cholera, thyroid, dysentery, tuberculosis, diphtheria etc.
The process of killing the harmful bacteria by some
suitable treatment of water is called Sterilization Of
Water.

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The common sterilizer agents are chlorine, ozone,
bleaching powder, potassium per magnate chloramines.
Sterilization of water through bleaching powder gives
chlorine and if it is in excess, it is harmful for health
and causes diseases like airway irritation, wheezing,
sore throat, cough, chest tightness etc,

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General Methods of Sterilizing
Water

Physical Methods:
1. Boiling the water:
Boiling is one of the oldest and most commonly used water
sterilization techniques. If the water is boiled for about 20-
30 minutes then it destroy all type of harmful
bacteria and algae. They also remove dissolved gases from
the water and improve the water taste. This method is only
suitable for normal households but not suitable for
industrial and large scale purposes.

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2. UV sterilization:
Ultra-violet light has a powerful germicidal action on water.
It is one of the latest methods for sterilization of water.
When ultraviolet radiation is passed through the water
then it is absorbed by the cells and damages the DNA of
the microorganisms. Hence they are not enable to grow or
reproduce. This physical sterilization method can be
applied for groundwater and households water but not
suitable for large scale. It does not create solid content in
water. The water should be free from suspended particles
otherwise it may interfere to come in UV rays contract with
microorganisms. The system is costly.

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Chemical Methods:
1.Ozone sterilization of water:
Ozone is a highly effective sterilization chemical for water.
It has strong oxidizing properties. Ozone is more powerful
disinfectant than chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Moreover it
has effective inactivation activities on giardia or
cryptosporidium which is not possible by some others
chemicals. This method does not affected by pH. After
complete the oxidation process, the excess ozone will
breaks into oxygen. So it does not create bad taste or odor’s
to the water and leaves no solid residue. On the contrary,
it added dissolved oxygen into the water which enhances
the water’s taste. The disadvantages of ozone are that it is
costly, toxic, unstable and must be produced on mill site.

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2.Chlorine sterilization:
Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant in municipal
water and wastewater treatment. It can destroy pathogens
and control nuisance microorganisms. It can also remove
iron, manganese, ammonia nitrogen. Chlorine is a toxic gas
so need safety facilities. It acts as a quick oxidizing agent.
pH can affects on its activities so needs to control the pH.
Chlorine reacts with water and form hypochlorous acid
which is further break into nascent oxygen. Both of them
are powerful germicide.

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8
1.Burette 2. Titration Flask

3.250ml Measuring flask 4. Beakers

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Bleaching powder
Na2S2O3
KI
Different Samples of Water
Distilled Water
Soluble starch
Indicator - Starch Solution

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Preparation of N/20 Na2S2O3 solution :
Take 12.4 gm of sodium thio-sulphate hydrated and
mix it in about 500ml of water then the mixture is
diluted to make the volume 1000ml. or 1lt.
Normality = strength/Molecular Mass.
= 12.4 / 248 = 1/20N
Preparation of 10%KI solution:
Take 25gm. of KI powder and mix it in about 100ml of
water then dilute the mixture to make the volume 250
ml and take it in the measuring flask.

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Preparation of Bleaching Powder solution :
Weight 5gm of bleaching powder and mix it in about
200 ml of distilled water in a conical flask. Stopper the
flask and shake it vigorously. The suspension thus
obtained is filtered in measuring flask of 500ml. and
then dilute the filtrate with water to make the volume
500 ml. The solution obtained is 1% bleaching powder
solution.

Preparation of starch solution :


Take about 1gm of soluble starch and 10 ml of distilled
water in a test tube. Mix vigorously to obtain a paste.
Pour the paste in about 100ml of hot water contained

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in a beaker with constant stirring. Boil the contents for
4-5min. and then allow to cool.

Take 100ml. of distilled of water and then 20ml of


bleaching powder of solution in a stopper conical flask
and add it 20ml of 10% KI solution. Shake the mixture,
titrate this solution against N/20 Na2S2O3 solution
taken in burette. When solution in the conical flask
becomes light yellow in colour add about 2ml of starch
solution as indicator. The solution now becomes blue
in colour. The end point is disappearance of blur
colour, so continue titrating till the blue colour just
disappears. Repeat the titration to get a set of three
readings.
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Take 100ml of water sample in a conical flask and add
20ml of KI solution and stopper the flask. Shake it and
titrates against N/20 Na2S2O3 until the solution become
yellow. Then add 2ml of starch solution and then again
titrate till the blue colour disappears. Repeat titration
for three readings. Repeat the step with different water
samples and record the observations.

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Titration : I (Distilled Water)
Volume of distilled water taken = 100ml
Volume of bleaching powder solution taken = 20ml
Volume of KI solution added = 20ml

Burette Reading

Sr.No. Burette Initial Burette Final Final Vol. of 0.2N


Na2S2O3 sol. used
1. 0 8.1 8.1
2. 8.1 16.1 8.0
3. 16.1 24.0 7.9

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Titration : II (Underground Water)
Volume of water sample I taken = 100ml
Volume of bleaching powder solution added = 20ml
Volume of KI solution added = 20ml

Burette Reading

Sr.No. Burette Initial Burette Final Final Vol. of 0.2N


Na2S2O3 sol. used
1. 0 4.9 4.9
2. 4.9 10 5.1
3. 10 15.1 5.1

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Titration : III (Tank Water)

Volume of water sample I taken = 100ml


Volume of bleaching powder solution added = 20ml
Volume of KI solution added = 20ml

Burette Reading

Sr.No. Burette Initial Burette Final Final Vol. of 0.2N


Na2S2O3 sol. used
1. 0 5.5 5.5
2. 5.5 10.9 5.4
3. 10.9 16.4 5.5

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Titration : IV (Contaminated Water)

Volume of water sample I taken = 100ml


Volume of bleaching powder solution added = 20ml
Volume of KI solution added = 20ml

Burette Reading

Sr.No. Burette Initial Burette Final Final Vol. of 0.2N


Na2S2O3 sol. used
1. 0 2.7 2.7
2. 2.7 5.4 2.7
3. 5.4 8.3 2.9

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Sample I (Underground Water)
Amount of bleaching powder used to disinfect 100ml of
water sample I.
= (8.0 - 5.1) ml of 0.2 N of Na2S2O3 solution = 2.9ml.
1ml of bleaching powder solution contains bleaching
powder =(5/500)gm = 0.01gm.
20ml of bleaching powder solution = 8.0ml of 0.2N of
Na2SO4
So 1ml of Na2S2O3 solution = 20/8 ml of bleaching
powder solution.
Volume of bleaching powder solution used to disinfect
100ml of water sample = (2.9 x 20/8)ml.
(2.9 x 20/8)ml of bleaching powder solution contains (2.9
x 20 x 0.01 gm / 8)gm bleaching powder.
Amount of bleaching powder required to disinfect 1 litre
of water = (2.9 x 20 x 0.01 x 1000) / (8 x 100) = 0.725gm

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Sample II (Tank Water)
Amount of bleaching powder used to disinfect 100ml of
water sample II.
= (8.0 - 5.5) ml of 0.2 N of Na2S2O3 solution = 2.5ml.
1ml of bleaching powder solution contains bleaching
powder =(5/500)gm = 0.01gm.
20ml of bleaching powder solution = 8.0ml of 0.2N of
Na2SO4
So 1ml of Na2S2O3 solution = 20/8 ml of bleaching
powder solution.
Volume of bleaching powder solution used to disinfect
100ml of water sample = (2.5 x 20/8)ml.
(2.5 x 20/8)ml of bleaching powder solution contains (2.5
x 20 x 0.01 gm / 8)gm bleaching powder.
Amount of bleaching powder required to disinfect 1 litre
of water = (2.5 x 20 x 0.01 x 1000) / (8 x 100) = 0.625gm

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Sample III (Contaminated Water)
Amount of bleaching powder used to disinfect 100ml of
water sample III.
= (8.0 – 2.9) ml of 0.2 N of Na2S2O3 solution = 5.1ml.
1ml of bleaching powder solution contains bleaching
powder =(5/500)gm = 0.01gm.
20ml of bleaching powder solution = 8.0ml of 0.2N of
Na2SO4
So 1ml of Na2S2O3 solution = 20/8 ml of bleaching
powder solution.
Volume of bleaching powder solution used to disinfect
100ml of water sample = (5.1 x 20/8)ml.
(5.1 x 20/8)ml of bleaching powder solution contains (5.1
x 20 x 0.01 gm / 8)gm bleaching powder.
Amount of bleaching powder required to disinfect 1 litre
of water = (5.1 x 20 x 0.01 x 1000) / (8 x 100) = 1.275gm

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Amount of the given samples of bleaching powder
required to disinfect one litre of water :-
1.275

1.5

0.625
1 0.725
SAMPLE III
0.5 SAMPLE II
SAMPLE I
0
AMOUNT OF
BLEACHING
POWDER TO
DISINFECT 1L
OF SAMPLE
(gm)
SAMPLE I SAMPLE II SAMPLE III

The result shows that Samples III is the most impure


water as the amount of bleaching powder required is
maximum and Sample II is less impure than others as the
bleaching powder used is minimum. The tables also show
the difference. Titration III has minimum reading because
of impurities and titration I has maximum reading
because the sample was distilled water.
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1.Handle the chemicals with care as they are harmful.
2.Be careful while boiling the contents.
3.Be careful not to spill out the contents while heating.
4.Prepare the solutions in the right amount.

1.There may me error while weighing the chemical


contents.
2.The test tube may be broken
3.The solution from the separating funnel should be
taken out carefully.
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