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A Research on mineral exploration using GIS and remote sensing

Abstract

As time goes on, the world changes more rapidly than before and the demands regarding state-of-the-art information
resource management, environment monitoring, planning are increasing exponentially. These concerns are mostly
answered by the mapping agencies. To increase the effectiveness and efficiency. A technique which could be used to
resolve these problems could be the integration of GIS technology with Remote sensing. By using this the ability to
address the concerns will be promoted. This paper will give you information regarding the integration of Remote Sensing
and GIS technology integration which is one of the requirements in today’s world.

Index Terms—

Section 1: INTRODUCTION
Remote sensing in its broadcasting sense has been developing since before the 20th century with the invention of
photographic images and aerial imagery. All through the twentieth century, mechanical advances in various regions - the
improvement of color and infra-red sensitive films, aircraft and satellite platforms - expanded the circle of remote
detecting with the advancement of applications, for example, mapping, topographical investigation and meteorology
making utilization of remotely sensed pictures. Remote sensing as it is at present polished, in any case, started with two
noteworthy advances in innovation - the dispatch of high resolution computerized imaging frameworks and the
improvement of minicomputers and image display terminals during the 1970s.
With these advances, the image processing systems started to evolve with a great speed. By the late 1970s a system
would have the functionality for taking image inputs, geometric corrections, classification and principal component
analysis. These are performed as interactive/batch operations with specialized hardware which could be used to display
the images.
The evolution was continuous. As time moved forward faster processors, better and higher resolution cameras became
available and much more user friendly interfaces
Now, coming to Geographic Information System(GIS), it has been developed from three different bases. It was first
proposed in 1963 in Canada and was called the Canada Geographic Information System. It was designed for vector
polygons of resource information for basic applications such as land usage assessing. A different approach towards the
same technology was taken by Harvard’s SYMAP system in the early 1970s which was performing analysis using raster
data. These systems are the predecessors of the current systems which have been designed for data overlay
A second origin GIS was based on digital mapping. Such systems developed to such a state that all maps productions use
computers to manipulate the required data. GIS has grown more than just digital mapping systems by the integration of
relational database to store and processes relational data. Because of this the vector data model became dominant in GIS.
The third origin for development of GIS systems was also based on the vector model u taws combined with another
technology called Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
GIS systems of these three origins have all grown towards common capabilities such as input, display and manipulation
and usage of both raster and vector data, geographical structuring of vector data, polygon modelling with raster/vector
data. The systems today have many more functional capabilities such as backdrop display and rectification. Some systems
allow image processing to work with GIS giving it the capabilities of both. Modern systems can handle much larger data
sets than before so that there is no issue for storage of images or data and computation is better.
Subsection A. Contribution of This Survey Article
Thе contribution of this survey papеr tеlls us about the quality, data amount and information contеnt of Geo
Information Systems (GIS) dealing with natural hazards and vulnerability assessmеnt has increased considerably during
the last dеcades. Mеanwhile many countries have implemented such a GIS for the public usе, whereby satellite
imageriеs before and aftеr disasters form important layеrs within thеse GIS. In the scope of this r е search adaptation
strategies are developed by presenting an approach in which Gеographic Information Systеms, used togеther with
remote sеnsing data, contribute to the analysis and presentation of information, espеcially required for the increasing
geo-hazards in Morocco, such as еarthquakes, mass movements and flooding using mainly free availablе, existing data
for contributing to a GIS integrated data basе.

Section 2. OVERVIEW OF APPROACHES FOR RESOLVING THE IMBALANCE IN DATASETS


Subsection A. Existing approaches for resolving your problem
The current imagery used for remote sensing before making a model mapping for a site for mineral exploration takes in a
number of different images in different resolution and combine them the form up a ultimate mapped model best suited for
identifying the hot spots these include
Spatial resolution
The size of a pixel that is recorded in a raster image – typically pixels may correspond to square areas ranging in side
length from 1 to 1,000 metres (3.3 to 3,280.8 ft).
Spectral resolution
The wavelength of the different frequency bands recorded – usually, this is related to the number of frequency bands
recorded by the platform. Current Landsat collection is that of seven bands, including several in the infrared spectrum,
ranging from a spectral resolution of 0.7 to 2.1 μm. The Hyperion sensor on Earth Observing-1 resolves 220 bands from
0.4 to 2.5 μm, with a spectral resolution of 0.10 to 0.11 μm per band.
Radiometric resolution
The number of different intensities of radiation the sensor is able to distinguish. Typically, this ranges from 8 to 14 bits,
corresponding to 256 levels of the gray scale and up to 16,384 intensities or "shades" of colour, in each band. It also
depends on the instrument noise.
Temporal resolution
The frequency of flyovers by the satellite or plane, and is only relevant in time-series studies or those requiring an
averaged or mosaic image as in deforesting monitoring. This was first used by the intelligence community where
repeated coverage revealed changes in infrastructure, the deployment of units or the modification/introduction of
equipment. Cloud cover over a given area or object makes it necessary to repeat the collection of said location.

Subsection B. Present Survey Articles in your problem


Ability of multiangle remote sensing observations to identify
and distinguish mineral dust types: Optical models and retrievals of optically
thick plumes

Summery
The systematic theoretical study of atmospheric mineral dust radiative properties that accounts for recent field
and laboratory data on mineral dust morphology and mineralogy including those from the PRIDE and ACE‐Asia
field campaigns, allow us to develop new optical models for mineral dust, to be used in multiangle satellite
aerosol retrieval algorithms. We used DDA and T matrix codes to generate optical models for
composition‐size‐shape distributions covering a range of naturally occurring dust particle properties, and
identified the distinguishing characteristics of their single‐scattering optical properties.

We tested these models using MISR data for optically thick Saharan and Asian dust plumes that were chosen
from dust events posted on the Natural Hazards Website in the Dust and Smoke Archive. Medium‐sized, weakly
absorbing grains (size mode 1, composition type 1), mixed with smaller fractions of larger‐sized, weakly
absorbing O/P spheroids (size mode 2, composition type 1) and spherical, nonabsorbing background Maritime
particles, gave the best fits to the observations in both cases. Strongly absorbing or plate‐like dust particles
were rejected by the analysis, though in a few cases, a cirrus optical model gave reasonable solutions as well.
The preferred dust models have single scattering phase functions similar to those of the feldspar and clay
minerals measured by Volten et al. [2001]and Muñoz et al. [2001].
Detailed sensitivity studies, using the dust models developed here, along with coincident MISR and field
observations taken during the PRIDE and ACE‐Asia campaigns, will be presented in the sequel to this work.
These future sensitivity studies will address the question why strongly absorbing or plate‐like dust particles were
rejected by the MISR retrievals. On the basis of recent results of the PRIDE and ACE‐Asia field campaigns, we
can expect that low‐absorbing grain‐like aggregated particles are better representative for majority of
atmospheric dust particles.

The spectral radiative signature of wind‐blown mineral dust:


Implications for remote sensing in the thermal IR region

Summery
In this paper we estimated the effect of atmospheric mineral dust on the IR radiances observed by the
narrowband and high‐resolution sensors. We demonstrated that the presence of dust decreases the brightness
temperature depending mainly on the dust loading, though the composition becomes important as the loading
increases. The moderate dust loading can result in a decrease of brightness temperature by 5–10 K in the IR
window over the oceans. Given the SST desirable accuracy of about 0.2 K, even the light dust loading can
causes non negligible errors.
Our analysis revealed that narrowband sensors (e.g., MODIS, AVHRR, GOES) have different sensitivity to dust
composition depending on a particular channel. We also found that dust has a unique spectral radiative
signature (a “negative slope”) which separates the IR radiative effect of dust from that of clouds and atmospheric
gases. This finding is supported by data from the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST‐I)
acquired during test flights over the Yellow Sea in Spring of 2001
We conclude that narrowband satellite sensors are capable of detecting dust but the quantitative
characterization of dust properties requires a higher spectral resolution. The potential of high spectral resolution
remote sensing in providing compositional information is especially important since no other means of remote
sensing from space are capable of providing such data.
In turn, dust must be included in atmospheric correction algorithms if the retrievals of the sea surface
temperature, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases from the thermal and near IR radiances are to be of high
accuracy.
An additional analysis will be required to demonstrate whether a dust spectral signal can be uniquely identified
from the measurements over the land, because the spectral emissivity of various surfaces can mask the dust
effect on the TOA radiances.

Infrared (8–14 μm) remote sensing of soil particle size


Summery
Particle size of soils plays a significant role in erosion potential and other mechanical properties. Most soils are
dominated by the residual mineral quartz, which displays prominent reststrahlen bands in the 8–14 μm
atmospheric window. The Earth Observing System (EOS) will likely provide world-wide multispectral imagery in
the 8–14 μm region via the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)
instrument. The ratio of ASTER bands 10/14 can be used to estimate particle size in soils, if other ASTER bands
are used to minimize the confusion factors provided by soil moisture, vegetation cover, soil organic content, and
the presence of abundant minerals other than quartz. Use of band ratios minimizes the effects of poor surface
temperature estimates, but maximizes the need for high signal-to-noise data.

Remote sensing for mineral exploration


Summary
Remote sensing is the science of acquiring, processing, and interpreting images and related data, acquired from
aircraft and satellites, that record the interaction between matter and electromagnetic energy. Remote sensing
images are used for mineral exploration in two applications: (1) map geology and the faults and fractures that
localize ore deposits; (2) recognize hydrothermally altered rocks by their spectral signatures. Landsat thematic
mapper (TM) satellite images are widely used to interpret both structure and hydrothermal alteration. Digitally
processed TM ratio images can identify two assemblages of hydrothermal alteration minerals; iron minerals, and
clays plus alunite. In northern Chile, TM ratio images defined the prospects that are now major copper deposits
at Collahuasi and Ujina. Hyperspectral imaging systems can identify individual species of iron and clay minerals,
which can provide details of hydrothermal zoning. Silicification, which is an important indicator of hydrothermal
alteration, is not recognizable on TM and hyperspectral images. Quartz has no diagnostic spectral features in
the visible and reflected IR wavelengths recorded by these systems. Variations in silica content are recognizable
in multispectral thermal IR images, which is a promising topic for research.

Near‐infrared (1.3–2.4) μm spectra of alteration minerals—


Potential for use in remote sensing
Reflection spectra of particulate samples of minerals that commonly occur in hydrothermally altered rocks and
soils were recorded to display their features at their natural spectral bandwidths in the near‐infrared from 1.3 to
2.4 μm. Atmospheric transmission spectra were recorded over limited wavelength segments in the same region
to demonstrate the availability of some of the diagnostic mineral bands that occur close to regions of intense
absorption. Changes occur in the appearance of all these spectra caused by instrumental factors such as less
than adequate spectral resolution and response time. The features in the mineral spectra are sufficiently
characteristic to be used for analytical purposes, especially including those near 1.4 μm which are unavailable
for remote‐sensing activities because of atmospheric obscuration. For remote‐sensing purposes, the features in
the 2.2-μm region are emphasized as particularly valuable because they are common to alteration minerals and
allow discrimination from nonalteration minerals which provide features only as close as 2.4 μm. Detection of
unique features near 1.76 μm that occur only in alunite and gypsum is possible through the atmosphere and so
provides diagnostic potential. The location and shape of mineral spectral features are retained unaltered in the
spectra of rocks, and intensity with which they appear is governed by the accessibility of the particular mineral in
the rock to the interacting radiation. For remote‐sensing purposes, it appears that at least two 0.1-μm wide filters
in the 2.2-μm region would be necessary to unambiguously identify the presence or absence of alteration
minerals, and that judicious selection of the exact location of filters could provide finer discrimination.

Multi- and hyperspectral geologic remote sensing

Summary
Geologists have used remote sensing data since the advent of the technology for regional mapping, structural
interpretation and to aid in prospecting for ores and hydrocarbons. This paper provides a review of multispectral
and hyperspectral remote sensing data, products and applications in geology. During the early days of Landsat
Multispectral scanner and Thematic Mapper, geologists developed band ratio techniques and selective principal
component analysis to produce iron oxide and hydroxyl images that could be related to hydrothermal alteration.
The advent of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) with six
channels in the shortwave infrared and five channels in the thermal region allowed to produce qualitative surface
mineral maps of clay minerals (kaolinite, illite), sulfate minerals (alunite), carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite),
iron oxides (hematite, goethite), and silica (quartz) which allowed to map alteration facies (propylitic, argillic etc.).
The step toward quantitative and validated (subpixel) surface mineralogic mapping was made with the advent of
high spectral resolution hyperspectral remote sensing. This led to a wealth of techniques to match image pixel
spectra to library and field spectra and to unravel mixed pixel spectra to pure endmember spectra to derive
subpixel surface compositional information. These products have found their way to the mining industry and are
to a lesser extent taken up by the oil and gas sector. The main threat for geologic remote sensing lies in the lack
of (satellite) data continuity. There is however a unique opportunity to develop standardized protocols leading to
validated and reproducible products from satellite remote sensing for the geology community. By focusing on
geologic mapping products such as mineral and lithologic maps, geochemistry, P-T paths, fluid pathways etc.
the geologic remote sensing community can bridge the gap with the geosciences community. Increasingly
workflows should be multidisciplinary and remote sensing data should be integrated with field observations and
subsurface geophysical data to monitor and understand geologic processes.

Relation of the spectroscopic reflectance of olivine to


mineral chemistry and some remote sensing implications
Summary
Using high‐resolution visible and near‐infrared diffuse spectral reflectance, we have systematically investigated
apparent wavelength shifts as a function of mineral chemistry in the Fe/Mg olivine series from Fo11 to Fo91. The
study also shows that trace amounts of nickel can be spectrally detected in the olivine structure. We show that
significant compositional information can only be extracted at relatively high resolution, because the overall
spectral characteristics of the olivines change only subtly as a function of the Fe/Mg ratio. Significant spectral
variation as a function of grain size is also demonstrated, adding a further complication to the interpretation of
remotely sensed data from olivine‐rich surfaces. This laboratory study is expected to aid in the interpretation of
remotely sensed data from both terrestrial and extraterrestrial bodies. Terrestrial applications may include the
recognition of ultramafic, ultrabasic, and basaltic terrains which in themselves may have mineral potential.
Among extraterrestrial applications, the asteroids are obvious candidates for further examination if
instrumentation can provide the necessary wavelength coverage, resolution, and signal‐to‐noise ratio so that
spectra can be compared to those laboratory data discussed here. Some permutations of Fe‐Mg‐Ni relations in
olivines are discussed as they apply to the interpretation of asteroid surfaces and other extraterrestrial bodies.

Imaging Spectrometry for Earth Remote Sensing


Summary
Imaging spectrometry, a new technique for the remote sensing of the earth, is now technically feasible from
aircraft and spacecraft. The initial results show that remote, direct identification of surface materials on a picture-
element basis can be accomplished by proper sampling of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum. The
airborne and spaceborne sensors are capable of acquiring images simultaneously in 100 to 200 contiguous
spectral bands. The ability to acquire laboratory-like spectra remotely is a major advance in remote sensing
capability. Concomitant advances in computer technology for the reduction and storage of such potentially
massive data sets are at hand, and new analytic techniques are being developed to extract the full information
content of the data. The emphasis on the deterministic approach to multispectral data analysis as opposed to
the statistical approaches used in the past should stimulate the development of new digital image-processing
methodologies.

Spectral properties of mixtures of montmorillonite and dark


carbon grains: Implications for remote sensing minerals containing chemically and physically
adsorbed water
Summary
The spectral properties from 0.4 to 3μm of montmorillonite plus dark carbon grains (called opaques) of various
sizes are studied as a function of the weight fraction of opaques present. The reflectance level and band depths
of the 1.4‐, 1.9‐, 2.2‐, and 2.8‐μm water and/or OH absorption features are analyzed using derived empirical
relationships and scattering theory. It is found that the absorption band depths and reflectance level are a very
nonlinear function of the weight fraction of opaques present but can be predicted in many cases by simple
scattering theory. The 2.8‐μm bound water fundamental band is the most difficult absorption feature to suppress.
The overtone absorptions are suppressed a greater amount than the fundamental but are still apparent even
when 10–20 wt% opaques are present. Thus the band depth ratio of one overtone by the fundamental or other
lower overtone varies as a function of the weight fraction of opaques present. The relationships observed and
the simple scattering theory presented show that quantitative compositional remote sensing studies are feasible
for surfaces containing complex mineral mixtures. The question of the uniqueness of quantitative remote sensing
is discussed.

Reflectance spectroscopy: Quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing


applications

Summary
Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical
methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept
of the photon mean optical path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are
presented. It is shown that the mean optical path length in a particulate surface is in rough inverse proportion to
the square root of the absorption coefficient. Thus, the stronger absorber a material is, the less photons will
penetrate into the surface. The concept of apparent absorbance (‐In reflectance) is presented, and it is shown
that absorption bands, which are Gaussian in shape when plotted as absorption coefficient (true absorbance)
versus photon energy, are also Gaussians in apparent absorbance. However, the Gaussians in apparent
absorbance have a smaller intensity and a width which is a factor of √2 larger. An apparent continuum in a
reflectance spectrum is modeled as a mathematical function used to isolate a particular absorption feature for
analysis. It is shown that a continuum should be removed by dividing it into the reflectance spectrum or
subtracting it from the apparent absorbance and that the fitting of Gaussians to absorption features should be
done using apparent absorbance versus photon energy. Kubelka‐Munk theory is only valid for materials with
small total absorption and for bihemispherical reflectance, which are rarely encountered in geologic remote
sensing. It is shown that the recently advocated bidirectional reflectance theories have the potential for use in
deriving mineral abundance from a reflectance spectrum.

Geologic Remote Sensing


Summary

Remote-sensing techniques are now being used routinely in geologic interpretation for mineral and energy
exploration, plant siting, waste disposal, and the development of models for regional and continental tectonics.
New spaceborne methods and associated technologies are being developed to produce data from which
geologic information about large areas can be derived much more rapidly than by conventional techniques.

Mineral mapping in the Kap Simpson complex, central East


Greenland, using HyMap and ASTER remote sensing data
Summary
This research focuses on the application of HyMap airborne hyperspectral data and ASTER satellite
multispectral data to mineral exploration and lithologic mapping in the Arctic regions of central East Greenland.
The study area is the Kap Simpson complex in central East Greenland. The Kap Simpson complex is one of the
largest exposed Palaeogene felsic complexes of East Greenland. It has been the target of several mineral
exploration projects. The analysis of the HyMap data produced a detailed picture of the spatial distribution of the
alteration minerals in the Kap Simpson complex, unavailable from field-based studies in the area. The analysis
of the ASTER data produced mineral maps which due to the moderate spatial and spectral resolution of the
ASTER imagery can be useful for reconnaissance level mineral exploration. Colour composites of the mean
normalized ASTER thermal bands display lithological information and detected a large felsic igneous intrusion
that has not been shown on the recently compiled geological maps of the area. The results of this research have
considerable potential to evaluate the use of hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing for geological
purposes in the Arctic regions of central East Greenland.

Reflectance spectra of evaporite minerals (400-2500 nm):


applications for remote sensing
Summary

The spectral response of evaporite minerals is evaluated to determine those minerals that can be identified and
mapped by remote sensing. The vast majority of evaporite minerals have diagnostic spectra due to the vibration
of H2O, CO3, HCO3, NH4, NO3 bonds. Only the anhydrous Cl and SO4 salts do not contain any diagnostic
features and cannot be distinguished from each other. Many of the hydrous salts exhibit unusual spectral
behaviour. Large grain size samples exhibit numerous well developed absorption features at wavelengths <
1600 nm, however, smaller grain sizes exhibit fewer less well developed features in this region and more
numerous well developed features at wavelengths > 1500 nm. The spectral diversity exhibited by evaporite
minerals suggests numerous applications in spectroscopy and remote sensing can be realized. These
applications are investigated.

The mid-infrared reflectance of mineral mixtures (7–14 μm)


Summary
There is growing interest in the mid-infrared spectral region (8–14 μm) as both a laboratory and a remote
sensing tool in geology, because this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic, fundamental, molecular
vibration bands for silicates and other mineral groups. However, it is necessary to understand the relationship
between the spectra of mineral mixtures and those of individual minerals in the mixture in order to completely
interpret and predict mineral abundances from infrared data. Results of this study show quantitatively for the first
time that the spectra of particulate mixtures of silicate minerals in this wavelength region combine linearly by
volume within a very small error, as long as particles are much larger than the wavelength so that volume
scattering is insignificant compared to surface scattering. Results here apply specifically to mineral samples in
the 75–250 μm size range. They imply that we can predict the spectral response of a rock if the constituent
minerals and their abundances are known. More importantly, our results indicate that the relative quantities of
minerals in simple mixtures can be predicted to within 12% in the worst case, and more typically to within 5%.
Consequently, geologists should be able to unmix the composite spectra of rocks to determine mineral
abundances. This is important for both laboratory rock identification and remote sensing applications. By better
understanding how component mineral spectra mix in the spectrum of a rock, we can also better choose spectral
band positions and resolutions in infrared remote sensing for compositional identification.
Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral exploration in Pulang,
Yunnan Province, China
Summary

The launch of the first spaceborne hyperspectral instrument, Hyperion, in 2000 has provoked further research
into its capabilities with regard to mineral exploration. Our study in the remote, mountainous region of Pulang,
China employed a two-step progressive approach, first to locate target areas characterized by hydrothermal
mineral alteration, using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and
secondly, to attempt detailed mineral mapping using Hyperion. The preliminary target detection involved
principal components and broad-band spectral analysis and led to the detection of two target areas
characterized by argillic alteration, iron-oxide- and sulphate-bearing minerals. A focused hyperspectral study
followed using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) techniques, which
allowed mineral species to be discriminated and mapped in more detail. This combined broad-band and
hyperspectral approach is feasible and advantageous for mineral exploration in remote areas where primary
information is limited or unavailable.

Enhancement of high spectral resolution remote-sensing


data by a noise-adjusted principal components transform
Summary:
High-spectral-resolution remote-sensing data are first transformed so that the noise covariance matrix becomes
the identity matrix. Then the principal components transform is applied. This transform is equivalent to the
maximum noise fraction transform and is optimal in the sense that it maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in
each successive transform component, just as the principal component transform maximizes the data variance
in successive components. Application of this transform requires knowledge or an estimate of the noise
covariance matrix of the data. The effectiveness of this transform for noise removal is demonstrated in both the
spatial and spectral domains. Results that demonstrate the enhancement of geological mapping and detection of
alteration mineralogy in data from the Pilbara region of Western Australia, including mapping of the occurrence
of pyrophyllite over an extended area, are presented

Near infrared spectra of muscovite, Tschermak substitution,


and metamorphic reaction progress: Implications for remote
sensing

Summary

Near infrared (NIR) spectra of Precambrian metagraywacke in the Black Hills, South Dakota, demonstrate that
reflectance spectroscopy can be used to monitor progressive changes in mineral chemistry as a function of
metamorphic grade. The wavelength of a combination Al-O-H absorption band in muscovite, measured using
both laboratory and field-portable NIR spectrometers, shifts from 2217 nm in the biotite zone to 2199 nm in the
sillimanite + K-feldspar zone. The band shift corresponds to an increase in the Al content of muscovite,
vi

determined by electron microprobe, and is thus a monitor of Al Si (Fe,Mg) (Tschermak) exchange.


2 -1 -1

Spectroscopic measurements such as these are useful in the case of aluminum-deficient rocks, which lack
metamorphic index minerals or appropriate assemblages for thermobarometric studies, and in low-grade rocks
(subgarnet zone), which lack quantitative indicators of metamorphic grade and are too fine grained for
petrographic or microprobe studies. More important, spectroscopic detection of mineral-chemical variations in
metamorphic rocks provides petrologists with a tool to recover information on metamorphic reaction histories
from high-spectral-resolution aircraft or satellite remote sensing data.
Remote Sensing of Soil Properties in the Santa Monica
Mountains I. Spectral Analysis

Summary
AVIRIS (Advanced Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) bands were simulated from laboratory spectra to test
their performance in analyzing soil properties from a semiarid region. Multivariate analysis, specifically principal
component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis, as well as band depth analysis were applied to study
the effect of organic matter, iron content, and texture in a set of samples from two valleys in the Santa Monica
Mountains Recreation Area, California. Results showed that total iron and organic matter content were the main
factors affecting spectral shape, although sand content significantly affected the spectral contrast of the
absorption features. It was shown as well that the elimination of the atmospheric water bands from the analysis
did not strongly affect the retrieval of spectral information related to these properties.

High resolution derivative spectra in remote sensing

Summary
The use of derivative spectra is an established technique in analytical chemistry for the elimination of
background signals and for resolving overlapping spectral features. Application of this technique for tackling
analogous problems such as interference from soil background reflectance in the remote sensing of vegetation
or for resolving complex spectra of several target species within individual pixels in remote sensing is proposed.
Methods for generating derivatives of high spectral resolution data are reviewed. Results of experiments to test
the use of derivatives for monitoring chlorosis in vegetation show that derivative spectral indices are superior to
conventional broad-band spectral indices such as the near-infrared / red reflectance ratio. Conventional broad-
band indices are sensitive to both leaf cover as well as leaf color. New derivative spectral indices which were
able to monitor chlorosis unambiguously were identified. Potential areas for the application of this technique in
remote sensing are considered.

Remote sensing for porphyry copper deposits in southern


Arizona

Summary

Landsat multispectral scanners, Landsat-4 thematic mapper. Three porphyry copper deposits used as test sites.
Landsat data useful for delineating areas of iron oxide on the surface. Limited spatial resolution of MSS
hampered mapping of some critical geologic relationships. Synoptic view well suited for examining regional
tectonic patterns. Landsat-4 thematic mapper is an improved mapping tool compared to the previous Landsat
scanners.

Subsection C. Numerous Realistic Scenarios


GIS in India

India has always been a leader in deploying modern 3-d technologies and it started in late 1980s with own very
own remote sensing satellites. As for the minerals, India is a mineral rich country with 5 major land belts and the
Indian Ocean. Although a lot of the mineral is yet to be explored so there is still a good chance of mining
opportunity. So it can be inferred that a lot of the unexplored areas might have a huge potential for great
minerals like Au,Cu,Pb,Zn, coal, petroleum and radioactive substances.

This is a Geochemical mapping of the state of sikkim drawn from the GIS and remote sensing technology. The
mineral we were able to identify were Asbestos, coal, dolomite, tungsten ore
,Silica sand, graphit, limestone, polymetallic base metal and talc.
When we are dealing with dealing with Geospatial modeling for a mineral in a region we talk in probability and if
there is certainty upto a minimum threshold we using modern mining techniques there to extract the ores.Here
we have a good example for a Geospatial modeling for Diamond exploration in Anantapur district in
Andrapradesh using NDMC and GIS technology.

In areas such as Anantapur the creation of the thematic maps requires inputs from a lot of fields and needs to be
integrated for zonation and modelling of geoscientific data which is later used for building a thematic layers.
There is a simultaneous use of land based data and information extraction for the analytical GIS.

More and more potential blocks are being identified for mineral exploration based on geospatial modeling.Here
we have a mapping for a gold exploration in Jharkhand. The insert specifies blue quartz lining in this block is
indicates the possibility of gold mineralisation in the region which is found with GIS studies.
All of this combined results into a rapid and efficient mapping of the structure, geology and geomorphology in
regions where there is insufficient IT infrastructure using modern technology such as geoinformation for
discovering rare resources. GIS can also be very handy in finding out the various parameters which further the
decision making process, particularly it provides insight on topology of the region by focusing on the geological
features that might have started the establishment of these resources of these minerals in the region in the first
place by a learned process of geological process that results in the creation of these mineral deposits depending
on the preparation of various layers in regions like Panna, Madhya Pradesh.

Section 3. Machine learning algorithms/models for resolving your problem

REMOTE SENSING
Remote sensing is the technique of gathering data which can be spectral, spatial, temporal among others about material
objects or geographical areas without actually coming in contact with these or even coming near these which implies that
information transfer which takes place through space must be used. The information transfer which is done in remote
sensing is done by using Electromagnetic radiation also known as EMR. EMR is a form of energy which creates an
observable effect when it comes in contact with the target matter.
When energy like electromagnetic energy strikes earth one of three possible interactions occur. The energy is either
reflected, absorbed or transmitted. The amount of energy which is reflected, absorbed or transmitted varies with respect
to multiple factors which include earth landscape, material type, physical conditions among others. These are the
differences which allow us to differentiate between the features of an image. Within a particular feature type the amount
of waves which are reflected, absorbed or transmitted vary differently and hence we can distinguish many different
features from a single image. Features which might be similar in the spectral range can be very different on another
wavelength band. Within the visible portion of the spectrum these spectral variations are the colors that we see. Eye uses
spectral variations so that it can discriminate between different objects. Graph which represents the spectral reflectance
of an object is called spectral reflectance curve. This curve provides the information about the identity of the object in
question, and if the resolution is fairly high then that curve will be unique to the object.
Resolution of remotely sensed images are of different types. Which are:
1) Spectral resolution: it describes the power of a sensor to define the wavelength intervals. The finer the spectral
resolution is the narrower the range of the wavelength for that specific band will be. For example, panchromatic
imagery won’t be as sensitive to vegetation stress as a narrow band in the red wavelength, where the chlorophyll is
actively absorbing the electromagnetic energy.
2) Spatial resolution: it is a measurement of the topographical area on the surface where the radiation is originating
from. It is a measure of the smallest object which can be resolved by a sensor. for example, detailed mapping of
wetlands requires much more detailed and fine spatial resolution than that of regional mapping of some
physiological areas.
3) Temporal resolution: it refers to the time gap between the images which are being taken. There are many
applications which require data frequently. For example, oil spill, forest fire, ocean currents monitoring. But some
need mapping only once like geological or topographical.
Section 4. State-of-the-art Approaches for resolving your problem

Geographic information system (GIS)


A geographic information system is a framework which is used to acquire, manage and analyze data. It is based on
geographical science; it also integrates data of multiple types. It organizes multiple layers of data into high level visuals
using different techniques such as maps and 3D scenes and also analyzes spatial data. GIS unveils much deeper insights
into data such as patterns and relationships which provide users with the adequate help they need in making better
decisions.
Data which is usually used with the geographical data acquired by the GIS is tabular data which is also called attribute data.
Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information regarding every spatial feature. It is the collaboration of
these two data types that enables GIS to be such an effective and impressive problem solving tool through spatial analysis.
Usage of GIS
GIS can be used as a helper in both problem solving and important decision making and visualization of different data. The
geospatial data we acquire by the use of GIS can be used for many things such as:
1) Mapping the locations of objects: we are able to exactly map the spatial locations of real world entities and view
different relationships between them. For example, given image is the map of frac sand in areas of Wisconsin. We
are able to understand the mining activities by looking at the data provided by GIS.
2) Mapping the quantities: quantities of different minerals or other things can be mapped using GIS which helps us
know the which thing is less in the area and which thing is more or their relationship in different places. For
example, the given image is the locations of cemeteries in different towns of a city. The map us color coded
depending on the number of cemeteries.
3) Mapping densities and changes in densities: sometimes it is valuable to map the density of a particular entity in the
area. So that we can map the changes in the give geographical area to get to know the future conditions and what
steps can be taken to prevent having any future problems. For example, shows the change in a city which once had
a huge part of it as forests and after 48 years the forest being barely visible

Applications of GIS in mineral exploration

GIS can be particularly very useful in Mineral reserve estimation. A mineral reserve is a region they have a
threshold of physical and chemical needs in order to make the mining related process meet a reasonable
potential for mining to be economically profitable and industrially extractable. Reserves of gypsum deposits were
identified with the help of GIS collecting data from 25 different boreholes in north east Nigeria and 18 in Malori.
Using GIS coordinates of all the boreholes were identified.
The contour maps were analyzed and to estimate the mineral resources. The surface analysis shows that the
gypsum deposit in Malori alone were 12,815,721 m-cube.

Mineral exploration has long based on methods like geological mapping, geochemistry, geophysics, satellite
image sensing and interpretation and finally ground survey. GIS is considered more because it give room for
effective integration and analysis and a huge amount of geospatial data using different formats and layers.

As for the mineral potential mapping there are four steps that are followed :

1. Building a spatial digitized database.


2. Predicting and discovering facts for a potential reserve.
3. Weight estimation for the evidence map.
4. And finally combining the map to predict the potential mineral.

For the most part the first step takes up the most of the time as it includes remote sensing, geophysical data(the
magnetic and gravitational behaviour), geochemical data and structural topology of the region among other
activities.If the predictor themes overlap the probability of existence of a mineral deposit increases.

It has been found that the potential for extraction of geological data (structural mapping etc) by combine use of
remote sensing, geophysical data used in GIS combined with satellite and aerial imagery can create a large
population of linear features. They can further be dimensionally reduced using lineament interpretation thus
vectors are efficiently registered.These lineaments can be transformed into a raster grid with the help of local
block summation function and a density function can be generated the the region. This provides a estimated
location for the concentration of the mineral for a particular location the the area.

This is an excellent example of the various applications of of GIS in mineral extraction using geological data with
linements for mapping of mineral mapping.

Section 6. Future Research Directions


Perhaps the most intriguing tread seen in recent years is developing tie between remote sensing and GIS is by populating a
GIS system is straight away obtaining Intel from remote sensing data. The GIS systems create photographs and obtain intel
compatible with existing mapping systems, which is also handle in data modelling and information extraction with the help
of complex queries. This makes a difference in prospecting the modelling exhibits for representation.

A international cloud-free, orthorectifier data set will be in use with abolute, geodetic positional error with accuracy of 50m
producing excellent image layer for GIS systems.Using these ultra high resolution,stereoscopic data and powerful software
rectifiers we can obtains trivial data (structural topology) like elevation,thickness of beds,bedding altitude, etc.We can
virtually create a whole field stimulation which in future tagged with the advanced 3D projector technology and VR system
can give us the field trip experience at our home.
Section 7. Challenges and Open Issues in handling Your problem
Lack of qualified staff
This is the issue that was most frequently mentioned in the literature. The fact that GIS is a relatively new
technology means that staff with GIS training and skills are in high demand and beyond the reach of most health
department budgets.

Data limitations
This is a problеm that has faced GIS usеrs for dеcades in both developed and dеveloping nations. Finding thе
money to collеct new data and to convert paper maps and data into digital format continues to bе a problеm. In
many cases digital data do еxist, but there are issues of confidentiality, national security, etc. which havе
prevented its use by malaria and health-rеlated departments. In response to this limitation the MARA project has
built a malaria dataset for the whole of Africa and has distributed it on CD-ROM.

Financial implications of hardware and software


As Tanser and Lе Sueur argue, thеse issuеs have become less of a problem over the past decade. Hardware
and software has become cheaper and today most GIS softwarе works adequately on a standard desktop
computеr.

Decision-makers do not understand its application


GIS users have not donе a very good job of selling their applications to decision-makers. The focus of the sеlling
tends to get caught up in technical jargon and not in the fact that a GIS can quickly make maps, and that maps
arе much easier to undеrstand than tables. Because many do not undеrstand what GIS doеs and what it could
do, getting financial support continuеs to be a problеm. This was a problem identified in the early days of GIS
and it remains a problеm today.
Scale not understood/misinterpretation of results
This problem is rеlated to the lack of training. While it is possiblе to find sources of training for GIS genеrally, it is
far more difficult, if not impossible, for most individuals to find training on the use of GIS for understanding
malaria.

Lack of software to perform spatial analysis


This is a more rеcent issue dealing with the problеm that most GIS software does not adequately handle spatial
statistics. In fact, the discipline of spatial statistics is in the early development stage and is not wеll understood
by most usеrs.

Lack of software/controlled by outsiders


The most used GIS software typically originates from the United States or Europe. In some casеs this rеsults in
problems getting copies of the software as well as getting support for the softwarе, particularly if the problem
cannot be solved via telеphone or email.

Over dominance by GIS technocrats


Yeh argues that many GIS applications are devеloped by staff trained in computеr science and cartography and
are more interеsted in GIS research than in developing practical GIS applications.
This list of problеms and limitations of using GIS is not intended to discourage the use of GIS for malaria
research and control. The list is providеd in an еffort to focus attention and effort on overcoming these problems.
Even though potential users may face some of these problеms, that is not to say that they should not usе GIS.
There are ways in which GIS can be usеful in malaria research and control and as Swеeney suggests, GIS
applications should correspond to the available infrastructurе.
Section 9. Conclusion
Remote sеnsing techniques and GIS environmеnt have increasingly been acknowledged as the most successful
techniques for environment conservation and land resource managemеnt. Recently, more precise data have
become available widеly in digital form. These digital data can assist to protect our environment. This paper
discussed three differеnt approaches to extract minеrals using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The final
results showed large variations of results in using these three approachеs. The results did not show any
consistency in the final results. The difference came from different sources. It completely depеnds on the imagе
resolution and mеthodology adopted for extraction as wеll as user requiremеnt on the supervised classification
approach. After the opеrations were conducted on the three approaches used in the extraction of minerals, and
after the minеral area was calculated and compared with visual comparison of other data, the bеst approach to
draw mineral using satellite imageriеs is the NDVI approachеs. This is because of the total mineral areas from
this NDVI approach is closer to reality as pointed out in visual comparisons. This method also depеnds on the
amount of minerals availablе.

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