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FSTFST M1M1 GéophysiqueGéophysique AppliquéeAppliquée Dr. Haïfa Boussiga 1
FSTFST
M1M1 GéophysiqueGéophysique AppliquéeAppliquée
Dr. Haïfa Boussiga
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Seismic signal = signal * Reflectivity + Noise 2
Seismic signal = signal * Reflectivity + Noise
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Basic physical notions of waves 3
Basic physical notions of waves
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Seismic wave velocities for common materials and rocks one-dimensional wave Equation of motion p as
Seismic wave velocities for common materials and rocks
one-dimensional wave
Equation of motion
p as the pressure
vx as the particle velocity
K is called the bulk modulus
ρ denotes the mass density
The combination of these two equations leads, for constant density , to the
equation which describes the behaviour of waves, namely the wave equation
c is the celerity
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Sand: ρ = 0.200 V p Shale: ρ = 0.204 V p 0.261 0.265 velocity-density
Sand: ρ = 0.200 V p
Shale: ρ = 0.204 V p
0.261
0.265
velocity-density transforms
(gm/cm 3 and ft/s)
Examples of empirical and linear Vp-Vs relationships from Castagna et al. (1993)
K is saturated bulk rock modulus
µ is saturated shear modulus
ρ is density
The celerity (velocity) depends on
Elastic moduli of the rock
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Entre les points A et B, le matériau est élastique, il devient plastique si on
Entre les points A et B, le matériau est
élastique, il devient plastique si on augmente
la déformation jusqu’en C.
Relâcher la contrainte en C fera revenir le
matériau dans une nouvelle position
d’équilibre D selon une pente égale à celle de
son comportement élastique. Comme
exemple élongation d’un ressort sans masse
à l’horizontal.
• Domaine des déformations élastiques : une déformation réversible (retour à l’état
initial sans dommage résiduel) et proportionnelle à l’intensité de la contrainte. Le temps
n’intervient pas dans la déformation. Ce modèle s’applique sur l’exemple d’un ressort à
spires élastiques et sans masse.
• Domaine des déformations irréversibles et de la rupture dont on distingue deux
modèles :
1/ Corps plastiques : la déformation ne se produit qu’à partir d’un certain seuil de
contrainte qu’on appelle « limite d’élasticité ». Au-delà de ce seuil, la déformation n’est
plus linéaire, ni réversible et apparaît une déformation irréversible.
2/ Corps visqueux : La valeur de la déformation dépend de la durée d'application de
la contrainte. Pour une contrainte donnée non nulle, la déformation se fait à vitesse
constante. Après suppression de la contrainte, le système conserve son état final.
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Elastic properties Hooke’s Law Rock physics Under uniaxial compressive stress, a rock contract in the
Elastic properties
Hooke’s Law
Rock physics
Under uniaxial compressive stress, a rock
contract in the direction of the load, and
expand in the two transverse directions.
Young’s modulus
the Poisson ratio
0.1-0.3 for rocks
For rocks, E = 10-100 GPa
Young’s modulus and the
Poisson ratio are related
Triaxial stress
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Loi de Hooke : Pour des charges relativement faibles, le phénomène de déformation est réversible.
Loi de Hooke : Pour des charges relativement faibles, le phénomène de
déformation est réversible. La relation entre la déformation et la contrainte est
linéaire. La loi de Hooke décrit cette constatation expérimentale :
σ=E*ε
avec
σ la contrainte (stress)
ε la déformation ou déplacement (strain)
E est le module de Young
E désigne la pente de la courbe contrainte/déformation
Le coefficient de Poisson permet de caractériser la contraction ou l’élongation
perpendiculairement à la direction de l’effort appliqué.
Lorsqu’on exerce une traction ou une compression, on constate aussi que la
largeur du solide varie aussi. Cette variation relative est proportionnelle à
l’allongement relatif ε.
Ce coefficient de proportionnalité s’appelle le coefficient de Poisson ou
« Poisson’s ratio »
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Le coefficient de Poisson est défini comme le rapport entre la déformation latérale et la
Le coefficient de Poisson est défini comme le
rapport entre la déformation latérale et la
déformation axiale.
ν = - ε x/ ε z ; ν = - ε y/ ε z .
Il s’exprime par les relations suivantes :
•pour un cylindre : ∆r/r = - ν. ∆l/l = -ν ε
avec ν : coefficient de Poisson.
•Pour un parallélépipède :
∆a/a = - ν. ∆l/l = -ν ε
∆b/b = - ν. ∆l/l = -ν ε
Le signe (-) signifie que le solide au cours de son
allongement, gagne en longueur et perd en
largeur.
le volume du solide de forme cylindrique, V= l.π. r 2 .
∆V/V = ∆l/l + 2 ∆r/r = (1- 2 ν). ε
De même
pour
un
solide
de
forme
parallélépipédique, V= l.a.b
∆V/V= ∆l/l + ∆a/a + ∆b/b = (1- 2 ν). ε
On remarque donc que
Si ν>0.5, le volume diminue en traction et
augmente en compression (cas exceptionnel)
Si ν<0.5, le volume augmente en traction et
diminue en compression (cas général).
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Quelques valeurs de vitesses, de la masse volumique et des modules d’élasticité associés pour la
Quelques valeurs de vitesses, de la masse volumique et des modules d’élasticité
associés pour la lithosphère et le manteau (d’après Meissner, 1986 et Panza, 1980).
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Shear modulus Shear is only a change in shape τ = µ. γ µ :
Shear modulus
Shear is only a change in shape
τ = µ. γ
µ : shear modulus or second
coefficient of Lamé
µ = E/(1+ ν)
∆P = -K. ∆V/V
K
: Bulk modulus
V
: Volume
P: pressure
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Relationships among elastic moduli in an isotropic material 12
Relationships among elastic moduli in an isotropic material
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Wave velocities depend on the elastic moduli and density of the rock, not only on
Wave velocities depend on the elastic
moduli and density of the rock, not only
on mineral composition, pore structure,
fluid properties. also vary with stress,
temperature, pore pressure, etc
It is difficult, and not very meaningful, to cite specific values for specific rocks
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Waves are physical phenomena ; thus have a relation to basic physical laws Downgoing rays
Waves are physical phenomena ; thus have a
relation to basic physical laws
Downgoing rays bend across an interface
towards the horizontal if the velocity
increases with depth
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Z=ρ×V : Acoustic Impedance Reflectivity or reflection coefficient = (Z n+1 -Z n ) /
Z=ρ×V : Acoustic Impedance
Reflectivity or reflection coefficient
= (Z n+1 -Z n ) / (Z n+1 +Z n )
Typical reflection coefficients
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Wavefronts and rays for a planar wavefront and a non-planar wavefront at times T, 2T
Wavefronts and rays for a planar wavefront and
a non-planar wavefront at times T, 2T and 3T
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Dispersion and attenuation 20
Dispersion and
attenuation
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Original gas sand model illustrating the effect of gaseous pore fluid on seismic reflection character.
Original gas sand model
illustrating the effect of
gaseous pore fluid on seismic
reflection character. The low
Poisson’s ratio of gas-filled
sandstone is responsible for
the reflection coefficient
increasing at large angles of
incidence.
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Applications Gas injection in oil sand reservoirs A) Hypothetical temperature profile of a typical steam
Applications
Gas injection in oil
sand reservoirs
A) Hypothetical temperature
profile of a typical steam
chamber in Athabasca
reservoir
B) Computed P-wave velocity
anomaly result from rock
physics and fluid substitution
analysis.
C)
Unmigrated
synthetic
seismic
profile
generated
using
an
acoustic
finite
difference algorithm.
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Ce qui suit est un ensemble de compléments de cours, réalisé avec succès par la
Ce qui suit est un ensemble de compléments de cours, réalisé avec
succès par la promotion 2018-2019 dont les noms des étudiants sont cités
ci-dessous:
Allagui Dorsaf
Ben Youssef Donia
Belkha
sa Si
a
Engo Regis Raphael
Ferchichi Nada
Gadhgadhi Noura
Gharbi OubaidAllah
Hdhili Amal
Jendoubi Mariem
Kassiar Rami
Melki Emna
Midouni Eya
Mrabet Omar
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MEASURING AVERAGE SHEAR-WAVE VELOCITY TO A DEPTH OF 30 METERS (VS30) A new method for
MEASURING AVERAGE SHEAR-WAVE VELOCITY TO A DEPTH OF 30 METERS (VS30)
A new method for estimating the average shear wave velocity in the upper 30m « VS30 » on
the basis of its correlation with the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity at 36m « VR36 ».
The SASW method
Procedure of Vs 30
The new Vs (30)method
Figure 2. A. The theoretical basis of SASW testing is that Rayleigh
waves of different wavelength penetrate to different depths and
sample different material.
The predictive equation
for VS30 is:
The dispersion curve is
calculated by:
VS30 = 1.076 ∗VR36
VR = f ∗d2/(∆φ/360°)
VR36 is calculated from the phase of the cross
power spectrum using Equation 2 with:
∆φ = 360° for d2 = 36 m
Conclusion
The new VS30 method is a promising, cost-efficient
alternative to traditional borehole methods used to
measure VS30.
Figure 4. A) Comparison of VS30 versus
VR36, with regression line and Figure 4. B) Residuals.
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EvaluationEvaluation ofof porosityporosity fromfrom PP--wavewave velocityvelocity datadata ofof carbonatecarbonate
EvaluationEvaluation
ofof porosityporosity fromfrom PP--wavewave velocityvelocity datadata ofof carbonatecarbonate samplessamples
Fig 1 represents the porosity
according to compressional wave
velocity. It shows that the curves of
3 equations ( linear equation,
Raymer equation and generalized
equation ) run in short distance to
each other through the dispersed
data point.
Fig 2 shows An increasing in
acoustic
p
increase in porosity rocks . between measured and predicted porosity value is quantified by an
orosit
y
causes
an
Fig3 : The porosity predicted by wyllie-equation underestimates for
nearly all samples the measured value. The average deviation
rms value of 0.038
Fig 4 : The data points are distributed on two sides of the diagonal
line , but we notice that the value of rms is 0.022 is lower
compared to Wyllie porosity prediction but close to the value of
linear equation.
An increasing in porosity rocks
An increasing in porosity rocks
produce a decreases in P wave
produce a decreases in P wave
velocity.
velocity.
The comparison between measured and sonic-derived porosity shows that the
values determined by Wyllie equations are not applicable to predict porosity from
P-wave velocity data of saturated carbonate samples.
The Raymer equation enables a
better
porosity
prediction
compared
to the Wyllie
equations
, so Raymer equation can be recommended for porosity
prediction from
sonic logs in the investigated carbonate formations.
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Pore geometry and pore fluid types: Effects on seismic properties of carbonate rocks under a
Pore geometry and pore fluid types: Effects on seismic properties of
carbonate rocks under a compaction disequilibrium scenario.
Figure 2: P- and S-waves velocities under dry and
vacuum conditions on the studied samples.
The variation of Vp and Vs related
to the
pore geometry.
The type of fluid have less effects on
velocity.
Confinement pressure control the
variation of velocity.
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To determine: The soil classification The soil stratigraphy The soil liquefaction The site response analysis…
To determine:
The soil classification
The soil stratigraphy
The soil liquefaction
The site response analysis…
Shear wave velocity (Vs): is a fundamental parameter for these
determinations.
However, it’s difficlt to use it due to:
-Cost
-Space constraint
So, other technics could be proposed to replace it such as: SPT or CPT.
new empirical correlations between SPT-Vs or CPT-Vs are proposed and
compared to relevant correlations from littérature.
The degree of fitting of regression equations were equally evaluated.
As a result :
Most SPT-Vs correlations evaluated showed low predictability.
Site specific SPTVs correlation was also proposed.
Most of the CPT-Vs correlations evaluated showed considerable
predictive capability compared to the SPT-Vs correlations.
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Correlation of Resistivity Value with Geotechnical N-Value of Sedimentary Area in Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia *High
Correlation of Resistivity Value with Geotechnical N-Value of Sedimentary Area in
Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia
*High resistivity zones will shows a high N values that
represent a positive correlations and vice versa. Green
zone(positive correlations), pink zone (inconsistent
correlations),and yellow zone(negative correlations)
* Generally, the results of resistivity survey and borehole data are interpreted simultaneously to understand the
state of the core material and to identify the relation between the two properties.
*The findings shows that the resistivity and SPT N values show positive, negative and inconsistent correlated
pattern as expected.
*There is some regions where the resistivity value is somewhat high, but
the SPT N value is very low, which appeared as an anomalous group
*With only resistivity survey, it is very difficult to differentiate it
whether the material has a normal or a troubled condition, because
highly resistive zones can not always explain troubled zones
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