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Role of food processing in food and nutrition security

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DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2016.08.005

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Accepted Manuscript

Role of food processing in food and nutrition security

Mary Ann Augustin, Malcolm Riley, Regine Stockmann, Louise Bennett, Andreas
Kahl, Trevor Lockett, Megan Osmond, Peerasak Sanguansri, Welma Stonehouse, Ian
Zajac, Lynne Cobiac

PII: S0924-2244(15)30188-6
DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2016.08.005
Reference: TIFS 1856

To appear in: Trends in Food Science & Technology

Received Date: 11 December 2015


Revised Date: 4 July 2016
Accepted Date: 13 August 2016

Please cite this article as: Augustin, M.A., Riley, M., Stockmann, R., Bennett, L., Kahl, A., Lockett, T.,
Osmond, M., Sanguansri, P., Stonehouse, W., Zajac, I., Cobiac, L., Role of food processing in food and
nutrition security, Trends in Food Science & Technology (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2016.08.005.

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1 Role of food processing in food and nutrition security

2 Mary Ann Augustin1a* Malcolm Riley2b, Regine Stockmann1a, Louise Bennett1a,

3 Andreas Kahl2c, Trevor Lockett2d, Megan Osmond1d, Peerasak Sanguansri1a, Welma

4 Stonehouse2b, Ian Zajac2c, Lynne Cobiac2c

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6 CSIRO Agriculture & Foods; 2CSIRO Health & Biosecurity
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7 671 Sneydes Road, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia
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8 South Australian Medical Research Institute Building, North Terrace, Adelaide SA

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9 5000, Australia
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10 Gate 13, Kintore Ave, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia

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Riverside Corporate Park, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia
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13 *Corresponding author.

14 E-mail address: maryann.augustin@csiro.au (M.A. Augustin)


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16 ABSTRACT

17 Background: Food and nutrition security, a major global challenge, relies on the

18 adequate supply of safe, affordable and nutritious fresh and processed foods to all

19 people. The challenge of supplying healthy diets to 9 billion people in 2050 will in

part be met through increase in food production. However, reducing food losses

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21 throughout the supply chain from production to consumption and sustainable

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22 enhancements in preservation, nutrient content, safety and shelf life of foods,

23 enabled by food processing will also be essential.

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24 Scope and Approach: This review describes developments in primary food

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25 production systems and the role of food processing on population health and food
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26 and nutrition security. It emphasises the need to monitor the attitudes and values of

27 consumers in order to better understand factors that may lead to negative


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28 perceptions about food processing.


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29 Key Findings and Conclusions: For a resource constrained world, it is essential


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30 to have a balanced approach to both energy and nutrient content of foods.

31 Environmental sustainability is critical and both the agrifood production and the food
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32 processing sectors will be challenged to use less resources to produce greater

33 quantities of existing foods and develop innovative new foods that are nutritionally
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34 appropriate for the promotion of health and well-being, have long shelf lives and are
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35 conveniently transportable. Healthy diets which meet consumer expectations

36 produced from resilient and sustainable agrifood systems need to be delivered in a

37 changing world with diminishing natural resources. An integrated multi-sectoral

38 approach across the whole food supply chain is required to address global food and

39 nutrition insecurity.

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40

41 Keywords:

42 Food security; nutrition security; food supply chain; food processing; healthy diets;

43 consumer perception.

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44

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45 Highlights:

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46 Food processing has a critical role in achieving food and nutrition security

47 • Reducing food losses is an important strategy to maximize efficiency of

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48 resource use
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49 • A balanced approach to both energy and nutrient content of foods is required

50 • Consumer concern about food processing must be addressed for acceptance


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51 of benefits


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52 A holistic approach to food supply chain efficiency and sustainable diets is


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53 needed

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55

56 1. Introduction

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58 Food and nutrition security is a global challenge, and a prerequisite for a healthy

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59 and peaceful society. Food security exists when “all people, at all times, have

60 physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that

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61 meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”.

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62 Nutrition security “exists when secure access to an appropriately nutritious diet is

63 coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services and care, in order to

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64 ensure a healthy and active life” (FAO, IFAD, & WFP, 2015).
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65 About 795 million people in the world were undernourished in 2014-16 (FAO,

66 IFAD, & WFP, 2015) while more than 2 billion people were overweight or obese in
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67 2013 (Ng et al., 2014). To be able to feed the world population that is expected to
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68 increase from 7.3 billion today to 9 billion in 2050, an increase in agricultural


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69 productivity by 30-40% is required by 2050 just to meet the dietary energy needs.

70 The energy gap can be addressed by reducing demand, lessening the current level
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71 of food waste or increasing food production (Keating, Herrero, Carberry, Gardener, &

72 Cole, 2014). While considering food demand in terms of calories to fulfil energy
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73 needs is one way to examine global food requirements, fundamental requirements of


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74 macronutrients and micronutrients for good health need to be met. It is essential to

75 take into account the potential overconsumption of nutrients, changing demographic

76 structure, consumer choice and cultural context of diets.

77 Over the past 50 years, feeding our rapidly growing global population was

78 achieved through increases in agricultural productivity (DeFries et al., 2015).

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79 Although intensification of agricultural production while minimizing environmental

80 degradation will still be critical, this alone may not be sufficient to meet the nutritional

81 demands of the projected population expansion. Food processing is required to

82 increase useful life of foods, optimize nutrient availability and food quality, and

83 reduce losses and waste. Biodiversity, ecosystems and cultural heritage are a

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84 consideration when developing affordable sustainable diets for all people.

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85 Sustainable diets have low environmental impacts and contribute to healthy life of

86 present and future generations (Johnston, Fanzo, & Cogill, 2014). Reducing the

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87 prevalence of food insecurity today and in future will require technological solutions

88 through collaborative efforts across agriculture, food, nutrition and health that are

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acceptable to society. It is clear that many considerations need to be factored into a
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90 discussion of food and nutrition security, which also include effective distribution
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91 channels between where food is produced and required, the differing food

92 regulations in various regions, the role of indigenous foods, religion and culture,
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93 urbanization, biodiversity and climate change (Rolle, 2011; Burlingame & Dernini,
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94 2012, Muchenje & Mukumbo, 2015). An integrated multi-sectorial systems approach

95 to food supply chain efficiency and sustainable diets is needed (Lake et al., 2012;
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96 van Mil, Foegeding, Windhab, Perrot, & van der Linden, 2014; Wu, Ho, Nah, & Chau,
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97 2014). The focus of this review is on the role of innovative and sustainable primary
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98 production systems and food processing in addressing challenges in food and

99 nutrition security.

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101 2. Primary production systems

102

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103 Resilient production systems for sustainable diets have to be developed and

104 managed whilst mitigating climate change, preserving biodiversity and the

105 environment, while taking into account societal needs and expectations. The

106 productivity of food systems should focus on innovation for improving nutritional

107 needs, and providing aid to farmers to adopt innovations for sustainable

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108 intensification and novel food sources (Ingram et al., 2013). Consideration of multiple

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109 desirable endpoints requires consideration of synergies and trade-offs in the

110 competing demands in production systems and sustainable diets so that food

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111 security is not compromised (Garnett, 2013).

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113 2.1 Crop Production Systems


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114
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115 Biofortification of crops is one of the approaches that may be used for alleviating
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116 global nutrition insecurity (Arsenault, Hijmans, & Brown, 2015). Biofortification of
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117 crops that are part of the staple diet of local populations is an effective approach to

118 improve the nutrient density and nutritional quality of the agricultural produce. The
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119 use of conventional plant breeding or transgenic methods may be used for

120 introducing desirable nutrient traits into food crops. HarvestPlus, an interdisciplinary
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121 global alliance, has developed varieties of food crops with higher levels of
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122 micronutrients. Biofortified crops developed and released in the HarvestPlus

123 program include cassava, maize and sweet potato high in vitamin A, high-iron beans

124 and high-zinc wheat, millet and maize (www.harvestplus.org). These biofortified food

125 staples which are denser in micronutrients provide a greater percentage of the

126 recommended daily allowance and reduce malnutrition, especially in rural

127 communities. The technical feasibility of providing micronutrient dense crops without

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128 affecting agronomic traits has been demonstrated and may be a cost effective

129 method for reducing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations (Nestel,

130 Bouis, Meenakshi, & Pfeiffer, 2006). The fortification of crops with the essential

131 amino acids, lysine and methionine, has attracted attention because of the

132 potentially limited supply of these amino acids, especially in developing countries

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133 where poor populations do not consume sufficient protein from animal sources.

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134 Advanced breeding methods have yielded higher protein maize. Transgenic

135 approaches have been successful in increasing the level of lysine in Arabidopsis

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136 seeds, rice and soybean while increases in methionine have been obtained in

137 Arabidopsis, alfalfa and potato leaves as well as in the storage proteins of canola,

138
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rice, soybean and rice. However more work is required to enable production of crops
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139 with increased levels of lysine and methionine with a normal phenotype (Galili, &
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140 Amir, 2013).

141 Foods rich in dietary fibre and resistant starch have the potential to reduce the
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142 incidence of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and improve metabolic and
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143 gut health and this led to interest in improving cereal grain carbohydrates for health

outcomes (Lafiandra, Riccardi, & Shewry, 2014). Conventional plant breeding can
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145 produce barley grains with high levels of resistant starch and beta-glucan, and a low
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146 glycaemic index (Morell et al., 2003). A high beta-glucan, high amylose barley has
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147 been incorporated as an ingredient into a range of processed food products. A high

148 resistant starch wheat has also been produced (Regina et al., 2015).

149 The benefits of long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) for

150 maintenance of good health, brain and eye development in early childhood and

151 reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases are well

152 recognised (FAO, 2010; Lorente-Cebrian, Costa, Navas-Carretero, Zabala, Martinez,

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153 & Moreno-Aliaga, 2013). Gene technology has been used for the production of

154 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plants (Petrie et

155 al., 2010). The ability to achieve a sustainable crop source of LC-PUFAs will reduce

156 the reliance on fish and other marine sources.

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157

158 2.2 Livestock production systems

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159

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160 Livestock is an important contributor to global diets. Meat and livestock are a

good source of dietary protein. The consumption of meat and livestock products is

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increasing due to increasing population, especially in the developing world, with a


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163 demand for these foods, a growth in economic wealth and urbanisation. Strategies
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164 for improving the resilience of animal production systems need to be considered in

165 the face of climate change, as higher temperatures affects the sustainability of
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166 livestock production and the quality and yield of animal products such as milk and
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167 eggs (Nardone, Ronchi, Lactera, Ranieri, & Bernabucci, 2010). For livestock

168 production systems, there are challenges for achieving balance by resource
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169 minimization strategies which address the impact of land management on the
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170 ecosystem. A recent example is the use of tannin-rich ruminant feedstock to improve
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171 the production yield and quality of animal products in semi-arid areas (Mlambo, &

172 Mapiye, 2015). Improving the productivity and efficiency of livestock systems

173 requires an understanding of the interactions between animal genetics and the

174 environment and between the livestock, the plants and the soil within pastoral

175 ecosystems (Greenwood, & Bell, 2014, Herrero, & Thornton, 2013).

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176 Plant-based diets generally require less energy, land and water to produce

177 compared to meat-based diets and from this perspective, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets

178 may be considered to be more sustainable than meat-based diets (Pimentel, &

179 Pimentel, 2003). However, livestock production provides the ability to generate food

180 from environments unsuitable for other food production. Notably livestock efficiently

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181 converts low quality forage into energy dense meat and milk food products.

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182 Improving livestock productivity will assist in meeting the dietary needs for protein

183 and the preferences of many consumers. Sustainable livestock production systems

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184 can provide efficient conversion of feeds on land unsuitable for other forms of

185 agriculture, maintain biodiversity, and minimize carbon footprints whilst ensuring

186
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good animal welfare (Broom, Galindo, Murgueitio, & Fernandez, 2013). Ruminant
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187 livestock can form an important component of mixed livestock-cropping systems to
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188 broaden the commodity base, increase biodiversity and optimise nutrient cycling and

189 biomass utilisation.


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190 The efficiency of the intensive livestock industry has shown remarkable gains in
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191 productivity. For example, in Australia the annual milk yield per cow has doubled

from 2,900 litres to as high as 5,900 litres over the last 30 years, as a consequence
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193 of improvements in herd genetics, advances in pasture management and


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194 supplementary feeding regimes (http://www.dairyaustralia.com.au/Markets-and-


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195 statistics/Production-and-sales/Milk/Yield.aspx). Individual animal productivity

196 continues to increase indicating that there are still substantial unrealised genetic

197 gains. Current efforts to accelerate these gains are primarily focussed on the use of

198 genetic markers to inform breeding decisions.

199 Genetics strategies have been used to improve the meat quality, the health of

200 the animals, the resilience of the livestock to environmental challenges and to

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201 improve livestock production system efficiency. It is known that some traits for meat

202 quality such as tenderness, intramuscular fat and omega-3 fatty acid content are

203 moderately heritable and can be altered by breeding (Hopkins, Fogarty, & Mortimer,

204 2011). Better matching of elite genotypes to environmental and forage conditions

205 either for improved productivity or health benefits and optimised forage assimilation

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206 is expected to provide further improvements. As an alternative to genetic strategies,

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207 feeding regimes are already being used to increase the level of unsaturated fatty

208 acid composition in lamb meat (Howes, Bekhit, Burritt, & Campbell, 2015), beef

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209 (Mapiye et al., 2015) and omega-3 fatty acids in pork (Dugan et al., 2015).

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210 While improving the nutrient profile of livestock and primary produce in a
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211 sustainable production system may be achievable, the effects of the altered

212 agricultural produce on the quality, shelf-life implications and its processability into
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213 food products have to be considered to successfully bring the altered produce from

214 the farm to the consumer. For example, there are challenges of making consistent
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215 and differentiated dairy products when processing milk with altered composition and
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216 structure arising from changed on-farm practices which need to be taken into

account during dairy product processing (Augustin, Udabage, Juliano, & Clarke,
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218 2013).
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219
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220 3. Food processing

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222 Food processing is any deliberate change in a food that occurs before it is

223 available. Typically inedible raw materials are processed into more useful, shelf-

224 stable and palatable foods or potable beverages for human consumption

225 (International Food Information Council Foundation, 2010). Since prehistoric times,
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226 food processing has been a key aspect of the food production chain that links

227 agricultural production with the provision of food to people in the form and at the time

228 it is required (Floros et al., 2010). Some of the common industrial processes used in

229 food manufacturing include milling, cooling/freezing, smoking, heating, canning,

230 fermentation, drying, extrusion cooking. Processing causes changes to the

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231 components of food and some of these changes can result in both detrimental as

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232 well as beneficial effects on the food quality, depending on the process used

233 (Weaver et al., 2014). Although there has been many reports about the negative

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234 aspects of food processing which has focussed on issues such as the detrimental

235 effects of heat treatment on food quality (e.g. formation of acrylamide, nutritional

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degradation, high sugar in formulated foods, introduction of trans fats into foods), it is
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237 essential to have a balanced view which includes the benefits of food processing
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238 (van Boekel et al., 2010). Some of the benefits of food processing include

239 destruction of food-borne microbes and toxins, improved bioavailability of nutrients,


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240 extension of shelf life, improved sensory characteristics and functional properties
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241 (van Boekel et al., 2010).

Food processing also encompasses the use of additives which are used to
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242

243 increase quality (e.g. taste and appearance), extend shelf life and improve the safety
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244 of foods. The management of risks to food safety and stability constitutes an
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245 essential element of food security. Traditionally, brining and pickling were used. A

246 range of chemical additives (e.g. sulfur dioxide for preservation of wine, nitrites in

247 bacon), anti-microbials (e.g. benzoic acid) and antioxidants (e.g. tertiary

248 butylhydroquinone for retarding oxidation of oils) has been employed over the years.

249 However, there is now a trend towards the incorporation of natural preservatives and

250 the phasing out of some synthetic chemical additives. There is increasing interest in

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251 the use of natural anti-microbials (e.g. bacteroicins, essential oils), preservatives

252 (e.g. ascorbic acid, citric acid from fruits) and antioxidants (e.g. Maillard reaction

253 products, polyphenols, rosemary extract) to improve food quality and shelf life

254 (Kumar, Yadav, Ahmad, & Narsaiah, 2015; Vergis, Gokulakrishnan, Agarwal, &

255 Kumar, 2015). In addition to the move to natural food additives, newer delivery

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256 systems (e.g. nanoencapsulation), smart additives and packages are also being

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257 developed as an alternative to direct incorporation of additives to food (Carocho,

258 Barreiro, Morales, & Ferreira, 2014).

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259

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260 3.1 Traditional food processes
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261
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262 To a large extent, food processing has been used to preserve food, improve food

263 safety and maintain quality. Over the last 100 years, traditional food preparation and
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264 preservation processes have been industrialised. The industrialization of food


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265 processing, with its economies of scale, has increased the availability of foods in

266 both in local and export markets. For example, spray drying of milk was a means of
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267 preservation of milk but also enabled milk to be available in countries which did not
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268 have an adequate supply of local milk. The availability of milk powders spawned the
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269 growth of recombined dairy products such as recombined evaporated milk in Asia in

270 the 1960’s and 1970’s (Sanderson, 1970). Recombined dairy products still serve

271 many communities in Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America.

272 Processing can occur at various points along the supply chain. It can be applied

273 proximate to food harvest or capture (e.g. initial processing of agricultural

274 commodities such as flour milling or fish canning) or further downstream when it is

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275 applied in the manufacture of formulated food products (e.g. bread, biscuit, noodles,

276 yogurt). Table 1 provides selected examples of the impacts of common food

277 processing operations and selected examples of processes for converting food

278 materials into final products are summarised in Table 2. The evolution of food

279 processing, particularly traditional food processing technologies, and how processed

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280 food has contributed to nutrition over history has been reviewed (Welch, & Mitchell,

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281 2000; Weaver et al., 2014).

282

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283 3.2 Emerging food processes

284
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285 While traditional food processing will continue to play a major role in providing
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286 food for people, it is expected that there will also be an increasing role for the

287 application of novel and emerging food processing technology for improving the
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288 quality of food and processing efficiency. Novel and emerging technologies,
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289 particularly high pressure processing (HPP), pulsed electric field (PEF), cool plasma,

290 UV irradiation and ultrasound have been examined as treatments for improving the
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291 shelf life of foods and altering material properties (Sanchez-Moreno, De Ancos,
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292 Plaza, Elez-Martinez, & Cano, 2009; Knorr, Froehling, Jaeger, Reineke, Schlueter, &
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293 Schoessler, 2011, Tao & Sun, 2015). The application of emerging, non-thermal

294 techniques was shown to potentially reduce energy requirements for food processing

295 and may contribute to improved energy efficiency in the food industry (Toepfl,

296 Mathys, Heinz, & Knorr, 2006).

297 Of the emerging technologies, there has been most commercial application of

298 HPP. In HPP, pressures in the range of 200–1000 MPa are used. HPP disrupts

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299 microbial cells but retains nutrients and flavour molecules, allowing shelf-life

300 extension without the detrimental effects of high temperatures on food quality whilst

301 retaining the fresh-like character of foods (Hendrickx, & Knorr 2002). HPP has been

302 commercialized as a cold pasteurization process for a range of products including

303 guacamole, processed meats, tomato salsas, oysters and yogurts (Knorr et al.,

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304 2011; Tokuşoğlu & Swanson, 2014). However, more investigation is still needed to

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305 understand how HPP can be used to modulate enzyme reactions and fermentation,

306 and its effects on food-spoilage viruses and bacterial spores (Knorr et al., 2011). In

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307 PEF, short electric pulses are applied to food, causing permeabilization of microbes

308 and the cells of plant and animal tissue. It may be used as an alternative to

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pasteurization (Knorr et al., 2011). In ultrasound processing, sound waves are
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310 transmitted through the food medium. Both low (20-100 kHz) and high (400 kHz and
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311 above) frequencies have been used in food processing. Low frequency ultrasound

312 has been applied for disintegration and homogenization of foods, and to enhance
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313 extraction of components (Vilkhu, Mawson, Simons, & Bates, 2008, Knorr et al,
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314 2011). Ultrasound may also be used to improve the efficiency of drying, filtration,

315 brining, freezing and thawing processes (Tao & Sun, 2015). High frequency
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316 ultrasound, with the creation of standing waves, facilitates the separation of oils from
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317 emulsions such as milk (Juliano et al., 2011) and increases the yield of oil in the
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318 palm oil milling process (Juliano et al., 2013). HPP, PEF and ultrasound can also

319 enhance extraction of anthocyanins from grape by-products with up to three, four

320 and two fold increase in extraction respectively (Corrales, Toepfl, Butz, Knorr, &

321 Tauscher, 2008).

322

323 3.3 Improving resource efficiency of food processing

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324

325 Most operations in the food processing industry are energy-intensive and do not

326 optimize the use of edible agricultural food sources. The sustainability of the current

327 practice of industrial scale food processing is therefore sub-optimal. An example of

There needs to be a re-evaluation about how food processing can be better applied

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329 to create food products more efficiently, involving lower resource use and

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330 accompanied by lower production of waste (van der Goot et al., 2016). Better

331 integration along the whole food supply chain from the farm to the consumer, with

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332 attention to quality, sustainability, logistics, food products and processes is also

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333 required (Manzini, & Accorsi, 2013). AN
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335 3.3.1 Food processing to reduce food waste


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336
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337 The amount of food that is wasted along the global supply chain from farm to
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338 consumer is about 1.6 Gtonnes (or about one third of the total produced based on
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339 weight) and 1.3 Gtonnes of this waste is edible (Gustavsson, Cederberg, &

340 Sonnesson, 2011; FAO, 2011; FAO, 2013). In terms of kcal/person/day, this
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341 amounts to 24% of the produced food supply (614 kcal/person/day) that is lost within
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342 the food supply which could feed 1 billion people if the food wasted was halved

343 (Kummu et al., 2012). Food may be lost from the supply because of safety and

344 quality considerations, and under-utilization of edible by-products and side streams

345 of food processing. Food losses and waste can occur on farm, between farm to

346 retail, at retail level and after it has reached the consumer. The amounts of food

347 losses and waste along the chain varies with the type of commodities and food

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348 products and between various countries. Food losses in developing countries are

349 >40% at post-harvest and processing while in developed countries, >40% of the

350 losses occur at retail and consumer levels (FAO, 2011).

351 Food processing may be used to reduce the amount of food lost by using

preservation processes, such as freezing, drying, fermentation, canning,

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352

353 pasteurisation and sterilisation, and packaging technologies to increasing the shelf-

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354 life of products (Langelaan et al., 2013).

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355 Waste in food processing has partly come about because of the food industry’s

356 evolution towards provision of refined single food components (e.g. protein), a food

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357 product or ingredient with a defined composition (e.g. whey protein concentrate) or a
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358 food product that meets standards for appearance (e.g. acceptable coloured and

359 shaped fruits and vegetables). There are many potential uses for underutilized edible
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360 products (Fig 1). For example, protein-based by-products of animal processing may
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361 be used for production of bioactive hydrolysates (Martinez-Alvarez, Chamorro, &


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362 Brenes, 2015). Wheat-bran, a by-product of wet milling of wheat is currently under

363 utilized. It contains proteins, minerals, B complex vitamins, and dietary fibre. The
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364 protein component itself represents ~ 15.5 million tonnes of high quality wheat

365 protein that is wasted annually. There is interest in extracting the protein for use an
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366 ingredient in food and for conversion into bioactive peptides (Balandrán-Qunitana,
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367 Mercado-Ruiz, & Mendoza-Wilson, 2015). By-products of fruit juice processing are

368 another untapped resource. Components in apple pomace such as dietary fibre

369 (pectin, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin) and phenolic compounds (flavonols,

370 phenolic acids, dihydrochalcones and anthocyanins) may be extracted and put back

371 into the food chain (Rabetafika, Bchir, Blecker, & Richel, 2014). In the case of the

372 olive oil and palm oil industry, valuable phenolic compounds with antioxidant

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373 properties may be recovered from the oil mill wastewater (El-Abbassi, Kiai, & Hafidi

374 2012; Rahmanian, Jafari, & Galanakis, 2014).

375

376 3.3.2 Resource efficient food processing

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377

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378 There are opportunities for reducing water and energy use in food processing

379 and to develop zero discharge processes (van der Goot et al., 2016). An example is

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380 process intensification, which result in less water use (i.e. more concentrated

processing) by using dry milling processes for separation of components in place of

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wet milling (van der Goot et al., 2016).


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383 In the dairy industry, there has been interest in reducing the energy for milk
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384 powder production by increasing the total solids of the milk concentrate that is fed

into the dryer. Removal of water by spray drying requires significantly more energy
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386 than the removal of water in an evaporator. Increasing the total solids concentration
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387 of milk that is fed into the dryer from 50 to 52% solids saves 6 % energy and further
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388 increase to 60% solids reduces dryer energy requirements by 26% (Fox, Akkerman,

389 Straatsma, & de Jong, 2010).


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390 Recognition of the global challenge for more efficient use of resources is
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391 reflected in Goal 12 of the United Nations sustainable development goals. This goal

392 is to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. The food sector uses

393 30% of the total global energy use and accounts for 22% of the total greenhouse gas

394 emissions. The sector therefore has a responsibility to develop strategies to address

395 this challenge (http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-consumption-

396 production/).

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397

398 4. Processed food: Intake and effects on health

399

400 Processed foods are an important component of the food supply (Weaver et

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401 al., 2014). Few would argue that the increased bioavailability of macronutrients like

402 starch from the processing of grains to flour and subsequent incorporation into

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403 breads, enhanced safety of meat achieved by refrigeration and cooking, improved

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404 safety of milk achieved through pasteurization and the year round availability of

405 seasonal fruits and vegetables achieved through preservation, canning and freezing

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406 have not been beneficial to society and nutritional security. However, there are also
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407 processed foods that are high in salt, refined starch, sugar and fat which present

408 unhealthy food options to the consumer.


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409 Strategies to reduce sugar and salt in processed foods are expected to have
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410 significant impact in reducing non-communicable diseases (MacGregor, & Hashem,


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411 2014; Webster, Trieu, Dunford, & Hawkes, 2014). Several countries in Europe, the

412 Americas and the Western Pacific Region which have introduced salt reduction
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413 programs have reported reductions in salt levels in one or more food categories. The

414 strategies involved working with industry, either voluntarily or mandatorily, and
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415 included food categories such as bread, breakfast cereal, soup, sauces (Webster et
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416 al., 2014). In Australia salt levels in bread were estimated to be reduced by 9%, in

417 cereals by 25% and in processed meat by 8% during the period 2010 to 2013

418 (Trevena, Neal, Dunford, & Wu, 2014). To enhance the effectiveness of these

419 strategies further coordination by government to include food reformulation, public

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420 education, food labelling, and robust monitoring and evaluation is advocated

421 (Webster et al., 2015).

422

423 4.1 Intake of processed foods

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424

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425 Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2008) on

426 intake of food by Americans showed that minimally processed foods (e.g. washed

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427 and packaged fruit and vegetables) contributed about 14% of total dietary energy,

and a higher percentage of dietary fibre, vitamin D, calcium, potassium and vitamin

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428

B12. Processed foods provided about 57% of total energy intake, and a higher
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429

430 percentage for sodium, added sugars, iron and folate. The other source of food was
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431 foods from restaurants and dining halls which provided about 29% of energy intake

432 with a higher percentage for sodium and added sugars (Weaver et. al., 2014).
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433 Another recent analysis of the food supply of the United States determined that more
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434 than three-quarters of food energy in purchases by households in America came

435 from moderately (15.9%) and highly processed (61.0%) foods and beverages in
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436 2012 (Poti, Mendez, Ng, & Popkin, 2015). The conclusion is that highly processed
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437 food is a dominant, unshifting part of purchasing patterns in the United States, but
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438 such foods may have higher saturated fat, sugar and sodium contents than less

439 processed foods. A relatively wide variation in nutrient content within food categories

440 suggests better food choices are likely to be beneficial.

441 A food classification system developed in Brazil (Monteiro, 2009) groups food

442 into unprocessed or minimally processed foods (group 1), processed culinary

443 ingredients including oils, fats, pastas, starches and sugar (group 2) and ultra-

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444 processed food and drink products which are usually ready-to-eat or ready-to-heat

445 (group 3). In Canada, the mean percentage of total energy intake from ultra-

446 processed foods rose from 28.7% in 1938/39 to 61.7% in 2011 (Moubarac et al.,

447 2013). This trend is spreading with the growing affluence of population groups, as

448 observed by the increased rate of consumption of ultra-processed foods in low- and

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449 middle-income countries, compared to high-income countries (Moodie et. al., 2013).

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450

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451 4.2 Undesirable consequences of current highly processed formulated foods

452

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There is little doubt that processed foods and consumption of excess calories
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453

454 derived from this category, among other factors, have played a critical role in the
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455 rising levels of obesity in western society and increasingly, the developing world

456 (Finucane et al., 2011) with its associated legacy of rising prevalence of non-
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457 communicable, chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (Anand, & Yusuf,
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458 2011), metabolic disease and diabetes (Danaei et al., 2011), as well as certain

459 cancers (World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research,
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460 2007). It was estimated that halving the intake of ultra-processed food in the United
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461 Kingdom by replacing these with minimally processed and culinary ingredients would
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462 result in approximately 14,235 fewer coronary deaths and approximately 7,820 fewer

463 stroke deaths by 2030, comprising an almost 13% mortality reduction (Moreira et. al.,

464 2015). A trend towards a low-fat, high refined carbohydrate diet may have

465 contributed to the current epidemic of obesity lipid abnormalities, type 2 diabetes,

466 and metabolic syndrome (Weinberg, 2004). The International Agency for Research

467 on Cancer, the cancer agency of the World Health Organization stated that there is a

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468 small risk of cancer with the consumption of processed meat (International Agency

469 for Research on Cancer, 2015).

470 The partial hydrogenation process increases the degree of saturation of the fat

471 and therefore the hardness of the fat and its oxidative stability, but the process

introduces trans fatty acids which are harmful for health (Mensink & Katan, 1990).

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472

473 Partially hydrogenated fats were used for obtaining a desirable texture of margarine,

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474 baked goods and increasing the resistance of oils to oxidation during deep frying

475 (Korver & Katan, 2006). On 16th June 2015, the FDA removed partially hydrogenated

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476 oils from the “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) list and food manufacturers will

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477 have three years to comply with the legislation that restricts partially hydrogenated
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478 fats in human food.

479
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480 4.3 Desirable effects of food fortified or enriched during food processing
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481
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482 The fortification and enrichment of foods during processing have beneficial
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483 effects on population health. Endemic brain damage, goitre and cretinism can be

484 prevented by correcting for iodine deficiency and provided the rationale for the iodine
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485 fortification of salt with associated major impacts on the prevalence of these
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486 conditions (Hetzel, 2012).The introduction of commercially produced iodised salt

487 during the middle of the last century substantially reduced iodine deficiency (Pearce,

488 Anderson, & Zimmermann, 2013).

489 Low levels of folic acid in the diet of newly pregnant women causes neural tube

490 defects and severe congenital malformations, affecting the brain and spinal cord in

491 the developing foetus. Reducing the incidence of neural tube defects has been

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492 reported in countries following mandated fortification of food with folate, namely

493 Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Iran, Jordan, South Africa and the

494 USA; with reductions as high as 58% in Costa Rica, 55% in Chile, 49% in Argentina

495 and 49% in Canada (Castillo-Lancellotti, Tur, & Uauy, 2013).

The role of Vitamin D beyond bone health is increasingly being recognised

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496

497 (O’Mahony, Stepien, Gibney, Nugent, & Brennan, 2011). A range of vitamin D

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498 enhanced foods such as milk, yogurt, cheese, orange juice, soup and bread have

499 been shown to effectively increase circulating vitamin D levels. Foods that made the

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500 greatest contribution to vitamin D intake varied between countries according to

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501 habitual dietary patterns (O’Mahony et al., 2011).
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502 Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are essential

503 for many biological functions, having wide ranging health benefits from brain
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504 development and function to heart health and immune function (FAO, 2011; Lorente-
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505 Cebrian et al., 2013). However, the capacity of humans to synthesise LC n-3 PUFA
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506 de novo is limited (Arterburn, Hall, & Oken, 2006) and their assimilation through the

507 diet is therefore essential. Many people consume fish or other seafood infrequently,
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508 resulting in an inadequate intake of LC omega-3 PUFA which may result in sub-

509 optimal health (Papanikolaou, Brooks, Reider, & Fulgoni, 2014). The fortification of
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510 foods with LC n-3 PUFA could contribute substantially to achieving recommended
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511 intakes of this essential fatty acid (Rahmawaty, Lyons-Wall, Charlton, Batterham, &

512 Meyer, 2014).

513 The difficulties associated with the introduction of the LC n-3 PUFA and other

514 sensitive nutrients without compromising food quality can be overcome by the design

515 of appropriate encapsulation systems (Augustin & Sanguansri, 2015). For example,

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516 microencapsulation masks the fishy smell and taste of LC n-3 PUFA and protects

517 them against oxidation without loss of bioavailability (Sanguansri et al., 2015). The

518 ability to produce shelf-stable encapsulated fish oil ingredients enabled the

519 incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into a wide range of food products including infant and

520 toddler formula, breads and baked goods.

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521

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522 5. Consumer understanding of food processing

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523

524 The obvious customer for the food industry is the consumer and

525
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understanding their attitudes towards food processing is necessary, especially given
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526 that underlying attitudes are a major factor in purchase decisions. Without consumer

527 acceptance, otherwise appropriate food processing strategies to address nutrition


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528 security risks may ultimately fail.


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529
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530 5.1 What do consumers want?


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531
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532 In regards to food processing, research on consumers in the United States


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533 suggests that people desire foods which are affordable, safe, convenient, fresh

534 (minimal processing and packaging), natural and without preservatives, and without

535 negative attributes (e.g. unhealthy; high fat, salt and/or sugar) (Zink, 1997).

536 Consumers are also increasingly demanding products that not only cause no harm

537 but which may also have protective effects such as reducing risk factors associated

538 with disease (e.g. high cholesterol), and which promote healthy aging through

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539 enhanced psychological health and wellbeing (e.g. mood and cognition) (Zink, 1997).

540 This quest for health can have a significant impact on food processors. For instance,

541 today’s marketplace has more perishable products and more innovative packaging

542 than in previous decades, and consumer reservations regarding chemical

543 preservation has impacted various preservation methods.

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544 Observations from studies in the United States and the United Kingdom

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545 demonstrate that sustainable practices undertaken by food manufacturers can

546 influence a customer’s decision to purchase, giving positive feedback about the

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547 organisation and cost savings arising from implementation of sustainable systems

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548 and processes (Zink, 1997; Bhaskaran, Polonsky, Cary, & Fernandez, 2006). Other
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549 desired attributes include a shorter distance from the point of primary production and

550 the point of purchase, sustainability of production, and foods that are culturally
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551 aligned and provide a pleasurable food experience (Australian Institute of Health and

552 Welfare, 2012).


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553

554 5.2 Negative consumer perceptions about food processing


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555
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556 According to a survey of American consumers, there exists a variety of


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557 perceptions, both negative and positive, about certain aspects of the role of food

558 processing (International Food Information Council Foundation, 2012). The reasons

559 for negative perceptions about processed foods are many, and include mistrust of

560 technology, low level of understanding of processing, advertising that has at times

561 taken advantage of controversies relating to food processing, the increasing

562 prevalence of obesity in many industrialised countries, the use of chemicals in food

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563 production or as additives, and concerns related to specific ingredients including salt

564 and sugar (Floros et.al., 2010). Further to these issues are the observations that

565 many popular processed foods are of poor nutritional value and strongly held beliefs

566 that multinational food companies specialising in processed food control the food

567 intake of large numbers of people (Williams, & Nestle, 2015). It is important that

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568 there be more research aimed at obtaining objective information about the effects of

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569 processing and to communicate this to the consumer in an unbiased way.

570 Organizations which are seen as trusted advisors with no vested interested are best

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571 placed to deliver the objective messages to society.

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572 AN
573 5.3 Consumer food purchasing behaviour

574
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575 Consumer acceptance of new food technologies and processing methods is


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576 critical for the commercial success of processed foods. Adequate economic returns
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577 to manufacturers are unlikely if food products do not appeal to the needs and desires

578 of end users. Consumer food purchasing behaviour is particularly complex but a
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579 number of theories exist which attempt to describe these behaviours. Utility Theory,
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580 for example, regards purchasing behaviour as being largely rational (Levin, &
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581 Milgrom, 2004). It suggests that consumer choices are based on the expected

582 outcomes of decisions, and that consumers are only concerned with self-interest.

583 Alternate theories regard consumer behaviours as being driven by a wide range of

584 internal factors including need recognition, evaluation of alternatives, the building of

585 purchase intentions, the act of purchasing and subsequent consumption (Engel,

586 Kollat, and Blackwell, 1968). Since the 1950’s, it has been increasingly recognised

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587 that external factors also play a major role in consumer purchasing decisions. These

588 factors include product marketing, social good and environmental concerns. In

589 addition, whether or not consumers buy food is not only about availability of foods

590 and whether they are healthy. It is influenced by how ingredients and foods can be

591 substituted, and the manner in which they are transformed and marketed (Hawkes,

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592 Friel, Lobstein, & Lang, 2012). Both cognitive and emotional factors influence a

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593 consumer decision to purchase unhealthy foods and contribute to their less than

594 optimal food and beverage choices (Sierra, Taute, & Turri, 2015).

SC
595 Earned (news) media and social media do have a role to play in consumer

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596 perceptions and behaviour relating to food processing and technologies. Modern
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597 news cycles have a rapid churn rate and individual stories have a relatively short life

598 span. Consumer conversations on social media such as Twitter, Facebook and
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599 YouTube can have a marked impact on the food choices and the brands that

600 consumers purchase and thereby be an influencer of healthy choices (Liu & Lopez,
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601 2016). However, medium and long term marketing campaigns by food and beverage
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602 manufacturers also have a persuasive and pervasive in influencing consumer

attitudes and behaviour.


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603

604
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605 5.4 Addressing consumer concerns


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606

607 Looking toward the future, it is important to consider the impact of new food

608 technologies in the marketplace. Whilst sensory perceptions are major drivers of

609 food choice, change in consumer sentiment towards a “fresh is best” viewpoint

610 presents particular challenges for the food processing industry. Typically, novel food-

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611 related technologies, including processing, are met with significant concern (Cox,

612 Evans, & Lease, 2011).

613 There needs to be clear demonstration of benefits and safety of the new

614 technologies to consumers (Jaeger, Knorr, Szabóc, Hámori, & Bánáti, 2015). Even

where new technologies are proven scientifically to produce food safe for human

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615

616 consumption, consumer hesitance is difficult to change (Aoki, Shen, & Saijo, 2010).

RI
617 For example, the impact of positive educational messages around food products

618 differentially changes perceptions, with favourable outcomes (i.e. change from

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619 hesitance to acceptance) observed only in individuals who have sufficient trust in the

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620 relevant information authority (Loebnitz, & Grunert, 2014).
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621

622 6. Summary and Future Trends


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623
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624 The challenges to feed the world in 2050 cannot be met through improvements
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625 in food production alone. Reduction and recovery of food losses throughout the food

626 chain from production to consumption and improvements in preservation,


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627 transportation, nutritional content, safety and shelf life of foods will be key strategies
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628 to combat food and nutrition demands of the future. A goal is to improve health of the
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629 consumer and to achieve healthier ageing for the population. It is essential to

630 engage society in science to engender the trust of consumer in the food supply and

631 important to ensure ethical food production and responsible consumption for a

632 sustainable ecosystem (European Technology Platform, Strategic Research Agenda

633 2007-2020, http://etp.ciaa.eu). Global megatrends, which are due to shifts in

634 geopolitical, environmental, economic, social or technology conditions that

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635 substantially change the way people live, will shape our world in the next 20 years.

636 Seven global megatrends recently identified are (i) More from less, (ii) Planetary

637 pushback, (iii) The silk highway, (iv) Forever young, (v) Digital immersion, (vi) Porous

638 boundaries and (v) Great expectations (Hajkowicz, 2015). These megatrends will

639 influence how we deal with food and nutrition security across the food supply chain

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640 (Table 3). It is expected that the digital revolution provides new opportunities in food

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641 processing automation, provenance and tracking providing a clear path to monitoring

642 individual and population intakes as well as the ethical and safety aspects of food

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643 production. The agricultural sector will continue to increase productivity including

644 through the introduction of novel and improved crops and livestock and the food

645
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processing industry will need to be agile to adapt to maximise the benefits for these
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646 new feedstocks. Growth in population, economic activity and market opportunities
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647 will be greatest in the Asian region, particularly, China and India. There is a need to

648 address the food preferences of all populations, as well as aging demographics,
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649 when developing healthy food choices. A growing demand for foods with
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650 substantiated health benefits is anticipated. Against the background of climate

651 change and diminishing resources reduction of the use of resources to produce
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652 existing and improved foods will be paramount.


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653 In order to ensure future food and nutrition security, industry and consumers
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654 must be considered in tandem. The challenge for food industry involves the

655 development of new processing technologies which ultimately associate with

656 economic advantage. However, in the absence of tangible positive attributes as

657 perceived by consumers, uptake of the products of new technologies and processes

658 may be lower than expected. The lay-expert gap in risk perception, and the moral

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659 and ethical dimensions of how food is produced need to be considered for improved

660 consumer acceptance of processed foods (Lusk, Roosen, & Bieberstein, 2014).

661 Healthy diets which meet consumer expectations produced from resilient and

662 environmentally sustainable agrifood systems need to be delivered in a changing

world with diminishing natural resources, changing demographics and increasing

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663

664 urbanisation in a digital age (Gormley, 2015; Wu et al., 2015). In the future, low-

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665 value food and underutilized edible biomass may be able to be processed back to

666 their constituent macro- and micro- nutrients that can then be reconstructed into new

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667 foods, for example in the form of paints for 3D printing of foods (e.g. for second tier

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668 natural food lookalikes) (Kim, Golding, & Archer, 2012). Advances in knowledge
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669 regarding the characterisation and modification of the gut microbiome together with

670 developments in food technologies can potentially enhance the in vivo delivery of
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671 bioactive ingredients with major impact on many aspects of health (Marchesi et al.,

672 2015).
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673 A multi-sectorial approach to improving food and nutrition security is required to

674 address the complex societal challenge to feed the world responsibly and to
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675 minimise global food and nutrition insecurity in a changing world. Engagement and

676 effective communication between all stake holders along the food supply chain,
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677 including consumers and government, is essential for delivering innovative solutions
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678 for food and nutrition security. There needs to be a closer integration between social

679 science and the sciences that underpin innovations in technology to understand and

680 respond to consumer concerns, opposition to technological solutions and address

681 issues that arise in the complex food supply chain (Lowe, Phillipson, & Lee, 2008,

682 Hinrichs, 2014).

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683

684

685 Acknowledgments:

686 The contributions of CSIRO scientists, Ross Tellam & Aaron Ingham who

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687 provided insights into the livestock production systems, and Crispin Howitt & Phil

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688 Larkin for developments in crop systems, are gratefully acknowledged. The authors

689 would like to thank Steven McInnes (Human Capital International), and Sharyn

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690 Morton & Deb Miller (CSIRO) for supporting the team in developing the

691 transdisciplinary approach, essential for addressing food and nutrition security.

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692

693 References
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694

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1022 Fig 1: Food processing – Possibilities for optimizing the food supply chain

1023

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1024
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1025
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1026 Table 1: Benefits and impacts of food processing operations

Technique Examples Outcomes & Benefits Impact


Preservation • Pasteurization of • Distributors can • A range of local
milk or juice ship products over and non-local
• Fermenting dairy greater distances foods remain
into cheese or • Retailers can stock available over a
yogurt products longer longer time
• Pickling or canning • Consumers can frame

PT
produce keep foods longer
• Salting meats

RI
Processing for • Washing, • Food-borne • A greater
food safety pasteurizing, pathogens and proportion of
(cleaning, cooking, salting, contaminants are the population

SC
sterilization) drying, removed or has access to
refrigerating, minimized, safe food
freezing meaning that
consumers are at

U
a lower risk of
foodborne illness
AN
Processing to • Milling grains • Manufacturers • Adds value to
change flavour, • Mixing ingredients may gain higher food products
texture, aroma, • Adding flavors and profits and a
M

color or form colors foothold in a


• Molding foods and competitive market
ingredients into • Consumers have
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shapes access to a wider


variety of products
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Processing to • Ready-to-serve • Manufacturers • Access to safe


reduce meals may gain higher (and preferably
preparation • Fast foods sales by nutritious) foods
times and make • responding to for time-poor
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Convenience
food more foods: Bottled consumer demand consumers
portable drinks, meat jerky, for convenience
cakes, cookies, food
C

breakfast cereal • Consumers can


bars, frozen eat virtually
AC

pizzas, baby food anywhere, at any


time, with minimal
effort

Processing to • Fortifying milk with • Manufacturers can • Adds value and


restore and/or vitamin D, salt with use fortification as nutrition density
raise nutrient iodine, and grains a selling point, to food, can
levels in food with B vitamins, potentially improve
iron and folic acid generating greater bioavailability
sales and population
• Consumers are at health
lower risks for implemented as
chronic nutrient public health

45
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deficiencies policies

1027

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EP
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AC

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1028 Table 2: Examples of food products prepared with different processing methods.

Materials Processes Processed food products


Beef, lamb, • Slaughtering, cutting up, boning • Frozen, refrigerated in bulk or
pork, poultry retail packs
& fish
• Comminuting, fermentation, • Small goods such as salami,
extrusion, drying bologna, sausages, jerky,
cured dried meat/fish
products, surimi

PT
• Cooking, pasteurization, • Ready to eat meal, meal
sterilization, high pressure components, luncheon or

RI
processing canned meat/fish products

Grains, cereal • Grinding, sifting, milling • Flour, milled rice, oat

SC
& legumes bran/grain
with may
need dairy • Rolling, steaming, puffing, drying, • Breakfast cereal, crispy snack
and other extrusion, frying foods, meat analogues

U
ingredients
• Cooking, steaming, sterilization, • Baked goods e.g. cake,
AN
baking, fermentation, kneading bread, ready to eat grains e.g.
precooked rice, beer, wine
other healthy grain beverages
M

Dairy • Pasteurization, sterilization, • Liquid whole cream, skim and


products separation, homogenization, high flavored cold pasteurize,
pressure processing, pulse electric pasteurized and UHT milks,
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field cream

• Fermentation, agitation, shearing • Yoghurt, cheese, butter,


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and mixing whipped cream

• Evaporation, sterilization, drying, • Evaporated milk, condensed


EP

separation milk, milk powder, whey


protein concentrate, whey,
protein isolate
C

Fruits and • Crushing, maceration, vacuum • Various concentrates, juices


vegetables concentration, pasteurization, and juice mixes
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UHT, high pressure processing,


pulse electric field

• Fermentation, picking, drying • Kimchi, jams, dried and other


form of pickled or preserved
fruits and vegetables

• Freezing, sterilization • Frozen and canned fruits and


vegetables products

• Minimally processed • Fresh produced

1029

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1030

1031 Table 3: Global megatrends, their translation into food megatrends and opportunities for a

1032 future food supply chain

1033

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Global Food Megatrends Opportunities
Megatrends1
More from More food from less • Recovery and value addition

RI
less resources • Extend shelf life through processing
• Optimize supply chain logistics
• Behavioural changes and changes in
expectations by consumers

SC
Planetary Foods for a healthy • Genetically modified foods for improved nutrition
pushback planet and efficient production
• Greater use of algae

U
• Greener processes
• Tissue engineering for meat and other products
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• Reduce food miles
• Shaping consumer behaviour/acceptance
• Food sharing
• Better biodegradables supply
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The silk Foods for the Asian • Growing middle class


highway century • Assured food safety for ensured market access
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• Clean and with provenance (trusted food


supplier)
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• Rapidly growing & aging population with rising


chronic diseases (Foods for health)
• Novel foods & ingredients with high nutritional
value (Fermented dairy; novel protein sources,
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High protein for elderly, Foods for premium


exports)
• Novel food production and distribution systems
for megacities
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Forever Foods for beauty • Foods for healthy aging - New market segments
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young and health with different needs


• Foods for health across life course
• Foods & integrated programs for prevention of,
and disease management
• Food service for aging population
• Pre and peri-pregnancy
• Protein foods
• Nutrient dense foods
• Portion innovation
• Weight loss, maintenance
• Prevention/slowing of decline (e.g. cognition,
physical performance
• Shelf-stable healthy meals

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• Texture modification (e.g. 3D printing)
• Pharma/functional foods
• Foods/supplements for cosmetic improvement

Digital Digital food and the • Nexus of sensors, data, processes, access,
immersion internet of food production, consumption
• Use of big data and cloud computing to improve
food supply
• Mobile tests for provenance, content
• Foods tagged and sensed, increasing use of

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innovative sensors (e.g. food safety)
• More informed and connected consumers and
ethical communication channels

RI
• Digital support for traditional and intensified
production
• Home indoor hydroponic food (digitally-enabled)
• Online ordering of takeaways (e.g. drone

SC
delivery)
• Conventional retail with click and collect stores

Porous Producing food in a • New horizontal networks (agile and flexible

U
boundaries globally networked companies)
environment • Networked leadership – greater sphere of
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influence
• Global food supply, global R&D environment
• Global health claim system
• Networked environment
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• Communication and information (transparent,


ethical, frequent)
• Creativity and agile resolution of challenges
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• Agile and innovative R&D environment to support


industry
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Great Foods that meet our • Personalised better and faster services that meet
expectations expectations consumer unique needs and delivered en masse
• Billions impoverished still need basic food and
EP

water
• Personalised foods, diets and lifestyle
prescriptions based on preferences and health
needs
C

• Clean, natural foods


• Provide the experience (e.g. Flavour bursts,
AC

Enhance the appearance, 3D printing in the


home – digital gastronomy, Consistent chef-like
meals produced at home)
• Renewal of convenience, sustainability/eco-
conscious, health, great food
• Artisan, small-batch and direct-to-consumer
(different delivery systems)
1
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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
Highlights:

• Food processing has a critical role in achieving food and nutrition security

• Reducing food losses is an important strategy to maximize efficiency of

resource use

PT
A balanced approach to both energy and nutrient content of foods is required

• Consumer concern about food processing must be addressed for acceptance

RI
of benefits

SC
A holistic approach to food supply chain efficiency and sustainable diets is

needed

U
AN
M
D
TE
C EP
AC

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