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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES

In this chapter, the researchers are going to discuss the studies related to their

research to provide knowledge and proof how the oyster shell’s calcium carbonate

(CaCO) will make the mud bricks stronger; thus more durable and the fact that it would

be helping the consumers and environment.

Mud Brick (MB)

 Ancient times

Thousands of years ago, cement bricks were not yet thought up and people

would use mud bricks to create establishments such as houses, building, temples etc.

According to Brick Architecture

mud bricks were discovered in

southern Turkey, around the city of

Jericho (Figure 1). It was the oldest

establishment made from mud


Figure 1 A Building in Jericho, Turkey
bricks that the world has ever

known; it was made at 8000 B.C.

In the ancient city of Ur, in Mesopotamia (which is now called Iraq) the first

true arch of sun-baked brick have made during 4000 BC.

Although the arch was not much of a success, it gave man description of the first know

reference to mortars other than mud (Mason, T. and Lee, J. 2018). In Egypt however;
their slaves mixed clay with straw to make it more durable. The evidence can still be seen

at the Harappan Buhen (Figure 2) and Mohenjo-daro. (Figure 3)

As civilization spread eastward &

westward, so did the manufacturing of mud

bricks; it has been used to construct various

structures that are still known today, like,

Figure 2. Harappan Buhen The Great Wall of China that was made

210 BC, and the reconstruction of Pantheon

in Rome during 123 AD (Mason, T. and

Lee, J 2018). The ground development Ever

since then, most houses in Ancient Africa,

Europe, Asia and America are made from

Figure 3. Mohenjo-Daro mud bricks.

 Mud wall

Also known as tapia in the Spanish-speaking world, tabya in the Islamic region

use to be one of the most common structural materials of the 15th century Cordoba and

Seville and a regular construction method in many Muslim areas in the 13th century,

especially for military purposes. (Deagan, K. 2002)


Oyster Shells (OS)

 It’s Composition

It was stated on a journal entitled Characterization of calcium carbonate obtained

from oyster and mussel shells and incorporation in polypropylene that, cooking the

oysters by steaming improves the appearance and values of the shells: plus the OS are

composed of 95% of CaCO and the remains are organic substances and other compounds

of the shell. If the wastes of the shells aren’t properly disposed, it causes a bad odor that

affects the area and decreases water oxygen and microalgae that are responsible for the nutrition

of oysters, thus hindering the growth of the shellfish.

 Recycling OS (using them in cement)

Oyster shell is used as an additive or replacement of part of the cement in

concrete. Construction material diversified with crushed oyster shell and sand was used

for sand compaction piles to improve soft soils underneath a breakwater port in Japan.

 OS for Construction materials

The crushed shells would be beneficial to the waste industry along with the

construction industry. When the shells get crushed they can be substituted for all different

types of aggregates depending on the size of the specimen. Oyster shells are a viable

option because they contain a large amount of calcium carbonate. Which is the element

helps to strengthen the materials. So the materials can stand the harsh weather and

chemical in the surroundings. (Kakisawa, H., & Sumitomo, T., 2012)


In this study to evaluate the possibility of recycling this waste for use as a

construction material, the mechanical characteristics of pulverized oyster shell were

investigated in terms of its potential utilization as a substitute for the aggregates used in

mortar. The effect of organic chemicals on the hardening of concrete was evaluated by

preparing ethyl-benzene-mixed mortar specimens. The long-term strength improvement

resulting from the addition of fly ash was also examined by performing unconfined

compression tests on specimens with fly-ash content. There was no significant reduction

in the compressive strength of the mortars containing small oyster shell particles instead

of sand. From these test data, the possible application of oyster shells in construction

materials could be verified, and the change in the strength parameters according to the

presence of organic compounds was also evaluated to be successful. (Yoon, Hyunsuk &

Park, Sangkyu & Lee, Kiho & Park, Junboum. 2004)

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