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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


Rail Industry Guidance Note for GI/RT7016
This document contains one or more pages which contain colour.
Issue One: December 2010
GI/GN7616

Published by:

RSSB
Block 2
Angel Square
1 Torrens Street
London
EC1V 1NY

© Copyright 2010
Rail Safety and Standards Board Limited
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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Issue Record
Issue Date Comments
One 4 December Original document
2010 GI/GN7616 provides guidance to support Parts 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 11 of GI/RT7016

Superseded documents
This Rail Industry Guidance Note does not supersede any other Railway Group
documents.

Supply
The authoritative version of this document is available at www.rgsonline.co.uk.
Uncontrolled copies of this document can be obtained from Communications, RSSB,
Block 2, Angel Square, 1 Torrens Street, London, EC1V 1NY, telephone 020 3142 5400 or
e-mail enquirydesk@rssb.co.uk. Railway Group Standards and associated documents can
also be viewed at www.rgsonline.co.uk.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Contents
Section Description Page

Part 1 Introduction 5
1.1 Purpose of this document 5
1.2 Copyright 5
1.3 Approval and authorisation of this document 6

Part 2 Technical Specifications for Interoperability 7


2.1 Requirements related to stations 7
2.2 TSI – Persons with Reduced Mobility 7
2.3 TSI – High Speed Infrastructure 8
2.4 TSI – Conventional Rail Infrastructure (draft) 9

Part 3 Recommendations and Guidance in Documents Related to 11


Stations
3.1 Accessible Train and Station Design for Disabled People: A Code of 11
Practice
3.2 London Underground Limited, Good Practice Guide ‘Station Planning 11
Standards and Guidelines’ (SPSG)
3.3 Railway Safety Principles and Guidance: requirements related to 11
stations

Part 4 Guidance on Location of New Platforms 13


4.1 Horizontal track alignment through station platforms 13
4.2 Vertical track alignment through station platforms 15

Part 5 Guidance on Standard Platform Position Relative to Adjacent 18


Track
5.1 Platform height 18
5.2 Platform offset 21
5.3 Footsteps of new trains relative to standard platform position 24
5.4 Increased stepping distances associated with achieving the standard 25
platform position
5.5 S&C adjacent to a platform 25

Part 6 Guidance on Altering the Position of Platforms Relative to 26


Adjacent Track
6.1 Altering the position of platforms relative to adjacent track 26
6.2 Alterations to existing platforms not complying with the standard 26
platform position

Part 7 Guidance on Usable Length of Platforms 28


7.1 General requirement for usable length of platforms 28
7.2 Exemption where operational procedures apply 29
7.3 Extending the length of existing platforms 30

Part 8 Guidance on Location of Buildings, Structures and Other Items 32


on Platforms
8.1 Determining the minimum usable platform width 32
8.2 Location of buildings and structures on platforms 32
8.3 Location of structures at terminal stations 34
8.4 Location of platform furniture 35
8.5 Location of isolated columns supporting lighting, signs and other 35
equipment
8.6 Location of driver only operation equipment 37

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


Part 9 Guidance on Usable Width of Platforms 38
9.1 Requirements for all new platforms 38
9.2 New single face platforms 40
9.3 New double face platforms 40
9.4 Lengthening of existing platforms 41

Part 10 Guidance on Other Requirements for Safety of Passengers 42


Boarding or Alighting from Trains
10.1 Platforms 42
10.2 Signs and markings 43

Appendices 45
Appendix A Assessment of Overrun Risk Zone Behind Buffer Stop 45
Appendix B Frangible Decking at Terminal Stations 51

Definitions 53

References 55

Tables
Table 1 Compliance cases for track radius at a platform 15
Table 2 Applicable platform heights and tolerances 21
Table 3 Applicable platform offset and tolerances 24
Table 4 Examples of specific types of alterations to improve the relative 27
position of the platform to the track
Table 5 Assessment of overrun risk zone behind buffer stop - risk weighting 50
factor

Figures
Figure 1 Harrington Station – example of a localised alteration to achieve 19
standard height platform
Figure 2 Platform copers with a shear key 22
Figure 3 The overrun risk zone divided into risk areas A, B, C and the frangible 47
Decking (not to scale)
Figure 4 Measurement for the frangible decking assessment tool for a single
track width 48
Figure 5 Frangible decking at a national hub station 52

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose of this document
1.1.1 This document gives guidance on interpreting the requirements of Railway Group
Standard GI/RT7016 Interface between Station Platforms, Track and Trains,
relating to platform geometry and specifically supports Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and
11. It does not constitute a recommended method of meeting any set of
mandatory requirements. There is no guidance to support Parts 8, 9, 10 and 12
of GI/RT7016.

1.1.2 Guidance is also given on relevant Technical Specifications for Interoperability


(TSIs) relating to platform geometry (see Part 2).

1.1.3 The guidance given in this document is most relevant to alterations to existing
stations (or re-opened stations) where the constraints of the existing
infrastructure might make it unrealistic to achieve full compliance with all the
requirements in GI/RT7016. The design of a new station and particularly for a
new station on a new or re-opened route will be less constrained, making
compliance with the requirements of GI/RT7016 easier to achieve.

1.1.4 Relevant requirements in GI/RT7016 are reproduced in the sections that follow.
Guidance is provided as a series of sequentially numbered clauses prefixed ‘GN’
immediately below the text to which it relates. Where there is no guidance given,
this is stated.

1.1.5 GE/RT8270 Assessment of Compatibility of Rolling Stock and Infrastructure


mandates requirements and responsibilities for the assessment of compatibility of
rolling stock and infrastructure. In respect of new or changed assets:

a) A railway undertaking is responsible for ensuring that its rolling stock is


compatible with the infrastructure it operates over and with other rolling
stock that operates on that infrastructure.

b) An infrastructure manager is responsible for ensuring that its infrastructure


is compatible with the rolling stock that operates over it and any other
infrastructure with which it interfaces.

1.1.6 The construction of new platforms or the modification of existing platforms could
require the use of the relevant process in GE/RT8270.

1.1.7 Specific responsibilities and compliance requirements are set out in GI/RT7016.

1.1.8 RIS-7700-INS is a voluntary standard that sets out voluntary requirements related
to station infrastructure which can be referred to, together with this guidance.

1.2 Copyright
1.2.1 Copyright in the Railway Group documents is owned by Rail Safety and
Standards Board Limited. All rights are hereby reserved. No Railway Group
document (in whole or in part) may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or means, without the prior written permission of Rail
Safety and Standards Board Limited, or as expressly permitted by law.

1.2.2 RSSB members are granted copyright licence in accordance with the Constitution
Agreement relating to Rail Safety and Standards Board Limited.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


1.2.3 In circumstances where Rail Safety and Standards Board Limited has granted a
particular person or organisation permission to copy extracts from Railway Group
documents, Rail Safety and Standards Board Limited accepts no responsibility
for, and excludes all liability in connection with, the use of such extracts, or any
claims arising therefrom. This disclaimer applies to all forms of media in which
extracts from Railway Group Standards may be reproduced.

1.3 Approval and authorisation of this document


1.3.1 The content of this document was approved by Infrastructure Standards
Committee on 14 July 2010.

1.3.2 This document was authorised by RSSB on 25 August 2010.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 2 Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSIs)


2.1 Requirements related to stations
2.1.1 The following TSIs set out a range of requirements for stations. The
requirements set out in the documents could influence the design of new
platforms and the modification of existing platforms.

2.1.2 The Railways (Interoperability) Regulations 2006 (Statutory Instrument 2006


No. 397) sets out the circumstances under which conformity with the TSIs is
required.

2.1.3 The Department for Transport (DfT) publishes ‘Interoperability Helpnotes’ on its
website. The Interoperability Helpnotes are a modular approach to providing
guidance to the rail industry and its suppliers on interoperability and the Railways
(Interoperability) Regulations 2006 (as amended). They superseded the first
edition of the DfT’s interoperability guidance, published as a single volume.

2.1.4 Interoperability Helpnote 206 gives guidance on answering the question ‘Is your
project within the scope of the Railways (Interoperability) Regulations 2006?’.

2.1.5 Interoperability Helpnote 209 gives guidance on answering the question ‘Is your
project major?’, which includes guidance on whether a project is new, an upgrade
or renewal.

2.2 TSI - Persons with Reduced Mobility


2.2.1 The Persons with Reduced Mobility TSI (PRM TSI) section 7.3.1, sets out its
requirements for existing infrastructure.

7.3. Application of this TSI to existing Infrastructure/Rolling Stock


7.3.1. Infrastructure [part]
Existing Infrastructure is Infrastructure that is in service at the date of entry
when this TSI comes into force.

The TSI does not apply to existing Infrastructure until it is renewed or


upgraded.

7.3.1.1. General
Where items are renewed or upgraded, they shall comply with the
requirements of this TSI, with the following exceptions:

Where Infrastructure upgrade or renewal work affects aspects of the


Infrastructure governed by any clause of this PRM TSI, it shall be reassessed
in accordance with that requirement within this TSI, subject to the following
conditions:

Compliance with the content of this TSI is not mandatory if the work that would
be necessary to achieve compliance requires structural alterations to any load
bearing element.

Systems and components that are not included in the scope of a particular
upgrade or renewal programme do not have to be made compliant at the time
of such a programme.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

In the event that Infrastructure is re-assessed against any other TSI as a result
of renewal or upgrading works, it shall only require re-assessment against this
TSI in respect of those systems and components directly affected by the
works.

There shall be two kinds of Infrastructure blocks:

- Station buildings (including parking areas, toilets, sales office, etc.)

- Platforms

When any complete block is upgraded or renewed, it shall incorporate an


obstacle free route (when applicable) that can be linked to the other blocks as
and when they are upgraded or renewed.

The normal maintenance of the Infrastructure items shall not imply a


reassessment within the limits of this TSI.

7.3.1.5. Platform width and edge of platform (4.1.2.19)


Compliance with requirements related to the minimum width of the platform is
not mandatory for existing stations if the cause of non-compliance is the
presence of certain platform obstacles (e.g. structural columns, stairwells, lifts
etc.) that are unlikely to be moveable.

7.3.1.6. Platform height and offset (4.1.2.18)


Compliance with requirements related to platform height and offset is not
mandatory in the case of renewed platforms, but remains mandatory for
upgraded platforms.

7.3.1.7. Buildings of an historic nature


Where an existing station, or a part of it, is a recognised historic building and is
protected by National Law, the Infrastructure Operator shall endeavour to
implement the contents of this TSI. However, where it can be demonstrated
that the National law for the protection of the building would be infringed,
implementation of the relevant requirements of this TSI shall not be
mandatory.

2.3 TSI - High Speed Infrastructure


2.3.1 The High Speed Infrastructure TSI (HS INF TSI) sets out three categories for a
trans-European high-speed line.

4.2 Functional technical specifications of the domain


4.2.1 General provisions [part]
The requirements to be met by the elements characterising the infrastructure
domain shall match at least the performance levels specified for each of the
following line categories of the trans-European high-speed rail system, as
relevant.

— Category I: specially built high-speed lines equipped for speeds generally


equal to or greater than 250 km/h,

— Category II: specially upgraded high-speed lines equipped for speeds of


the order of 200 km/h,

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

— Category III: specially upgraded high-speed lines or lines specially built for
high speed, which have special features as a result of topographical, relief,
environmental or town-planning constraints, on which the speed must be
adapted to each case.

4.2.20 Platforms
The requirements of sections 4.2.20 are only applicable to the platforms where
trains complying with the High-Speed Rolling Stock TSI are intended to stop
on normal commercial operation.

2.4 TSI - Conventional Rail Infrastructure (draft)


2.4.1 The Conventional Rail Infrastructure TSI (CR INF TSI) is at the time of publication
of this document in a final draft form. It is not anticipated that there will be further
significant technical changes but until the CR INF TSI is published the notified
technical rules will need to be applied, which for stations is GI/RT7016.

4.2. FUNCTIONAL AND TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF SUBSYSTEM


4.2.1. CATEGORIES OF LINE
The requirements to be met by the Infrastructure Subsystem are specified for
each of the following Categories of Line of the trans-European conventional
rail system, as relevant.

Table 2: Categories of Line for the conventional rail infrastructure subsystem


Types of Traffic
Categories of Line Passenger Freight traffic Mixed traffic
traffic (P) (F) (M)
New Core TEN Line (IV) IV-P IV-F IV-M
Types of Line

Upgraded Core TEN Line (V) V-P V-F V-M


New Other TEN Line (VI) VI-P VI-F VI-M
Upgraded Other TEN Line (VII) VII-P VII-F VII-M

Note that passenger hubs, freight hubs and connecting lines are included in
the above categories, as appropriate.

The Category of Line for every section of track shall be published in the
Register of Infrastructure.

7. IMPLEMENTING THE INFRASTRUCTURE TSI


7.1. APPLICATION OF THIS TSI TO CONVENTIONAL RAIL LINES
Chapters 4 to 6 and any specific provisions in paragraphs 7.2 – 7.6 below
apply in full to the lines coming within the geographical scope of this TSI which
will be put into service as interoperable lines after this TSI enters into force.

The Member State shall define which lines of the conventional TEN as given
by Decision 1692/96/EC as amended by Decision 884/2004/EC are to be
categorised as core TEN lines or other TEN lines based on the classification
given in chapter 4.2.1.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

The Member State shall specify for TEN lines those elements of the
infrastructure subsystem, which are required for interoperable services
(e.g. tracks, sidings, stations, marshalling yards) and therefore need to comply
with this TSI. In specifying these elements the Member State shall consider
the coherence of the system as a whole.

7.2 APPLICATION OF THIS TSI TO NEW CONVENTIONAL RAIL LINES [part]


For the purpose of this TSI a “New line” means a line that creates an
economically exploitable route where none currently exists.

The following cases, for example to increase speed or capacity, do not meet
the criteria for a new line:

a) the realignment of part of an existing route

b) the creation of a bypass

c) the addition of one or more tracks on an existing route, regardless of the


distance between the original tracks and the additional tracks.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 3 Recommendations and Guidance in Documents


Related to Stations
The following documents provide a range of recommendations and guidance
related to the design of new platforms and the modification of existing platforms.

3.1 Accessible Train and Station Design for Disabled People: A Code of
Practice
3.1.1 Accessible Train and Station Design for Disabled People: A Code of Practice is
published by the DfT pursuant to Section 71B of the Railways Act 1993, and
fulfils the Secretary of State’s responsibility to produce a code of practice
‘protecting the interests of users of railway passenger services or station services
who are disabled’.

3.1.2 The purpose of the code of practice is to assist those operating passenger trains
and stations in making railway travel easier for disabled passengers. The code of
practice identifies required standards (both European and national) relevant to all
passenger train and station operators in Great Britain (GB), and which licensed
operators are to follow as a condition of their licence whenever they install, renew
or replace infrastructure or facilities. The document also provides advice and
recommendations of good practice. The principles given in the code of practice
provide for benefits to all passengers (such as people with luggage or with small
children and pushchairs) as well as supporting the opening up of the network to a
wider range of people and helping to generate increased patronage of the
railways.

3.1.3 The code of practice provides examples of the appropriate standards to use when
planning work at stations.

3.1.4 The DfT requires all licensed passenger train operators and station operators,
including Network Rail as operator of its managed stations, to follow this code of
practice in line with the commitments in their Disabled People’s Protection
Policies.

3.2 London Underground Limited, Good Practice Guide ‘Station Planning


Standards and Guidelines’ (SPSG)
3.2.1 The SPSG sets out requirements and guidance on the spatial aspects of station
planning in the following areas:

a) Public areas within stations.

b) Operational staff accommodation.

c) Evacuation.

3.2.2 It gives guidance on determining platform lengths and widths, and a methodology
for the consideration of passenger occupancy and circulation on platforms.

3.3 Railway Safety Principles and Guidance: requirements related to


stations
3.3.1 Railway Safety Principles and Guidance (RSPG) were produced by the Health
and Safety Executive (HM Railway Inspectorate) for use by organisations wishing
to obtain approval for new or altered works, plant and equipment under the
Railways and Other Transport Systems (Approval of Works, Plant and
Equipment) Regulations 1994 (ROTS). RSPG Part 2B provided guidance on
stations.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


3.3.2 ROTS have been revoked by the Railways and Other Guided Transport Systems
(Safety) Regulations 2006 and therefore the RSPG are no longer relevant.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 4 Guidance on Location of New Platforms


4.1 Horizontal track alignment through station platforms
2.1 Horizontal track alignment through station platforms
2.1.1 Station platforms shall be located on straight track unless the
particular geographical characteristics of the site and the
characteristics of the railway infrastructure at the proposed location of
the platform do not provide a reasonable opportunity for achieving
this.

2.1.2 Station platforms shall not be located on horizontal curves with radii
less than 1000 m. Before station platforms are located on curved
track, consideration shall be given to the following:

a) Train to platform stepping distances, taking the types of train


likely to call at the platform into account

b) Visibility (either direct, by means of CCTV screens, or by


mirrors) along the length of trains for train crew and station
staff responsible for dispatching trains.

GN1 The requirement of 2.1.1 addresses the following issues at stations:

a) Platform to train stepping distances.

b) Train dispatch.

GN2 In many cases it would not be reasonable to change the curvature of the adjacent track at
an existing station that has curved tracks running through it, where either a platform is
being extended or where a new platform is being built. The constraints could be many but
would typically be the proximity of adjacent lines, bridges, junctions and the need to fit with
the existing station layout. Where this is the case a derogation from the standard might be
the approach to take, provided appropriate risk mitigation measures could be implemented.
Platform stepping distances and train dispatch require particular consideration to support
the case for a derogation.

GN3 GM/RT2149 sets out requirements for train footsteps for passenger use, and their relative
position to platforms that meet the height and offset requirements in GI/RT7016.
Appendix A of GM/RT2149 sets out a limiting area within which the front edge of a step
must lie for all curve radii down to 160 m, when the train is stationary adjacent to a
‘standard’ platform. Stepping distances meeting the dimensions set out in Appendix A of
GM/RT2149 are generally considered acceptable.

GN4 Appendix 1 of GC/RT5212 sets out particular requirements for platforms on curves less
than 360 m radius, to give a larger offset. The larger offset presents an increased gap
between the platform and the train and therefore locating platforms on curves less than
360 m radius is undesirable.

GN5 RSSB Research Report T726 entitled, ‘Investigation into the feasibility of increasing
existing platform radii where the platform is located on a curve radius less than 200 m’,
considered platforms on curves less than 200 m radius. There are approximately
90 platforms on curves less than 200 m radius, and although it is unlikely that these
platforms can be economically modified, new platforms on such tight radii are discouraged.

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GN6 A platform on the outside of a curved track can present sighting problems for train dispatch.
The longer the train, the greater the potential for reduced sight lines for train dispatch. As a
guide the following approximate sight lines (in each direction) are available for the scenario
where a 2.5 m wide platform is located on the outside of a curved track and the train
dispatcher can stand at the back of the platform to see the doors along the train:

a) 1000 m radius: approximately 70 m.

b) 500 m radius: approximately 50 m.

c) 200 m radius: approximately 30 m.

GN7 A number of derogations against this measure have been approved which have addressed
the following points:

a) Stepping distances.

b) Length of platform on a curve; for example whether the curve is at one end
of the platform, over a short length.

c) Whether a platform is on the inside or the outside of a curve.

d) Length and type of trains using the platform; the shorter the train the less
severe the potential problems with sight lines.

e) Whether coupling / uncoupling activities are within platform limits.

f) Presence and nature of driver only operation equipment.

TSI - Persons with Reduced Mobility


4.1.2.18.3. Track layout along the platforms [part]
For platforms on the Conventional Rail Network the track adjacent to the
platforms shall preferably be straight, but shall nowhere have a radius of less
than 300 m.

TSI - High Speed Infrastructure


4.2.20.6 Track layout along the platforms
Lines of category I

The track adjacent to the platforms shall preferably be straight, but shall
nowhere have a radius of less than 500 m.

Lines of category II and III

If the values prescribed in point 4.2.20.4 are not possible due to the track
layout (i.e. R < 500 m), the heights and the distances of the edges of platforms
are designed with values compatible with the layout and the rules related to the
gauge described in point 4.2.3.

GN8 The requirements in the HS INF TSI for lines of category II are not relevant for GB because
of the specific case for platform height (see Part 5 of this document).

GN9 The CR INF TSI (draft) refers to the requirements of the PRM TSI with respect to minimum
radius of horizontal curve through platforms.

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GN10 Table 1 sets out the compliance cases for track radius at a platform.

Track radius Compliant with (if ‘No’ deviation required)


PRM TSI* HS INF TSI** GI/RT7016
Straight or radius > 1000 m Yes Yes Yes
500 m ≤ radius < 1000 m Yes Yes No
360 m ≤ radius < 500 m Yes No No
300 m ≤ radius < 360 m Yes No No (increased offset)
200 m ≤ radius < 300 m No No No (increased offset)
Radius < 200 m No No No (increased offset)
Table 1 Compliance cases for track radius at a platform

* Only if platform is on trans-European network.

** Only if platform is on high-speed trans-European network Line Category I.

4.2 Vertical track alignment through station platforms


2.2 Vertical track alignment through station platforms [Deleted]
2.2.1 Wherever possible, platforms shall be located on track with an
average gradient not steeper than 1 in 500. It is permissible for
platforms to be located on track with average gradients steeper than
1 in 500 provided trains are not planned to terminate or reverse at
the platform. Where platforms are located on gradients steeper than
1 in 500, consideration shall be given to the need for additional
arrangements to ensure safety.

2.2.2 The gradient through the platform shall be constant unless the
particular geographical characteristics of the site and the
characteristics of the railway infrastructure at the proposed location
of the platform do not provide a reasonable opportunity for achieving
this. Where the gradient is not constant, the average gradient shall
be measured over the length of any train likely to use the platform in
its planned stopping position.

GN11 The mandatory requirement for vertical track alignment through station platforms has been
withdrawn in issue four of GI/RT7016, based on work carried out to support deviations
against issue two of GI/RT7016 for specific stations and the findings of RSSB Research
Report T815 entitled ‘Limits of vertical track alignment through station platforms’.

GN12 For many years it had been considered good practice in GB to locate platforms on
gradients not steeper than 1 in 260, except where geographic constraints made this
unavoidable. This requirement was later changed to refer to a gradient of 1 in 500,
possibly because of a shift from plain bearings to roller bearings across all rolling stock.

GN13 In the circumstances where the Infrastructure TSIs impose limiting gradients through
passenger platforms (see GN21 and GN22), the limit is 2.5 mm/m - that is, 1 in 400.

GN14 However, there are many platforms on the GB network that are located on gradients
steeper than 1 in 400 and of those, a significant number are on gradients steeper than
1 in 100. These platforms continue to accommodate a range of train services without
having operational constraints on their use imposed because of track gradient.

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GN15 Where platform extensions and new platforms are proposed, it is good practice to
implement a design top and alignment scheme (see Part 5), although usually the overall
track gradient profile will not be altered. The platform extension or new platform will, in
most cases, be constrained as to where it can be located with respect to the existing track
gradient.

GN16 The gradient through a platform should be constant, unless the particular geographical
characteristics of the site and the characteristics of the railway infrastructure at the
proposed location of the platform do not provide a reasonable opportunity for achieving
this. Where the gradient is not constant, the average gradient should be measured over
the length of any train likely to use the platform in its planned stopping position.

GN17 In this context the average gradient is to be understood as the representative gradient
under a stationary train, derived by combining the values and lengths of the different track
gradients through the platform, and taking account of the stopping position of the trains
using the platform. For example, if a train stops on a track at a platform with a
1 in 600 gradient for 90% of the train’s length and a 1 in 200 gradient in the same direction
for the remainder of its length, the average gradient is 1 in 500.

GN18 When considering locating platform extensions or new platforms on a gradient (steeper
than 1 in 500) the following points should be considered when assessing the risk arising
from the proposed change:

a) Actual gradients and length of gradients.

b) Position of the train relative to the gradient.

c) Whether trains terminate or reverse at the platform.

d) Operation of trains in platform, for example being coupled / uncoupled,


driver changing ends.

e) Braking capability of trains using the platform.

f) Engine noise from trains when pulling away from the platform.

g) Power limitations of trains when pulling away from the platform.

h) Mitigating circumstances in the event of a runaway (for example catch


points, TPWS fitment and adjacent geography and gradients).

GN19 For terminal platforms additional considerations include:

a) Approach speed.

b) Signalling and control arrangements (for example approach control signals


and TPWS).

c) Buffer stop and end impact wall arrangements.

d) Structures and facilities in overrun risk zone.

GN20 Any vertical curvature between different track gradients should be taken into account when
determining platform heights.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

TSI - Conventional Rail Infrastructure (draft)


4.2.4.3. MAXIMUM GRADIENTS [part]
Categories of Line IV-P and VI-P [part]

Gradients of tracks through passenger platforms shall not be more than


2.5 mm/m, where passenger carriages are intended to be regularly attached or
detached.

Categories of Line IV-F, IV-M, VI-F and VI-M [part]

Gradients of tracks through passenger platforms shall not be more than


2.5 mm/m, where passenger carriages are intended to be regularly attached or
detached.

TSI - High Speed Infrastructure


4.2.5 Maximum rising and falling gradients [part]
Lines of category I [part]

Gradients of main tracks through passenger platforms shall not be more than
2,5 mm/m.

GN21 The requirement of 4.2.4.3. of the CR INF TSI (draft) applies to ‘new’ lines only as defined
therein.

GN22 The requirement of 4.2.5 of the HS INF TSI applies to ‘specially built high-speed lines
equipped for speeds generally equal to or greater than 250 km/h’.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 5 Guidance on Standard Platform Position Relative


to Adjacent Track
5.1 Platform height
3.1 Platform height
3.1.1 For new platforms and alterations (as defined) to existing platforms,
the height at the edge of the platform shall be 915 mm (within a
tolerance of +0, -25 mm) measured at right angles to the plane of the
rails of the track adjacent to the platform.

3.1.2 Where a new platform or an alteration to an existing platform abuts an


existing platform, any discrepancy in height and alignment of the
platform shall be gradually tapered into the existing platform. The
transition gradient shall not exceed 1 in 20.

GN23 The standard position of the platform edge relative to the track provides for boarding and
alighting of trains, assuming that the trains were built to the requirements of GM/RT2149.
It also provides for the passage of trains at speed, including freight trains. For the GB
railway, which for most routes provides for network wide utilisation of passenger and freight
vehicles and open access, it would be undesirable to introduce alternative standard
platform heights for individual platforms. However where there is dedicated rolling stock
using a particular platform, an alternative platform height, optimised for boarding and
alighting from that particular rolling stock, has exceptionally been used. An example of
such an arrangement, are the Heathrow Express platforms at Paddington station where
1100 mm high platforms were installed.

GN24 When building a new platform or extending a platform the design geometry of the adjacent
track should be used for setting out before platform building works commence. This is
because the platform edge is usually set out with a platform gauge and any irregularities in
the top and line of the track will be reflected, and then ‘locked in’ to the platform edge
alignment.

GN25 To allow for track geometry maintenance, new platforms and alterations to existing
platforms should be built to a tighter tolerance than +0, -25 mm.

GN26 For the lengthening of existing platforms that are to a substandard height GI/RT7016
requires that the new length of platform is built to a height of 915 mm (within a tolerance of
+0, -25 mm) and therefore there needs to be a transition length not steeper than
1 in 20 between the new and existing platforms. The actual position of this transition length
should be sited to best suit boarding and alighting of the trains that call at the platform (for
example if possible avoiding alignment with doors) and also to best suit station access and
egress arrangements (for example not to be opposite stairs or lifts).

GN27 Where the height of the platform is much lower than 915 mm with a low footfall, and there
is usually only one class of train calling at the station, an option for improving the boarding
and alighting of trains could be to install a short section of standard height platform with
ramps each side down to the existing low platform. This ‘raised’ section of platform should
be located to best suit train door positions and access arrangements to the platform
(see Figure 1). GN100 gives guidance on platform cross falls for this arrangement.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Figure 1 Harrington Station – example of a localised alteration to achieve standard height


platform

GN28 GC/RT5021 requires that the normal limiting design value for cant adjacent to a station
platform is 110 mm, with an exceptional limiting design value of 130 mm. Therefore if the
new or extended platform is to be built on a curve with cant greater than 130 mm, the track
geometry should be assessed for possible recanting.

GN29 Where the applied cant is greater than 130 mm at a location, Appendix 1 of GC/RT5212
requires that the platform height is reduced by 10 mm when the platform is located on the
inside of the curve.

GN30 In considering platform heights due allowance should be taken for vertical curvature of the
track.

GN31 Once built, datum plates should be fixed to the platform wall to record the design offset and
cant of the track.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

TSI - Persons with Reduced Mobility


4.1.2.18.1. Platform height
For platforms on the Conventional Rail Network, two nominal values are
permissible for platform height: 550 mm and 760 mm above the running
surface. The tolerances on these dimensions shall be within –35 mm/+ 0 mm.

For platforms on the Conventional Rail Network where tramways (e.g.


Stadtbahn or Tram-Train) are intended to stop, a nominal height of platform
between 300 mm and 380 mm is permitted. The tolerances on these
dimensions shall be within +/–20 mm.

In curves with a radius of less than 500 m, it is permitted for the platform
height to be greater or less than those specified provided that the first useable
step of the vehicle complies with figure 11 in clause 4.2.2.12.1.

7.4. Specific cases [part]


7.4.1.1. Platform height [part]
Great Britain, Northern Ireland and Eire ‘P’

It is permitted for the height of the platform to be 915 mm above the running
surface.

TSI - High Speed Infrastructure


4.2.20.4 Platform height
Lines of category I, II and III

The nominal platform height above the running plane shall be either 550 mm
or 760 mm, unless otherwise specified in section 7.3.

The tolerances perpendicular to the running surface with reference to the


nominal relative positioning between track and platform are −30 mm/+ 0 mm.

7.3. Specific cases [part]


7.3.6. Particular features on the British network [part]
7.3.6.2 Lines of category II [part]
Platforms (section 4.2.20)

1. Platform height

For platforms on upgraded lines in Great Britain where trains complying with
the High Speed Rolling Stock TSI are intended to stop in normal commercial
operation, the height at the edge of the platform shall be 915 mm (within a
tolerance of + 0, - 50 mm) measured at right angles to the plane of the rails of
the track adjacent to the platform.

GN32 The CR INF TSI (draft) refers to the requirements of the PRM TSI with respect to platform
height.

GN33 With respect to the HS INF TSI there are no GB specific cases for lines of category I or III.
1
GN34 Table 2 summarises the GB applicable platform height and tolerances.

1
Note that the GB tolerances set out in GI/RT7016 are within the range permitted by the GB specific cases.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Trans-European Network line type Platform height Tolerances


‘New’ high-speed 550 mm or 760 mm + 0 / - 30 mm

‘Upgraded’ high-speed 915 mm + 0 / - 50 mm

‘New’ conventional 915 mm + 0 / - 25 mm

‘Upgraded’ conventional 915 mm + 0 / - 25 mm

GI/RT7016 ‘domestic’ lines 915 mm + 0 / - 25 mm

Table 2 Applicable platform heights and tolerances

5.2 Platform offset


3.2 Platform offset
3.2.1 For new platforms and alterations (as defined) to existing platforms,
the platform edge shall be the minimum distance from the adjacent
track (within a tolerance of +15, -0 mm) consistent with the lower
sector structure gauge set out in Appendix 1 of GC/RT5212.

3.2.2 For most rolling stock, this requirement is met on curves with radii
greater than or equal to 360 m by a platform offset of 730 mm (within
a tolerance of +15, -0 mm). GC/RT5212 sets out exceptions where
Class 373 trains or 2.6 m wide containers are required to pass the
platform. GC/RT5212 also sets out requirements where the curve
radius is less than 360 m.

GN35 The standard position of the platform edge relative to the track provides for boarding and
alighting of trains, assuming that the trains were built to the requirements of GM/RT2149.
It also provides for the passage of trains at speed, including freight trains. For the GB
railway, which for most routes provides for network wide utilisation of passenger and freight
vehicles and open access, it would be undesirable to introduce alternative standard
platform offsets for individual platforms. However where there is dedicated rolling stock
using a particular platform, an alternative platform offset, optimised for boarding and
alighting that particular rolling stock, has been used. An example of such an arrangement
are, the Heathrow Express platforms at Paddington station where 1100 m high platforms
were installed to an offset greater than 730 mm.

GN36 When building a new platform or extending a platform, the design geometry of the adjacent
track should be used for setting out before platform building works commence. This is
because the platform edge is usually set out with a platform gauge and any irregularities in
the top and line of the track will be reflected, and then ‘locked in’ to the platform edge
alignment.

GN37 To allow for track geometry maintenance, new platforms and alterations to existing
platforms should be built to a tighter tolerance than +15, -0 mm.

GN38 Where the platform is adjacent to a ballasted track, foundations to platform support
structures below sleeper level should have a minimum horizontal clearance from the
nearest rail of 730 mm plus an allowance for track curvature to a minimum depth of
600 mm below underside of sleeper. This is to avoid disturbance to the foundations during
track renewal and maintenance work, however there are circumstances where this is not
practicable, for example on underbridges.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


GN39 For the lengthening of existing platforms that are to a substandard offset, GI/RT7016 only
requires that the existing section of platform is rebuilt to the standard platform offset if there
is a reasonable opportunity to do so. Wherever a platform extension abuts an existing
platform and the existing platform edge is at a substandard clearance, the discrepancy in
alignment of the platform should be removed over a length commensurate with complete
platform coper unit lengths, but at a rate not steeper than 1 in 80. The actual position of
this transition length should be sited to best suit boarding and alighting of the trains that call
at the platform (for example if possible avoiding alignment with doors) and also to best suit
station access and egress arrangements (for example not to be opposite stairs or lifts).

GN40 A restraint to lateral movement of platform copers should be provided to prevent them, in
case of bed separation, from moving and thereby infringing clearances. Designs of copers
have been used that have a triangular cut out at the edge that provide for a shear key to be
installed.

Figure 2 Platform copers with a shear key

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

TSI - Persons with Reduced Mobility


4.1.2.18.2. Platform offset
Text of PRM TSI not reproduced here, see GN34.

TSI - High Speed Infrastructure


4.2.20 Platforms [part]
4.2.20.5 Distance from the centre of the track
For platform edges positioned at the nominal heights, the nominal distance L
from the track centre parallel to the running plane shall be obtained from the
formula:

L (mm) = 1650 + 3750/R + (g – 1435)/2

When R is the radius of the track, in metres, and g the track gauge, in
millimetres.

This distance shall be respected from a height upwards of 400 mm above the
running surface.

Tolerances for the positioning of the platform edges or their maintenance shall
be adopted such that distance L is not reduced under any circumstances and
not increased by more than 50 mm.

7.3 Specific cases [part]


7.3.6. Particular features on the British network [part]
7.3.6.2 Lines of category II [part]
Platforms (section 4.2.20)

2. Platform horizontal distance (platform offset) [part]

For platforms on upgraded lines in Great Britain where trains complying with
the High Speed Rolling Stock TSI are intended to stop in normal commercial
operation, the platform edge shall be the minimum distance from the adjacent
track (within a tolerance of + 15, - 0 mm) consistent with the lower sector
structure gauge set out in Appendix 1 to Railway Group Standard GC/RT5212
(Issue 1, February 2003).

For most rolling stock, this requirement is met on curves with radii greater than
or equal to 360 m by a platform offset of 730 mm (within a tolerance of
+ 15, - 0 mm). Appendix 1 to Railway Group Standard GC/RT5212 (Issue 1,
February 2003) sets out exceptions where Class 373 (Eurostar) trains or 2,6 m
wide containers are required to pass the platform. Appendix 1 to Railway
Group Standard GC/RT5212 (Issue 1, February 2003) also sets out
requirements where the curve radius is less than 360 m.

GN41 Requirements for platform offset in connection with a platform height of either 550 mm or
760 mm is set out in section 4.1.2.18.2. of the PRM TSI. The GB specific case provides for
a 915 mm platform height with a corresponding specific case for platform offset that
provides for adjustment of offsets that is consistent with Appendix 1 of GC/RT5212.

GN42 The CR INF TSI (draft) refers to the requirements of the PRM TSI with respect to platform
offset.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


GN43 Table 3 summaries the applicable platform offset and tolerances.

Trans-European Platform offset Tolerances


Network line type

‘New’ high-speed L (mm) = 1650 + 3750/R + (g – 1435)/2 + 50 / - 0 mm

Where:
L is platform edge from track centre (mm)
R is the radius of the track (m)
g is track gauge (mm)

‘Upgraded’ high-speed 730 mm for radius ≥ 360 m + 15 / - 0 mm

Exception for where class 373 (Eurostar) or


2.6 m wide container trains are required to
pass: 760 mm for radius ≥ 360 m

GC/RT5212 sets out requirements where the


curve radius is less than 360 m

‘New’ conventional Refers to PRM TSI. GB specific case + 15 / - 0 mm


requires offset as GI/RT7016 ‘domestic lines’

‘Upgraded’ conventional Refers to PRM TSI. GB specific case + 15 / - 0 mm


requires offset as GI/RT7016 ‘domestic lines’

GI/RT7016 ‘domestic’ 730 mm for radius ≥ 360 m + 15 / - 0 mm


lines
Exception for where class 373 (Eurostar) or
2.6 m wide container trains are required to
pass: 760 mm for radius ≥ 360 m

GC/RT5212 sets out requirements where the


curve radius is less than 360 m

Table 3 Applicable platform offset and tolerances

5.3 Footsteps of new trains relative to standard platform position


3.3 Footsteps of new trains relative to standard platform position
3.3.1 GM/RT2149 sets out the requirements for footsteps for passenger
use on new trains relative to a platform positioned in accordance with
sections 3.1 and 3.2. Appendix A of GM/RT2149 requires that the
footstep be designed so that the stepping distance between the
footstep and the edge of the standard platform does not exceed the
following maximum static dimensions for platforms on curves with
radii down to 160 m:

a) Horizontal 275 mm

b) Vertical 250 mm

c) Diagonal 350 mm

GN44 No guidance given.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


5.4 Increased stepping distances associated with achieving the standard
platform position
3.4 Increased stepping distances associated with achieving the standard
platform position
3.4.1 Not all existing trains meet the current requirements of GM/RT2149.

3.4.2 Setting the position of a platform edge to meet the requirements of


sections 3.1 and 3.2 of this document could therefore result in the
stepping distances quoted in section 3.3 being exceeded in the case
of some trains that do not meet the current requirements of
GM/RT2149.

3.4.3 Where this is the case, adequate measures to protect the safety of
passengers when boarding or alighting from trains shall be put in
place before the platform is brought into use.

3.4.4 The measures considered shall include the following:

a) Provision of warning signs and platform markings

b) Provision of announcements

c) Staff attendance

GN45 Where platforms are located on curves consideration should be given to the provision of
‘Mind the gap’ or ‘Mind the step’ warnings on the platform edge. Where required such
warnings should be in white paint, and placed as near as is reasonably practicable to the
position of the greatest gap between train and platform at a spacing equal to the train
coach length.

GN46 GI/RT7033 sets out requirements for lineside operational safety signs including the
specification for ‘Mind the gap’ or ‘Mind the step’ warnings. The specification sets out
requirements for the size and presentation of the lettering, positioning on the platform and
its alternate orientation for those entering or leaving the vehicle.

5.5 S&C adjacent to a platform


3.5 S&C adjacent to a platform
3.5.1 Where switches and crossings (S&C) are located adjacent to the
platform, the effects of vehicle end throw shall be taken into account.

GN47 It is usually not desirable to have an S&C layout adjacent to a platform, however there are
situations where this is the case and it is conceivable that there could still continue to be a
need to site S&C in platforms due to operational and site constraints. Before starting work
on a new platform or platform extension, a check should be made to see if there are any
plans or schemes in place to renew or remodel the S&C. If there is a plan to carry out
works to the S&C then the proposed platform works also need to be considered with
respect to the S&C scheme in order to achieve an improved platform arrangement.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 6 Guidance on Altering the Position of Platforms


Relative to Adjacent Track
6.1 Altering the position of platforms relative to adjacent track
4.1 Maintaining the position of existing platforms complying with the
standard platform position
4.1.1 At existing platforms that conform to the requirements of part 3, the
standard platform position shall be maintained when track or
structural maintenance, renewal or alteration is carried out.

GN48 In most cases it is the movement of the track that affects the relative position of the
platform and track. This movement is usually caused by traffic, track geometry
maintenance and track renewal works. To manage movement routine platform surveys
should be carried out to monitor the position of the track and identify the need for any
corrective adjustment. The majority of track geometry maintenance work is carried out
using on-track machines and automated track realignment design techniques working to
prescribed tolerances. It is important to ensure that when track is realigned, its position
relative to the platform is (at least) maintained. Some worsening of the alignment at
specific points may be necessary to achieve an overall improvement.

6.2 Alterations to existing platforms not complying with the standard


platform position
4.2 Alterations to existing platforms not complying with the standard
platform position
4.2.1 At existing platforms where the existing platform height or the
existing platform offset does not meet the requirements set out in
sections 3.1 and 3.2, the requirements of sections 3.1 and 3.2 shall
be applied when an alteration (as defined) to a platform (including
extending the usable length of a platform) or an alteration to the track
adjacent to the platform is undertaken, unless the particular site
constraints or rolling stock using the route prevent this.

4.2.2 Where the particular circumstances prevent the provision of the


required dimensions at the time when the alteration (see definition) to
a platform is undertaken, the reasons shall be justified and recorded.

4.2.3 Alterations shall be designed so as not to increase the platform


stepping distances unless this is associated with achieving the
standard platform height or platform offset set out in part 3.

GN49 When carrying out work that alters the position of the track the design geometry of the track
should be used for setting out. Table 4 provides some examples of specific types of
alterations that might provide an opportunity to improve the relative position of the platform
to the track.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Activity Opportunity to achieve compliance


Maintenance tamp / stoneblow Minor correction to offset. Reduction in relative
platform height because track is lifted.
Track renewal Minor correction to offset. Opportunity to lower or raise
track to achieve marginal improvement in relative
platform height.
Replace coping stones If platform wall is recessed then opportunity to achieve
offset and if platform wall is ‘flush’ then opportunity
only to improve offset by bringing coping stones
towards track.
Resurfacing platform Minor correction to offset. Opportunity to lower or raise
coping stone to achieve marginal improvement in
platform height.
Rebuilding platform Full compliance should be achieved.
Table 4 Examples of specific types of alterations to improve the relative position of the
platform to the track

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 7 Guidance on Usable Length of Platforms


7.1 General requirement for usable length of platforms
5.1 General requirement for usable length of platforms
5.1.1 Except as identified in section 5.2, the usable length of platforms
shall be long enough to accommodate the longest train formation
regularly booked to stop at a platform, with allowances for inaccurate
stopping and operational (including train control) requirements.

5.1.2 The usable length of terminal platforms shall include an allowance


both for the train to stop before it reaches the buffer stops and for the
length taken up by the buffer stop equipment.

GN50 Where practicable the allowance for inaccurate stopping should be 4 m. However, where
structures or other physical limitations preclude the construction of a platform of the
required length, this allowance could be reduced to 2 m.

GN51 The allowance for dividing a train, to form two separate trains should be 2 m.

GN52 In calculating platform lengths, the allowance for joining two trains to form a single train
should include the allowance for inaccurate stopping and the allowance for dividing a train.

GN53 For terminal platforms and all platforms at main line stations the allowance for inaccurate
stopping should be 5 m. However, where structures or other physical limitations preclude
the construction of a platform of the required length, this allowance could be reduced.

GN54 The allowance between the face of a buffer stop and the front of a train (including
allowance for inaccurate stopping) should not be less than 2 m.

GN55 Experience suggests that when using driver only operated (DOO) equipment and platform
stop markers, the accuracy of stopping in normal conditions is within ±1 m.

GN56 In calculating platform lengths, the allowance for joining two trains to form a single train,
should be 6 m, including 4 m allowance for inaccurate stopping of the second train.

GN57 In determining the usable length of platforms it is important to consider the stopping
positions of trains with respect to the position of the signal(s). GE/RT8037 sets out
particular requirements for signals on platforms and visibility for train drivers that affects the
usable length of platforms. GE/GN8537 gives additional guidance on this subject.

TSI - Conventional Rail Infrastructure (draft)


4.2.10.1. USABLE LENGTH OF PLATFORMS
All Categories of Line

The platform length shall be sufficient to accommodate the longest


interoperable train intended to stop at the platform in normal service. When
determining the length of trains intended to stop at the platform, consideration
shall be given to both the current service requirements and the reasonably
foreseeable service requirements at least ten years following the bringing into
service of the platform.

It is permissible to build only the length of platform required for the current
service requirement provided passive provision is made for the reasonably
foreseeable future service requirements.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

The usable length of a platform shall be declared in the Register of


Infrastructure.

TSI - High Speed Infrastructure


4.2.20.2 Usable length of the platform
Lines of category I, II and III

The usable length of the platform is the maximum continuous length of that
part of platform in front of which a train is intended to remain stationary in
normal operational conditions.

The usable length of the platforms accessible to passengers shall be at least


400 m, unless otherwise specified in section 7.3 of this TSI.

7.3 Specific cases [part]


7.3.6. Particular features on the British network [part]
7.3.6.2 Lines of category II [part]
Platforms (section 4.2.20)

3. Minimum platform length

For platforms on upgraded lines in Great Britain where trains complying with
the High Speed Rolling Stock TSI are intended to stop in normal commercial
operation, the usable length of the platform shall be at least 300 m.

The length of platforms on upgraded lines in Great Britain where trains


complying with the High Speed Rolling Stock TSI are intended to stop in
normal commercial operation shall be indicated in the Infrastructure Register.

7.2 Exemption where operational procedures apply


5.2 Exemption where operational procedures apply
5.2.1 It is permissible for the usable length of a platform to be shorter than
is sufficient to accommodate the longest train formation booked to
stop at the platform, provided that the platform is long enough to
accommodate the majority of the trains and procedures are in place
to protect the safety of passengers and train crew boarding and
alighting from the other trains. The procedures put in place shall be
recorded and supported by a documented safety justification.

5.2.2 GE/RT8000 Module TW2 contains instructions to the guard when a


multiple-unit train is to stop at a platform shorter than the train.
GE/RT8000 Module TW3 contains corresponding instructions for
locomotive-hauled trains (including HSTs, push-pull, postal and
parcels trains).

5.2.3 GM/RT2473 requires a system of selective door opening to be


adopted for new trains where there are no alternative means to
accommodate all doors on a train within the usable length of a
passenger platform.

GN58 The need to consider the use of selective door opening (SDO) arrangements at stations
with platforms that are shorter than the train formation, typically arises where train
formations are lengthened for capacity reasons, and there are infrastructure layout
restrictions that prevent physical extension of a platform or the extension of platforms at
minor intermediate stations.

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GN59 Previous schemes for implementation of SDO arrangements at stations have considered
the following:

a) Passenger loading and flow patterns (peak / off-peak) at the station.

b) The train formations that are to be used and whether the SDO system fitted
to the train operates on part (individual units) or the entire train formation.

c) Timely advice to passengers of the need to move forward through the train
to disembark by announcements or train crew intervention.

d) Extended station dwell times.

e) The positioning of train stop markers in relation to platform starting signals.

f) The potential for passenger alarm operation following restart of the train.

g) Potential for train crew being unable to access the operating position for
SDO equipment due to standing passengers or overcrowding.

7.3 Extending the length of existing platforms


5.3 Extending the length of existing platforms
5.3.1 Where the usable length of a platform is insufficient to accommodate
the longest train formation booked to stop at the platform,
consideration shall be given to extending the platform to conform
with the requirements of section 5.1 where both the following
conditions apply:

a) The platform is used by vehicles with hinged doors (slam


doors) or power operated external doors with no selective door
opening

b) There are no plans for the withdrawal of such vehicles

5.3.2 Any decision not to extend platforms in these circumstances shall be


supported by a documented safety justification.

GN60 The requirements of 5.3 of GI/RT7016, addresses the following issues at stations:

a) Potential for passengers not being able to alight where the platform length
is insufficient.

b) Potential for passengers to miss their station.

c) Potential for delays or crowding as passengers move along the train to


alight where a door is opposite the platform.

GN61 Trains booked to stop at a station will in the majority of cases, have some form of door
control system that prevents passengers opening the doors until released to do so.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


GN62 Requirements for power operated external doors on passenger carrying vehicles are set
out in GM/RT2473. B12.1 of GM/RT2473 requires that ‘Where there are no alternative
means to accommodate all doors on a train within the length of a passenger station
platform, a system of selective door opening shall be adopted. Selective door opening shall
be provided with controls to automatically ensure that only those doors that are within the
platform length are permitted to be unlocked for opening.’ B12.2.2 of GM/RT2473 requires
that ‘Manual arrangements that rely solely on the train crew to control the release of
individual doors shall not be permitted as part of a selective door opening system, during
normal service operation.’ B2.2.1 sets out particular compliance requirements limiting the
application of these requirements for existing vehicles.

GN63 The consideration of extending the platform should take into account the following factors:

a) The peak period passenger flows.

b) The number of trains booked to stop at the platform.

c) The number of passengers alighting at the platform.

d) The number of passengers boarding at the platform.

e) Station and platform access and egress arrangements.

f) Station lighting and signage.

g) Station supervision.

h) Structures or other physical limitations.

i) The availability of alternative platforms.

GN64 The platform should ideally be long enough for the whole train(s) and to allow for
inaccurate stopping. If this is not the case then the priority would be for the platform to be
long enough to cover all passenger doors and to allow for inaccurate stopping.

GN65 The consideration or justification supporting the decision not to extend platforms in the
circumstances set out in 5.3.1 of GI/RT7016 should be reviewed if there are significant
changes in any of the above factors.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 8 Guidance on Location of Buildings, Structures


and Other Items on Platforms
8.1 Determining the minimum usable platform width
6.1 Determining the minimum usable platform width
6.1.1 Part 6 sets out requirements for the minimum distance between
items on platforms (including buildings, structures, platform furniture,
isolated columns supporting lighting and signs, and driver only
operation (DOO) equipment) and the platform edge.

6.1.2 Compliance with these requirements usually sets a limit on the


minimum usable width of new platforms (subject to also meeting the
requirements of section 7.1). In cases where these requirements do
not determine the minimum usable width, the requirements of
sections 7.2 and 7.3 apply (again, subject to also meeting the
requirements of section 7.1).

6.1.3 Appendix A gives an example of the determination of the minimum


usable platform width for a double face platform.

GN66 No guidance given.

8.2 Location of buildings and structures on platforms


6.2 Location of buildings and structures on platforms
6.2.1 Buildings and structures, including supports to station roofs, platform
canopies and any associated barriers that protect structures from
impact, shall not unduly restrict the movement of passengers.

6.2.2 New buildings and structures, and alterations to existing buildings


and structures, shall be located to provide the following minimum
distances to the platform edge:

a) 3000 mm where the permissible or enhanced permissible


speed on the line adjacent to the platform exceeds 100 mph
(165 km/h)

b) 2500 mm at other platforms

6.2.3 Particular requirements for the location of platform furniture and


isolated columns supporting lighting, signs and driver only operation
(DOO) equipment are set out in sections 6.4, 6.5 and 6.6.

GN67 When carrying out modifications to existing platforms or installing new access
arrangements, for example new stairs or lifts, the constraints of the site mean that it is on
occasion unfeasible to meet the requirements of 6.2.1 of GI/RT7016. This requirement
provides for people boarding and alighting trains in peak times and to allow people to move
safely along the platform with trains passing at speed. If the existing non-compliant
arrangement is being affected or enhanced, then the new arrangement should not
significantly worsen the minimum distances.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


GN68 Where the new stairs, lifts or other facility will greatly improve the accessibility to and
arrangements on the platform a reduction in distance to the platform edge could be
justified. The justification in this scenario would need to show how the improvements
gained from the modification outweigh the worsening of the clearance to the platform edge.
The factors to consider in this justification could include:

a) How the reduction in platform edge clearance affects the movement and
standing room for passengers on the platform.

b) Affect on sight lines for train dispatch.

c) Additional measures that are needed to mitigate the reduced platform


clearance. These could include:

i) Signage and platform markings warning not to stand at the particular


location.

ii) Moving the usual stopping position for trains calling at the station so
that the doors are positioned at a better location on the platform.

iii) Arranging the new stairs, lifts or other facility so that the flow of
passengers is improved.

iv) Station supervision and monitoring in peak periods to manage


passenger flow and potential crowding.

GN69 When carrying out modifications to existing platforms or installing new access
arrangements, for example new stairs or lifts, it is often necessary to carry out the work
behind a temporary hoarding. The constraints of the platform could necessitate that the
hoarding is positioned closer to the platform edge than the minimum dimensions required
by 6.2.2 of GI/RT7016.

GN70 There have been a number of temporary non-compliances issued with respect to
temporary hoardings. The situation and constraints will vary from station to station and
platform to platform, but when considering the location of any temporary hoardings the key
consideration is to continue to accommodate the passengers using the platform. Guidance
for the consideration of passenger flows is set out in Part 9 of this document.

GN71 For platforms where the permissible or enhanced permissible speed on the adjacent line is
less than or equal to 100 mph (165 km/h), the temporary hoardings have typically been
installed as follows:

a) Length of hoarding not greater than 10 m.

b) Minimum distance of hoarding to platform edge not less than 2000 mm.

c) Hoarding is smooth (that is no recesses or corners for people or luggage to


become caught).

GN72 The additional mitigations that have been implemented at platforms where such temporary
non-compliant hoardings have been erected have included:

a) Additional signage.

b) Extra lighting.

c) Utilisation of platform staff during periods of peak travel activity.

d) Additional station announcements.

e) Enhanced monitoring during periods of peak travel activity.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


GN73 In many cases applications for temporary non-compliances have been supported by
passenger counts, photographs and observations at peak times and passenger flow
modelling.

8.3 Location of structures at terminal stations


6.3 Location of structures at terminal stations
6.3.1 Location of permanent new structures in relation to terminal tracks
6.3.1.1 Permanent new structures, including buildings and columns
supporting canopies shall not be located within a zone extending
20 m behind the face of the buffer stop and 5 m either side of the
projected centre line of the track approaching the buffer stop. This is
referred to in sub-sections 6.3.2 and 6.3.3 as the ‘overrun risk zone’.

6.3.2 Alterations to existing structures or track layouts


6.3.2.1 Alterations to an existing structure or track layout shall not:

a) Cause a structure that is outside the overrun risk zone to come


within the overrun risk zone (see sub-section 6.3.1).

b) Cause a structure which is within the overrun risk zone to


become closer to the centre line of the track and/or closer to
the face of the buffer stop.

6.3.3 Location of temporary structures at terminal stations


6.3.3.1 Temporary structures shall be located outside the overrun risk zone
(see sub-section 6.3.1).

GN74 The requirements of 6.3 of GI/RT7016 are intended to manage the risk from trains
overrunning a buffer stop.

GN75 When carrying out modifications affecting the overrun risk zone (for example to improve
access or facilities) the constraints of the station might mean that it is not feasible to meet
the requirements of 6.3 of GI/RT7016.

GN76 Appendix A of this document (GI/GN7616) provides an approach for assessing the risk
from trains overrunning a buffer stop when either new structures, or alterations to existing
structures or track layouts, are being considered in the overrun risk zone. The approach
provided is to be used in conjunction with the methodology in GC/RC5633.

GN77 GC/RC5633 provides recommendations and guidance for buffer stops, arresting devices
and end impact walls, and the consideration of structures in the overrun risk zone. It
provides a recommended risk assessment methodology for considering the likelihood of
buffer stop overrun and the potential consequences.

GN78 Models and tools such as those provided in Appendix A of this document and GC/RC5633
are an aid to the assessment of risk and should always be used in conjunction with
professional expertise and judgement.

GN79 At stations categorised as national hub (Category A) and regional hub (Category B)
stations, there are some platform / concourse areas that become particularly congested for
short times during peak periods. This is often the case where fully loaded passenger trains
arrive at terminal stations within a short period of time and there is congestion whilst
queuing to exit automatic ticket gates. In a number of cases to provide additional space for
such situations a ‘frangible’ type of decking over the track forming the slide path behind the
buffer stop has been installed. Further guidance on these types of decking is given in
Appendix A and B of this document.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


8.4 Location of platform furniture
6.4 Location of platform furniture
6.4.1 Platform furniture shall not unduly restrict the movement of
passengers.

6.4.2 New platform furniture, and alterations to existing platform furniture,


shall be located to provide the following minimum distances to the
platform edge:

a) 3000 mm where the permissible or enhanced permissible


speed on the line adjacent to the platform exceeds 100 mph
(165 km/h).

b) 2500 mm at other platforms.

GN80 For a new platform or a platform extension the space for platform furniture should be
considered at the design stage and should be added to the minimum usable width required
by 7.1 of GI/RT7016. It is unlikely that a deviation from the requirements of 6.4 of
GI/RT7016 could be justified.

8.5 Location of isolated columns supporting lighting, signs and other


equipment
6.5 Location of isolated columns supporting lighting, signs and other
equipment
6.5.1 Isolated columns supporting lighting, signs and other equipment shall
be positioned to avoid creating obstructions to the free flow of station
users.

6.5.2 Isolated columns for new lighting, signs and other equipment or
alterations to such items shall be located to provide the following
minimum distances to the platform edge:

a) 3000 mm where the permissible or enhanced permissible


speed on the line adjacent to the platform exceeds 100 mph
(165 km/h)

b) 2500 mm at other platforms.

6.5.3 Where particular site constraints prevent this, isolated columns for
new lighting, signs or other equipment or alterations to such items
shall be located not less than 2000 mm from the platform edge.

GN81 The requirement of 6.5 of GI/RT7016 addresses the free flowing movement of people on a
platform when either, boarding and alighting, or whilst trains are passing at speed.
Columns positioned within 2500 mm of the platform have the potential to restrict the
movement of people, particularly at times of crowding. To what extent the columns act as
a restriction will depend on the following:

a) The spacing of the columns.

b) The size of the columns.

c) The shape of the columns.

d) Distance to nearest exit.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


GN82 The PRM TSI sets out that ‘If the distance between any two small obstacles is less than
2400 mm they shall be deemed to form one large obstacle.’ Therefore this dimension can
be used as a guide to determine if columns could be considered as isolated. Essentially
the closer the columns the more likely it is that they present an obstruction.

GN83 In general, the greater the size of the column, the greater the obstruction. In designing the
size of the column to fulfil its purpose, and its intended location, consideration should be
given to its effect on the flow of people and sight lines for train dispatch.

GN84 A round section column is likely to present less of a hazard to people than an angular
section particularly if people or baggage, come into contact with it.

TSI - Persons with Reduced Mobility


4.1.2.19. Platform width and edge of platform [part]
It is permitted to have small obstacles of a length of less than 1 000 mm (for
example:- masts, pylons, booths, seats) inside this freeway of 1 600 mm. The
distance from the edge of the platform to the obstacle shall be a minimum of
1 600 mm and there shall be a minimum freeway of 800 mm from the edge of
the obstacle to the danger area.

The minimum distance from the edge of obstacles like walls, seating places,
lifts and stairs that have a length of more than 1 000 mm but less than
10 000 mm, and the edge of the danger zone, shall be 1 200 mm. The
distance between the edge of the platform and the edge of this obstacle shall
be a minimum of 2 000 mm.

The minimum distance from the edges of obstacle like walls, seating places,
travelators and stairs that have a length of more than 10 000 mm, and the
edge of the danger zone, shall be 1 600 mm. The distance between the edge
of the platform and the edge of this obstacle shall be a minimum of 2 400 mm.

If there are auxiliary facilities on-board trains, or on the platform, to allow


wheelchair users to board on or alight from trains, a free space of 1 500 mm
from the edge of the facility where the wheelchair boards, or lands, at the
platform level, to the next obstacle on the platform, or to the opposite danger
area, shall be provided where such facilities are likely to be used. A new
station shall meet this requirement for all trains that are planned to stop at the
platform.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

8.6 Location of driver only operation equipment


6.6 Location of driver only operation equipment
6.6.1 The position of supports for new driver only operated (DOO) closed
circuit television (CCTV) and other DOO equipment on platforms and
alterations to existing DOO CCTV and other DOO equipment on
platforms shall take into account both:

a) The need to provide adequate clearance between the support


and the platform edge

b) The need for the driver of the train to be able to see the DOO
CCTV screen or other DOO equipment

6.6.2 If the clearance provided meets the requirement of section 6.5, no


further justification is required.

6.6.3 If the clearance provided does not meet the requirement of section
6.5, the clearance shall be justified and recorded.

6.6.4 In all cases the DOO equipment shall be at least 450 mm clear of the
swept envelope (as defined in GC/RT5212) of trains using or passing
through the station, and shall be positioned so as not to restrict the
movement of people (see also GE/RT8060).

GN85 The requirement for DOO equipment to be at least 450 mm clear of the swept envelope of
trains using or passing through the station, is to provide for a clearance where passengers
or staff could lean out of vehicles with opening windows.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 9 Guidance on Usable Width of Platforms


9.1 Requirements for all new platforms
7.1 Requirements for all new platforms
7.1.1 The minimum usable width of a platform shall be sufficient to:

a) Prevent overcrowding with the maximum anticipated usage of


the platform.

b) Permit the unscheduled detraining of passengers from a fully


occupied train, and any passengers occupying the platform
when the train arrives, without risk of injury to passengers.

7.1.2 Appendix B gives advice on selecting a method to establish the


maximum number of people to allow for in the unscheduled
detraining of passengers.

GN86 The minimum usable width of a new platform should be designed to accommodate the
foreseeable numbers of passengers using the platform. The usable width of the platform
could vary over its length. It is typically the case that the platform needs to be wider near
access facilities and can be narrower at the platform ends, but nowhere less than the
requirements of 7.2 and 7.3 of GI/RT7016 respectively (see 9.2 and 9.3 of this document).
The minimum usable widths specified in 7.2 and 7.3 of GI/RT7016 should not be used as
the base or default design criteria.

GN87 Additional requirements for platforms for the protection of people from aerodynamic effects
of passing trains are set out in Part 9 of GI/RT7016. These requirements apply where
either the permissible or enhanced permissible speed on the adjacent line is greater than
100 mph or freight trains pass at speeds greater than 60 mph. For new platforms where
the permissible or enhanced permissible speed on the adjacent line is greater than
100 mph, or at existing platforms where the speed on the adjacent line is raised to greater
than 100 mph, a yellow line is required to be positioned so that people standing
immediately behind the line are at least 1500 mm away from the platform edge.

GN88 The area between the yellow line and the platform edge is referred to in section 4.1.2.19 of
the PRM TSI as the ‘danger area of a platform’. It is defined as ‘The area where
passengers may be subject to dangerous forces due to the slipstream effect of moving
trains dependent upon their speed. For the conventional rail system, this danger area shall
be in accordance with National Rules.’

GN89 When determining the usable width of a new platform the ‘danger area of a platform’
should be excluded from the capacity analysis as this area is not an area where people
should stand.

GN90 There are a number of techniques and approaches to modelling passenger flows and
crowding scenarios. The approach adopted should be appropriate for the type of station at
which the platform is to be constructed.

GN91 Simulation software has been applied to capacity analysis for stations for a number of
years, but recent increased interest in the techniques has led to an expansion in the
number of railway operators and facility design teams applying such models. Examples of
simulation models include:

a) PEDROUTE - developed by Halcrow initially on behalf of London


Underground Limited in response to the Kings Cross fire of 1987. For
further information see http://www.halcrow.com

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


b) PAXPORT - developed by Halcrow, it was prompted by BAA’s need to
understand crowd movement in the more complex airport terminal
environment. For further information see http://www.halcrow.com

c) STEPS - a microsimulation tool designed by Mott MacDonald for the


prediction of pedestrian movement under both normal and emergency
conditions. For further information see http://www.mottmac.com

d) LEGION - pedestrian simulation software, developed by Legion


International Limited, for analysing people movement in public spaces. For
further information see http://www.legion.com

GN92 The SPSG gives guidance on various station planning issues including platform width
considerations. Guidance for station platforms is given in 2.4 of SPSG. The guidance is
2
based on providing a minimum of 0.8m per passenger at the busiest part of the platform.
A platform sizing methodology is provided that recognises that passengers are not evenly
distributed along platforms, and at the busiest part of the platform, it is assumed that 35%
of the platform load occupies 25% of the platform. The formula requires the consideration
of the ‘average platform load per headway (that is the average number of passengers
waiting for a train at the height of the peak, plus the number of passengers alighting from
the train)’. The document is available from:

Strategy & Service Development – Modelling & Performance


London Underground Limited
2nd Floor
Petty France
55 Broadway
London SW1H 0BD

TSI - Persons with Reduced Mobility


4.1.2.19. Platform width and edge of platform [part]
It is permitted for the width of the platform to be variable on the whole length of
the platform. The minimum width of the platform without obstacles shall be the
greater of either:

— the width of the danger area plus the width of two opposing freeways of
800 mm (1 600 mm) or,

For a single side platform 2 500 mm, or for an island platform 3 300 mm (this
dimension may taper to 2 500 mm at the platform ends).

The minimum width requirement does not take into account additional width
that may be required for passenger flows.

GN93 The CR INF TSI (draft) refers to the requirements of the PRM TSI with respect to width of
platforms.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


9.2 New single face platforms
7.2 New single face platforms
7.2.1 The usable width of a new single face platform shall be nowhere less
than:

a) 3000 mm where the permissible or enhanced permissible


speed on the line adjacent to the platform exceeds 100 mph
(165 km/h)

b) 2500 mm at other platforms

GN94 The minimum usable width of a single face platform should be designed in accordance with
7.1.1 of GI/RT7016 (that is, usable width of a platform is to be sufficient to prevent
overcrowding), but nonetheless must not be less than the widths specified in 7.2.1 of
GI/RT7016 – see GN87. The ‘usable platform width’ is defined as ‘The width of the
platform that can be used by passengers for egress from and access to trains, or for
waiting, taking into account the width of any items on the platform (for example, furniture,
access or egress, or structures) and inclusive of edge effects to the platform edge, back
wall, fence or obstruction’. Therefore the actual width of the platform required will also be
determined by the minimum distances to the platform edge required for structures, platform
furniture and isolated columns.

GN95 At existing station platforms and station platforms subject to alteration, where the speed of
passenger trains is to be increased on the line adjacent to a single face platform to speeds
greater than 100 mph, platforms should be compliant with the requirements of 7.2 of
GI/RT7016. If the affected platform is non-compliant and the options for achieving
compliance are tightly constrained, then a deviation from this requirement might be the
approach to take.

9.3 New double face platforms


7.3 New double face platforms
7.3.1 The usable width of a new double face platform shall be nowhere
less than:

a) 6000 mm where the permissible or enhanced permissible


speed on a line adjacent to the platform exceeds 100 mph
(165 km/h)

b) 4000 mm at other platforms

GN96 The minimum usable width of a double face platform should be designed in accordance
with 7.1.1 of GI/RT7016 (that is, usable width of a platform is to be sufficient to prevent
overcrowding), but nonetheless must not be less than the widths specified in 7.3.1 of
GI/RT7016 – see GN87. The ‘usable platform width’ is defined as ‘The width of the
platform that can be used by passengers for egress from and access to trains, or for
waiting, taking into account the width of any items on the platform (for example, furniture,
access or egress, or structures) and inclusive of edge effects to the platform edge, back
wall, fence or obstruction’. Therefore the actual width of the platform required will also be
determined by the minimum distances to the platform edge required for structures, platform
furniture and isolated columns.

GN97 At existing station platforms and station platforms subject to alteration, where the speed of
passenger trains is to be increased on the line adjacent to a platform to speeds greater
than 100 mph, double face platforms should be compliant with the requirements of 7.3 of
GI/RT7016. If the affected platform is non-compliant and the options for achieving
compliance are tightly constrained, then a deviation from this requirement might be the
approach to take.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry


9.4 Lengthening of existing platforms
7.4 Lengthening of existing platforms
7.4.1 When existing platforms are lengthened, the width of the new part of
the platform shall comply with the requirements for new platforms set
out in sections 7.1 to 7.3.

GN98 No guidance given.

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Guidance on Station Platform Geometry

Part 10 Guidance on Other Requirements for Safety of


Passengers Boarding or Alighting from Trains
10.1 Platforms
11.1 Platforms
11.1.3 Platform cross fall
11.1.3.1 For new platforms and alterations to platforms, the surfacing shall be
constructed to provide a fall away from the rear of the platform coper
or platform edge if there is no separate platform coper.

11.1.3.2 The fall should be at a nominal gradient of 1:40 (within the limits 1:80
and 1:20).

11.1.3.3 If provided, copers for new or altered platforms shall be nominally


level from the platform edge to the rear edge of the coper.

GN99 Platform surfacing should be free from depressions, humps or other irregularities, except
where a tactile surface is provided for visually impaired persons. Breaks in the surface
such as single steps, thresholds to doors, and drainage channels at points of access
should be avoided.

GN100 Where a short section of standard height platform with ramps each side down to the
existing low platform (see GN27) is installed, the cross fall should provide a fall away from
the platform edge at a nominal gradient of 1 in 40. The ramps from the ‘raised’ section of
platform to the existing low platform should not have a gradient steeper than 1 in 20. If
there is a height difference from the back of the raised platform to the existing platform a
fence or barrier is likely to be required.

11.1 Platforms
11.1.4 Provision of recess beneath platform edge
11.1.4.1 For new platforms or a platform subject to alteration (as defined), a
recess with a minimum width of 300 mm shall be formed beneath the
platform edge. The recess shall be kept clear of cables and other
obstructions.

11.1.4.2 Consideration shall be given to the provision of a wider recess where


there is a platform or other obstruction on both sides of the track.

GN101 The requirements of 11.1.4 are principally in place to provide a space where a person, who
had fallen off the platform, could as a last resort lie clear of a train, and to provide a space
that could be used for emergency services to crawl along to access a person trapped
under a train.

GN102 A recess should not be less than 480 mm high, nominally measured from rail level, and
should be clear of obstructions preventing its use as an emergency refuge.

GN103 Consideration should be given to the provision of a mesh screen under voided platforms
500 mm from platform edge to mitigate rubbish accumulation and trespass.

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10.2 Signs and markings
11.2 Signs and markings
11.2.1 Passenger information signs
11.2.1.1 At all stations, passenger information signs shall be provided to
clearly indicate the station name to passengers on board trains
standing at, or passing through, the station.

11.2.1.2 Sufficient illumination shall be provided for these signs to be visible in


the hours of darkness or low light conditions when the station is open
to station users (see also part 10).

11.2.2 Passenger and staff warning signs


11.2.2.1 Appropriate warning signs and platform markings shall be provided
where wide gaps and stepping distances between train and platform
edge are unavoidable (see also section 3.4).

11.2.2.2 Part 9 sets out particular requirements for signage to warn


passengers about the aerodynamic effects of trains passing at
speeds exceeding 100 mph.

11.2.3 Marking platform edges


11.2.3.1 Platform edges shall be clearly identified by visible marking and
provision of a tactile surface. Such marking shall not be provided to
the edge of platform ramps except where ramps are used for access
under normal operating conditions.

11.2.3.2 The SRA code of practice ‘Train and Station Services for Disabled
Passengers’ sets out requirements for the tactile surface.

11.2.3.3 Part 9 sets out particular requirements for yellow lines on platforms
to warn passengers about the aerodynamic effects of trains passing
at speeds exceeding 100 mph.

GN104 Guidance on the content and positioning of signs on stations can be found in ‘Wayfinding
at stations - a good practice guide’, published by RSSB and ‘Sign Design Guide (2000)’,
published by the Sign Design Society and the Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB).

GN105 The SRA code of practice ‘Train and Station Services for Disabled Passengers’ was
published by the SRA in 2002. In 2008 the code of practice was reviewed by the DfT and
Transport Scotland and was superseded by ‘Accessible Train and Station Design for
Disabled People: A Code of Practice’. Relevant standards and advice on the content and
positioning of signage at stations is provided in this code of practice.

11.2 Signs and markings


11.2.4 Provision of colour contrasting markings on obstructions
11.2.4.1 Colour contrasting markings shall be provided on isolated columns or
other obstructions, when new or subject to alteration, where these
could interrupt the movement of visually impaired station users.

11.2.4.2 Appropriate markings or other protection to vertical glazing and


cladding shall be provided to prevent accidental collision by station
users, including visually impaired people.

GN106 Guidance can be found in ‘Accessible Train and Station Design for Disabled People: A
Code of Practice’.

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TSI - Persons with Reduced Mobility


4.1.2.19. Platform width and edge of platform [part]
The boundary of the danger area, furthest from the rail side edge of the
platform, shall be marked with visual and tactile warnings. The tactile marking
shall be in accordance with National Rules.

The visual warning shall be a colour contrasting, slip resistant, warning line
with a minimum width of 100 mm.

The colour of the material at the rail side edge of the platform shall contrast
with the darkness of the gap. This material shall be slip resistant.

4.1.2.20 End of platform


The end of the platform shall have both visual and tactile markings.

GN107 The CR INF TSI (draft) refers to the requirements of the PRM TSI with respect to
requirements for the ends of platforms.

GN108 Guidance on managing trespass and access at the ends of platforms can be found in
‘Controlling trespass and access from the platform end - A guide to good practice’,
published by RSSB.

GN109 RSSB Research Report T158 entitled ‘The use of tactile surfaces at rail stations’ offers
further information on the types of tactile markings suitable for platforms.

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Appendix A Assessment of Overrun Risk Zone Behind Buffer


Stop
A.1 Introduction
A.1.1 For either new structures, or alterations to existing structures or track layouts
affecting the overrun risk zone the methodology in this Appendix should be used
to consider the change in risk. This methodology should be used in conjunction
with the process provided in GC/RC5633 replacing Table A5 (in GC/RC5633)
with Table 5 Assessment of overrun risk zone behind buffer stop - risk weighting
factor (in this Appendix).

A.1.2 Table 5 is structured as follows:

a) Part 1 assesses the risk to people in the overrun risk zone.

b) Part 2 assesses the risk to people inside, or in the immediate vicinity of, a
small structure (such as a kiosk) located within the overrun risk zone.

c) Part 3 assesses the risk to people who may be affected by the collapse of
a significant structural support (such as a footbridge or roof column)
located within the overrun risk zone.

d) Part 4 assesses the risk to people who may be on frangible decking and
who would be affected by a buffer stop collision.

A.1.3 The methodology assesses each factor individually and assigns a risk weighting
factor. The risk weighting factors are then added before being multiplied by
further weightings associated with the provision of train protection and / or an end
impact wall.

A.1.4 If more than one small structure needs to be assessed, Part 2 should be repeated
and the additional risk weighting factor added.

A.1.5 If more than one significant structural support needs to be assessed, Part 3
should be repeated and the additional risk weighting factor added.

A.1.6 Normally, the number of people affected in a typical assessment scenario should
relate to an off-peak train approaching the buffer stops (for example at midday).
However, if it is considered that there is a significant difference between off-peak
and peak populations in the overrun risk zone, it may be appropriate to carry out
an assessment for the two periods separately before combining into a total result
representing a typical day. The assessor should consider the magnitude of the
variation between these two assessments when combining them. This would
involve adjusting the platform population values as well as the average number of
train approaches and average passengers per train for the two assessment
periods.

A.1.7 Where a change is being introduced to the overrun risk zone, for example
installing a new kiosk, any increase in risk associated with the change should be
considered and appropriate mitigations implemented. To provide a guide on the
financial consideration of the values associated with such safety related
investment decisions the following worked example is given:

a) Suppose the new kiosk results in an increase in risk of 0.1 FWI per
100 years, which is a change of 0.001 FWI per year (that is, 0.1 FWI per
100 years / 100 years = 0.001 FWI per year).

b) The value of preventing a fatality (as of 2009) is £1.661million. Therefore


to mitigate 0.001 FWI per year and keep the level of risk at the same level
it is justifiable to spend up to £1,661 / year (that is, 0.001 FWI per
year x £1.661million = £1,661).

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c) Over a design period of 30 years, the maximum justifiable cost would be
approximately £50,000 (that is, £1,661 x 30 years = £49,830). This
justifiable cost may be sufficient to pay for the construction of an end
impact wall or other significant mitigation measure that could achieve a
reduction in risk of 0.001 FWI per year. If a more accurate cost benefit
analysis is required then the latest published value of preventing a fatality
should be checked and the cost should be considered over the lifetime of
the change, meaning that future costs and benefits should be calculated in
2
present value terms using an appropriate discount rate .

A.1.8 Further information and guidance on making investment decisions is provided in


‘Taking Safe Decisions’, published by RSSB.

A.2 Notes to Table 5


A.2.1 General notes to Table 5
A.2.1.1 The 20 m overrun risk zone is divided into risk areas A, B, C and the frangible
decking area as shown in Figure 3. The areas are based on the assumption that
in most cases, a train overrun at a buffer stop will travel in a straight line
(frangible decking and area A), in some cases, the train may deviate from a
straight line (area B) and in a few cases the train may jack knife (area C). If the
area under analysis concerns more than one track and buffer stop, each buffer
stop should be analysed separately.

A.2.1.2 It should be noted that it is not possible to accurately predict the path of a train
overrun, and therefore a conservative approach should be taken when assigning
structures to risk areas A, B and / or C. If a structure is overlapping two of the
areas, or very close to the edge of an area, you should assign it to the higher risk
area.

A.2.1.3 When introducing a change to the overrun risk zone it is good practice to examine
what the change in risk will be. The risk assessment using Table 5 should be
carried out for the existing station layout and then carried out for the proposed
new station layout. The difference between the results of the two assessments
will give an indication of the increase in risk that the change will introduce. Risk
mitigation measures should then be assessed for the change in risk; Table B1
from GC/RC5633 should be used as a guide.

2
This is in accordance with ORR guidance “Internal guidance on cost benefit analysis (CBA) in support of safety-
related investment decisions” http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/upload/pdf/risk-CBA_sdm_rev_guid.pdf

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Single
track

Figure 3 The overrun risk zone divided into risk areas A, B, C and the frangible decking
(not to scale)

A.2.2 Notes to Part 1 of Table 5


A.2.2.1 Part 1 considers the people in the open plan area of the overrun risk zone that
could be affected by a train overrun. These people will generally have an
unobstructed view of the approaching train and freedom to move away from the
area quickly if a train overran the buffer stop. The number of people affected
within each of the risk areas A, B and C, on average, when an off-peak train (for
example midday) is approaching the buffer stops should be considered.

A.2.2.2 If people in risk areas A, B or C do not have an unobstructed view of an


approaching train or are unable to move away from the area quickly, for example
in crowded situations, then an obstruction factor should be applied.

A.2.2.3 The process provided in GC/RC5633 and the methodology in this Appendix
(GI/GN7616) are based on RSSB’s Safety Risk Model version 6.

A.2.3 Notes to Part 2 of Table 5


A.2.3.1 Part 2 considers the people associated with small structures such as kiosks and
shops where the structure is stand alone (that is, independently constructed from
the main station structure). The number of people affected if the structure
collapsed as a result of a train collision after a buffer stop overrun (that is, the
people inside the structure as well as people waiting outside the structure, for
example customers waiting to purchase items) should be considered.

A.2.3.2 The weightings in Part 2 only apply to a maximum of 30 people being affected. If
more than 30 people will be affected, then Part 3 should be used to consider
more serious consequences.

A.2.4 Notes to Part 3 of Table 5


A.2.4.1 Part 3 considers significant structural supports, such as roof columns, multi-story
structures or footbridge supports. Advice from a competent structural engineer
should be sought to consider how likely it is for the support to collapse if it were
struck by a train overrun. A risk weighting factor of 1 should be used if the
collapse of the structure will cause the support to collapse. A risk weighting
factor of 0 should be used if the support is redundant and the removal of the
support will not cause the structure to collapse. The number of people affected
should be considered if the structure did collapse, for example if the removal of

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the support will cause a section of roof to collapse, people throughout the station
might be affected.

A.2.5 Notes to Part 4 of Table 5


A.2.5.1 Part 4 considers the risk if frangible decking has been installed in the area directly
behind the buffer stop. If no decking has been installed behind the buffer stop
this section will calculate a risk weighting factor of 0 and the length of decking
should be entered as 0. Figure 4 shows the layout of the measurement for the
frangible decking assessment tool, for the distance between the buffer stop and
the frangible decking, d and the length of the decking L.

Figure 4 Measurement for the frangible decking assessment tool for a single track width

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Part 1 People in the open plan area of the overrun risk zone that could be affected by a train overrun (see note A.2.2)
Factor affecting buffer stop risk Category Risk Value
weighting assigned
factor

Number of people in area A None 0


(see note 1) Low occupancy (typical 1 - 2 people) 1
Medium occupancy (typical 3 - 10 people) 2
High occupancy (typical of > 10 people) 5
+
Number of people in area B None 0
Low occupancy (typical 1 - 2 people) 0.33
Medium occupancy (typical 3 - 10 people) 0.66
High occupancy (typical of > 10 people) 1.65
+
Number of people in area C None 0
Low occupancy (typical 1 - 2 people) 0.05
Medium occupancy (typical 3 - 10 people) 0.1
High occupancy (typical of > 10 people) 0.25
=
Sub total
x
Obstruction factor People in the overrun risk zone have an
unobstructed view of an approaching train and are 1
able to move away from the area quickly
People in the overrun risk zone do not have an
unobstructed view of an approaching train or are 3
unable to move away from the area quickly
=
Sub total Part 1

Part 2 Small structures such as kiosks, shops etc (see note A.2.3)
Factor affecting buffer stop risk Category Risk Value
weighting assigned
factor
Structure 1 (Repeat for as many small structures as applicable and add results)
Which part of the overrun area is the Area A 1.5
structure 1 located (see note 1) Area B 0.5
Area C 0.1
x
Number of passengers, public or staff None 0
that will be affected by structural failure Low (average 1 - 2 people) 2
Medium (average 3 - 10 people) 5
High (average of > 10 people) 10
=
Sub total Part 2

Part 3 Significant structural supports such as roof columns, multi-story structures, footbridge supports etc (see note
A.2.4)
Factor affecting buffer stop risk Category Risk Value
weighting assigned
factor
Structure 1 (Repeat for as many structures as applicable and add results)
Which part of the overrun area is the Area A 1.5
structure 1 located (see note 1) Area B 0.5
Area C 0.1
x
Probability of collapse if struck by a train Estimate to be provided by a structural engineer Between
overrun 0 and 1
x
Number of passengers, public or staff None 0
that will be affected by structural Low (average < 50 people) 30
collapse Medium (average 50 - 100 people) 75
High (average of > 100 people) 200
=
Sub total Part 3

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Part 4 Frangible decking risk (see note A.2.5)


Factor affecting buffer stop risk Category Risk Value
weighting assigned
factor

Not applicable 0
more than 7 metres 0.3
6 - 7 metres 0.5
5 - 6 metres 0.8
4 - 5 metres 1.2
Distance from buffer stop to decking 3 - 4 metres 2.1
2 - 3 metres 3.5
1 - 2 metres 6
less than 1 metre 10.3
x

Length of decking (metres)


=
Sub total Part 4

Combined risk values

Sub total Part 1 Sub total Part 2 Sub total Part 3 Total 1+2+3
+ + =
x
End impact wall 1.3m above Yes 0.1
rail level No 1
+
Sub total
Part 4
x
=
Sub total

Train protection system Yes 1


No 1.04
=
Combined area behind the buffer stop risk weighting factor

Table 5 Assessment of overrun risk zone behind buffer stop - risk weighting factor

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Appendix B Frangible Decking at Terminal Stations


B.1 Introduction
B.1.1 At stations categorised as national hub (Category A) and regional hub
(Category B) stations, there are some platform / concourse areas that become
particularly congested for short times during peak periods. This is often the case
where fully loaded passenger trains arrive at terminal stations within a short
period of time and there is congestion whilst queuing to exit automatic ticket
gates. In a number of cases to provide additional space for such situations a
‘frangible’ type of decking over the track forming the slide path behind the buffer
stop has been installed (see Figure 5).

B.1.2 A frangible type of decking is formed from a number of decking units supported
by beams. When impacted by a buffer stop the beams guide the decking units
and allow them to move freely and smoothly with the buffer stop. The decking
units provide a solid platform surface for people.

B.1.3 Where this arrangement exists buffer stops are fitted with impact brackets that
are capable of applying the impact loads to the decking units. These comprise of
fabricated plates welded to the rear flange of the buffer stop structure at the
height required to contact with and collect the decking units as they move with the
buffer stop.

B.1.4 GC/RT5033 requires energy absorbing buffer stops to be provided at terminal or


bay platforms. The key requirement is that buffer stops are to be designed to
arrest the full range of trains between the heaviest and lightest using a track,
without risk of serious injury to people on the train. It is important that the
performance of the buffer stop is not to be materially affected by the use of a
frangible type of decking, so that any greater risk of serious injury to people on
the train is avoided.

B.1.5 A frangible type of decking has only been used at national hub and regional hub
stations. It is likely that the use of such a system can only be justified if the safety
benefits arising from having increased passenger space are greater than the
safety disbenefits arising from the very unlikely event of a train impacting the
buffer stop, and subsequently connecting with the frangible decking units. The
consideration of this justification should take the following factors into account:

a) The safety benefits arising from having increased passenger space.

b) The safety disbenefits arising from the very unlikely event of a train
impacting the buffer stop and causing movement of the decking units with
passengers still on them.

c) How close the decking units will be to the buffer stop impact bracket. The
greater the distance between the buffer stop impact bracket and the
nearest decking unit, the less likely it is that the decking units will be
affected in the event of a minor buffer stop impact.

d) If access to the area can be limited to only the busiest times, for example
by cordoning off the area.

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B.1.6 The design considerations for frangible decking should take account of the
following factors:

a) The performance of the buffer stop is not to be materially affected by the


use of a frangible type of decking, so that any greater risk of serious injury
to people on the train is avoided.

b) The decking should be capable of supporting the maximum anticipated


loading from passengers and vehicles required to use it.

c) How the decking units move in the event of a buffer stop contact and their
effect on people on the platform.

d) The need to inspect and maintain the buffer stop and its friction slide units.

e) How the performance of the system can be maintained throughout its


service life.

B.1.7 Buildings, for example kiosks and ticket machines, should not be positioned on
frangible decking.

Figure 5 Frangible decking at a national hub station

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Definitions
Alteration [for example, of a platform or other equipment]
For the purpose of this document, the substantial lengthening or rebuilding of all or part of
an existing platform and / or an associated structure, or renewal of station equipment or
platform furniture, which provides a reasonable opportunity to bring the items concerned
into conformity with the requirements of this document.

Coper [or platform coper]


That part of the platform surface adjacent to the track, when formed of a separate concrete
or masonry slab. Also known as the 'platform coping' or 'coping stone'.

Double face platform (island platform)


A platform with operational track adjacent to both sides of the platform.

New platform
A platform other than a platform that already exists. The term excludes a disused platform
that is brought back into use.

Permissible or enhanced permissible speed


The maximum speed published in the Sectional Appendix at which traffic is allowed to run
on a line.

Platform
The structure forming the part of a station that provides access to or from a train.

Platform furniture
Permanent or semi-permanent equipment or apparatus, or seating placed upon a platform
for station users.

Platform height
The height of the edge of the platform relative to the track, measured at right angles to the
plane of the rails of the track adjacent to the platform.

Platform offset
The distance between the upper surface of the platform edge and the running edge of the
nearest rail on the track adjacent to the platform, measured parallel to the plane of the rails.

Register of infrastructure
The CR INF TSI and the PRM TSI, require a Register of Infrastructure to be published. In
accordance with Article 35 of Directive 2008/57/EC, the Register of Infrastructure shall
indicate the main features of the infrastructure subsystem. Parameters required to be
recorded in the Register of Infrastructure include; smallest horizontal curve of a section of
line; usable length of a platform; the height, offset, width and length of each platform.

Sign
Any surface (usually in one plane) which has a message to convey to the viewer.

Single face platform


A platform with operational track adjacent to one side of the platform only.

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Specific case
A specific case is a special provision defined in a TSI that applies to a part of the railway
system because of geographical, topographical or urban environment constraints; or to
maintain compatibility with the existing system. A specific case may be either temporary or
permanent.

Station categories
For the purposes of Part 10 of GI/RT7016, stations are categorised as follows:

Station Category Examples


A - National hub Birmingham New Street, Glasgow Central, London
Waterloo
B - Regional hub Brighton, Darlington, Watford Junction
C - Important feeder Manchester Oxford Road, Motherwell, Southend Victoria
D - Medium, staffed Caerphilly, Lichfield Trent Valley, Sydenham
E - Small, staffed Gospel Oak, Llandudno Junction, Lockerbie
F - Small, unstaffed Bishop Auckland, Cromer, Tywyn

Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI)


A TSI is a specification adopted in accordance with the European Interoperability Directive
by which each subsystem or part subsystem is covered in order to meet the essential
requirements and ensure the interoperability of the rail system.

Usable platform length


The length of that part of the platform that can be used by passengers for egress from and
access to trains, measured along the platform edge.

Usable platform width


The width of the platform that can be used by passengers for egress from and access to
trains, or for waiting, taking into account the width of any items on the platform (for
example, furniture, access or egress, or structures) and inclusive of edge effects to the
platform edge, back wall, fence or obstruction.

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References
The Catalogue of Railway Group Standards and the Railway Group Standards CD-ROM
give the current issue number and status of documents published by RSSB. This
information is also available from www.rgsonline.co.uk.

Documents referenced in the text


Railway Group Standards
GC/RT5021 Track System Requirements
GC/RT5033 Terminal Tracks – Requirements for Buffer Stops, Arresting
Devices and End Impact Walls
GC/RT5212 Requirements for Defining and Maintaining Clearances
GE/RT8000/TW2 Preparation and movement of multiple-unit passenger trains
GE/RT8000/TW3 Preparation and movement of locomotive hauled trains
(including HSTs, push-pull, postal, parcels)
GE/RT8037 Signal Positioning and Visibility
GE/RT8060 Engineering Requirements for Dispatch of Trains from
Platforms
GE/RT8270 Assessment of Compatibility of Rolling Stock and
Infrastructure
GI/RT7016 Interface between Station Platforms, Track and Trains
GI/RT7033 Lineside Operational Safety Signs
GM/RT2149 Requirements for Defining and Maintaining the Size of
Railway Vehicles
GM/RT2473 Power Operated External Doors on Passenger Carrying Rail
Vehicles
RSSB documents
RIS-7700-INS Rail Industry Standard for Station Infrastructure
GC/RC5633 Recommendations for the Risk Assessment of Buffer Stops,
Arresting Devices and End Impact Walls
GE/GN8537 Guidance on Signal Positioning and Visibility

Other references
RGSC 02, Issue Two Railway Group Standards Manual
Accessible Train and Station Design for Disabled People: A
Code of Practice Version 01, Department for Transport and
Transport Scotland (July 2008)
1993 c.43 Railways Act 1993
Good Practice Guide ‘Station Planning Standards and
Guidelines’ – Strategy & Service Development Modelling &
Performance, London Underground Limited (November 2005)
2006 No. 599 Railways and Other Guided Transport Systems (Safety)
Regulations 2006
PRM TSI Persons with Reduced Mobility TSI, Decision 2008/164/EC
(OJ L64, 7.3.2008, p72)
HS INF TSI High Speed Infrastructure TSI, Decision 2008/217/EC
(OJ L77, 19.3.2008, p1)
HS RST TSI High Speed Rolling Stock TSI, Decision 2008/232/EC
(OJ L84, 26.3.2008, p132)
CR INF TSI Conventional Rail Infrastructure TSI (draft)
SI 2006/397 Railways (Interoperability) Regulations 2006
T158 The use of tactile surfaces at rail stations, RSSB Research
Project (2005)

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T726 Investigation into the feasibility of increasing existing platform
radii where the platform is located on a curve radius less than
200m, RSSB Research Project (November 2008)
T815 Limits on vertical track alignment through station platforms,
RSSB Research Project (May 2010)
Controlling trespass and access from the platform end – A
guide to good practice, RSSB (December 2005)
Sign Design Guide, Sign Design Society and the Royal
National Institute for the Blind (RNIB) (2000)
Taking Safe Decisions, RSSB (2007)
Wayfinding at stations - a good practice guide, RSSB
(June 2006)

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