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Federation University Australia

Project 2019/05
ENGIN5302 Modelling & Simulation

[Author Name]
6-14-2019
Project 2019/05 June 14, 2019

Table of Contents
Objective of analysis..................................................................................................................................... 1
Description on the methodology ................................................................................................................... 2
Step 1: Creating the Part ........................................................................................................................... 2
Step 2: Material and Section Properties ..................................................................................................... 3
Step 3: Creating the step ........................................................................................................................... 4
Step 4: Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions .................................................................................... 5
Step 5 : Meshing ....................................................................................................................................... 6
Analysis results, evaluations and discussion .................................................................................................. 7
Part 1 ........................................................................................................................................................ 7
Part 2 ...................................................................................................................................................... 12
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................. 15

List of Figures
Figure 1: Concrete overpass on load ............................................................................................................. 2
Figure 2: Created Part ................................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 3: Assigning Material and section properties ...................................................................................... 4
Figure 4: Step Creation ................................................................................................................................. 5
Figure 5: Setting up loads and boundary conditions ...................................................................................... 5
Figure 6: Visualization of Loads and BCs ..................................................................................................... 6
Figure 7: Mesh type assignment for linear element types .............................................................................. 6
Figure 8:Mesh type assignment for quadratic element types .......................................................................... 7
Figure 9: Visualization of unboxing the use of mapped meshing ................................................................... 7
Figure 10: Overpass Meshed to 20m seed size .............................................................................................. 8
Figure 11: Overpass Meshed to 10m seed size .............................................................................................. 8
Figure 12: Overpass Meshed to 5m seed size ................................................................................................ 9
Figure 13: Overpass Meshed to 2.5m seed size ............................................................................................. 9
Figure 14: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses (20m seed size) ............................................. 10
Figure 15:Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses (10m seed size) .............................................. 10
Figure 16: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses (5m seed size) ............................................... 11
Figure 17: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses (2.5m seed size) ............................................ 11
Figure 18: Evolution of stresses according to different seed sizes ................................................................ 12
Figure 19: Overpass Meshed to 5m seed size (Triangular mesh) ................................................................. 12
Figure 20: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses using CPS8 element type .............................. 13
Figure 21: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses using CPE3 element type .............................. 13
Figure 22: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses using CPE6 element type .............................. 14
Figure 23: Absolute Error Values vs Element type ...................................................................................... 14

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Project 2019/05 June 14, 2019

Objective of analysis

Figure 1: Concrete overpass on load

The analysis concerns a concrete overpass as shown in the Figure 1, a pressure force is applied at the
top of the overpass. It aims to determine various stresses and displacements in the structure and determine
their maximum values and location, as well as comparing different element types and size and their effect on
the results.

Description on the methodology


Step 1: Creating the Part
After launching the software and creating a new model database with standard explicit model, a part
is created as 2D Planar/Deformable/Shell and drawn according to the specifics in Figure 1

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Project 2019/05 June 14, 2019

Figure 2: Created Part

Step 2: Material and Section Properties


Assigning the material and section parameters comes next, in a way to insure that the simulation will
be done in a plane strain condition as follows:
- Young’s Modulus: 900kPa
- Poisson’s Ratio: 0.2
- Section: Homogenous

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Project 2019/05 June 14, 2019

Figure 3: Assigning Material and section properties

Step 3: Creating the step


After importing the created part in “Assembly”, the step of analysis is created, using “General” as a
procedure type, and “Static, General” as a subtype

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Figure 4: Step Creation

Step 4: Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions


In the model, a pressure is applied on the upper surface of the overpass. The left and right edges are
constrained in the horizontal direction and the bottom edge is constrained in both horizontal and vertical
directions.

Figure 5: Setting up loads and boundary conditions

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Figure 6: Visualization of Loads and BCs

Step 5 : Meshing
The analysis will be done multiple times using different types of elements in the plain strain family.
At first the chosen element type is a standard linear quadrilateral mesh (CPS4), then 3-node triangular
(CPS3), 6-node triangular (CPE6), 8-node quadrilateral elements (CPE8) and making sure it’s a free mesh at
all times.

Figure 7: Mesh type assignment for linear element types

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Figure 8:Mesh type assignment for quadratic element types

Figure 9: Visualization of unboxing the use of mapped meshing

Analysis results, evaluations and discussion


Part 1
After running the calculations with a CPS4 elements options with variant seed sizes (20m, 10m, 5m,
then 2.5m) these results are obtained:

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Figure 10: Overpass Meshed to 20m seed size

Figure 11: Overpass Meshed to 10m seed size

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Figure 12: Overpass Meshed to 5m seed size

Figure 13: Overpass Meshed to 2.5m seed size

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Figure 14: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses (20m seed size)

Figure 15:Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses (10m seed size)

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Figure 16: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses (5m seed size)

Figure 17: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses (2.5m seed size)

What’s observed from the previous results is that the deformation in general in similar: the right part
of the overpass is compressed but the left part is subjected to tensile stresses, and both their absolute values
are incrementing and converging as the seed size gets smaller.

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700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2 0,25 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,45

Max Tensile vs 1/Seed size Max Compression vs 1/Seed size

Figure 18: Evolution of stresses according to different seed sizes

Part 2
After running the calculations with variant element types with a 5m seed size these results are
obtained:

Figure 19: Overpass Meshed to 5m seed size (Triangular mesh)

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Figure 20: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses using CPS8 element type

Figure 21: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses using CPE3 element type

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Figure 22: Max compression (blue) and tensile (red) stresses using CPE6 element type

The observation that can be made about the effect of using of different element types using one seed
size for all the calculation, is that the stress distribution paths are very similar except for an anomaly in the
left peak where the tensile stress is way higher than the stress in the left of the structure.

120

97,9
100
Absoute Error Value (MPa)

81,6
80

60
Error Compression
39,7 37,4
40 Error Tensile

20,37
20 12,84
1,55 2,92
0
CPS4 CPE8 CPE3 CPE6
Element Type

Figure 23: Absolute Error Values vs Element type

Assuming the results done by using 2.5m seed size in part one are correct, an absolute error is
obtained by calculating by subtracting the value of the maximum tensile stress of the 2.5m seed size result
from the maximum tensile stress of the corresponding element type results.
What’s noticed is small error obtained by the linear element types, although close in precision, in
comparison with the quadratic element types.

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Conclusion
After attempting to solve the same problem using various seed sizes and various element types, we
can conclude that the smaller the seed size the better results but it would require more computational power
and time. We can also conclude that the quadratic element types aren’t always the best choice (The latter
problem as an example) and tri or quad element types don’t present a big difference in calculation to obtain
the optimal best result

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