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# DESING OF SLAB

Slab – I
Design a slab of size 5 x 5m
S1 = Size = 5 x 5m
Clear distance = 5 x 5m
Bearing of wall = 230mm
Floor finishes = 1KN/m2
Dia of the road = 10mm
Cover = 20mm
Fck = 20 N/mm2
Fy = 415 N/mm2
step (1) check for slab
1x = 5m ly = 5m
1𝑦 5
= = 1<2
1𝑥 5

## It is two way slab

Step (2) Effective depth
𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 5000
D = = = 178.57mm
35 𝑥 0.8 355 𝑥 0.8

D = d+c+
2
180+2=+10
= = 205mm
2

## Step (3) Effective span

0.23 0.23
c/c support = +5+ = 5.23m
2 2

## Clear span + eff. Depth = 5 + 0.1429

= 5.1429m
∴ eff. Span left = 5.129m
Self wt. of slab = BxDx𝛾
= 0.15 x1 x 25
= 3.75 KN/m2
Floor = 1 KN/m2
Total load w = 7.75 KN/m2
Design load Wu = 1.5 x w
= 1.5 x 7.75
= 11.625 KN/m2
Step (5) Find S.F and BM
𝑊𝑢1 11.625 𝑥 5.1429
V = =
2 2

= 29.89 KN
From page no : 91 IS 456
Lx = 0.065 Ly = 0.062
Mu x = 1x wlx2 = 0.062 x 11.625 x 5.14292 = 19.06 KN m
Mu y = 1y wlx2 = 0.062 x 11.625 x 5.14292 = 19.06 KN m
Step (6) check for depth
𝑀𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑚 √19.06 𝑥 102
d = =
0.138 𝑓𝑐𝑘𝑏 0.138 𝑥 20 𝑥 1000

= 83.10 mm
Step (7) to final Ast
Shorter span
1−𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑦
Mu x = 0.87 Fy Ast d ( )
𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏 𝑑

1−412 𝐴𝑠𝑡
19.06 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 Ast 178.57 ( )
20 𝑥 1000 𝑥 178.57

## 19.06 x 10 6 = 64472.69 Ast – 7.489 Ast2

19.06 x 106 = 64472.69 Ast (1 – 1.162 x 10-4 Ast)
Ast = 8301.28mm2
Ast = 306.54
𝜋
𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑏 1000 𝑥 𝑥 102
4
Spacing S = =
𝐴𝑠𝑡 306.54

## S = 256.21 Say 200mm

Provide 10mm ∅ bar @ 300mm c/c
𝜋
Ast pro = 1000 x x 102
4

= 261.79 mm2
= 300
Ast pro > Ast req
Hence safe
Longer span
1−𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡
Mu y = 0.87 fy Ast d ( )
𝑓𝑐𝑘 .𝑏 .𝑑

1−415 𝐴𝑠𝑡
19.06 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 178.57 ( )
20 𝑥 1000 𝑥 178.57

## 19.06 x 106 = 64472.69 Ast ( 1 – 1.162 x 10-4 Ast)

19.06 x 106 = 64472.69 Ast – 7.49 Ast 2
7.49 Ast – 64472.69 Ast + 19.06 x 102
Ast = 8301.28 mm2
Ast = 306.64 mm2
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 102
4
Spacing s =
306.54

= 256.21 mm
Provide 10 mm ∅ bar @ 300mm c/c
Step – (8) check for stress
𝑉𝑢 29.89 𝑥 103
𝛿v - =
𝑏𝑑 1000 𝑥 178.57

= 0.167 N/mm2
100 𝐴𝑠𝑡 100 𝑥 306.54
𝛿c = =
𝑏𝑑 1000 𝑥 178.57

= 0.17N/mm2
From IS 456 2000 page no.73
𝛿c = 0.28 N/mm2
𝛿v < 𝛿c
Hence safe
Step : (9) Reinforcement detail
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Slab – 2
Design a slab of size 4 x 3m
Step – (1) Check for slab
1𝑦 4
- = 1.33 < 2
1𝑥 3

## It is two way slab

Step – (2) Effective depth
4000
d = = 142.86mm say 145mm
35 𝑥 0.8
∅ 10
D = d + c + = 145 + 20 +
2 2

## Step (3) Effective span

0.23 0.23
c/c support = +4+
2 2

= 4.23m
Clear span + eff. Depth = 4 + 0.145m
∴ eff. Span leff = 4.145m
Self wt. = D x B x √ = 0.145 x 1 x25
= 0.625 KN/m2
Floor finisnes = 1KN/m2
Total load, w = 3.625 + 3 + 1
= 7.625 KN/m2
Wu = 7.629 x 1.5
= 11.438 KN/m2
Step – (5) to find S.F and BM
𝑉 − 𝑤𝑢𝑙 11.438 𝑥 4.145
=
2 2

= 23.70KN
Mu x = 1x wlx2 = 0.093 x 11.438 x 4.1452 = 18.28KNm

## √𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑐 √18.28 𝑥 106

d = =
0.138 𝑓𝑐𝑘.𝑏 0.138 𝑥 20 𝑥 1000

Hence safe

## Step – (7) to find Ast

Shorter span
1−𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡
Max = 0.87 fy Ast d ( 𝑓𝑐𝑘.𝑏 .𝑑 )

1− 415 𝐴𝑠𝑡
18.28 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 145 (20 𝑥 1000 𝑥 145)

## 7.486 Ast2 – 52352.25 Ast + 18.28 x 106

Ast = 6624.75mm2

Ast = 368.60mm2
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 102
4
Spacing, s = = 213.07mm
368.60
Provide 10mm ∅ bar @ 300mm c/c
𝜋
Ast pro = 1000 x x 102 = 341mm2
4

## Ast pro > ast req

Hence safe
Longer span
1−𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡
May = 0.87 fy Ast d ( )
𝑓𝑐𝑘 .𝑏 .𝑑

1−415 𝐴𝑠𝑡
10.81 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 145 ( )
20 𝑥 1000 𝑥 145

## 10.81 x 106 = 52352.25 Ast(1 – 1.43 x 10-4 Ast)

10.81 x 106 = 52352.25 Ast – 7.486 Ast
7.486 Ast2 – 52352.25 + 10.81 x 106
Ast = 6780.38mm2
Ast = 212.97mm2
𝜋
S = 1000 x x 102 = 368.78mm
4

## Provide 10mm ∅ bar @ 300mm c/c

Step – (8) check for stress
𝑣𝑢 23.70 𝑥 103
𝛿v =
𝑏𝑑 1000 𝑥 145

= 0.16 N/mm2
100 𝐴𝑠𝑡 368.60
𝛿c = = 100 x
𝑏𝑑 1000 𝑥 145

= 0.25 N/mm2
From IS 456 page no. 73
0.25 0.36
𝛿c = 0.36N/mm2
𝛿v < 𝛿c
Hence safe
Step – (9) reinforcement detail
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DESIGN OF DOGLEGGED STAIR CASE
Rise = 150 mm
No. of step = 10
Bearing of wall = 230 mm
Floor finish = 1 KN/mm2
Dia of rod = 12 mm
Cover = 15 mm
Fck = 20 N/mm2
Fy = 415 N/mm2
Effective span
Effictive span, 1 = [No. of steps x thread] + width of landing slab + wall
bearing
= (10 x 0.3) + 1.5 + 0.23
1 = 4.73mm
1 4730
Waist slab thickness D = =
20 20

= 236.5
D = 240mm

d = D–C-
2
12
= 240 – 15 -
2

= 219mm
Weight of waist slab, Ws = b x d x unit weight of concete
= 1 x 0.24 x 25
Ws = 6 KN/mm2
√𝑅2 − 𝑇 2
𝑇
√0.152 − 0.32
= 6
0.3

= 6.7 KN/m
1
One step load = x R x T x unit weight d concrete
2
1
= x 0.15 x 0.3 x 25
2

= 0.5625 KN/m
Floor finish = 1 KN/m2
= 6.7 + 4 + 0.5625 + 1
= 12.26KN/m
Ultimate load, Wu = 1.5 x W
= 1.5 x 12.26
= 18.39 KN/m2
(iii) Bending moment calculation
𝑊𝑢 𝑙 2 4.73 𝑥 103
Mu = = 18.39 x 103 x
8 8

= 10.87 KN m
(iv) Check for dept
Mu = 0.138 Fck bd2
10.87 x 106 = 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2
d = 62.7
d provide > d required Hence safe.
(v) Reniforment
𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝐹𝑦
Mu = 0.87 Fy Ast d(1 − )
𝐹𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑑

𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑥 415
10.87 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 219 (1 − )
1000 𝑥 219 𝑥 20

## 10.87 x 106 = 79069.95 Ast – 7.49 Ast2

Ast = 140 mm2
𝑎𝑠𝑡
Spacing = 1000
𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝜋
1000 𝑥 122
4
=
140

= 807 = 300m
Provide 12mm bar @ 300mm c/c
𝑎𝑠𝑡
Ast pro = 1000
𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 122
4
=
300

## Ast pro = 376.99mm2

Ast provide > Ast required
Hence safe
𝑎𝑠𝑡
S = 1000 x
𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 102
4
=
288

= 272 mm
= 300 mm
Provide 10mm ∅ bar @ 300mm c/c
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 102
4
Ast pro =
300

= 376.99mm2
(vi) Shear calculation
𝑊𝑢1
Vu =
2
18.39 𝑥 4.73
=
2

Vu = 43.45 KN
𝑉𝑢
(vii) Check shear stress 𝛿v =
𝑏𝑑

43.49 𝑥 102
=
1000 𝑥 219

= 0.19 N/mm2
100 𝐴𝑠𝑡 100 𝑥 140
Permissible stress 𝛿c = =
𝑏𝑑 1000 𝑥 219
= 0.06 = 0.28 N/mm2
Hence safe.
Step (8) : RF detail
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Clear span = 0.6 x 1.7 m
Bearing wall = 230mm
Floor finish = 0.5KN/m2
Cover = 20mm
Fck = 20N/mm2
Fy = 415K/mm2
Slab thickness, D = 60mm

= 0.6 + 0.85
= 0.95mm
ly = 1.7m + d
= 1.7 + 0.35
= 2.05m
𝑙𝑦 2.05
= > 2
𝑙𝑥 0.95

## It is one way slab

Consider 1m length
Live load = 1.5KN/m2 x 1m
= 1.5KN/m
= 1 x 0.60 x 25
= 15KN/m
Floor finish = 0.5KN/m
Total load = 1.5 + 15 + 0.5
= 17KN/m
Ultimate load = 1.5 x Wu
= 25.5 KN/m
(iii) Bending for depth
Mu = 0.138 (fck x b x d2)
11.50 x 106 = 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x d2
22.50 x 106 = 2760 x d2
2760 d2 = 11.50 x 106
d = 19.73mm
d provide < d required
(v) Reinforcement details

## (i) Main bar

𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑦
Mu = 0.87 x Ast x fy x d (1 − )
𝐹𝑐𝑘 𝑏 𝑑

𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑥 415
11.5 x 106 = 0.87 x Ast x 415 x 65 (1 − )
1000 𝑥 20 𝑥 65

Ast = 607.9mm2
Ast = 78mm2
𝑎𝑠𝑡
Spacing = 1000
𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 122
4
=
78

## = 1006 say 200

Provide 12mm ∅ bar @ 200mm c/c spacing
𝑎𝑠𝑡
Ast pro = 1000
𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 122
4
=
300

## Ast pro = 261.71

hence it is safe
(ii) Distribution bar
Ast = 0.12% of b x D
0.12
= x 1000 x 60
100

Ast = 72mm
𝑎𝑠𝑡
Spacing = 1000
𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 82
4
=
72

= 1090mm
= 300mm
Provide 10mm ∅ @ 300mm c/c spacing
𝑎𝑠𝑡
Ast pro = 1000
𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔
𝜋
1000 𝑥 𝑥 1002
4
=
300

## Ast pro = 261.67

(vi) Shear calculation
Vu = Wu x 1
= 25.5 x 0.95
= 24.23 KN
𝑉𝑢
𝛿v =
𝑏𝑑

24.23 𝑥 103
=
1000 𝑥 35

= 0.69N/mm2
𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝛿c = 100
𝑏𝑑
610
= 100 x
1000 𝑥 35

= 1.74N/mm2
(refer page number : 59 IS 456 : 2000)
𝛿c = 0.74 N/mm2
𝛿c < 𝛿v
hence it is safe

DESIGN OF BEAM
Design of T-Beam
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clear span = 4m
Thickness of slab = 150mm
Fck = 20 N/mm2
Fy = 415 N/mm2
step 1 effective span
0.23 0.23
(i) c/c support = +4+
2 2

= 4.23m
Clear span + eff. Depth = 4 + 0.4
= 4.4m
1. Self weight of slab = 0.15 x 1 x 25
= 3.75KNm2
2. Floor finish = 1KN/m2
4. Self weight beam = 0.23 x 0.4 x 25
= 2.3 KN/m2
Total load = 3.75 + 1 + 3 + 2.3
= 10.05 KN/m2
Step - 3 Effective flange width
𝑏𝑢𝑙
bf = left + + 3Df
6
0.23
= 4.23 + + (3 x 0.15)
6

= 1.385m
Step – 4 Ultimate bending moment and shear force at support section,
𝑊𝑙 2
Mu =
8

10.05 𝑥 4.232
=
8

= 22.477KNm
𝑏 1000
𝑙2 42
Vu = =
2 2

= 31.25KNm
For support section
Main reinforcement
1−𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡
Mu = 0.87 fy x Ast x d x ( )
𝐹𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑑

1 −415 𝐴𝑠𝑡
22.477 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 400 x ( )
1000 𝑥 400 𝑥 200

## 22.477 x 106 = 144420 Ast (1 – 5.188 x 10-5)

22.477 x 106 = 144420 Ast – 7.49 Ast2
7.49 Ast 2 = 144420 Ast + 22.477 x 106
Ast1 = 19124.79mm2
Ast2 = 156.91 mm2
Provide 12mm ∅ bar
𝐴𝑠𝑡 156.91
No. of bar = = 𝜋
𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑥 122
4

= 1.38
= 2bars
provide 2 numbers of 12mm ∅ bar
Distribution reinforcement
0.85 𝑥 𝑏𝑤 𝑥 𝑑
Ast =
𝐹𝑦

## = 0.85 x 230 x 400

= 188.43mm2
provide 10mm ∅ bar
𝐴𝑠𝑡 188.43
No. of bar = = 𝜋
𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑥 102
4

= 2.39
= 3 bars
Provide 3 numbers of 10mm ∅ bar
For center section
Main reinforcement
1−𝐹𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡
Mu = 0.87 x Fy x Ast x d ( )
𝐹𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑑

1−𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑥 415
22.477 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 400 ( )
20 𝑥 1000 𝑥 300

Ast = 156.91mm
Provide 10mm∅ bar
𝐴𝑠𝑡 156.91
No. of bar = = 𝜋
𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑥 102
4

= 1.99
2 bars
Provide 2 numbers of 10 mm ∅ bar
Distribution Reinforcement
0.85 𝑥 𝑏𝑤 𝑥 𝑑
Ast =
𝑓𝑦

=
188.43𝑚𝑚2

## Provide 10mm ∅ bar

𝐴𝑠𝑡 188.43
No. of bar = = 𝜋
𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑥 102
4
= 2.39
3 nos
Provide 3 numbers 10mm ∅ bar
Step (5) check for deflection
𝐴𝑠𝑡
Dt = 100 x
𝑏𝑑
156.91
= 100 x = 0.039
1000 𝑥 400

## From IS:456, 2000 page No. 38 & 39

Kt = 1, Kc = 1, K = 1
𝐿 𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐿
= ( ) basic x Kt x Kc x Kf
𝑑 𝑎

= 20 x 1 x 1 x 1
= 20
𝐿 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛
=
𝑑 𝑑
4000
=
230

= 17.39
𝐿 𝐿
𝑚𝑎𝑐 > 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝑑 𝑑

Hence safe.
Reinforcement details
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Design of L Beam
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Step (1)
Clear span = length of bean = 4m
0.23 0.23
c/c support = + clearspan + =0
2 2
0.23 0.23
= +4 + 4.23m
2 2

## Thickness of slab = 150mm

Fck = 20N/mm2
Fy = 415 N/mm2
Step (2) Effective span
0.23 0.23
(i) c/c support = +4+
2 2

= 4.23m
Clear span + effective depth = 4 + 0.4 = 44m
Leff = 4.23m
(i) Self weight of slab = 0.15 x 1x 25
= 3.75 KN/m2
(ii) Floor finishing = 1 KN/m2
(iii) Self weight of beam = BxDx𝛾
= 0.23 x 0.4 x 25
= 2.3 KN/m2
Net soil pressure of ultimate load = 1.5 x W
= 1.5 x 12.05
= 18.0.75 KN/m2
Step (4) Effective flange width
𝑙𝑒𝑓𝑓
bf = + bw + 3Df
12
4.23
= + 0.23 + 3 x 0.15
12

= 1.03m
Step (5) Ultimate bending moment & SF
𝑊𝑙 2
Mu =
8

18.075 𝑥 4.232
=
8

= 40.42 KN/m
𝑀𝑢 1 18.075 𝑥 4.23
Vu = =
2 2

= 38.228 KN/m
For support section
Main reinforcement
𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑦
nu = 0.87 Fy Ast d (1 − )
𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑑

415 𝐴𝑠𝑡
40.42 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 400 (1 − )
20 𝑥 1000 𝑥 400

## 40.42 x 106 = 144420 Ast – (1 – 5.18 x 10-5 Ast)

40.42 x 106 = 144420 Ast – 7.48 Ast2
7.48 Ast2 – Ast + 40.42 x 106 = 0
Ast1 = 19023.43mm2
Ast2 = 284.05mm2
Provide 16mm ∅ bars
𝐴𝑠𝑡 284.05
No. of bars = = 𝜋
𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑥 162
4
= 1.41
2 Nos
Provide 2 number of 16mm ∅ bars
Distribution Reinforcement
0.85 𝑏𝑤 𝑑 0.85 𝑥 230 𝑥 400
Ast = =
𝑓𝑦 415

= 189 mm2
Provide 10mm ∅ bar
𝐴𝑠𝑡 189
no. of bar = = 𝜋
𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑥 102
4

= 2.4
3 nos
Provide 3 numbers 10mm ∅ bars
For centre section main reinforcement
𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡
Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d x (1 − )
𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑑

415 𝐴𝑠𝑡
40.42 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 400 (1 − )
20 𝑥 100 𝑥 400

Ast = 284.05mm2
Provide 12 ∅ bar
284.05
No. of bar = Ast = 𝜋
𝑥 122
4

= 2.511
3nos
Provide 2 no. of 12mm ∅ bars
Distribution reinforcement
0.85 𝑏𝑤𝑑 0.85 𝑥 230 𝑥 400
Ast = =
𝑡𝑦 415

= 189mm2
Provide 10mm ∅ bar
𝐴𝑠𝑡 189
No. of bar = = 𝜋
𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑥 102
4
= 3 nos
Provide 3 numbers 10mm ∅ bars
Steps 5 Check for deflection
𝐴𝑠𝑡
Dt = 100 x
𝑏𝑑
100 𝑥 284.05
= = 0.07
1000 𝑥 400

## As per IS : 456 page 7.2, 7.3, 7.4

Kt = 1
Kc = 1
Kf = 1
𝐿
𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑐 x Kt x Kc x Kf = 20 x 1 x 1 x 1
𝑑

= 20
𝐿 𝑒𝑓𝑓.𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛
𝑝𝑟𝑜 =
𝑑 𝑑

= 4230
= 10.57
𝐿 𝐿
𝑝𝑟𝑜 < basic
𝑑 𝑑

Hence safe
Reinforcement Details
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COLUMN DESIGN
Column size = 0.4m x 0.4m
Length of the column = 4m
Fck = 20 N/mm2
Fy = 415 N/mm2
Factored axial load, Pu = 1.5 x 88.36
= 132.54 KN
(i) Check for column
𝐿 4000
𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 =
𝑏 400

= 10 < 12
Hence it is a short column
(ii) Area for Dteel
Pu = (0.4 x Fck c Ac) + (0.67 x Fy x Ast)
Ac = Ag – Ast
Ag = 400 x 400
= 160000 mm2
Ac = 160 x 103 – Ast
Pu = (0.4 x Fck x Ac) + (0.67 x Fy x Ast)
132.54 x 103 = (0.4 x 20 x 160 x 106 – Ast) + (0.67 x 415 x Ast)
132.54 x 103 = 1.28 x 106 – Ast + 278.05 Ast
132.54 x 103 = 1.28 x 106 + 270.05 Ast
Ast = 4249 mm2
𝐴𝑠𝑡
No. of bar =
𝑎𝑠𝑡

Provide 16 mm ∅ bar
4249
No. of bar = 𝜋
𝑥 122
4

## No. of bar = 12nos

Provide 12 nos of 16 mm ∅ bar
(iii) Design of ties
a) To find the ties
𝜋 𝜋
1) x dia of main bar = x 16
4 4

## 2) 5mm = 5 mm (take max value)

Say dia
b) Spacing ties
1) Least lateral dimension = 400mm
2) 48 x 5 = 240mm
3) 16 x dimension of bar = 16 x 16
= 256mm
Say spacing = 240mm (min value)
Column size
Column size = 0.4m x 0.4m
Length of column = 4m
Fck = 20 N/mm2
Fy = 415 N/mm2
Factored axial load, Pu = 1.5 x p
= 1.5 x 98.5
= 147.75 KN
(i) Check for column
𝐿 4000
𝑒𝑓𝑓 =
𝑏 400

= 10 < 12
Hence it is a short column
Area of steel
Pu = (0.4 x Fck x Ac) + (0.67 x Fy x Ast)
Ac = Ag – Ast
Ag = 400 x 400
= 160 x 103 mm2
Ac = 160 x 103
147.75 x 103 = [(0.4 x 20 x (160 x 103 – Ast)] + (0.67 x 415 x Ast)
= 1.28 x 106 + 178.05 Ast
278.05 Ast – 1.28 x 106 + 147.75 x 103
Ast = 4190 mm2
𝐴𝑠𝑡
No. of bar =
𝑎𝑠𝑡

## Provide 16mm ∅ bar

4190
No. of bar = 𝜋
𝑥 162
4

= 12nos
Provide 12nos of 16mm ∅ bar
(iii) Design of ties
(a) To find dia of ties
𝜋 𝜋
(i) x ∅ of main bar = x 16
4 4

(ii) 5mm
Say = 5mm(Take max value)
(b) Spacing of ties
(i) Least central dimension = 400mm
48
(ii) = 48 x 5

## (iii) 16 x dimension of bar = 16 x 16

= 256mm
Say spacing = 240 mm (m in value)
Reinforcement Details
.

..
.
.
.
.
.
DESIGN OF ISOLATED STEP FOOTING
Column size = 0.4m x 0.4m
Size bearing capacity of soil = 350KN/m2
Fck = 20N/mm2
Fy = 415N/mm2
Factored axial load, pu = 1.5 x 500
= 750KN
(i) size of footing
Load on column = 750 KN
Weight of footing and backfill = 10% of pu
10
= x 750
100

= 75KN
Total load = 750 + 75
= 825 KN
𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
Area of footing =
𝑆𝐵𝐶
825
=
350

= 2.35m

## Size of footing, L = B= √2.35

= 1.54m
Adopt 2 x 2m step footing
(ii) Net soil pressure
𝑝𝑢
Net soil pressure at ultimate load, qu =
𝐴𝑓
𝑝𝑢
Qu =
2𝑥2
750
=
2𝑥2

= 185.5
= 0.187N/mm2
(iii) one way shear
The critical section for one way shear is at a distance, d from the column face.
Factored shearforce Vu1 = Qu x B x 1000
= 0.187 x 2000 x 1000
= 374 x 103
Assume, pt in footing = 0.25%
Permissible shear forces, 𝜗 c = 0.28N/mm2
One way shear resistance, Vc1 = 𝜗c x B x d
= 0.28 x 2000 x d
= 560d
Vu1 < Vc1
375 x 102 < 560d
d = 669mm
d ≥ 669mm
(iv) Two way shear
Assume effective depth of foting
d = 669mm
𝑑
Compute the two way shear at the critical section, ie from the face of Column
2

## Factored shear force Vu2 = Qu [B2 – (bc + d2)]

= 0.187[20002 – (400 + 6992)]
= 534.3 x 103N

## Permissible shear stress, 𝜗c = 0.25√𝐴𝑐𝑘

= 0.25√20]
= 1.118N/mm2
Two way shear resistance
Vc2 = 𝜗c x [4(bc + d) d]
= 1.118 x [4 x (400 + d) d]
Vc2 = 1888d + 4.4 + 2d2
Vu2 < Vc2
534.3 x 103 < 1888d + 4.4 + 2d2
d < 193.9mm
Therefore one way shear is more critical.
Adopt, effective depth d = 699nn
Overall depth, D = 699 + 50
= 749 ≈ 750 mm
(v) Design of reinforcement
Consider 1m length
Ultimate moment @ column face
1
= Qu x 1 x
2
1
= 187.5 x 1 x
2

= 93.75KNm
𝑀𝑢 93.75 𝑥 106
=
𝑏𝑑2 1000 𝑥 6992

= 0.19
𝐴𝑠𝑡
Pt = 100 x
𝑏𝑑2
𝑏𝑑
Ast = pt x
100
1000 𝑥 699
= 0.25 x
100

= 1747.5mm2
Provide 18 mm ∅ bar
𝑎𝑠𝑡
Spacing = 1000 x
𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝜋
𝑥 182
4
= 1000 x
1747.5

= 145.6
= 150
Provide 18mm ∅ bar @ 150mm c/c spacing on both direction.
Reinforcement Detail
.
.
.
.
DATA PREPARATION
Sub Data: Cement mortar 1:3 – m3
Qty Description Rate Per Amount

## 480kg Cement 280 50kg 2688

1m3 Sand 97.5 m3 97.5
1m3 Mixing change 27 m3 27
Rate for m3 2812.50

## Sub Data: Cement mortar 1:4 – m3

Qty Description Rate Per Amount

## 360kg Cement 280 50kg 2016

1m3 Sand 97.5 m3 97.5
1m3 Mixing change 27 m3 27
Rate for m3 2140.50

## Sub Data: Cement mortar 1:5 – m3

Qty Description Rate Per Amount

## 288kg Cement 280 50kg 1612.8

1m3 Sand 97.5 m3 97.5
1m3 Mixing change 27 m3 27
Rate for m3 1737.3

## Sub Data: Foundation cement concrete c c 1:5:10-10 m3

Qty Description Rate Per Amount(Rs)
9.5m3 Broken stone 40mm Size 45 m3 427.5
9.75m3 Cement mortor 1:5 1737.3 m3 16935.175
1.8 Mason I Class 175 Each/day 315
17.7 Mazdoor I class 123 Each/day 2177
14.1 Mazdoor II class 111 Each/day 1565.10
Rate for m3 21420.8
Sub Data: Earth work excavation for foundation – 103
Qty Description Rate Per Amount(Rs)
1m3 Earth work 19.25 m3 19.25
excavation
1.75 Nos Mazdoor I 175 Each/day 306.25
class
3.57 Nos Mazdoor II 111 Each/day 416.75
class
Rete for 1m3 741.75

## Sub Data: Plastering with 1:4-15 mm thick – 10m3

Qty Description Rate Per Amount(Rs)
0.18m3 Cement concrete 1.4 2140.5 m3 387
1.5Nos Mason I Class 179 Each/day 18.14
0.5 Nos Mazdoor I class 123 Each/day 438.75
2 Nos Mazdoor II class 101 Each/day 567
2374.4
Rate for 10m3 7350.59

## Sub Data: flooring with C.C.1:4 -100mm thick -10 m3

Qty Description Rate Per Amount(Rs)
0.1m3 Cement concrete 2812.5 m3 281.25
1.1 Nos Mason I class 179 Each/day 196.9
1.1 Nos Mazdoor I class 112 Each/day 123.2
1.1 Mazdoor II class 101 Each/day 111.1
Rate for 10m3 712.45

## Sub Data: Wood work

Qty Description Rate Per Amount(Rs)
0.05m3 Teak wood 76950.0 m3 3847
scanting
0.07m3 Teak wood 75500.0 m3 5285
scanting
0.054m3 Teak wood 81000.0 m3 4374
planks
2.59m2 labours 100 m2 259
changes
L.S. Furniture 120 L.S. 120
Rate for 1m 13885.5

## Rate for 1m3 1388.55

Main data for sand filling 10m2
Qty Description Rate Per Amount

## Rate for 10m2 = Rs.901.25/-

Rate for 1 m2 = Rs.90.125/-
R.C.C slab 130mm thick in C.C 1:2:4 for 10m3
Sub data:(C.C 1:2:4 for 10m3)
Qty Description Rate Per Amount
9m3 Broken stone(20mm 511.85 1m3 4606.65
Size)
4.5m3 Sand 794.25 1m3 3574.12
3230 Cement 250.00 50Kg 16150.00
3.5 Mason I 235.00 Each/day 822.5
21.2 Mazdoor grade I 185.00 Each/day 3922.00
35.3 Mazdoor grade II 165.00 Each/day 5824.50

## Rate for 10m2 Rs.34899.77/-

Rate for 1m2 Rs.3489.977/-
R.C.C 1:2:4 beam 10m3
Qty Description Rate Per Amount
1m2 Cement concrete 3489.97 m3 3489.97
150kg Steel 37.45 kg 5617.50
1.5kg Binding wire 35.00 Kg 52.50
10m2 Centering charge 70.00 m2 700.00
150kg Steel fabrication 3.00 kg 450.00

## Rate for 10m2 Rs.10309.97/-

Rate for 1m2 Rs.1030.997/-
Painting the wood work two coats over a prime coat 10m
Qty Description Rate Per Amount
10m2 Prime coat 400.00 10m2 400.00
10m2 Prime coat 700.00 10m2 700.00

## Rate for 10m2 = Rs.1100.00/-

Rate for 1m2 = Rs.110.00/-
Weathering Course
Sub date: 1m2
Qty Description Rate Per Amount
0.9m3 Lime 500 m3 450.00
0.25m3 Surki 450 m3 112.50
0.75m3 sand 794.85 m3 595.68
10m3` Grinding charge 70 m3 70.00
0.95m3 Broken stone 317.70 m3 3010.82

## Rate for 1m3 = Rs. 1530/-

Main Data
Qty Description Rate Per Amount
3.8m3 Lime 1530.00 m3 5814.00
1.8Nos Masion I 225.00 Day 405.00
3.5Nos Mazdoor 185.00 Day 647.00
3.5Nos Mazdoor 165.00 Day 472.50

## Rate for 10m2 = Rs.7339/-

Rate for 1m2 = Rs.733.9/-
Main data doe column R.C.C. 1:2:4 for 1m3
Qty Description Rate Per Amount
1m2 Cement 3489.97 mj 3489.97
concrete
180Kg Steel 37.45 kg 6741.00
2kg Binding wire 35.00 kg 70.00
10.5m3 Centering 70.00 m2 735.00
charge
180kg Steel 3.00 kg 540.00
fabrication
10.5 Masion I 225.00 day 2362.50
3.5Nos Mazdoor 185.00 day 647.50
3.5Nos Mazdoor 165.00 day 577.50

## Rate for 10m2 = Rs.15163.47/-

Rate for 1m2 = Rs.1516.347/-
DETAILES ESTIMATE OF A PROPOSED BUILDING
PART A – GROUND FLOOR
Sl.No specification No: length breadth depth Qty
1 Earth work Excavation
i) Walls 1 123.0 0.60 1.00 73.80
ii) Column 15 0.6 0.60 1.20 6.48
ii) Steps 1 9.7 0.60 1.20 6.98
Total
2 PCC below foundation 1 123.0 0.60 0.20 14.76
3 Foundation R R masonry 1 123.0 0.60 0.60 44.28
4 Basement R R masonry 1 123.0 0.45 0.45 21.91
5 Earth Filling
a) Reading Hall 1 5.00 9.25 0.50 23.13
b) Librarians cabin 1 4.00 4.00 0.50 8.00
c) Lounge 1 5.20 7.20 0.50 18.72
d) Circulation counter 1 4.00 3.00 0.50 6.00
e) Reference section 1 6.65 5.88 0.50 19.55
f) Lending section 1 1 8.00 8.50 0.50 34.00
g) Lending section 2 1 10.90 4.39 0.50 23.93
b) Washing area 1 2.16 3.52 0.50 3.80
i) Ladies toilet 1 1.70 2.00 0.50 1.70
j) Gents toilet 1 1.70 2.00 0.50 1.70
K) Veranda 1 14.90 2.00 0.50 14.90
Total 155.42
6 Brick Work
i) Wall 1 123.0 0.23 3.00 84.87
ii) step bottom 1 9.7 0.60 0.15 0.87
iii)Step top 1 9.7 0.30 0.15 0.44
Deductions
Lintel 1 123.0 0.23 0.15 4.24
Wood work
Door D 3 1.0 0.23 2.10 1.45
Door D1 1 0.9 0.23 2.10 0.43
Door D2 2 0.8 0.23 2.10 0.72
Opening O 3 1.0 0.23 2.10 1.45
Window
W3 10 1.8 0.23 1.50 6.21
W2 1 1.2 0.23 1.50 0.41
Ventilator V 2 1.52 0.23 0.60 0.33
Sum 15.26
Total 86.3 -15.26
7 Wood work
Door D 3 1.0 2.10 6.30
D1 1 0.9 2.10 1.89
Windows
W3 10 1.8 1.50 27.00
W2 1 1.5 1.50 2.25
Ventilator V 2 1.2 0.60 1.44
Total 38.88
8 Grill 16Kg/m2 30.0 16.00 480.00
9 R.C.C
a) Plinth beam 1 123.0 0.23 0.20
b) Lintel 1 123.0 0.23 0.15 4.24
c) Column 15 0.3 0.30 3.00 3.38
d) Beam 5 15.0 0.360 0.40 9.00
e) Sunshade 1 71.0 0.60 0.08 3.41
f) Roof slab 312.0 M2 0.10 31.20
g) Stair slab 1 7.5 1.00 0.10 0.75
51.98
10 Steel
a) Plinth beam 120Kg/m3 5.7 120.00 684.00
b) Lintel 110Kg/m3 4.2 110.00 466.40
c) Roof Slab 8Kg/m3 31.2 80.00 2496.00
d) Beams 95 Kg/m3 9.0 95.00 855.00
e) column 98Kg/m3 3.4 98.00 331.24
f) sun shade 130Kg/m3 3.4 130.00 442.00
g) Other slabs130Kg/m3 2.0 130.00 260.00
Total 5534.64
11 Plastering
a) External Wall
i) Wall 1 72.00 3.10 223.20
Deductions for wood work 224.00 39.00 185.00
b) Internal Wall
i) Reading hall 1 28.50 3.00 85.50
ii) Librarians cabin 1 16.00 3.00 48.00
iii) Lounge 1 24.80 3.00 74.40
iv) Circulation counter 1 14.00 3.00 42.00
v) Reference section 1 25.06 3.00 75.18
vi) Lending section 1 1 33.00 3.00 99.00
vii) Lending section 2 1 30.00 3.00 90.00
viii) Wash area 1 11.00 3.00 33.00
xi) Ladies toilet 1 7.40 3.00 22.20
x) Gents toilet 1 7.40 3.00 22.20
Deductions for wood work 592.00 39.00
c) Ceiling
i) Reading hall 1 5.00 9.25 46.25
ii) Librarians cabin 1 4.00 4.00 16.00
iii) Lounge 1 5.20 7.20 37.44
iv) Circulation 1 4.00 3.00 12.00
v) Reference section 1 6.65 5.88 39.10
vi) Lending section 1 1 8.00 8.50 68.00
vii) Lending section 2 1 10.90 4.40 47.96
viii) Wash area 1 2.16 3.52 7.60
ix) Ladies toilet 1 1.70 2.00 3.40
x) Gents toilet 1 1.70 2.00 3.40
xi)Verandha 1 14.90 2.00 29.80
Total 310.96
12 P.C.C below floor
i) Reading hall 1 5.00 9.25 0.08 3.47
ii) Librarians 1 4.00 4.00 0.08 1.20
iii) Lounge 1 5.20 7.20 0.08 2.81
iv) Circulation section 1 4.00 3.00 0.08 0.90
v) Reference section 1 6.65 5.88 0.08 2.93
vi) Lending section 1 1 8.00 8.50 0.08 2.93
vii) Lending section 2 1 10.90 4.40 0.08 3.60
viii) Wash area 1 2.16 3.52 0.08 0.57
ix) Ladies toilet 1 1.70 2.00 0.08 0.26
x) Gents toilet 1 1.70 2.00 0.08 0.26
xi) Verandha 1 14.90 2.00 0.08 2.24
Total 23.32

## Sl.No specification No: length breadth depth Qty

13 Flooring
i) Reading hall 1 5.00 9.25 46.25
ii) Librarians 1 4.00 4.00 16.00
iii) Lounge 1 5.20 7.20 37.44
iv) Circulation section 1 4.00 3.00 12.00
v) Reference section 1 6.65 5.88 39.10
vi) Lending section 1 1 8.00 8.50 68.00
vii) Lending section 2 1 10.90 4.40 47.96
viii) Wash area 1 2.16 3.52 7.60
ix) Ladies toilet 1 1.70 2.00 3.40
x) Gents toilet 1 1.70 2.00 3.40
xi) Verandha 1 14.90 2.00 19.80
Total 310.96
14 Tiles of toilet 2 1.70 2.20 7.48
20.08

17 Painting
a) External Wall
b) Internal Wall
c) Ceiling
d) Wood work

## Sl.No specification No: length breadth depth Qty

1 super structure Brick 1 71.00 0.23 3.00 48.99
Deductions
lintel 1 70.0 0.23 0.15 2.45
Wood work
Door D 1 1.0 0.23 2.10 0.48
Window
W3 12 1.8 0.23 1.50 7.45
W2 1 1.2 0.23 1.50 0.41
Sum 10.80
2 Wood work
D 1 1.0 2.10 2.10
Window
W3 12 1.8 1.40 32.40
W2 1 1.5 1.50 2.25
Total 36.75
3 Grill 16 KG/m2 37.00 16.00 592.00
4 R.C.C
a)Lintel 1 71.00 0.23 0.15 2.45
b) Sunshade 1 71.00 0.60 0.08 3.41
c) Beam 5 15.00 0.35 0.23 6.04
d) Roof Slab 1 312.00 M2 0.10 31.20
Total 46.47
5 Steel
a) Lintel 110Kg/m3 2.45 110.00 269.50
b) Roof slab 80 Kg/m3 31.20 80.00 2496.00
c) Beams 95 Kg/m3 6.00 95.00 570.00
d) Sunshade 130 3.40 130.00 442.00
Kg/m3
e) Column 98 Kg/m3 3.4 98.00 331.24
4108.74
6 Plastering
a) External Wall
(i) Wall 1 71.00 3.60 255.60
Deductions for wood 256.00 37.00 219.00
work
b) Internal Wall
(i) Hall 1 65.00 3.00 195.00
Sum 195.00
Deductions 37.00 195.00 158.00
c) Ceiling
(i) Hall 1 14.69 17.96 263.83
Total
d) Above Roof Slab 312.00 m2 55.00
e) Sunshade 2 71.00 0.60 85.20
140.20
7 Flooring
(i) Hall 1 14.69 17.96 263.83
Total 263.83
8 Drip Mould 40.00
9 Painting
a) External Wall
b) Internal Wall
c) Ceiling
d) Wood Work