Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26


LET Reviewer
Biology Majorship

Biological Science 1 (Plant and Animal Biology 1)

 classification of organisms and the evolutionary relationships among them

 study of grouping and classification

 any named group of organisms that is sufficiently distinct to be assigned to a certain category

Levels of Classification

Binomial system of classification

 by Carolus Linnaeus
 use of Genus and Species
o make up the scientific name
o first letter of the genus is always capitalized, while the species name starts with a small letter. It
should be in italics (underlining the genus and species means it is in italics)
Example: Homo sapiens
Mus musculus
Common name
 less precise
 could refer to more than one organism

Six kingdom scheme

 prokaryotic (without true nucleus)
 extremophiles
 no peptidoglycan in the cell wall
 classification

Group Characteristic Representative species

Thermophile Heat loving Thermus aquaticus
Methanogen Release methane as by product Methanobacterium
Halophile Salt loving Halobacterium
Acidophiles Acid loving Ferroplasma acidarmanus

 true bacteria
 prokaryotic (without true nucleus)
 with peptidoglycan in the cell wall
 classification (based on shape)
Group Shape Representative species
Coccus Round Staphylococcus
Bacillus Rod Streptobacilli
Spiral Twisted Spirillum

Classification Characteristic/s
Diplococci Two cocci
Streptococci Chain of cocci
Tetrad Four (4) cocci; division in two (2) planes
Sarcinae Eight (8) cocci, Cube like arrangement; division in three (3) planes
Staphylococci Clusters of cocci

 eukaryotic (with true nucleus)
 with plant, animal and fungus like characteristics
 unicellular eukaryotes
Fungus like Protists
Phylum Characteristics Representative species Economic importance
Water Molds Found in damp environments Phytophthora infestans Causes potato blight
Slime Molds lack chitin in their cell walls Physarum polycephalum Decomposition

Animal like Protists

Phylum Mode of locomotion Representative species Economic importance
Sarcodina Pseudopodia Amoeba Causes amoebiasis
Ciliata Cilia Paramecium Plays a key role in the food
chain of ponds
Mastigophora Flagella Trypanosoma Causes African sleeping
Sporozoa None Plasmodium Causes malaria

Plant like Protists

Phylum Description Representative species Economic importance
Rhodophyta Red algae Porphyra Source of nori, an edible
Chlorophyta Green algae Caulerpa Source of food
Phaeophyta Brown algae Sargassum Habitat for marine animals
Chrysophyta yellow-green algae Diatoms Produces the diatomaceous
earth used for abrasives and
filtering aids
Dinoflagellates Some are Gonyaulax Causes red tides

 eukaryotic (with true nucleus)
 heterotroph (consumer)
 some are saprophytes (consume decaying plants) and some are parasitic
 classification
o zygomycetes (common molds)
 resistant spherical spores
 living in soil or on decaying plant or animal material
 example-black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer)
o basidiomycetes (club fungi)
 fungi with gills or pores
 examples are mushrooms and bracket fungi.
o ascomycetes (sac fungi)
 examples of sac fungi include morels, truffles, yeast
o deuteromycetes (imperfect fungi)
 have no sexual reproduction
 examples Penicillum
 eukaryotic (with true nucleus)
 autotroph (producer)
 photosynthetic


Non vascular
(Bryophytes) Vascular

Liverwort Hornwort
(Bryophyta) Seedless Seeded
(Hepatophyta) (Anthocerophyta

Fern allies Fern Non Flowering Flowering

Gymnosperm Angiosperm

Monocot Dicot

Type of Arrangement
Type of Number of Type of leaf Type of root
flowering of vascular
flower cotyledon venation system
plant bundles
Monocot Floral parts in one seed Scattered Parallel Diffused or
multiples of leaf vascular leaf veins fibrous
3’s bundles
Dicot Floral parts in Two seed Vascular Netted leaf Taproot
multiples of leaf bundles in veins system
4’s or 5’s rings or

 eukaryotic (with true nucleus)
 heterotroph (consumer)

Dichotomous key
 determines the classification of an organism

Basic needs of plants

 solid (although soil less farming called hydroponics can be done)
 minerals
Manganese, zinc, iron, boron, copper, nickel, molybdenum and chlorine
Sulfur, phosphorus, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium and
 air (CO2)
 water
 light

Some benefits of plants

 Food
 Shelter
 Source of oxygen for other organisms
 Phytoremediation-help in the breakdown or reduce the concentration of pollutants in the

Basic needs of animals

 food
 water
 air (O2)

Some benefits of animals

 food
 biological regulation
 medicinal use

Biological Science 1 (Plant and Animal Biology 2)

 anchorage and absorption
 protection, support, reproduction, and storage (by specialized roots)
 root systems include taproot, fibrous, and adventitious
o Taproot- composed of the primary secondary and tertiary roots
o Fibrous- of an extensive mass of similarly sized roots
o Adventitious-arise from the other parts of the plant like in the main branches, twigs and leaves

 main support system
 composed of the main stem and their branches
 can be with lenticels (serve as the breathing organ)
 can be with leaf scars and bundle scars
 with annual rings (can estimate the age of a tree)
 can be specialized (ex tuber, stolon)
 serves in photosynthesis
 with stomata (entry of CO2 and exit of H2O vapor)
 can be specialized (ex tendrils, spines)

 reproductive structure
 male part is the stamen (pollen)
 female part is the carpel (ovary)
 develop to become the fruit

 Xylem
o conducts water from roots to leaves
o composed of tracheids and xylem vessels

 Phloem
o conducts sugar from leaves to other parts
o composed of sieve tube members and companion cells

 by photosynthesis
CO2 + H2O --------------> C6H12O6 + O2

 may be supplemented by carnivory (usually consumption of insects) like in the Venus fly trap and
Pitcher plant
 pollination (transfer of pollen to the stigma) followed by fertilization (union of sperm and egg)
 has double fertilization
 may be sexual (using seeds) or asexual reproduction
 life span can be annual, biennial or perennial

 can holotrophic (feeding on solid organic material), saprotrophic (feeding on soluble organic
compounds obtained from dead animals and plants) or parasitic (feeding on the organic
substances present in the body of another living organism)
 some structures for obtaining food are tentacles, claws, teeth, and pinchers
 food is taken into the gut or alimentary canal
 Food is subjected to chemical and physical digestion then absorbed

 can be water-filled canals (like in jellyfishes) or in circulatory system (like in vertebrates and certain
 circulation can be open or closed (blood stays in the vessels)

Gas exchange
 can diffuse in the tracheal tubes (like in insects), skin (like coelenterates, flatworms and many
annelids), gills (like in fishes), and lungs (like in most vertebrates)

Excretion and Osmoregulation

 kidney (like in vertebrates), malphigian tubules (like in insects)

 wings (in birds), tails and fins (in fishes and aquatic mammals like dolphin and whales)

 may be asexual (no gametes needed)
Fission- divides into two or more equal-sized parts
Budding- outgrowth develops on the parent animal that becomes a new individual
 may be sexual (gametes needed)

Behavioral Adaptations
 Reflex actions- can happen unconsciously
 Learning- adaptive change in behavior due to past experiences
 habituation- subjected to repeated stimulation

Principle of Unity in Diversity

 All organisms are made up of cells
 The continuity of life from generation to generation is explained by the presence of the genetic
 The complimentarity between structure and function is true to all living forms
 Evolutionary change is the key to the diversity of life.
 Interaction with the environment
 Stability and homeostasis
 Reproduction

Complimentarity between Structure and Function

 a relationship between the structure and function
 example
o cell provided with great number of mitochondria must be a very active cell in terms of energy

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry

 anything that has mass and occupies space


Pure Mixture

Element Compound Homogenous Heterogeneous

 tiniest particles of an element
 have subatomic particles
o proton-positive
o neutron- neutral
o electron-negative
 has atomic number (number of protons)
 has atomic mass (number of protons and neutrons)

 same atomic number but of different mass number
 Example
o Hydrogen-1, Hydrogen-2 and Hydrogen-3
o Carbon -12, Carbon-14

 charged particles
 can be cations (positively charged) or anions( negatively charged)

 composed of one type of atom that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.

 aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds

 composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions
 can be decomposed by chemical means into simpler substances

 consist of two or more substances wherein their composition varies
 May be homogenous (one phase) or heterogenous (multiple phase)
 Examples of homogenous mixture
o vinegar
 Examples of heterogenous mixture
o Soil

Periodic Table
 horizontal rows called period (indicates the number of energy levels)
 vertical column called group or family (indicates the number of valence electrons)
 element in the periodic table can be metals, metalloids or non metals
Covalent bond
 sharing of valence electron

Ionic bond
 formed by oppositely charged ions
 there is complete transfer of electron from one atom to another

Hydrogen bond (in water)

 bond that exist between an atom of a hydrogen in one water molecule and an atom of oxygen in another
water molecule

States of matter
 Solid
o molecules are closely bound to one another by molecular forces
o holds its shape
o volume of a solid is fixed by the shape of the solid.
 Liquid
o molecular forces are weaker than solid
o takes the shape of its container
o can flow
 Gas
o molecular forces are very weak.
o take both the shape and the volume of the container
o can flow

 forms the backbone of biology for all life on Earth.
 Complex molecules are made up of carbon bonded with other elements, especially oxygen, hydrogen and
nitrogen (carbon is able to bond with all of these because of its four valence electrons)

 contracts until it reaches 40 C then it expands until it is solid.
 Solid water is less dense that liquid water (thus, ice floats)
 Can be attracted to other water (cohesion).
 can be attracted to other materials (adhesion).
 High surface tension
 High boiling point
 Water has a high specific heat (amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one
degree Celsius)

Chemical reactions
 Synthesis
o A + B  AB
 Decomposition
o CD  C + D
 Single displacement
o EF + G  EG + F
 Double displacement
o IJ +Kl  IL +KJ

Biochemistry and Cell Biology

 Carbohydrates
o Immediate source of energy
o made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
o simplest carbohydrate formula of CH2O
o Can be classified as monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide
o Examples of monosaccharide
 Fructose-fruit sugar
 Glucose
 Galactose
o Examples of disaccharide
 Maltose (glucose + glucose)-for making beer
 Sucrose (glucose + fructose)-table sugar
 Lactose (glucose + galactose)-milk sugar
o Examples of polysaccharide
 Glycogen-storage carbohydrate of animals
 Starch-storage carbohydrate of plants
 Cellulose-for protection
 Chitin- polysaccharide found in the outer skeleton of insects, crabs, shrimps, lobsters and
cell wall of fungi

 Proteins
o Building blocks are amino acids
 Amino acids may be essential (can not be synthesized by the body)
 phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, leucine, and
(Any Help) In Learning These Little Molecules Proves Truly Valuable
 Amino acids may be non essential (can be synthesized by the body)
 Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartate, Cysteine, Glutamate, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline,
Serine, Tyrosine, Arginine, Histidine
 Individuals living with phenylketonuria (PKU) must keep their intake of phenylalanine
extremely low to prevent mental retardation and other metabolic complications. However,
phenylalanine is the precursor for tyrosine synthesis. Without phenylalanine, tyrosine
cannot be made and so tyrosine becomes essential in the diet of PKU patients.

o Special proteins that hastens chemical reaction is called enzymes

o Protein deficiency leads to a disease called kwashiorkor (characterized by edema, irritability,
anorexia, ulcerating dermatoses, and an enlarged liver)

 Lipids
o Huge storage of energy
o Can be phospholipid, fats, waxes, oils, steroids
 Fats-glycerol + 3 fatty acids
 unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature
 unsaturated fats can be made saturated by adding hydrogen atoms
 saturated fats are solid at room temperature
 Consumption of large amount of saturated fats has been associated with
atherosclerosis. (plaques are deposited on the walls of blood vessel reducing
blood flow)
 Waxes
 fatty acid linked to alcohol
 more hydrophobic and serve as natural coats
 covers of fruits and leaves of plants that appear shiny
 Some insects have waxy coats that prevent then from drying out.
 Phospholipid
 important in cellular membranes
 Two fatty acids are linked to glycerol. A phosphate group is attached to the
 Steroid
 example is cholesterol
 The backbone is not an alcohol but a four-ring hydrocarbon

 Nucleic acids
o Storage of information
o Transmit parental traits to offspring
o Building blocks are called nucleotide (sugar + nitrogenous base +phosphate group)
o Can be DNA or RNA
Criteria DNA RNA
Pyrimidine base Cytosine (C) and thymine (T) Cytosine (C) and Uracil (U)
Purine base Adenine (A) and guanine (G) Adenine (A) and guanine (G)
Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose
Phosphate group Present Present
Number of strands 2 1
Location Nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast Nucleus, cytoplasm, ribosomes

Robert Hooke
 discovered the cell

Theodor Schwann (zoologist) and Matthias Jakob Schleiden (botanist)

 stated that cells were the basic unit of life.

Rudolf Virchow
 stated tat cells come from pre-existing cells

Cell theory
 Cells are the basic unit of life
 All organisms are composed of cells. Every living thing is either single-celled or multi-celled.
 all cells arise from pre-existing cells (Except for the origin of life itself).

 No true nucleus
 With nucleoid region

 With true nucleus
Structures Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic Cell
Cell wall Peptidoglycan with unique amino cellulose
Plasma membrane present present
organelles Not membrane-bound Membrane-bound
Sub-cellular Structure in Ribosomes ( 70S) Ribosomes (80S)
cytoplasm Thylakoid Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Vacuole and vesicle
Cilia and flagella Does not have a 9 + 2 pattern of With 9 + 2 pattern of
microtubule microtubules
Centriole absent 9 + 0 pattern of microtubule
Nucleus Nucleoid (not enclosed by a Nuclear envelope surrounding
membrane) nucleoplasm, chromatin and
Innumerable enzymes nucleolus
Chromosome (loop of DNA)
nucleolus absent Concentrated area of chromatin,
RNA and proteins

Cellular structures
 Cell membrane
o For protection
o Explained by the fluid mosaic model
 Phospholipid is bilayer interspersed with proteins
 Fluid because component move throughout the membrane
 mosaic because of integral proteins, peripheral proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids,
glycolipids, and in some cases cholesterol, lipoproteins.

 Mitochondrion
o Production of ATP
o Enclosed by the inner membrane is a jelly-like matrix.
o folds are called cristae
o has its own DNA
 Chloroplast
o pigment-containing
o has of small flattened sacs called thylakoids
 thylakoids are arranged in stacks called granum
o has its own DNA

 Ribosome
o Make proteins
o May be attached (in rough endoplasmic reticulum) or free

 Endoplasmic Reticulum
o May be Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
 Contain ribosomes
 For protein synthesis
 Flattened
o May be Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
 No ribosomes
 For lipid synthesis and detoxification
 Tubular

 Golgi Apparatus
o modifies and packages materials

 Vacuole
o Surrounded by tonoplast
o For storage and osmotic regulation

 Lysosome
o For intracellular digestion
o Contain digestive enzymes
o Suicide bag of the cell
o May destroy cellular debris, pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

 Microtubules
o provides structural support and allows motion
o has protein subunits called tubulin.

 Nucleus
o Control center of the cell because of the presence of genetic material
o Surrounded by the nuclear membrane

 Flagellum/Cilia
o Has 9+2 microtubular arrangement
o For movement
 Centrioles
o Has 9+0 microtubular arrangement
o For cellular division

 Nucleolus
o Assembles rRNA

Plant and animal cell

Animal Cell Plant Cell

Mitochondria present present
Animal Cell Plant Cell
Cell wall None Yes
Plastids No Yes
One or more small vacuoles One, large central vacuole
(much smaller than plant cells).
taking up 90% of cell volume.
Ribosomes Present Present
Only present in lower plant
Centrioles Always present
Lysosomes Lysosomes occur in cytoplasm. Lysosomes usually not evident.
Plasma Membrane Present Present
Cell wall Absent Present
Chloroplast Absent Present
Nucleus Present Present

 Passive
o Does not use ATP (the energy currency of the cell)
o Movement is through the concentration gradient (from high concentration to low concentration)
o Examples
 Diffusion
 movement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules) from a region in which they are
in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. It continues until the
concentration of substances is uniform
 Applications
 Gas exchange for respiration
 Gas exchange for photosynthesis
 Facilitated diffusion
 movement of specific molecules down a concentration gradient, using a carrier
 Osmosis
 Diffusion of water through a partially permeable membrane
 Water movement in
 Hypotonic environment-net water movement is going inside; animal cell
burst; plant cell turgid (no bursting because of presence of cell wall)
 Hypertonic environment-net water movement is leaving the cell; cell
plasmolyzed (shrink)
 Isotonic environment-water entering and exiting the cell is the same; cell
remains the same in shape
 Applications
 Absorption of water by plant roots
 Re-absorption of water by the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the
nephron (basic unit of the kidney)
 Absorption of water by the alimentary canal

 Active
o Uses ATP
o Movement is against the concentration gradient (from low concentration to high concentration)
o Example
 Sodium potassium pump

 Bulk transport
o Endocytosis-cell membrane folds to ingest particles
 Phagocytosis-‘eating’
 Pinocytosis-‘drinking’
o Exocytosis-release of materials from the cell; very important in waste disposal

Cell division

 G1- The cell increases in size
 S- DNA is synthesized
 G2- significant protein being synthesized
*G0-non dividing phase

Through Mitosis
 Happens in somatic cells (all cells except the sex cells)
 Daughter cells are the same with the parent cells
 Some importance of mitosis
o Healing of wound
o Replace of worn out tissue
o Replacement of skin cells

 has four phases

Phase Events
Prophase Chromosome condensation
Spindle formation
Breakdown of nuclear envelope
Metaphase Movement of chromosome in the equatorial plate (also called metaphase
plate, equatorial plane, metaphase plane)
Anaphase Separation of sister chromatids
Movement of separated sister chromatids to opposite poles
Telophase Reformation of the nuclear envelope
Cleavage furrow is prominent in animal cell
Cell plate is prominent in plant cell

Through Meiosis
 Happens in sex cells
 Daughter cells have half of the genetic materials (haploid cell) of the parent cells
 Some importance of meiosis
o Restore diploid state of parent cell
o Production of sperm and egg cells
 Has two divisions (First division is called reductional phase; Second division is called equational phase)

Prophase I Synapsis or pairing of the homologous
Crossing-over (recombination or physical exchange of equal pieces of
adjacent non-sister chromatids ) follows
Metaphase I Homologous chromosomes align at the equatorial plate
Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes separate with sister chromatids remaining
Telophase I Two daughter cells are formed with each daughter cell containing only
one chromosome of the homologous pair
Prophase II DNA does not replicate
Metaphase II Chromosomes align at the equatorial plate
Anaphase II Sister chromatids migrate separately to each pole.
Telophase II Cell division is complete.
Four haploid daughter cells are produced.

 cytoplasm divides to form two daughter cells
 happens after telophase

 cells have uncontrolled mitosis resulting to uncontrolled growth
 division beyond the normal limits
 may spread to other parts of the body (metastasis)

Genetics and Evolution

 study of heredity
o Heredity is the transmission of genes from one generation to the next generation

Gregor Mendel
 Father of Genetics
 used the garden pea (Pisum sativum)
 Results of Experiment
o First generation- purebred tall plants were crossed with purebred short plants all the offspring were
tall plants.
o Second generation- tall plants, which were the progeny of the first generation, were crossed with
themselves 75% or ¾ of the resulting progeny were tall plants and 25% or ¼ of the plants were
 Mendelian Laws of Genetics
o Mendel Law of Dominance
 When recessive genes are with the dominant genes , the dominant genes are the ones
o Law of Segregation
 states that all the genes for all the traits of an organism are equally divided and are
equally distributed in all the resulting gametes after meiosis
o Law of Independent Assortment
 states that alleles of different genes are distributed randomly to the gametes and
fertilization occurs at random

Non Mendelian Patterns of inheritance

 Incomplete Dominance
o states that a cross between homozygous dominant and recessive genes will result to a progeny of
heterozygous genes determining an intermediate trait between the dominant trait and recessive
o Example-Red and white flowers produce pink flowers
 Co-dominance
o Detectable genetic expression of two alleles
o Example-Blood group
 Multiple Allelism
o A given gene can have more than two (2) alleles
o Can only be studied in populations
o Example-ABO blood group; Bombay phenotype (a person with antigens for blood type A, B or AB
has Blood type O)
 Sex Link
o gene responsible for a specific trait is located on a sex chromosome
o Example- Color blindness and hemophilia in humans

 Sex limited
o The phenotype is the same in a specific gender regardless of the genotype
o Example
Female Male
HH Hen-feathered Hen-feathered
Hh Hen-feathered Hen-feathered
hh Hen-feathered Cock-feathered

 Sex influenced
o Heterozygous genotype may exhibit one phenotype one sex and the contrasting one on the other
o Example
Female Male
BB Bald Bald
Bb Not Bald Bald
bb Not Bald Not Bald

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance

 Mendelian factors or genes are located on chromosomes
 It is the chromosome that segregates and independently assort
 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis on the behavior of chromosomes during sexual life cycles. (In
the early 1900s, geneticists showed that chromosomal movements in meiosis account for Mendel’s laws.)
 Morgan traced a gene to a specific chromosome which led to the discovery that the X chromosome in
Drosophila carries a gene for eye color. This supported the chromosome theory of inheritance

 change in genes or chromosomes, which causes a new trait to be inherited
 may be inheritable (change occurs in the sex cells) or non heritable (change occurs in the somatic cells)
 may be negative (cause of sickness like sickle cell anemia) or positive (cause desirable traits like superior
intelligence) mutation
 possible causes (mutagen)
o radiation (x-rays, ultraviolet rays, cosmic rays and radioactive substances)
o chemical (formaldehyde, benzene)
 Types
o Single gene disorders
 information contained in the particular gene is either changed or absent
o Chromosome Abnormalities or Chromosomal aberrations
 Changes in number
 Changes in structure
o Mitochondrial disorders
 genes in the mitochondria (egg contains most of the mitochondrial cells) is altered
o Multifactorial disorders
 caused by a combination of genetic changes and environmental factors

DNA replication
 Unzipping
o DNA unwinds
o Use the enzyme helicase to unzip

 Complementary base pairing

o nucleotides match with place by complementary bases
 A binds with T and vice versa
 G binds with C and vice versa

 Joining of adjacent nucleotides

o The joining of the sugar/phosphate parts of adjacent nucleotide molecules causes the length of the
new DNA molecule to increase

Protein Synthesis
 Transcription
o Unzipping or Initiation
o Complementary base pairing
 A pairs with U
 T pairs with A
 G pairs with C and vice versa
o Joining of adjacent nucleotides

 Translation
o mRNA codons are read in the ribosomes.
o ends with the production of proteins.
o tRNA carries the amino acids to the ribosome; tRNA anticodons match with the codons

Regulation of Gene Expression

 in prokaryotes, control of transcriptional initiation is the major point of regulation
 in eukaryotes the regulation of gene expression is controlled nearly equivalently from many different points

Applications of Genetics
 Genetic Engineering
 Animal Cloning
 Plant Cloning
 DNA Fingerprinting
 Creation of Monoclonal Antibodies
 Tissue Engineering

Benefits of Biotechnology

In Agriculture:
 Improved crop varieties and animals in terms of quality traits, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses
 Enhanced crop protections thru diagnostics & biodrugs for plant and animal diseases.
 Plants have also been engineered to produce hormones, clotting factors and antibodies
 Biotechnology has helped to increase crop productivity by introducing such qualities as disease resistance
and increased drought tolerance to the crops

In Medicine
 Production of pharmaceutical products like hormones (insulin), vaccines, interferons, complements,
important proteins like the anti-clotting factor.
 In pharmacogenomics (study of how the genetic inheritance of an individual affects his/her body’s response
to drugs.)
 Biotechnology lead to development of tailor-made medicines and more accurate methods of determining
appropriate drug dosages, improvements in the drug discovery and approval process, safer vaccines can
be designed and produced by organisms transformed by means of genetic engineering.
 Gene therapy may be used for treating, or even curing, genetic and acquired diseases like cancer and
AIDS by using normal genes to supplement or replace defective genes or to bolster a normal function such
as immunity.

In Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation

 When genetic engineering results in reduced pesticide dependence, it leads to less pesticide residues on
foods, reduced pesticide leaching into groundwater, and minimize farm worker exposure to hazardous
 Creation of genetically modified microbes to clean the environment or for bioremediation
 Genome-based global studies open a new era providing unprecedented in silico views of metabolic and
regulatory networks, as well as clues to the evolution of degradation pathways and to the molecular
adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions

 gradual change of structure and function of organisms due to the changes in the environment
 descent with modification

Evidences for Evolution

 Fossils
o Remains of one existing organisms
 Chemical and anatomical similarities
o the more similar the structures are, the more related they are
 Geographic distribution
o major isolated land areas and island groups often evolved their own distinct plant and animal
 Recorded genetic changes in living organisms over many generations
o the more similar the genes are, the more related they are

Microbiology and Biotechniques

 Exotoxins
o toxins secreted by a pathogen
o proteins in nature
o Example
 Clostridium botulinum releases exotoxin causing paralysis
 Endotoxins
o part of some bacterial cell wall
o lipopolysaccharide (lipid and carbohydrate) in nature
o Example
 Salmonella typhi releases endotoxin causing typhoid fever

 process of cleaning contaminants in the environment using living organisms.
 Bacteria are efficient organisms for this purpose

 food supplements using bacteria or fungi
 Lactobacilli is a common probiotic ingredient

 means poison in ancient Rome
 characterized by the presence of capsid (protein coat covering the nucleic acid)
 Multiplication
o attachment
 virus locates a specific binding site on the recipient host cell.
o penetration
 genetic materials or the whole virus enters the cell
o replication and synthesis
 the genetic component of the virus dictates to the host cell to reproduce materials needed
by the virus for reproduction
o assembly
 viral materials are structured to become new viruses
o release
 new viruses are liberated from the host cell
 Pathways to achieve the process of multiplication of virus
o lytic cycle
 all steps in multiplication (see above) are immediately and successively done.
o lysogenic cycle
 the incorporated viral genetic material does not immediately produce the needed material.
 genetic materials stay incorporated in the genetic make up of the host cell until triggered to
produce materials needed for virus assembly.
 Classification
DNA Virus Disease caused
Herpes simplex Herpes
Chicken pox virus Chicken pox

RNA Virus Disease caused

Dengue virus Dengue fever
Mumps virus Mumps
Human Immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
 Bacteriophage
o group of virus that infects bacterial cell

 collection of plant specimens which are dried, arranged and classified
 serves as basis of identifying plants in succeeding collection

 miniature water ecosystem

 miniature terrestrial ecosystem

 art of preserving the skins of different animals for study or exhibition
 provides realistic visual aid in teaching concepts in animals like Integumentary system and habitat.

Microscopic techniques (microtechniques)

 prepare materials for microscopic observation and study
 Some steps
Steps Description
Anesthetization Reduce or eliminate pain of animals during dissection
Dissection and Subdivision Careful exposition of desired animal part
Fixation For preservation of tissues and its components
improves staining potential of specimens
Washing Removal of excess fixative agents
Dehydration Removal of water from the specimen and replacing it by alcohol
Clearing Clearing agent replaces the dehydrating agent
Infiltration Substance like paraffin is used to penetrate inner layers of the tissue
specimen; this allows sectioning possible
Embedding Substance like paraffin is allowed to solidify around the specimen
Sectioning Cutting (use of microtome, instrument that can section specimen thin
enough for a slide) to desired thickness

An improvised microtome can be used. The specimen to be

sectioned may be placed in between styrofoam or potato before
cutting using the ordinary blade (must be very sharp)
Deceration Removal of paraffin from the specimen
Staining Coloring of the specimen using stains
Mounting Placing the specimen on the slide and covering with glass slide
Drying, cleaning, and labeling Letting the mounting medium to dry; cleaning with solvent of the
mounting medium; identifying the specimen prepared

 Some methods
o Teasing
 parts are dissociated by a solution then separated by fine needles
 example
 striated muscle fibers preparation
o Smear
 spreads the specimen on the slide
 example
 blood
o grinding
 hard tissues are treated then thinned using abrasives. Bone tissues (cross section) are
prepared using this means.
o Squashing
 done by gently crushing the specimen to loosen the aggregation
 example
 Onion root tips showing the chromosome

Culture media
 any material designed for growth of microorganisms
 Microbes placed in the culture medium are called inoculum.
 microbes growing from this setup are called culture.
 agar is the most commonly used
o characteristics of agar
 few microbes can degrade it making it in solid form
 liquefies at 1000C and remains liquid until about 400C
 may be used in petri dish or test tube

Hay infusion
 usually used in studying protists
o Steps in making
 add hay (grass) in pond water.
 drop glucose (to start growth of bacteria, the food of protists)
 set aside for a few days to allow proliferation of protists

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Levels of organization Atom







Organ system


Integumentary system
 protection from harmful elements of the environment
 prevents dehydration
 synthesizes Vitamin D precursors
 regulates body temperature
 components
o skin
 Epidermis layer
 stratum corneum
 composed mainly of dead cells
 keratin is found on this layer
 stratum granulosum
 plays a big role in keratinization
 granular in appearance
 stratum spinosum
 spiny in appearance
 stratum basale/germinativum
 site of active mitotic activity
 Dermis layer
 Next layer after epidermis
 Contain sebaceous gland (secretes sebum/oil) and sweat gland (secrete sweat)
 arrector pili (contract resulting to goose bumps) muscle present
 Hypodermis layer
 also known as the subcutaneous layer hair
 adipose tissues present
o hair
 parts
 shaft
 protrudes over the epidermis
 made up of dead cells
 hair follicle
 capable of mitosis
o nails
 for protection
 for grasping objects
 for scratching.
 Some diseases
o Acne
 inflammation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
 common areas affected are the face, chest, back and sometimes the scalp
o Dermatitis
 Irritation of the integument

Muscular system
 give shape
 provides movement
 gives posture
 capable of heat production
o Types of Muscles
 Skeletal- striated, multi-nucleated, voluntary movement
 Cardiac- striated, uni-nucleated, involuntary movement
 Smooth/visceral -non- striated, uni-nucleated, involuntary movement, spindle shape
 Some disease
o Muscular dystrophy
 disintegration and degeneration of muscle fibers
o Myasthenia gravis
 autoimmune disease
 too little acetylcholine reaching the neuromuscular junction causing severe exhaustion and
muscle fatigue

Skeletal system
 for framework and protection
 storage of calcium
 production of blood cells
 compose of cartilage (tough but elastic) and bone
 division
o Axial
 Comprises of the skull, thorax and the vertebral column
o Appendicular
 Constitutes the shoulder girdle, upper extremities, pelvic girdle and the lower extremities
 Types of joints Nervous System
o Ball and socket-exemplified by the shoulders
o Gliding- exemplified by the carpals (wrist)
o Hinge- exemplified by the elbow
o Pivot-exemplified by the neck
Central Nervous Peripheral Nervous
 Some diseases
system system
o Scoliosis
 lateral curvature of the spine
o Osteoporosis
 bones of become brittle and porous due to decrease in calcium and phosphorous

Nervous system Somatic nervous Autonomic nervous

 for transmission of nerve impulses (voluntary)
throughout the body system (involuntary)

Sympathetic Parasympathetic
(control organs in (control organs in
times of stress) times of rest

Central Nervous system

 compose of the brain and the spinal cord
 component of the brain
o Cerebrum
 Seat of consciousness
o Cerebellum
 body movements
o Diencephalon
 Composed of thalamus and the hypothalamus(seat of emotion)
 control body temperature, thirst, hunger and even sexual urges
o Brainstem
 Composed of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
 responsible for respiration, breathing, heart beat, regulation of blood flow and blood

Peripheral nervous system

 serves as a receiving site of nerve impulse transmission coming to and from the brain and spinal cord

Some Diseases of the Nervous System

 Bell’s Palsy
o paralysis of the facial muscles
o loses of the ability to close the eye on the affected side along with muscle weakness, loss of taste
and facial deformity.
 Alzheimer’s Disease
o progressive memory loss and deterioration of intellectual capacity.
o Results from a decrease in acetylcholine receptors, smoking, alcoholism, infection and heredity
 Parkinson’s disease
o Muscular rigidity, resting tremor, general lack of movement
o Results from deficiency or absence of dopamine

Circulatory system
 composed of plasma (made up of water, proteins, electrolytes, and other substances) and formed
elements (blood cells)

Blood cells
 erythrocyte
o red blood cell
o carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide
 leukocyte
o for protection against invading organisms
o may be granular (neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil) or non granular (lymphocyte and monocyte)
 Thrombocyte
o Platelets
o For initiation of blood clotting

Blood vessels
 Artery
o carries blood away from the heart
o usually carries oxygenated blood (exception is the pulmonary artery)
 Vein
o carries blood towards the heart
o usually carries deoxygenated blood (exception is the pulmonary vein)
 capillary
o site of exchange of materials
 4 chambers
o 2 receiving atria
o 2 pumping (blood away from the )ventricles
o Contraction initiated by Sinoatrial node (SA node or pacemaker)

Diseases of the Circulatory System

 Arteriosclerosis
o hardening large arteries
 Atherosclerosis
o lipid deposits in the arteries

Respiratory system
 for exchange of gases
 parts include nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
o Nose
 For prewarming or air
 Filtration of air
o Pharynx
 Common pathway of food, water and air
o Larynx
 Voice box
 Opens and closes the larynx
o Trachea
 With C-shape cartilage
 With cilia (for filtration)
o Bronchi
 Pathway of air
o Bronchioles
 Smaller than bronchi
o Alveoli
 Site of exchange of gases

Diseases of the Respiratory System

 Tuberculosis
o Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
o Signs and symptoms include as fever, night sweats, fatigue and coughing with
 Pneumonia
o Inflammation of the lungs

Immune system
 for protection
 types
o innate (non specific; exemplified by inflammation, phagocytosis, chemical mediators) or adaptive
(specific; exemplified by antibody formation)
o active (antibody produced by the body in response to an antigen) or passive (actual antibody is
transferred to the person)
o Natural (natural exposure) or artificial (with human intervention like vaccination)

Diseases of the Immune System

 AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
o Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
 attacks helper T cell (functions in signaling other immune cells to fight antigens)
o could be acquired by an exchange of body fluids during sexual intercourse from an infected
individual, blood transfusion, sharing of needles, tattooing, body piercing
o attacks helper T cell (functions in signaling other immune cells to fight antigens)

Endocrine system
 Secretes hormones
 Some examples
Gland Hormone Action
Pituitary Oxytocin Stimulates contraction of the uterus
Growth hormone Stimulates growth (specially the bones)
Prolactin Stimulates production
Follicle stimulating hormone Stimulates production of sperm and egg
Pineal Melatonin Biological clock
Thyroid Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine Stimulate and maintain metabolic needs
Calcitonin Lowers blood calcium level
Thymus Thymosin Stimulate T-cell development
Adrenal Adrenaline emergency hormone
Pancreas Insulin Lowers blood glucose
Glucagon Increase blood glucose
Testis Testosterone Development of secondary male sex characteristics
Ovary Estrogen Development of secondary female sex characteristics;
Promotes uterine lining growth
Progesterone Promotes uterine lining growth

Diseases/disorder of the Endocrine System

 Diabetes
o insufficient production of insulin
 Dwarfism
o insufficient production of growth hormone

Digestive system
 breakdown and assimilation of food
 parts
o Mouth
 breaks down the food into smaller pieces with the help of the teeth (incisors, canine,
premolar and molar) and tongue
o Pharynx
 Common passage of food, water and air
o Stomach
 Temporary storage of food
 Highly acidic
o Small intestine
 Complete digestion occurs
 Receives secretion of pancreas and liver

o Large intestine
 Reabsorption of water
 production of some vitamins by help of microorganism
o Anus
 Exit of feces
 Accessory glands
o Liver
 Produce bile (emulsifies fats)
o Gall bladder
 Stores bile
o Pancreas
 Secrete enzymes for digestion

 Rhythmic contraction of gastrointestinal tract to propel food downward

Diseases/Disorder of the Digestive System

 Appendicitis
 Inflammation of appendix
 needs appendectomy (removal of appendix)

Urinary system
 elimination of waste (urine)
 parts
o kidney
 nephron is the basic unit
o Ureter
 propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
o Urinary bladder
 Temporary storage of urine
o Urethra
 connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

 Process of Urine Formation

o Filtration
 waste products are further eliminated in the form of Glomerular filtrate which enters the
Bowman’s capsule
o Reabsorption
 allows necessary nutrients and substances to be absorbed by the blood while eliminating
ammonia, urea and other waste products
o Secretion
 urine is already formed in this final process

Diseases/Disorder of the Human Excretory System

 Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
o inflammation to any of the parts of the urinary tract
o females have shorter urethra compared to males making them more susceptible to infection

Reproductive system
 for perpetuation of species
 male parts
o Scrotum
 enclosing the testes
 for thermoregulation.
o Testes
 Produce sperms (in seminiferous tubules)
 give rise to male secondary sexual characteristics.
o Epididymis
 Place where sperm mature.
o Vas deferens
 duct where sperms pass through
o Seminal Vesicles
 secretes sugar, protein, and other substances that nourish the sperm.
o Ejaculatory duct
 results from the fusion of the seminal vesicle and the vas deferens
o Prostate gland
 secretes an alkaline fluid neutralizing the vagina from its acidic condition.
o Bulbourethral glands
 pea-sized structure situated below the prostate gland
 helps lubricate the penis during intercourse
 female parts
o Ovaries
 secretes the hormones estrogen and progesterone
 production of egg
o Fallopian Tubes
 Also called oviducts
 serves as a passageway egg cell
 site of fertilization (ampulla)
o Uterus
 Place of the fetus for growth and development.

o Vagina
 receives the erected penis
 provides a passageway for the fetus to be delivered during the process of labor.
o Vulva
 part of the vagina located externally. Incorporated in this area are pairs of lip-like structures
known as the labia. The outer portion is the labia majora and the inner is the labia minora.
o Mammary glands
 milk production

Diseases/Disorder of the Reproductive System

 Gonorrhea
o yellowish discharge accompanied by an inflammation of the urethra
o difficulty and pain while urinating, pelvic pain and fever
o caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
 Syphilis
o infection penetrates the mucosal linings of the reproductive tracts causing ulcerations
o signs and symptoms such as skin rashes, alopecia, fever and body aches
o may reach the brain resulting to a mental illness and paralysis that could possibly lead to death
o caused by Treponema pallidum

Fundamentals of Physics

 collection of parts confined in a specific boundary
 Ecosystem, the major unit in ecology is an example of a system
 May be an open (may acquire inputs from the environment; ecosystem is an example ) or a closed system
(No input can pass through the boundary of the system)

 study of collective effects of heat, work and energy in a system.
 First Law of Thermodynamics
o law of conservation of energy
o energy is not created nor destroyed but simply converted to another form
o Example
 the light energy of the sun is converted by the plants into chemical energy. When humans
walk using the chemical energy, then the chemical energy is converted to mechanical
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
o that heat flows spontaneously from a higher temperature material to a lower temperature material
o can also be viewed in terms of entropy (conversion of matter and energy to a more random or
disorganized state)
o example
 Between winter and spring, ice melts. This means that ice accepts heat making it in a more
disorganized state (since liquid molecules have more freedom of movement)

Heat transfer
 can be through conduction, convection and radiation. These can be differentiated with the media used.

Heat transfer Medium

Conduction Solids
Convection Fluids (liquid and gas)
Radiation None

 Conduction
o Materials which conduct heat well are called thermal conductors (example is wood)
o Materials that do not conduct well are called thermal insulators
o Example
 A lizard resting on its belly on the soil is losing heat in a sunny day by conduction

 Convection
o When fluids are heated, they expand. This results to increase in volume and a subsequent
decrease in density. On the other hand, when fluids area cooled they decrease in volume and the
density increases.
o fluid flowing with it is called the convection current.
o Example
 dispersing pollutants in cities
 In lakes or oceans, valuable nutrients settling at the bottom can not be accessed by
phototrophic organisms above unless the bottom waters move up. This is achieved when
there is a turnover, convection current.
 Radiation
o Example
 During forest fires, trunks acquires heat form burning materials through radiation
 Lemurs with white fur are able reflect light to the surrounding. During cold mornings, they
allow their small black skin on their belly towards the sun. This captures more heat for
warming up

 Study of the interaction of organisms to their environment

Physical factors in the environment

 Temperature
 Light
 Water
 Wind.
 Air

 Mutualism
o both members are benefited
o Example
 Flower and insect
 Commensalism
o One benefits (commensal) while the other is not affected (host)
o Example
 Epiphytes (like orchids) and tall trees
 Parasitism
o One is benefited (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)
o Classification of parasite
 Ectoparasite
 Parasite lives outside the host (like mosquito)
 Endo parasite
 Parasite lives inside the host (like intestinal worms)
 Competition
o May impart limiting effects on both members
o may be Interspecific (competing organisms belong to different species) intraspecific (competing
organisms belong to the same species) competitions
 Predation
o One is benefited (predator) and the other is harmed (prey)
o Example
 Snake (predator) and mouse (prey)

 role or status of the organism in the community or ecosystem
 this can be through participation in the transfer of energy, recycling of materials, shaping communities

 place where an organism lives

Food chain
 series of eating and be eaten
 example
o rice plantmousesnake-decomposer

Food web
 composed of different food chains

Food pyramid
 shows the energy transferred to each trophic level
 producers occupy the base of the pyramid
 final consumers at the tip
 follows the rule of 10 (energy transfer from one trophic level to the next is about 10%.)

 Tundra
o in polar region
o Limited plant growth
o little precipitation
o with permafrost (permanently frozen soil)
 Taiga
o also called boreal or coniferous forest
o found in cool, elevated areas
o with tall conifers with needle-like leaves
 Temperate deciduous forest
o With deciduous trees (leaves change color together with the season, and shed in winter)
 Tropical Forest
o Climate here is mild, as summer remains warm and winter is cold
o Strata include canopy, understorey and floor
 Savanna
o grasslands with few shrubs and trees
o site of safari
 Grasslands
o Abundant with grass
 Desert
o least amount of precipitation
o always dry but NOT always hot

Aquatic ecosystem
 Freshwater
o River
o Lake
 Marine (salt) water
o Sea
o Ocean

 change in the species structure of an ecological community over time
 may be primary succession (takes place on an area that is originally completely empty of life) or secondary
succession (occurs in an area where life once existed but has then been destroyed)

Natural ecosystem
 present in the environment that receives no human intervention
 example
o forest

Managed ecosystem
 receives no human intervention
 example
o aquarium
o terrarium

Effects of natural disturbances

 flood
 species are endangered (very few species remaining)
 extinction (elimination) of species

Statistics for Biology

 representation of a set of objects where some pairs of the objects are connected by links
 Types
o Line
 plotted peaks and dips on the grid allow you to monitor and compare improvement and
o Bar
 data in a simple format consisting of rectangular bars
o Histogram
 displays the data by using vertical bars of various heights to represent the frequencies
o Pie
 data comparison, consisting of a circle that is split into parts
o Pictographs
 use small picture symbols to compare information
o Scatter Plot
 effective way in illustrating the relationship between two measures

 number of times the event occurred

 comparison of two numbers
 Example
o 8:12
o 8/12

 statement that two ratios are equal
 Example
o 3/4 = 6/8
o 2/4=1/2
 belief that an event will occur or has occurred

Central tendencies
 needs to be able to understand summaries of large amounts of data that use simple measures to best
represent the location of the data as a whole.
 measures of central tendency
o Mean
 arithmetic mean
 simply the average of the group
 Example
 Mean of 13, 14 and 15 is 14 (13+14+15= 42; 42⌯ 3 = 14)
o Median
 middle score or the midpoint of the data
 Median is a better description than the mean of the majority when the distribution is
 Example
 Median of 11, 13, 15, 21,and 45 is 15 (numbers are arranged in
increasing/decreasing order; there are 5 numbers, thus the midpoint is the 3 rd
number which is 15)
 Median of 11, 13, 15, 21, 25 and 45 is 18 (numbers are arranged in
increasing/decreasing order; there are 6 numbers, the midpoint is between the 3 rd
and 4th numbers; thus 15+21 =36; 36⌯2=18)
o Mode
 most frequent score
 Example
 Mode of 2, 2, 3, 5 and 6 is 2

 describes the degree of relationship between two variables

History and Philosophy of Science

 Prehistoric Times
o Stone Age: Paleolithic Age(3000-1000 BC & Neolithic Age (9000-5000 BC)
 Stones
 Used for chopping, cutting or digging
 Fire
 Used to warm their body and cook their food
 Containers of food
 Cooking of food using fire
o Bronze Age 3500(3500-2500 BC)
 Creation of the First Alloy
 Bronze- combination of copper and tin

 Ancient Civilization (3500 BC- A>D> 1200)

o Sumerian Civilization -Sumer, is the cradle of the world’s earliest known civilization
 Standardized Measurement following the sexagesimal system (using number 60 as base).
They divided the circle into 360 degrees, an hour into 60 minutes and a minute into 60
 Canals, dikes, wires and reservoirs
 Potter’s Wheel
 Wheeled Vehicle
 Sailboat
 Systematized Farming
 Irrigation system –constructed canals for irrigation
 Bleaching, dyeing, preparing paints, cosmetics and perfumes
 Materia Medica- Compilation of prescriptions for different diseases made from assorted
botanical, zoological, and mineralogical ingredients.
 First writing system called cuneiform which is a set of word pictures depicted in symbols
pressed into wet clay tablets and then sun dried
o Babylonian Civilization
 Hanging Gardens of Babylon
 Sun Dial
 Calendar
 Developed an elaborate irrigation system of canals
o Egyptian Civilization
 Hieroglyphics
 Papyrus- first paper
 Early weather forecasting
 Astronomy
 Production of Bread and Beer
 Henna
 Embalming
 Metallurgy
o Minoan/ Cretan Civilization
 Drainage System
o Greek Civilization
 Logical Thinking
 Astronomy
 Atomic Theory
 First Classification of Living things
 First accurate measurement of the earth’s diameter
 Archimedes Screw
 Dissection of Animal corpses
 Geometry
o Persian Civilization
 Common Calendar
 Postal service
 Uniform system of gold and silver coinage
o Roman Civilization
 Installation of public toilets
 Adapted Greek teachings
o Arabic/ Islamic Civilization
 Alchemy
 Numerical System
 Glass lens for magnification
 Produced the first gun
o Chinese Civilization
 Lacquer
 Silk Production
 Records on eclipses
 Apothecaries and acupuncture
 Paper Making
 Gun Powder
 Printing
o Indus-Hindu Civilization
 Developed metallurgy
 Accuracy in measurement
 Prevention and treatment of ailments
o The Middle Ages
 Algebra was organized and expanded
 Comprehensive medical encyclopedia-Canon of Medicine
 Introduction of the Hindu Arabic system
o The Renaissance
 Improved process of paper making and printing
 Scientific method
 Microscope
 Age of exploration