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Análisis en Frecuencia

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. Version 1.0

Tony McGrail

Doble Engineering

1 Introduction

This document gives a simple introduction to SFRA analysis; it looks at expected results

for simple components and typical results for arrangements of small coils. The complex

interaction of the coils is a useful way of understanding the far more complex

arrangements within a real transformer.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 1

2 List of Figures ............................................................................................................. 2

3 List of Tables .............................................................................................................. 3

4 List of Equations ......................................................................................................... 3

5 Resistor-Capacitor-Inductor (RLC) Circuits............................................................... 4

6 SFRA Measurement.................................................................................................... 5

7 Frequency Responses of Inductors, Capacitors and Resistors.................................... 6

7.1 Theory ..................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Resonance ............................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Resonance - Series Arrangement ............................................................................ 9

7.4 Resonance - Parallel Arrangement........................................................................ 11

7.5 Practice.................................................................................................................. 13

8 Results from Two Different Specimen Coils............................................................ 14

8.1 Brown Coil............................................................................................................ 14

8.2 Red Coil ................................................................................................................ 15

8.3 Comparison of Both Coils .................................................................................... 16

9 Coils in Series and in Parallel ................................................................................... 18

9.1 Two Identical Coils............................................................................................... 18

9.2 Identical Coils in Series ........................................................................................ 19

9.3 Identical coils in Parallel....................................................................................... 20

9.4 Red and Brown Coils in Series ............................................................................. 21

9.5 Red and Brown Coils in Parallel........................................................................... 23

10 Coils and Interaction ................................................................................................. 25

10.1 Red Coil Alone ................................................................................................. 25

10.2 Proximity and Arrangement.............................................................................. 26

10.3 Electrical Connection and Arrangement ........................................................... 28

10.4 Autotransformer Arrangements ........................................................................ 29

11 Conclusions............................................................................................................... 32

12 References................................................................................................................. 32

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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2 List of Figures

Figure 2 Simple RLC Circuit.......................................................................................................................... 5

Figure 3 Measurements of Voltages for SFRA .............................................................................................. 5

Figure 4 Response of a Short Circuit.............................................................................................................. 6

Figure 5 Responses of a 50 ohm and a 500 ohm Ideal Resistor ..................................................................... 7

Figure 6 Response for a Ideal Inductor........................................................................................................... 7

Figure 7 Response of an Ideal Capacitor........................................................................................................ 8

Figure 8 Series Arrangement of XL and XC .................................................................................................... 9

Figure 9 Impedance of Series Arrangement ................................................................................................... 9

Figure 10 dB response of Series Circuit ....................................................................................................... 10

Figure 11 Parallel Arrangement of R and XL and XC ................................................................................... 11

Figure 12 Impedance of Parallel Arrangement............................................................................................. 11

Figure 13 dB response of Parallel Circuit..................................................................................................... 12

Figure 14 Response of a Non-Ideal Inductor................................................................................................ 13

Figure 15 Brown Coil................................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 16 SFRA Response for Brown Coil – Log Scale .............................................................................. 14

Figure 17 SFRA Response for Brown Coil – Linear Scale .......................................................................... 15

Figure 18 Red Coil ....................................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 19 SFRA Response for Red Coil – Log Scale................................................................................... 16

Figure 20 SFRA Response for Red Coil – Linear Scale............................................................................... 16

Figure 21 Red and Brown Coils – Log Scale ............................................................................................... 17

Figure 22 Red and Brown Coils – Linear Scale ........................................................................................... 17

Figure 23 Two Identical Brown Coils .......................................................................................................... 18

Figure 24 SFRA Reponses for Two Individual Brown Coils ....................................................................... 19

Figure 25 SFRA Responses of Individual Coil and Series Arrangement ..................................................... 19

Figure 26 SFRA Responses of Individual Coil and Parallel Arrangement................................................... 20

Figure 27 Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Series .................................................................................... 21

Figure 28 SFRA Response of Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Series ..................................................... 22

Figure 29 SFRA Response of Series Combination and both individual coils .............................................. 22

Figure 30 Series and Individual – Linear Scale............................................................................................ 23

Figure 31 Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Parallel .................................................................................. 23

Figure 32 SFRA Response of Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Parallel................................................... 24

Figure 33 SFRA Parallel and Individual Responses – Linear Plot ............................................................... 24

Figure 34 SFRA Responses for Red Coil – Log Scale ................................................................................. 25

Figure 35 SFRA Responses for Red Coil – Linear Scale ............................................................................. 25

Figure 36 Red Coil with Brown Coil Nearby ............................................................................................... 26

Figure 37 SFRA Responses for Red Coil with Brown Coil Nearby............................................................. 26

Figure 38 Red Coil coaxial with Brown Coil ............................................................................................... 27

Figure 39 SFRA Responses with Two Coils Coaxial................................................................................... 27

Figure 40 Red Coil coaxial with Brown Coil; Brown Coil shorted.............................................................. 28

Figure 41 SFRA Responses with Coaxial Coils, Brown Coil Shorted ......................................................... 28

Figure 42 Red Coil with Brown Coil Attached, but not in measurement circuit.......................................... 29

Figure 43 SFRA Responses for Attached Brown Coil ................................................................................. 29

Figure 44 Autotransformer Arrangement ..................................................................................................... 30

Figure 45 SFRA Reponses for Simple Autotransformer .............................................................................. 30

Figure 46 SFRA Responses for Simple Autotransformer with Shorted Brown Coil.................................... 31

Figure 47 Damaged Version of Simple Autotransformer............................................................................. 31

Figure 48 SFRA Responses for Damaged Autotransformer......................................................................... 32

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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3 List of Tables

4 List of Equations

Equation 2 Capacitive Reactance Formula..................................................................................................... 4

Equation 3 Inductive Reactance Formula....................................................................................................... 4

Equation 4 Impedance of RLC Circuit ........................................................................................................... 5

Equation 5 Deriving dB values....................................................................................................................... 5

Equation 6 Voltage Ratio and Specimen Impedance...................................................................................... 6

Equation 7 Condition for Resonance.............................................................................................................. 9

Equation 8 Resonant Frequency for L-C components.................................................................................... 9

Equation 9 Deriving dB’s from Impedance.................................................................................................. 10

Equation 10 Condition for Resonance.......................................................................................................... 11

Equation 11 Resonant Frequency for L-C components................................................................................ 12

Equation 12 Inductance of Series Combination ........................................................................................... 19

Equation 13 Capacitances in Series.............................................................................................................. 20

Equation 14 Resonance for Series Combination .......................................................................................... 20

Equation 15 Inductance of Parallel Combination ......................................................................................... 21

Equation 16 Capacitance of Parallel Combination ....................................................................................... 21

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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frequency ω, given by:

ω = 2πf

Equation 1 Angular Frequency

XC=1/2πfC

Equation 2 Capacitive Reactance Formula

capacitor; alternatively, it could be said that voltage lags current by a quarter cycle.

XL=2πfL

Equation 3 Inductive Reactance Formula

inductor (or current lags voltage by a quarter cycle).

450

400

350

Impedance, Ohms

300

250 Capacitance

200 Inductance

150

100

50

0

0.1 1 10 100 1000

Frequency, Hz

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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In an RLC circuit, such as the series circuit in Figure 2, we can derive a total impedance,

Z, for the circuit.

Z = √(R2 + (XL-XC)2)

Equation 4 Impedance of RLC Circuit

6 SFRA Measurement

Frequency response analysis plots the ratio of the transmitted voltage waveform to the

applied voltage waveform in dBs, as defined in Equation 5. The impedance attenuates the

input voltage signal. The basic measurement circuit is shown in Figure 3. To remove the

effects of test leads, a three lead system is used to measure both input and output voltages

simultaneously.

V signal V in V out

Im pedance, Z

50 Ω C oax

50 Ω C oax 50 Ω C oax

S ignal L ead T est

R eference

M easurem ent M easurem ent

L ead L ead

Coax test leads of 50 ohms are used to apply a source voltage and measure that voltage as

Vin; consequently Vout is referenced against the 50 ohm test lead to ground.

Equation 5 Deriving dB values

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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The output voltage, Vout, is referenced via a 50 ohm co-ax cable to ground. This means

we have:

Vout/Vin =50/(Z+50)

Equation 6 Voltage Ratio and Specimen Impedance

Resistors

and distinct frequency responses. In practice, however, there is no such thing as an ideal

Inductor, an ideal Capacitor or an ideal Resistor; each has elements of the other

components. Consequently their responses contain elements of each component, albeit

dominated by their nominal type

7.1 Theory

The expected response for a short circuit, at any frequency, is that Vout is equal to Vin, as

Z=0 Ω. This equals 0 dB across the frequency range.

Response, dB

-25 Response

-50

Frequency, Hz

An ideal resistor reduces the output voltage across the frequency range. A 50 Ω resistor

would give an output voltage half the input voltage. This would be a straight line at ~ 6

dB’s down (-6dB), as shown in Figure 5. A 500 Ω resistor would give a response at ~20.8

dB’s down ( –20.8dB).

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Response, 50 Ω Response

dB -25

500 Ω Response

-50

Frequency, Hz

Figure 5 Responses of a 50 ohm and a 500 ohm Ideal Resistor

An open circuit would, in theory, provide infinite impedance, and an output voltage of

zero. This is not calculable as a dB value, but equates to infinite dB’s down.

An ideal Inductor at low frequency looks like a short circuit; as frequency increase, so

does the impedance, heading toward an open circuit. The response for an ideal inductor is

shown in Figure 6. It starts at 0 dB’s and then shows a characteristic roll off, on the log

scale, as frequency increases.

A Ideal Capacitor looks like an open circuit at low frequencies but at high frequencies it

looks more like a short circuit. The typical response shows a response which climbs

toward zero as frequency rises, as indicated in Figure 7.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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7.2 Resonance

Resonance has different implications for series and parallel circuits, which are analyzed

separately. For simplicity, ideal components are assumed – ideal resistance, ideal

capacitance and ideal inductance. As a note, a summary of how to calculate equivalent

RLC component values for series and parallel combinations is given in Table 1.

unit ohm ([omega]) farad (F) henry (H)

I-V relation V = IR I = C dV/dt V = L dI/dt

Series Req = 1/Ceq = Leq =

combination R1 + R2 + ... 1/C1 + 1/C2 + ... L1 + L2 + ...

Parallel 1/Req = Ceq = 1/Leq =

combination 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ... C1 + C2 + ... 1/L1 + 1/L2 + ...

Table 1 Passive Components in Series and in Parallel

parallel add together as with resistors in parallel.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Figure 8 shows a series arrangement of an ideal inductor and an ideal capacitor and a

resistance.

XL XC R

Figure 8 Series Arrangement of XL and XC

At low frequencies, the capacitor will dominate and the arrangement will look like an

open circuit i.e. Z approaches infinity. As frequency rises, the impedance of the capacitor

will fall, but the impedance of the inductor will rise.

At high frequencies, the inductor will dominate and the arrangement will look like an

open circuit i.e. Z approaches infinity.

The overall impedance of the arrangement is Z, which we can plot against frequency, as

shown in Figure 9.

450

400

Impedance, Ohms

350

300

250

Series

200

150

100

50

0

0.1 1 10 100 1000

Frequency, Hz

The point of minimum impedance is the resonant point, and is where the impedance is

equal to the resistance, R. This occurs when:

XL = XC

Equation 7 Condition for Resonance

By using Equation 2, Equation 3 and Equation 7 we can deduce that resonance occurs at

f = 1/(2π√LC)

Equation 8 Resonant Frequency for L-C components

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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• The reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal (XL = XC)

• Impedance is minimum for given values of C, L and R;

• The impedance of the circuit is equal to R i.e. (Z = R)

• The voltage applied by the source is in phase with the current

• The current is maximum for given values of C, L and R

• The power dissipated in the circuit is maximum for given values of C,L, and R

If we were to measure this circuit using an SFRA test set, we would plot the response in

dB'’ rather than in ohms.

Using Equation 5 and Equation 6 the response, D, in dBs for an impedance, Z is given by

Equation 9:

D = 20 log10( 50/(Z+50))

Note that Z is a function of frequency and is complex.

Plotting D for the series Z of Figure 8 yields the graph in Figure 10:

0

0.1 1 10 100 1000

-5

-10

dB

-15

-20

-25

Frequency, Hz

Clearly, in dB’s, a series resonance yields a maximum. This relates to the capacitive

climb followed by the inductive roll off.

A maximum in an SFRA plot thus corresponds to a series arrangement of some form that

has reached a resonance.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Figure 11 shows a series arrangement of an ideal inductor and an ideal capacitor and a

resistance.

XC

XL

At low frequencies, the inductor will dominate and the inductor will look like a short

circuit i.e. Z approaches zero. As frequency rises, the impedance of the capacitor will fall,

but the impedance of the inductor will rise.

At high frequencies, the capacitor will dominate and the capacitor will look like a short

circuit again i.e. Z approaches zero again.

The overall impedance of the arrangement is Z, which we can plot against frequency, as

shown in Figure 12.

Parallel

5

Impedance, Ohms

0

0.1 1 10 100 1000

Frequency, Hz

The point of maximum impedance is the resonant point. This occurs when:

XL = XC

Equation 10 Condition for Resonance

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f = 1/(2π√LC)

• The reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal (XL = XC)

• Impedance is a maximum for given values of C, L and R;

• The impedance of the circuit is equal to R i.e. (Z = R)

• The voltage applied by the source is in phase with the current

• The current is minimum for given values of C, L and R

• The power dissipated in the circuit is minimum for given values of C,L, and R

If we were to measure this circuit using an SFRA test set, we would plot the response in

dB's rather than in ohms.

We can plot the response, D, in dBs for an impedance, Z as given by Equation 9, again

noting that Z is a function of frequency and is complex.

Parallel

0

-0.1 0.1 1 10 100 1000

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4

dB

-0.5

-0.6

-0.7

-0.8

-0.9

Frequency, Hz

At low and high frequencies, the impedance approaches the value of R, which in this case

is 10 ohms. We can calculate the dB’s the R alone would yield: ~-1.6 dB, as shown in

Figure 13

Clearly, in dB’s, a parallel resonance yields a minimum. This relates to the inductive roll

off followed by the capacitive climb.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Where a minimum occurs in an SFRA plot this corresponds to some parallel arrangement

of an inductor and a capacitor within the transformer.

7.5 Practice

resistor [1]. They each have elements of the other components. To demonstrate we can

look at the response of a small wound coil, a non-ideal inductor, as shown in Figure 14.

Inductive

roll off

Resistive

region

Capacitive

climb

We can see two distinct effects:

• a low frequency effect where there is a resistance which prevents the coil having a 0

dB response at low frequencies

• a high frequency effect where turn to turn capacitance counteracts the continued roll

off of the inductor

The response at lower frequencies can be used to derive an approximate d.c. resistance

for the coil. Knowing the response to be ~-0.25 dB and making the assumption that the

response is purely resistive, then the impedance Z can be replaced by a resistance, R and

Equation 5 and Equation 6 used to derive the d.c. resistance. In this case, the value is just

under 1.5 ohms.

At higher frequencies, around 200 kHz, the inductive roll off is replaced by a capacitive

climb. This is where the capacitance between the coils of the specimen counteracts the

effect of the inductive element.

There is another effect in this coil around 1 MHz; this may relate to its construction in

layers where mutual inductance and capacitance between layers begins to have an effect.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Here we look at the response of two different coils; their construction and geometry

affect the way they respond in terms of the inductive roll off and the frequency at which

capacitive effects begin to dominate.

The Brown Coil is shown in Figure 6. It is a simple copper wire coil wound in layers.

The SFRA response for this coil is shown, on a log scale, in Figure 16. This

representation of data tends to highlight low frequency responses; the same data, using a

linear scale, is shown in Figure 17. The resonances around 900 kHz are now less

dramatic.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Red Coil is made of aluminum stranded wire and has been put together in a far less

controlled manner than the Brown Coil, as shown in Figure 18.

The response for the Red Coil, on Log and Linear scales, is shown Figure 19 and Figure

20. It shows the same general shape as Brown Coil, but the initial resonance is at a higher

frequency, and the impedances are higher, as indicated by the lower dB response (i.e.

more negative response or more attenuation).

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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The responses of both coils are given on a log and linear scale in Figure 21 and Figure

22.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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• A subsequent inductive roll off

• A capacitive climb

• A set of smaller resonances at higher frequencies

The smaller resonances may relate to coil construction – the effect is far more noticeable

in the Brown Coil where the construction is neatly layered. It could be a point at which

mutual inductance between layers starts to take effect, followed by capacitance between

layers.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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From the magnitude of the responses at low frequencies, it looks like the impedance, and

consequently the inductance, of the Brown Coil is greater than that of Red Coil i.e.

LB>LR.

From the magnitude of the responses at higher frequencies, it looks like the impedance of

Brown Coil is less than that of Red Coil. As there is an inverse relationship with

capacitance, as defined in Equation 2, this implies that CB>CR.

Knowing the relations of LB>LR and CB>CR it follows that LBCB > LRCR and we would

expect the resonant frequency for the Brown Coil to be lower than that for the Red Coil,

as per Equation 8, which is in fact the case.

Responses for the two coils when arranged in series and in parallel have features of both

individual coils.

The response of two identical coils, arranged in series and in parallel, is useful in

identifying the variation due to capacitance and inductance. We can use Table 1 to

identify the responses of the two coils. The two coils are shown in a parallel arrangement

in Figure 23.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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The responses for the two coils are shown in Figure 24; as can be seen – they are almost

identical.

The two coils in series have the response in blue shown in Figure 25, which gives the

single coil response for comparison in yellow.

If an individual brown coil has an inductance of LB and a capacitance of CB, and the

series combination has an inductance of LS and a capacitance of CS then, using Table 1:

LS = 2 * LB

Equation 12 Inductance of Series Combination

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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CS = CB/2

Equation 13 Capacitances in Series

Overall: the inductance has doubled and the capacitance has halved.

At low frequencies there is a more attenuated response and a faster roll off due to the

increased inductance.

At higher frequencies there is a more attenuated response and a slower climb back due to

the decreased capacitance.

The resonant frequency has not changed as it relates to the product of LS and CS as per

Equation 8, which is identical to that for a single coil:

LS * CS = (2 * LB) * (CB/2) = LB * CB

Equation 14 Resonance for Series Combination

Overall the response is more attenuated as the overall impedance has increased – the

attenuation at the resonance point is higher (a more negative dB response).

The two coils in parallel have the response in blue shown in Figure 26.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Overall the impedance for the combination is lower, resulting in reduced attenuation.

we can relate these to the values LB and CB for an individual brown coil via:

LP = LB/2

Equation 15 Inductance of Parallel Combination

CP = 2* CB

Equation 16 Capacitance of Parallel Combination

The reduced inductance gives a less rapid roll off at lower frequencies.

The increased capacitance gives a more rapid climb back at higher frequencies.

Via the same reasoning used for the series combination, the product of LP and CP will be

the same as for the individual coil and thus the resonance will be at the same point.

The coils in series, as shown in Figure 27 gave the response shown in Figure 28.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Clearly there are some identifiable variations for the series combination:

At low frequencies, the series response is more inductive and we have a higher

impedance response, as shown by the lower dB response up to about 100 kHz; this fits

with expected results, as per Table 1, where inductances sum linearly.

At higher frequencies, the response is more capacitive and we see the higher impedance

(lower capacitance) coil dominate the response, modified by the presence of the lower

impedance coil capacitance.

There is also a series resonance at the crossover frequency for the two coils – about 250

kHz, as per section 7.3.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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A linear view of the same data, as shown in Figure 30, concentrates on the higher

frequency responses.

The linear scale highlights some interesting variations between the resonance points for

each coil, around 200 kHz.

Note that we now have two inductances in series and two capacitances in series. There

are complex relationships between these values which lead to the final shape of the curve.

The coils in parallel, as shown in Figure 31 gave the response shown in Figure 32.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Clearly there are some identifiable variations for the parallel combination:

At low frequencies, the response is lower impedance as the parallel inductors add

together like parallel resistors, as per Table 1.

At higher frequencies, the response is more capacitive and we see the lower impedance

(higher capacitance) coil dominate the response, modified by the presence of the higher

impedance capacitance. Capacitors in parallel add like resistors in series.

We also now have a parallel resonance for the two coils at the cross over frequency of

about 250 kHZ, as per section 7.4.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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The presence of one coil next to the other may affect the result as there is a magnetic

linkage between the two coils. Clearly geometry and proximity will affect the results.

Here we look at a number of cases to see the different effects.

The SFRA results for the Red Coil are given again in Figure 34 below, but from 10 kHz

and higher.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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The closer the Brown Coil to the Red Coil, the more marked its effect. When the two

coils are coaxial, there is a strong new resonance in the SFRA results.

Comparison results for the Red Coil alone, and with the Brown Coil nearby are given in

Figure 37. The results are very similar, with only very slight variation around 1.6 MHz.

different traces here,

with very minor

variations at about

1.6 MHz

Figure 37 SFRA Responses for Red Coil with Brown Coil Nearby

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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With the Red Coil coaxial with the Brown Coil, as shown in Figure 38, there is much

closer flux linkage providing a mutual inductance between the two coils.

The results, as shown in Figure 39, have a new resonance peak set around 150-200 kHz

which relate to the inductance of the Brown Coil, as shown in Figure 16, and the original

resonance at 450 kHz is shifted to higher frequency.

With the coils coaxial, but with the brown coil shorted, as shown in Figure 40, the results,

as shown in Figure 41. The resonance associated with the Brown Coil has now

disappeared, but the effect of the Brown Coil on the Red Coil, shifting the resonance to a

higher frequency, is still there.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Figure 40 Red Coil coaxial with Brown Coil; Brown Coil shorted

Note that in none of the results in this section so far are the coils galvanically connected

i.e. there is no electrical wiring connection between the two coils.

Results with the two coils attached also vary with the arrangement of the two coils. With

the Brown Coil attached to the Red Coil, but not in the measurement circuit, as shown in

Figure 42, the results are shown in Figure 43. The variation seen for the Brown Coil in

close proximity, at about 1.6 MHz, as shown in Figure 36, are accentuated in these

results.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Figure 42 Red Coil with Brown Coil Attached, but not in measurement circuit

To make a model autotransformer, the two coils are placed coaxially and connected. The

arrangement in Figure 44 gave the results in Figure 45.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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It is clear that the inductance of the Brown Coil provides a strong interaction around 200

kHz. This is very similar to the results in Figure 39 where the coils are coaxial but not

connected.

By shorting the Brown Coil, the results vary, as shown in Figure 46.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Figure 46 SFRA Responses for Simple Autotransformer with Shorted Brown Coil

Shorting the Brown Coil greatly reduces the inductance of the Brown Coil and the

resonance associated with it disappears, as happened for the coaxial but not connected

case, shown in Figure 40. The general shape at higher frequencies remains unchanged.

By altering the arrangements of the two coils, as shown in Figure 47, a ‘damaged’

autotransformer is produced: the coils have moved relative to each other.

The response for each coil is evident, as shown in Figure 48, but now we have a variation

at about 400 kHz which reflects the mutual inductance between the two coils. The only

thing that has changed between the two situations is the position of the Brown Coil

relative to the Red Coil. Consequently it can be assumed that this has produced the

variation in response. We have seen ‘winding’ movement cause a change in frequency

response.

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

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Clearly this is a very simple case of winding movement; we could investigate further by

looking at changes in response with movement. That will be left for a future discussion.

11 Conclusions

The display of data in log and linear formats helps to identify differences between traces.

transformer.

transformer.

Geometric arrangement of the coils produces new resonances and alters existing

resonances.

12 References

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