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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1

. Version 1.0

SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1


Tony McGrail
Doble Engineering

July 14th 2003

1 Introduction

This document gives a simple introduction to SFRA analysis; it looks at expected results
for simple components and typical results for arrangements of small coils. The complex
interaction of the coils is a useful way of understanding the far more complex
arrangements within a real transformer.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 1
2 List of Figures ............................................................................................................. 2
3 List of Tables .............................................................................................................. 3
4 List of Equations ......................................................................................................... 3
5 Resistor-Capacitor-Inductor (RLC) Circuits............................................................... 4
6 SFRA Measurement.................................................................................................... 5
7 Frequency Responses of Inductors, Capacitors and Resistors.................................... 6
7.1 Theory ..................................................................................................................... 6
7.2 Resonance ............................................................................................................... 8
7.3 Resonance - Series Arrangement ............................................................................ 9
7.4 Resonance - Parallel Arrangement........................................................................ 11
7.5 Practice.................................................................................................................. 13
8 Results from Two Different Specimen Coils............................................................ 14
8.1 Brown Coil............................................................................................................ 14
8.2 Red Coil ................................................................................................................ 15
8.3 Comparison of Both Coils .................................................................................... 16
9 Coils in Series and in Parallel ................................................................................... 18
9.1 Two Identical Coils............................................................................................... 18
9.2 Identical Coils in Series ........................................................................................ 19
9.3 Identical coils in Parallel....................................................................................... 20
9.4 Red and Brown Coils in Series ............................................................................. 21
9.5 Red and Brown Coils in Parallel........................................................................... 23
10 Coils and Interaction ................................................................................................. 25
10.1 Red Coil Alone ................................................................................................. 25
10.2 Proximity and Arrangement.............................................................................. 26
10.3 Electrical Connection and Arrangement ........................................................... 28
10.4 Autotransformer Arrangements ........................................................................ 29
11 Conclusions............................................................................................................... 32
12 References................................................................................................................. 32

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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1
. Version 1.0

2 List of Figures

Figure 1 Variation of XL and XC with frequency............................................................................................ 4


Figure 2 Simple RLC Circuit.......................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 3 Measurements of Voltages for SFRA .............................................................................................. 5
Figure 4 Response of a Short Circuit.............................................................................................................. 6
Figure 5 Responses of a 50 ohm and a 500 ohm Ideal Resistor ..................................................................... 7
Figure 6 Response for a Ideal Inductor........................................................................................................... 7
Figure 7 Response of an Ideal Capacitor........................................................................................................ 8
Figure 8 Series Arrangement of XL and XC .................................................................................................... 9
Figure 9 Impedance of Series Arrangement ................................................................................................... 9
Figure 10 dB response of Series Circuit ....................................................................................................... 10
Figure 11 Parallel Arrangement of R and XL and XC ................................................................................... 11
Figure 12 Impedance of Parallel Arrangement............................................................................................. 11
Figure 13 dB response of Parallel Circuit..................................................................................................... 12
Figure 14 Response of a Non-Ideal Inductor................................................................................................ 13
Figure 15 Brown Coil................................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 16 SFRA Response for Brown Coil – Log Scale .............................................................................. 14
Figure 17 SFRA Response for Brown Coil – Linear Scale .......................................................................... 15
Figure 18 Red Coil ....................................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 19 SFRA Response for Red Coil – Log Scale................................................................................... 16
Figure 20 SFRA Response for Red Coil – Linear Scale............................................................................... 16
Figure 21 Red and Brown Coils – Log Scale ............................................................................................... 17
Figure 22 Red and Brown Coils – Linear Scale ........................................................................................... 17
Figure 23 Two Identical Brown Coils .......................................................................................................... 18
Figure 24 SFRA Reponses for Two Individual Brown Coils ....................................................................... 19
Figure 25 SFRA Responses of Individual Coil and Series Arrangement ..................................................... 19
Figure 26 SFRA Responses of Individual Coil and Parallel Arrangement................................................... 20
Figure 27 Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Series .................................................................................... 21
Figure 28 SFRA Response of Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Series ..................................................... 22
Figure 29 SFRA Response of Series Combination and both individual coils .............................................. 22
Figure 30 Series and Individual – Linear Scale............................................................................................ 23
Figure 31 Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Parallel .................................................................................. 23
Figure 32 SFRA Response of Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Parallel................................................... 24
Figure 33 SFRA Parallel and Individual Responses – Linear Plot ............................................................... 24
Figure 34 SFRA Responses for Red Coil – Log Scale ................................................................................. 25
Figure 35 SFRA Responses for Red Coil – Linear Scale ............................................................................. 25
Figure 36 Red Coil with Brown Coil Nearby ............................................................................................... 26
Figure 37 SFRA Responses for Red Coil with Brown Coil Nearby............................................................. 26
Figure 38 Red Coil coaxial with Brown Coil ............................................................................................... 27
Figure 39 SFRA Responses with Two Coils Coaxial................................................................................... 27
Figure 40 Red Coil coaxial with Brown Coil; Brown Coil shorted.............................................................. 28
Figure 41 SFRA Responses with Coaxial Coils, Brown Coil Shorted ......................................................... 28
Figure 42 Red Coil with Brown Coil Attached, but not in measurement circuit.......................................... 29
Figure 43 SFRA Responses for Attached Brown Coil ................................................................................. 29
Figure 44 Autotransformer Arrangement ..................................................................................................... 30
Figure 45 SFRA Reponses for Simple Autotransformer .............................................................................. 30
Figure 46 SFRA Responses for Simple Autotransformer with Shorted Brown Coil.................................... 31
Figure 47 Damaged Version of Simple Autotransformer............................................................................. 31
Figure 48 SFRA Responses for Damaged Autotransformer......................................................................... 32

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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1
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3 List of Tables

Table 1 Passive Components in Series and in Parallel ................................................................................... 8

4 List of Equations

Equation 1 Angular Frequency....................................................................................................................... 4


Equation 2 Capacitive Reactance Formula..................................................................................................... 4
Equation 3 Inductive Reactance Formula....................................................................................................... 4
Equation 4 Impedance of RLC Circuit ........................................................................................................... 5
Equation 5 Deriving dB values....................................................................................................................... 5
Equation 6 Voltage Ratio and Specimen Impedance...................................................................................... 6
Equation 7 Condition for Resonance.............................................................................................................. 9
Equation 8 Resonant Frequency for L-C components.................................................................................... 9
Equation 9 Deriving dB’s from Impedance.................................................................................................. 10
Equation 10 Condition for Resonance.......................................................................................................... 11
Equation 11 Resonant Frequency for L-C components................................................................................ 12
Equation 12 Inductance of Series Combination ........................................................................................... 19
Equation 13 Capacitances in Series.............................................................................................................. 20
Equation 14 Resonance for Series Combination .......................................................................................... 20
Equation 15 Inductance of Parallel Combination ......................................................................................... 21
Equation 16 Capacitance of Parallel Combination ....................................................................................... 21

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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1
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5 Resistor-Capacitor-Inductor (RLC) Circuits

To summarize, in a circuit where the supply alternates at a frequency f, and an angular


frequency ω, given by:

ω = 2πf
Equation 1 Angular Frequency

We can identify the reactances of discrete ideal (pure) components as:

For a resistor, value R, the reactance is R at all frequencies

For a capacitor, the reactance, XC, is given by:

XC=1/2πfC
Equation 2 Capacitive Reactance Formula

XC reduces as frequency rises. Current leads voltage by a quarter of a cycle (900) in a


capacitor; alternatively, it could be said that voltage lags current by a quarter cycle.

For an inductor the reactance, XL, is given by:

XL=2πfL
Equation 3 Inductive Reactance Formula

XL increases as frequency rises. Voltage leads current by a quarter of a cycle (900) in an


inductor (or current lags voltage by a quarter cycle).

The impedance of individual components varies with frequency, as shown in Figure 1.


450
400
350
Impedance, Ohms

300
250 Capacitance
200 Inductance
150
100
50
0
0.1 1 10 100 1000
Frequency, Hz

Figure 1 Variation of XL and XC with frequency

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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1
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Figure 2 Simple RLC Circuit

In an RLC circuit, such as the series circuit in Figure 2, we can derive a total impedance,
Z, for the circuit.
Z = √(R2 + (XL-XC)2)
Equation 4 Impedance of RLC Circuit

6 SFRA Measurement

Frequency response analysis plots the ratio of the transmitted voltage waveform to the
applied voltage waveform in dBs, as defined in Equation 5. The impedance attenuates the
input voltage signal. The basic measurement circuit is shown in Figure 3. To remove the
effects of test leads, a three lead system is used to measure both input and output voltages
simultaneously.

V signal V in V out
Im pedance, Z

50 Ω C oax
50 Ω C oax 50 Ω C oax
S ignal L ead T est
R eference
M easurem ent M easurem ent
L ead L ead

Figure 3 Measurements of Voltages for SFRA

Coax test leads of 50 ohms are used to apply a source voltage and measure that voltage as
Vin; consequently Vout is referenced against the 50 ohm test lead to ground.

The response in dB’s is calculated via the equation:

Response in dB’s = 20 log10(Vout/Vin)


Equation 5 Deriving dB values

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The output voltage, Vout, is referenced via a 50 ohm co-ax cable to ground. This means
we have:
Vout/Vin =50/(Z+50)
Equation 6 Voltage Ratio and Specimen Impedance

where Z is frequency dependent for an inductor or capacitor or a combination of the two.

7 Frequency Responses of Inductors, Capacitors and


Resistors

Individual passive components – Inductors, Capacitors and Resistors – have identifiable


and distinct frequency responses. In practice, however, there is no such thing as an ideal
Inductor, an ideal Capacitor or an ideal Resistor; each has elements of the other
components. Consequently their responses contain elements of each component, albeit
dominated by their nominal type

7.1 Theory

The expected response for a short circuit, at any frequency, is that Vout is equal to Vin, as
Z=0 Ω. This equals 0 dB across the frequency range.

Response, dB
-25 Response

-50
Frequency, Hz

Figure 4 Response of a Short Circuit

An ideal resistor reduces the output voltage across the frequency range. A 50 Ω resistor
would give an output voltage half the input voltage. This would be a straight line at ~ 6
dB’s down (-6dB), as shown in Figure 5. A 500 Ω resistor would give a response at ~20.8
dB’s down ( –20.8dB).

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Response, 50 Ω Response
dB -25
500 Ω Response

-50
Frequency, Hz
Figure 5 Responses of a 50 ohm and a 500 ohm Ideal Resistor

An open circuit would, in theory, provide infinite impedance, and an output voltage of
zero. This is not calculable as a dB value, but equates to infinite dB’s down.

An ideal Inductor at low frequency looks like a short circuit; as frequency increase, so
does the impedance, heading toward an open circuit. The response for an ideal inductor is
shown in Figure 6. It starts at 0 dB’s and then shows a characteristic roll off, on the log
scale, as frequency increases.

Figure 6 Response for a Ideal Inductor


A Ideal Capacitor looks like an open circuit at low frequencies but at high frequencies it
looks more like a short circuit. The typical response shows a response which climbs
toward zero as frequency rises, as indicated in Figure 7.

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Figure 7 Response of an Ideal Capacitor

7.2 Resonance

Resonance has different implications for series and parallel circuits, which are analyzed
separately. For simplicity, ideal components are assumed – ideal resistance, ideal
capacitance and ideal inductance. As a note, a summary of how to calculate equivalent
RLC component values for series and parallel combinations is given in Table 1.

resistors capacitors inductors


unit ohm ([omega]) farad (F) henry (H)
I-V relation V = IR I = C dV/dt V = L dI/dt
Series Req = 1/Ceq = Leq =
combination R1 + R2 + ... 1/C1 + 1/C2 + ... L1 + L2 + ...
Parallel 1/Req = Ceq = 1/Leq =
combination 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ... C1 + C2 + ... 1/L1 + 1/L2 + ...
Table 1 Passive Components in Series and in Parallel

Generally impedances in series add together as with resistors in series; impedances in


parallel add together as with resistors in parallel.

In the following sections, the resistance R is set to be 10 ohms.

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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1
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7.3 Resonance - Series Arrangement

Figure 8 shows a series arrangement of an ideal inductor and an ideal capacitor and a
resistance.

XL XC R
Figure 8 Series Arrangement of XL and XC

At low frequencies, the capacitor will dominate and the arrangement will look like an
open circuit i.e. Z approaches infinity. As frequency rises, the impedance of the capacitor
will fall, but the impedance of the inductor will rise.

At high frequencies, the inductor will dominate and the arrangement will look like an
open circuit i.e. Z approaches infinity.

The overall impedance of the arrangement is Z, which we can plot against frequency, as
shown in Figure 9.

450
400
Impedance, Ohms

350
300
250
Series
200
150
100
50
0
0.1 1 10 100 1000
Frequency, Hz

Figure 9 Impedance of Series Arrangement


The point of minimum impedance is the resonant point, and is where the impedance is
equal to the resistance, R. This occurs when:

XL = XC
Equation 7 Condition for Resonance

By using Equation 2, Equation 3 and Equation 7 we can deduce that resonance occurs at

f = 1/(2π√LC)
Equation 8 Resonant Frequency for L-C components

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Generally, for a series combination, at resonant frequency, we have the following:


• The reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal (XL = XC)
• Impedance is minimum for given values of C, L and R;
• The impedance of the circuit is equal to R i.e. (Z = R)
• The voltage applied by the source is in phase with the current
• The current is maximum for given values of C, L and R
• The power dissipated in the circuit is maximum for given values of C,L, and R

If we were to measure this circuit using an SFRA test set, we would plot the response in
dB'’ rather than in ohms.

Using Equation 5 and Equation 6 the response, D, in dBs for an impedance, Z is given by
Equation 9:

D = 20 log10( 50/(Z+50))

Equation 9 Deriving dB’s from Impedance


Note that Z is a function of frequency and is complex.

Plotting D for the series Z of Figure 8 yields the graph in Figure 10:

0
0.1 1 10 100 1000
-5

-10
dB

-15

-20

-25
Frequency, Hz

Figure 10 dB response of Series Circuit

Clearly, in dB’s, a series resonance yields a maximum. This relates to the capacitive
climb followed by the inductive roll off.

A maximum in an SFRA plot thus corresponds to a series arrangement of some form that
has reached a resonance.

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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1
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7.4 Resonance - Parallel Arrangement

Figure 11 shows a series arrangement of an ideal inductor and an ideal capacitor and a
resistance.

XC

XL

Figure 11 Parallel Arrangement of R and XL and XC

At low frequencies, the inductor will dominate and the inductor will look like a short
circuit i.e. Z approaches zero. As frequency rises, the impedance of the capacitor will fall,
but the impedance of the inductor will rise.

At high frequencies, the capacitor will dominate and the capacitor will look like a short
circuit again i.e. Z approaches zero again.

The overall impedance of the arrangement is Z, which we can plot against frequency, as
shown in Figure 12.

Parallel

5
Impedance, Ohms

0
0.1 1 10 100 1000
Frequency, Hz

Figure 12 Impedance of Parallel Arrangement


The point of maximum impedance is the resonant point. This occurs when:

XL = XC
Equation 10 Condition for Resonance

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We can deduce that resonance occurs at a frequency f, given by:

f = 1/(2π√LC)

Equation 11 Resonant Frequency for L-C components

Generally, for a parallel combination, at resonant frequency, we have the following:


• The reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal (XL = XC)
• Impedance is a maximum for given values of C, L and R;
• The impedance of the circuit is equal to R i.e. (Z = R)
• The voltage applied by the source is in phase with the current
• The current is minimum for given values of C, L and R
• The power dissipated in the circuit is minimum for given values of C,L, and R

If we were to measure this circuit using an SFRA test set, we would plot the response in
dB's rather than in ohms.

We can plot the response, D, in dBs for an impedance, Z as given by Equation 9, again
noting that Z is a function of frequency and is complex.

Plotting D for the parallel Z of yields the graph in Figure 13:

Parallel

0
-0.1 0.1 1 10 100 1000
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
dB

-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8
-0.9
Frequency, Hz

Figure 13 dB response of Parallel Circuit

At low and high frequencies, the impedance approaches the value of R, which in this case
is 10 ohms. We can calculate the dB’s the R alone would yield: ~-1.6 dB, as shown in
Figure 13

Clearly, in dB’s, a parallel resonance yields a minimum. This relates to the inductive roll
off followed by the capacitive climb.

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Where a minimum occurs in an SFRA plot this corresponds to some parallel arrangement
of an inductor and a capacitor within the transformer.

7.5 Practice

In practice, there is no such thing as an ideal capacitor, an ideal inductor or an ideal


resistor [1]. They each have elements of the other components. To demonstrate we can
look at the response of a small wound coil, a non-ideal inductor, as shown in Figure 14.

Inductive
roll off

Resistive
region

Capacitive
climb

Figure 14 Response of a Non-Ideal Inductor


We can see two distinct effects:
• a low frequency effect where there is a resistance which prevents the coil having a 0
dB response at low frequencies
• a high frequency effect where turn to turn capacitance counteracts the continued roll
off of the inductor

The response at lower frequencies can be used to derive an approximate d.c. resistance
for the coil. Knowing the response to be ~-0.25 dB and making the assumption that the
response is purely resistive, then the impedance Z can be replaced by a resistance, R and
Equation 5 and Equation 6 used to derive the d.c. resistance. In this case, the value is just
under 1.5 ohms.

At higher frequencies, around 200 kHz, the inductive roll off is replaced by a capacitive
climb. This is where the capacitance between the coils of the specimen counteracts the
effect of the inductive element.

There is another effect in this coil around 1 MHz; this may relate to its construction in
layers where mutual inductance and capacitance between layers begins to have an effect.

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8 Results from Two Different Specimen Coils

Here we look at the response of two different coils; their construction and geometry
affect the way they respond in terms of the inductive roll off and the frequency at which
capacitive effects begin to dominate.

8.1 Brown Coil

The Brown Coil is shown in Figure 6. It is a simple copper wire coil wound in layers.

Figure 15 Brown Coil


The SFRA response for this coil is shown, on a log scale, in Figure 16. This
representation of data tends to highlight low frequency responses; the same data, using a
linear scale, is shown in Figure 17. The resonances around 900 kHz are now less
dramatic.

Figure 16 SFRA Response for Brown Coil – Log Scale

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Figure 17 SFRA Response for Brown Coil – Linear Scale

8.2 Red Coil

Red Coil is made of aluminum stranded wire and has been put together in a far less
controlled manner than the Brown Coil, as shown in Figure 18.

Figure 18 Red Coil

The response for the Red Coil, on Log and Linear scales, is shown Figure 19 and Figure
20. It shows the same general shape as Brown Coil, but the initial resonance is at a higher
frequency, and the impedances are higher, as indicated by the lower dB response (i.e.
more negative response or more attenuation).

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Figure 19 SFRA Response for Red Coil – Log Scale

Figure 20 SFRA Response for Red Coil – Linear Scale

8.3 Comparison of Both Coils

The responses of both coils are given on a log and linear scale in Figure 21 and Figure
22.

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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1
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Figure 21 Red and Brown Coils – Log Scale

Figure 22 Red and Brown Coils – Linear Scale

The two coils do show some strong similarities in their responses:

• An initial low dB response


• A subsequent inductive roll off
• A capacitive climb
• A set of smaller resonances at higher frequencies

The smaller resonances may relate to coil construction – the effect is far more noticeable
in the Brown Coil where the construction is neatly layered. It could be a point at which
mutual inductance between layers starts to take effect, followed by capacitance between
layers.

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From the magnitude of the responses at low frequencies, it looks like the impedance, and
consequently the inductance, of the Brown Coil is greater than that of Red Coil i.e.
LB>LR.

From the magnitude of the responses at higher frequencies, it looks like the impedance of
Brown Coil is less than that of Red Coil. As there is an inverse relationship with
capacitance, as defined in Equation 2, this implies that CB>CR.

Knowing the relations of LB>LR and CB>CR it follows that LBCB > LRCR and we would
expect the resonant frequency for the Brown Coil to be lower than that for the Red Coil,
as per Equation 8, which is in fact the case.

9 Coils in Series and in Parallel

Responses for the two coils when arranged in series and in parallel have features of both
individual coils.

9.1 Two Identical Coils

The response of two identical coils, arranged in series and in parallel, is useful in
identifying the variation due to capacitance and inductance. We can use Table 1 to
identify the responses of the two coils. The two coils are shown in a parallel arrangement
in Figure 23.

Figure 23 Two Identical Brown Coils

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SFRA Basic Analysis Volume 1
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The responses for the two coils are shown in Figure 24; as can be seen – they are almost
identical.

Figure 24 SFRA Reponses for Two Individual Brown Coils

9.2 Identical Coils in Series

The two coils in series have the response in blue shown in Figure 25, which gives the
single coil response for comparison in yellow.

Figure 25 SFRA Responses of Individual Coil and Series Arrangement

If an individual brown coil has an inductance of LB and a capacitance of CB, and the
series combination has an inductance of LS and a capacitance of CS then, using Table 1:

LS = 2 * LB
Equation 12 Inductance of Series Combination

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The capacitances add as resistors in parallel yielding:

CS = CB/2
Equation 13 Capacitances in Series

Overall: the inductance has doubled and the capacitance has halved.

At low frequencies there is a more attenuated response and a faster roll off due to the
increased inductance.

At higher frequencies there is a more attenuated response and a slower climb back due to
the decreased capacitance.

The resonant frequency has not changed as it relates to the product of LS and CS as per
Equation 8, which is identical to that for a single coil:

LS * CS = (2 * LB) * (CB/2) = LB * CB
Equation 14 Resonance for Series Combination

Overall the response is more attenuated as the overall impedance has increased – the
attenuation at the resonance point is higher (a more negative dB response).

9.3 Identical coils in Parallel

The two coils in parallel have the response in blue shown in Figure 26.

Figure 26 SFRA Responses of Individual Coil and Parallel Arrangement

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Overall the impedance for the combination is lower, resulting in reduced attenuation.

If we let the parallel combination have an inductance of LP and a capacitance of CP then


we can relate these to the values LB and CB for an individual brown coil via:

LP = LB/2
Equation 15 Inductance of Parallel Combination

CP = 2* CB
Equation 16 Capacitance of Parallel Combination

The reduced inductance gives a less rapid roll off at lower frequencies.

The increased capacitance gives a more rapid climb back at higher frequencies.

Via the same reasoning used for the series combination, the product of LP and CP will be
the same as for the individual coil and thus the resonance will be at the same point.

9.4 Red and Brown Coils in Series

The coils in series, as shown in Figure 27 gave the response shown in Figure 28.

Figure 27 Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Series

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Figure 28 SFRA Response of Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Series

Figure 29 SFRA Response of Series Combination and both individual coils

Clearly there are some identifiable variations for the series combination:

At low frequencies, the series response is more inductive and we have a higher
impedance response, as shown by the lower dB response up to about 100 kHz; this fits
with expected results, as per Table 1, where inductances sum linearly.

At higher frequencies, the response is more capacitive and we see the higher impedance
(lower capacitance) coil dominate the response, modified by the presence of the lower
impedance coil capacitance.

There is also a series resonance at the crossover frequency for the two coils – about 250
kHz, as per section 7.3.

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A linear view of the same data, as shown in Figure 30, concentrates on the higher
frequency responses.

Figure 30 Series and Individual – Linear Scale

The linear scale highlights some interesting variations between the resonance points for
each coil, around 200 kHz.

Note that we now have two inductances in series and two capacitances in series. There
are complex relationships between these values which lead to the final shape of the curve.

9.5 Red and Brown Coils in Parallel

The coils in parallel, as shown in Figure 31 gave the response shown in Figure 32.

Figure 31 Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Parallel

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Figure 32 SFRA Response of Red and Brown Coils Arranged in Parallel

Clearly there are some identifiable variations for the parallel combination:

At low frequencies, the response is lower impedance as the parallel inductors add
together like parallel resistors, as per Table 1.

At higher frequencies, the response is more capacitive and we see the lower impedance
(higher capacitance) coil dominate the response, modified by the presence of the higher
impedance capacitance. Capacitors in parallel add like resistors in series.

We also now have a parallel resonance for the two coils at the cross over frequency of
about 250 kHZ, as per section 7.4.

Figure 33 SFRA Parallel and Individual Responses – Linear Plot

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10 Coils and Interaction

The presence of one coil next to the other may affect the result as there is a magnetic
linkage between the two coils. Clearly geometry and proximity will affect the results.
Here we look at a number of cases to see the different effects.

10.1 Red Coil Alone

The SFRA results for the Red Coil are given again in Figure 34 below, but from 10 kHz
and higher.

Figure 34 SFRA Responses for Red Coil – Log Scale

Figure 35 SFRA Responses for Red Coil – Linear Scale

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10.2 Proximity and Arrangement

The closer the Brown Coil to the Red Coil, the more marked its effect. When the two
coils are coaxial, there is a strong new resonance in the SFRA results.

Figure 36 Red Coil with Brown Coil Nearby

Comparison results for the Red Coil alone, and with the Brown Coil nearby are given in
Figure 37. The results are very similar, with only very slight variation around 1.6 MHz.

There are two


different traces here,
with very minor
variations at about
1.6 MHz

Figure 37 SFRA Responses for Red Coil with Brown Coil Nearby

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Figure 38 Red Coil coaxial with Brown Coil


With the Red Coil coaxial with the Brown Coil, as shown in Figure 38, there is much
closer flux linkage providing a mutual inductance between the two coils.

The results, as shown in Figure 39, have a new resonance peak set around 150-200 kHz
which relate to the inductance of the Brown Coil, as shown in Figure 16, and the original
resonance at 450 kHz is shifted to higher frequency.

Figure 39 SFRA Responses with Two Coils Coaxial

With the coils coaxial, but with the brown coil shorted, as shown in Figure 40, the results,
as shown in Figure 41. The resonance associated with the Brown Coil has now
disappeared, but the effect of the Brown Coil on the Red Coil, shifting the resonance to a
higher frequency, is still there.

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Figure 40 Red Coil coaxial with Brown Coil; Brown Coil shorted

Figure 41 SFRA Responses with Coaxial Coils, Brown Coil Shorted


Note that in none of the results in this section so far are the coils galvanically connected
i.e. there is no electrical wiring connection between the two coils.

10.3 Electrical Connection and Arrangement

Results with the two coils attached also vary with the arrangement of the two coils. With
the Brown Coil attached to the Red Coil, but not in the measurement circuit, as shown in
Figure 42, the results are shown in Figure 43. The variation seen for the Brown Coil in
close proximity, at about 1.6 MHz, as shown in Figure 36, are accentuated in these
results.

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Figure 42 Red Coil with Brown Coil Attached, but not in measurement circuit

Figure 43 SFRA Responses for Attached Brown Coil

10.4 Autotransformer Arrangements

To make a model autotransformer, the two coils are placed coaxially and connected. The
arrangement in Figure 44 gave the results in Figure 45.

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Figure 44 Autotransformer Arrangement

Figure 45 SFRA Reponses for Simple Autotransformer


It is clear that the inductance of the Brown Coil provides a strong interaction around 200
kHz. This is very similar to the results in Figure 39 where the coils are coaxial but not
connected.

By shorting the Brown Coil, the results vary, as shown in Figure 46.

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Figure 46 SFRA Responses for Simple Autotransformer with Shorted Brown Coil

Shorting the Brown Coil greatly reduces the inductance of the Brown Coil and the
resonance associated with it disappears, as happened for the coaxial but not connected
case, shown in Figure 40. The general shape at higher frequencies remains unchanged.

By altering the arrangements of the two coils, as shown in Figure 47, a ‘damaged’
autotransformer is produced: the coils have moved relative to each other.

Figure 47 Damaged Version of Simple Autotransformer

The response for each coil is evident, as shown in Figure 48, but now we have a variation
at about 400 kHz which reflects the mutual inductance between the two coils. The only
thing that has changed between the two situations is the position of the Brown Coil
relative to the Red Coil. Consequently it can be assumed that this has produced the
variation in response. We have seen ‘winding’ movement cause a change in frequency
response.

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Figure 48 SFRA Responses for Damaged Autotransformer

Clearly this is a very simple case of winding movement; we could investigate further by
looking at changes in response with movement. That will be left for a future discussion.

11 Conclusions

The display of data in log and linear formats helps to identify differences between traces.

The responses for different coils can be seen in their combination.

A maximum in an SFRA dB plot corresponds to some parallel resonance within the


transformer.

A minimum in an SFRA dB plot corresponds to some series resonance within the


transformer.

Geometric arrangement of the coils produces new resonances and alters existing
resonances.

12 References

1 “The Impedance Measurement Handbook”, 2nd Edition, Agilent Technologies, 2000

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