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All about origin of Jiva

The Vedanta-sutra (1.1.1) states, athato brahma jijnasa: “Now one should inquire about Brahman –
The absolute truth, the transcendental, spiritual nature “. So, when we start inquiring about absolute
truth a question naturally appears in our mind.” Who am I?”. Am I created out of some chemical
fusion or is there some superior truth in it?
First of all, we have to know that Sri Krishna (The cause of all causes and the support of everything)
has three energies:

1. Cit/Antaranga -sakti (Internal potency)


2. Bahiranga-sakti (External Potency)
3. Tatastha-sakti (Marginal potency)

” The energies of the Lord are divided in three categories, namely antaranga-sakti (internal potency)
which is further divided into three prominent aspects (sandhini, samvit and hladini), tatastha-sakti
(the jivatmas) and bahiranga-sakti (the external energy)” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.2.101-103)

krishnera svabhavika tina-sakti-parinati


cit-shakti, jiva-sakti, ara maya-sakti
(Sri Caitanya Caritamrita Madhya 20.111)

“Lord Krishna naturally has three energetic transformations, and these are known as the spiritual
potency, the living entity potency and the illusory potency.”

1. Cit-sakti (Internal potency):

This is His inner energy. His Own spiritual world pure cit-sakti. This cit-sakti (internal potency) again
consists of three energies:
hladini sandhini samvit
tvayy eka sarva-samsthitau
hlada-tapa-kari mishra
tvayi no guna-varjite

“O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hladini, sandhini and samvit exist in
You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of
the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities.” Visnu Purana (1.12.69)

a. Sandhini-sakti
b. Samvit-sakti
c. Hladini-sakti

Chaitanya Charitamrita further explains these parts of Cit shakti.


“The essential aspect of sandhini is known as pure existence, which is the abode of the Lord’s
existence. Krishna’s mother, father, place, house, bed, seat and the rest are transformations of pure
existence. Awareness of Sri Krishna’s godhood is the essence of samvit, and knowledge of Brahman
and so forth are of the same category. Hladini causes the relish of bliss in Sri Krishna, and through
hladini the devotees are nourished.” (Sri Caitanya Caritamrita 1.4.64-65)

“Thus, in a sequence of superiority sandhini, samvid and hladini are understood. As all pots are made
by a pot maker, similarly whatever exists is the outcome of a cause. In the scriptures (Chan.
Upanishad. 6.2.1) it is said that Bhagavan exists on account of His own nature: ‘O gentle Sir, in the
beginning only He existed.’

His destroying and creating, bestowing and preserving existence at all places, all times and all
circumstances, is caused by sandhini. Through samvit, He knows and causes others to know. Through
hladini, the foremost of all, He rejoices and causes joy, thus it is considered.” (Bhagavat Sandarbha
117)

2. Bahiranga-sakti(External Potency):

This is His “outer” energy. The material world is made of this energy.

Material nature is called prakrati, as described in the Narada Pañcaratra, one of the Satvata-tantras:

“For material creation, Lord Krsna’s plenary expansion assumes three Visnus. The first one, Maha-
visnu, creates the total material energy, known as the mahat-tattva. The second, Garbhodaka-sayi
Visnu, enters into all the universes to create diversities in each of them. The third, Khirodaka-sayi
Visnu, is diffused as the all-pervading Supersoul in all the universes and is known as Paramatma. He is
present even within the atoms. Anyone who knows these three Visnus can be liberated from material
entanglement.”

Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego – all together these eight constitute My
separated material energies. (Bhagavat Gita 7.4)

3. Tatastha-sakti (Marginal potency):

The energy “in between” the spiritual and the material world and is considered to be superior to
material nature (bahiranga shakti).

B.G 7.5 states — “Besides these, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is another, superior energy of Mine,
which comprises the living entities who are exploiting the resources of this material, inferior nature.”

The spiritual soul is said to be like a tiny spiritual “drop of consciousness” (cit-kana). The jiva belongs
to the tatastha-sakti. The jiva (the spiritual soul) is an infinitesimal particle of spiritual consciousness,
like an atomic particle of light emanating from the sun.

jivera ‘svarupa’ haya — krishnera ‘nitya-dasa’


krishnera ‘tatastha-sakti’ ‘bhedabheda-prakasa’
suryamsa-kirana, yaiche agni-jvala-caya
svabhavika krishnera tina-prakara ‘sakti’ haya
(Sri Caitanya Caritamrita Madhya 20.108-109)
“It is the living entity’s constitutional position to be an eternal servant of Krishna because he is the
marginal energy(tatastha-sakti) of Krishna and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different
from the Lord, like a molecular particle of sunshine or fire. Krishna has three varieties of energy.”
Paramatma-sandarbha lists the inherent qualities of Jiva as :

1) it is ever pure self (atma nityanirmalah)


2) it maintains a sense of “I am” (ahamartha) (otherwise it would not be able to perceive itself as an
atman)
3) it is singular or uniform (ekarupa-svarpa-bhak)
4) it is free of transformation (vikara-rahita)
5) it a part (ekasesa) of the Paramatman
6) it is self-luminous and not simply consciousness (but also conscious)
7) it is very small and different in each “field”
8) it has traits of sat, cit, and ananda

Who are Nitya Siddha, Nitya Baddha, Sadhana Siddha?

Those who eternally live in the spiritual planets are expansions of Lord and are called Nitya Siddha
(eternally liberated). The Jiva which originates from tatastha shakti are Nitya Baddha (eternally
conditioned) who can only enter spiritual planets by surrendering to Lord. A Jiva can attain the
spiritual world by performing Bhakti and thus on perfection he becomes Sadhana Siddha. Please note
those who meditate on the Nirakar(impersonal) Brahman aspect on attaining liberation merge into
Brahmajyoti which is at the juncture of material and spiritual world. He is also considered sadhana
siddha. But there is a chance for him to again come back to the material world from Brahmjyoti after
developing a desire to enjoy the material nature. But one who reaches the spiritual planet never
comes back as he becomes an associate of Lord in his different abodes.

Yet there is another nature, which is eternal and is transcendental to this manifested and
unmanifested matter. It is supreme and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that
part remains as it is. (BG 8.20)

That supreme abode is called unmanifested and infallible, and it is the supreme destination. When
one goes there, he never comes back. That is My supreme abode. (BG 8.21)

Though there are instances where a nitya siddha comes to this material world but it happens when
lord himself descends or sends the nitya siddha for some purpose or mission to be fulfilled.

The theory of Anadi Karma (beginning-less karma)

Vedanta-Sutra 2.1.34 reads,

vaisamya-nairghrnye na sapeknatvat tatah hi darsayati

Translation: “No partiality and cruelty (can be charged against God) because of (His) taking other
factors into consideration.”
Analysis: Rämänujäcärya, Sankaräcärya, Nimbarkacharya, and Gaudiya Vedanta acarya Sri Baladeva
Vidyabhusana all explain in their respective commentaries that this sutra is saying one cannot argue
that God is partial and thereby responsible for suffering. The reason this is so, they continue, is that
the Upanisads clearly teach that God only rewards and punishes the living beings with due
consideration of their good and evil deeds. Such deeds and their due rewards are what is commonly
known as karma. Karma and the world of repeated birth and death are inextricably entwined.
Hence this sutra says, “No, God is not guilty of inequality and cruelty, because we must take karma
into consideration.” This is clearly stated in the Upanisads.

The next aphorism of Vedanta-sutra takes an opposing position for the sake of argument and then
refutes it. Sutra 2.1.35 states,
na karmavibhagad iti cen nanaditvat

Translation: “If it be objected that it is not so on account of the non-distinction, we refute the
objection on the ground of being without a beginning.”

Another translation: If it be argued that it is not possible (to take Karma into consideration in the
beginning), since the fruits of work remain still undifferentiated, then we say, no, since the
transmigratory state has no beginning.”

Analysis: Again, Ramanuja, Sankara, and Baladev Vidyabhusana have explained this sutra uniformly
with regard to the term anadi. They show that this sutra raises the objection that before the first
world cycle there was no karma, no distinction between souls on the basis of their merit and demerit—
karma.
To this objection, the sutra replies that this is incorrect because there is no beginning to the world
cycles, to the cycles of birth and death each soul experiences under karmic law. The world cycles, its
souls, and the karma that binds them together are all anadi, beginningless, as is Vishnu himself. There
is no first world cycle, and before each individual world cycle manifests, the infinite number of
individual souls under the influence of karma remain within Mahavishnu in susupti, or deep sleep and
content-less experience. At this time, their karma from the previous world cycle, which materially
distinguishes them from one another, is still present, but in a dormant condition.