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# The Journeyman’s Piece Page 1 of 5

## Exercise: The Journeyman’s Piece (CHALLENGE)

Before you begin Hide/Unhide

Training Files:

Procedure Setup:
1. To avoid naming conflicts, it is recommended you save your work, click File > Close until no models
display, then click File > Manage Session > Erase Not Displayed.

2. Click File > Manage Session > Set Working Directory and navigate to the
PTCU\CreoParametric2\Simulate_Analysis\Journeyman folder and click OK

## 3. Click File > Open and double-click JOURNEYMAN.PRT.

Objectives
Optimize the shape of a lever to minimize its mass while still ensuring its strength.

Scenario
It is your task to optimize the shape of a lever to minimize its mass while still ensuring its strength.

## • You have two alternative material options, Aluminum or Steel.

• The maximum envelope and the loading conditions are shown in the figure below.

• At the hole location, a very stiff bolt is mounted to transfer the force.

• You are free to design the part within this given envelope. Just the surface/location where you have to
constrain the part and where the force is applied is not to be modified.

• The overall dimensions of the surface to be constrained may be minimized within the given envelope.
The same is the requirement for the axis hole.

In this example, the loads and constraints are already defined in the model. Your investigation should be
around adjusting the mesh, assigning the materials in the model, and examining the results when small
deformation versus large deformation theory is used.

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The Journeyman’s Piece Page 2 of 5

Lever

## 1. Open the part model and examine the current dimensions.

2. Constrain the model and apply a bearing load of 15 kN at an angle of 13° as shown.

Figure 2

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The Journeyman’s Piece Page 3 of 5

## 1. Assign either steel or aluminum to the model.

◾ Steel Properties:
◾ Modulus of Elasticity: 200000 MPa

## ◾ Yield Strength: 400 N/mm2

◾ Aluminum Properties:
◾ Modulus of Elasticity: 70000 MPa

## ◾ Yield Strength: 130 N/mm2

The failure criterion for both materials is Distortion Energy (von Mises stress). No safety
factor is required in this exercise.

Task 3. Define and run a static analysis and investigate the results.

1. Define a static analysis. Use the Single-Pass Adaptive (SPA) convergence algorithm.

2. Investigate the results and look for critical areas. If necessary, modify the model in Creo
Parametric and re-run the model iteratively. A solution is achieved when the failure index is less
than or equal to 1 and you are satisfied with the design dimensions.
There is a maximum von Mises stress of nearly 70 MPa if you run the envelope part
geometry made of Steel using the SPA algorithm. Note this is a singular stress near the
constraint. The mass is close to 20.7 kg. The best solutions found should reach a mass
lower than 0.5 kg.

## Task 4. Suggested best practices.

1. Solve the task by designing the part in such a way that you are designing for a failure index of 1.
reaching this optimum.

2. Avoid thinking how a real-life lever usually looks like in order to have a good conceptual design
start of your model. Keep in mind that an incorrect initial design may limit the success of any
subsequent mass reduction.

## 4. There is no requirement for lever stiffness.

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The Journeyman’s Piece Page 4 of 5

1. A real-life approach to the Journeyman’s piece may typically look like the part shown. It’s an
ordinary Aluminum milling design commonly designed in the aerospace industry.
The cross-sections used are a T and a double T profiles. The design is in bending and heavily
loaded near the constraint. There is a top and a bottom belt with a massive wall of increasing
thickness in between to transfer the shear load. Note that the T-section is not exactly in line with

Figure 3

2. An unusual solution is shown in the von Mises fringe plot shown in the figure. Since pure tension is
ideal to fully utilize the material’s strength, the lever is subdivided into two different areas – one
looking like a sling to have ideal tension, the other like a classical straight, but very short bending
loaded lever. Note that ideal tension is the optimum stress state to reach a high material utilization.
This results in a significant decrease of mass.

Figure 4

3. The figure shown brings this idea to an extreme: even though steel is used and not Aluminum
which is regarded as a typical lightweight design material. The part’s mass could be further
decreased. One trick used is that the designed sling now does not look like a typical sling of a
rope, but has two thin parallel belts exactly in line with the applied load which further decreases the