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6/15/2019 THERMAL EXPANSION AND

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
ALUMINUM

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a
Table of Contents
Objective:................................................................................................................................................ 2
Theory: .................................................................................................................................................... 2
 Thermal Expansion: ............................................................................................................... 2
 Tensile Testing: ...................................................................................................................... 2
 Modulus of Elasticity: ............................................................................................................ 3
 Poisson’s Ratio: ..................................................................................................................... 3
Procedures: ............................................................................................................................................. 4
Experimental Apparatus: ....................................................................................................................... 4
Results: ................................................................................................................................................... 6
a) Thermal Expansion ......................................................................................................................... 6
 Graph for thermal Expansion ........................................................................................ 8
b) Tensile testing ................................................................................................................................ 9
c) Modulus of Elasticity ...................................................................................................................... 9
 Graph ........................................................................................................................... 10
d) Poison’s Ratio: .............................................................................................................................. 10
Conclusion: ........................................................................................................................................... 11
References ............................................................................................................................................ 11
Objective:
 In this lab, we study about the thermal expansion and the mechanical properties of the
aluminium. The main aim of performing this [ab was to find the following components
 Ultimate tensile strength of the given material
 Young’s modulus or modulus-of-elasticity
 Poison’s ratio and coefficient of thermal expansion of the aluminum by testing the aluminum
and at the end we need to compare the results with the theoretical values we calculate by using
the formula.

Theory:
Thermal Expansion:
It is the property of the metal by which it changes its shape, volume and length. We can define it by the
following relation (Beer, 1981)
∆𝐿
= 𝛼∆𝑇
𝐿0
We can also write it as
∈= 𝛼∆𝑇

In the above relation, delta L represent the change in length of the material that is the original length
subtracted from the final length that is obtained due to the thermal expansion. Thermal expansion occurs
due to the change in temperature. In the above relation Lo represent the original length of the material.
The symbol alpha represent the coefficient of thermal expansion and delta T represent the change in
temperature. The above relation shows that as the change in temperature of coefficient of thermal
expansion increases the strain also increases and vice versa
In construction or in many other cases we need to consider this factor because it can cause many
damages like buckling or cracking due to temperature change in the environment. So we have to
consider the temperature of the environment also.
So in order to test this property of the material there are some oven which are just for this purpose. In
these ovens, there is a tube made of ceramic material because it has the very less thermal coefficient
expansion and when we heat the testing material, then this material push the ceramic rod and the
instrument called dilatometer is connected to this rod would show the increase in length of the testing
material.

Tensile Testing:
Tensile-test is one of the main tests used to check the mechanical behaviour of thecspecimen and find
out the various parameters of the specimen (Gere, 1972) In this test, we fix the end points of the
specimen into a grip. The grip is further attached to a load measuring apparatus and to a straining device.
If the stress applied is very small, then it means that the material shows the elastically deformation.
Elastic deformation means that after the applied stress is removed, specimen(element) will come to its
original position. But if the load is very large, then there will be the permanent deformation of the
material which means that material will not come-back to its real position. In the following figure, the
initial curve which will come back to its Original-position when the load is removed is called elastic
curve and the rest of the curve which shows us that material will not come back to it original position
i.e. material is plastically deformed is called plastic curve.
There are some parameters shown in the curve. First, there is a proportional limit in the curve which
shows the direct or linear relation between the stress and strain (Goodno, 2003). After that , elastic limit
is reached, it is the limit at which material shows the elastically behaviour. After that Yield-
strength(𝜎𝑌)of the material is reached, It is the stress below which material will move to its original
position or material shows the elastic behavior. After the yield point, material start to the show the
plastically behavior which means that material don’t come back to its original position. In the stress-
strain diagram there is a point where stress is maximum called Ultimate-tensile-stress(UTS). It is the
maximum stress specimen can endure. After that, material will fracture
Stress is found using the equation
𝑃
𝜎=
𝐴

Modulus of Elasticity:
In the above, we can define this property as the Slope of the above graph up to the elastic region(the
region at which material come back to the original state after removing load). (hibbler, 2014) It can also
be explained by the following relation:

∆𝜎
𝐸=
∆𝜀

Poisson’s Ratio:
We can define this property of the materia as the ratio of the transverse strain to the axial strain.
Mathematically, we can define it as:
𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛
Poisson’s ratio = - 𝐴𝑥𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛

The negative sign is used to make sure that we get the positive value of the poison’s ratio

Procedures:
In order to find the thermal expansion, we have to go through the following set of procedure:

 First of all, the dimension of the sample aluminium alloy were calculated in which diameter is
about .505 inch and the length of the sample material is about 2.008 inch
 We put this sample material in the tube of the dilatometer so that the material can be heated
 Then closer to the sample a thermocouple was placed and for the heating the oven will be set
closed
 Dilatometer dial-indicator is set to be zero.
 After that we started the oven and set it to two. And we start to observing the increase in
temperature. And we obtain elongation values of the sample at temperature of hundred-degree
Fahrenheit.
 We collect as well as record the data for every ten-degree Fahrenheit until five-hundred-degree
Fahrenheit temperature was achieved on the oven

Experimental Apparatus:
 The apparatus we used in this lab are given below and they are also represented by the
figures.

 In order to measure the strain of the sample material we use the P-3500 Strain-Indicator

Figure 1 Strain indicator

 Switch and Balance unit (it is connected with the strain indicator and we used it in order to
mount the strain-gauges to the sample material)
Figure 2 Switch and Balance Unit

 Furnace/Oven (used for the thermal expansion)

Figure 3 Oven

 Thermocouple (to check temperature inside oven)

Figure 4 Thermocouple

 Tensile testing instrument (used for calculate the various mechanical properties of aluminum
alloy)

Figure 5 Tensile testing machine

 For bending test, three-pound weight

Figure 6 three-pound weight


 Dilatometer

Figure 7 Dilatometer

 Sample of Aluminium Alloy

Figure 8 Aluminum Alloy sample

 Flexor

Figure 9 Flexor

Results:
a) Thermal Expansion
The result of the change in length on the material is shown in the following table:

# L (in) △L (in) △L/L Tempreature(F)

1 2 0 0 100

2 2 0 0 110

3 2 0 0 120

4 2 0 0 130
5 2 0 0 140

6 2 0 0 150

7 2 0 0 160
8 2 0 0 170
9 2 0 0 180

10 2 0 0 190
11 2 0 0 200

12 2 0 0 210

13 2 0 0 220

14 2 0 0 230

15 2 0 0 240

16 2 0.0003 0.00015 250

17 2 0.0005 0.00025 260

18 2 0.0008 0.0004 270

19 2 0.001 0.0005 280

20 2 0.0014 0.0007 290

21 2 0.0017 0.00085 300

22 2 0.002 0.001 310


23 2 0.0023 0.00115 320

24 2 0.0026 0.0013 330

25 2 0.0029 0.00145 340

26 2 0.0031 0.00155 350

27 2 0.0034 0.0017 360

28 2 0.0038 0.0019 370

29 2 0.004 0.002 380

30 2 0.0044 0.0022 390

31 2 0.0046 0.0023 400

32 2 0.0049 0.00245 410


33 2 0.0052 0.0026 420

34 2 0.0055 0.00275 430

35 2 0.0058 0.0029 440

36 2 0.0061 0.00305 450

37 2 0.0064 0.0032 460

38 2 0.0066 0.0033 470

39 2 0.0069 0.00345 480


40 2 0.0074 0.0037 490

41 2 0.0076 0.0038 500

Graph for thermal Expansion

600

500
y = 68034x + 242.59

400
Tempreature (F)

300

200

100

0
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004

△L/L

This graph shows us the relation between the temperature and elongation of the material as the
temperature increases the materials will start to elongate. It shows a direct relationship.
From the above graph, we can also calculate the value of the alpha which is the coefficient of the thermal
expansion. It can be found by taking the inverse of the Slope of the graph
From the equation shown on graph gives us the value of Slope about 68034

1
alpha = = 1.46 ∗ 10−5 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝐹𝑎ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑛ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑡
68304
b) Tensile testing
From the tensile testing, we get set of values of force and elongation of the sample material. From that
we get the value of stress and strain by dividing the force with the area of the sample material and strain
by dividing the change in length with the original length of the material and with the help of excel we
are able to get the following graph of stress VS strain which shows us the ductile behavior of the sample
material.

Stress Vs Strain
80000
70000
60000
50000
Stress

40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16
Strain

From the above graph, we found that the ultimate tensile strength of material is about
UTS =68000psi

c) Modulus of Elasticity:
The following table gives us the calculation of the young’s modulus that are done with the help of the
excel and the graph.
Formula used for this calculation is mentioned in the theory.

young
strain weight stress modulus sum % error

0.000026 0.25 1118.203 43007808 45716602 335.3962

0.000052 0.5 2236.406 43007808

0.000075 0.75 3354.609 44728120

0.000095 1 4472.812 47082232

0.000121 1.25 5591.015 46206736

0.000141 1.5 6709.218 47583107

0.000166 1.75 7827.421 47153139

0.000192 2 8945.624 46591792


0.000218 2.25 10063.83 46164344

0.000245 2.5 11182.03 45640939

Graph
The Slope of this graph will gives us the value of the modulus of elasticity. It is the graph between the
stress and strain.

Stress VS. Strain


12000
10000
8000
Stress

6000
4000 Series1

2000
0
0 0.00005 0.0001 0.00015 0.0002 0.00025 0.0003
Strain

d) Poison’s Ratio:
As when the stress applied on the material then both axial or transverse strain produced which are noted
and written below
Axial strain = 1604 micro strain
Transverse strain = 500 micro strain in the opposite (reduced)

𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 500


Poison’s ratio = 𝐴𝑥𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛
= 1604
= 0.311

From the online sources we found that poison’s ratio of aluminum alloy is about 0.35
0.35−0.311
Error = = 11.11%
0.35
Conclusion:
In this lab, we study about the different properties of the aluminum and also able to calculate them both
experimentally and theoretically and at the end we also able to compare them. From the thermal
expansion experiment, we conclude that as the change in temperature increase then the ratio of change
in length to original length also increase which means that there exist a direct relation between them
and we also found the value of constant which relate them is about 1.46 ∗
10−5 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝐹𝑎ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑛ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑡
In the tensile testing, we conclude that the maximum strength the material can endure is about 68000psi.
There are some errors in the calculation that are may be due to human or instrumental error that was the
reason we found about 11 percent value in the poison’s ratio.

References
 Beer, F. P. (1981). Mechanics of materials.
 Gere, J. M. (1972). Mechanics of materials .
 Goodno, B. J. (2003). Mechanics of materials.
 hibbler. (2014). Mechanics of materials.