Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 42

11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World


List of 11 Pioneer
Microbiologists of
the World
Article Shared by

Free Writing Tool

Improve grammar, word
choice, and sentence
structure in your writing. It's

Grammarly OPEN

List of eleven pioneer Microbiologists

of the World:- 1. Antony Van
Leeuwenhoek 2. Louis Pasteur 3.
Robert Koch 4. Edward Jenner 5. Paul
Ehrlich 6. Martinus W. Beijerinck 7.
Sergei N. Winogradsky 8. Dimitri
Ivanovski 9. Lazzaro Spallanzani 10.
Joseph Lister 11. Alexander Fleming.

Microbiologist # 1. Antony Van


Antony van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Lay-

wen-hook) (1632-1723), a citizen of Delft,

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 1/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Holland, was not a man of great learning,

but he was very ingenious. He became
expert in the grinding of simple magnifying

He made these lenses of small bits of glass,

polished them very carefully, and mounted
each separately between two brass, copper,
silver, or gold plates, to which he fastened
an adjustable holder for the object to be-


Free Writing Tool

Improve grammar, word
choice, and sentence
structure in your writing. It's

Grammarly OPEN

He constructed many of these ‘microscopes’

each containing a single lens ground by
himself. The best of lenses magnified about
200 times. His microscopes were superior to
any of that time.

He observed, drew and measured a large

number of living organisms including
bacteria and protozoa in materials such as
rain water, pond and well water, and saliva

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 2/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

and the intestinal contents of healthy

subjects and communicated them to the
Royal Society of London in 1683.

He is known as the father of bacteriology

because it was he who first accurately
described the different shapes of bacteria
(coccal, bacillary and spiral) and pictured
their arrangement in infected material.

Leeuwenhoek observed that very large

numbers of bacteria appeared in watery
infusions of animals or vegetable matter
which were left to stand for a week or two at
room temperature. He believed that these
huge populations were the progeny of a few
parental organisms, or seeds that were
originally present in the materials of the
infusion or had entered it from the air.


The significance of these observations was

not realized then and to Leeuwenhoek the

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 3/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

world of ‘little animalcules’ represented only

a curiosity of nature. Their importance in
medicine and other areas of biology came to
be recognized two centuries later.

In addition to his work in microbiology,

Leeuwenhoek made other contributions to
medicine. He gave the first complete
account of the red blood cell, demonstrated
the capillary connections between-arteries
and veins, and made other important
anatomical observations.

In 1677, he described for the first time the

spermatozoa from insects, dogs, and man.
He studied the structure of the optic lens,
striations in muscles, the mouth parts of
insects, and the fine structure of plans. In
1680, he noticed that yeasts consist of
minute globular particles.

Microbiologist # 2. Louis Pasteur:

Pasteur’s contributions are many and great.

The diversity of the fields in which he used
his talents is astounding. The credit of a
sound and scientific beginning of
microbiology goes to him, and hence he is
rightly called the Founder of Microbiology.

Louis Pasteur (1822-95) was born in the

village of Dole (France) on December 27,
1822. His father was a tanner. Pasteur was
originally trained as a chemist, but his
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 4/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

studies on fermentation led him to take

interest in microorganisms. His discoveries
revolutionized medical practice, although he
never studied medicine.

1. The term ‘microbiology’, as the study of

living organisms of microscopic size, was
coined by Pasteur.

2. He also coined the term ‘vaccine’.

3. He concluded during the period between


a) That optically active compounds, such as

the stereo-isomeric forms of tartaric acid
and amyl alcohol, never arose from the
purely chemical decomposition of sugars but
were formed from them by the action of
microorganisms. These were always present
in fermenting liquors and increased in
number as the process continued.


http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 5/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

b) He used different forms of nutrient fluid

to grow microorganisms and demonstrated
that a medium suitable for one might be
unsuitable for another. He advocated that
for successful cultivation of microorganisms
it was necessary to discover a suitable
growth medium and to establish optimal
conditions of temperature, acidity or
alkalinity, and oxygen tension.

c) He emphasized the need for scrupulous

sterilization of everything coming into
contact with the material under examination
and demonstrated numerous sources of
contamination from air, dust and water.

He demonstrated that some organisms were

not destroyed by boiling. For the
sterilization of fluids he advocated heating
to 120°C under pressure and for glassware
the use of dry heat at 170°C. He showed the
value of the cotton-wool plug for protecting
material from aerial recontamination.
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 6/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

4. In 1860-61, he provided strong evidence

to disapprove the theory of spontaneous

5. In 1860-64, he gave experimental

evidence that fermentation and putrefaction
are effects of microbial growth.

6. In 1863-65, he developed the process of

destroying bacteria, known as
pasteurization. He proved that the ‘disease
of wine’ could be prevented without altering
the flavour by heating the wine for a short
time to a temperature (55°-60°C), a little
more than halfway between its freezing and
boiling points.

This process (pasteurization) is employed

throughout the civilized world today to
preserve milk and certain other perishable

7. In 1865, he was asked to attempt to find

the cause of pebrine, a disease which was
threatening to ruin the business of raising
silkworms, an important industry in
Southern France.

Pasteur succeeded in demonstrating that

this silkworm disease was caused by
microscopic germs — protozoa and showed
that the infection could be eliminated by
choosing for breeding only those worms

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 7/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

which were free of the parasites. This

discovery was one more step towards the
establishment of the truth of the germs
theory of disease.

8. In 1877, Koch and Pasteur demonstrated

that anthrax is caused by bacteria. Pasteur
grew the organisms in sterilized yeast water
and kept them in the laboratory for several
months, transferring them frequently to new
culture fluid, in which they multiplied
readily, and showed that these cultures
would always cause anthrax when
inoculated into healthy animals.

9. In 1880, he prevented chicken cholera by

injection of live attenuated culture. He
found that pure cultures of the germ of this
disease which had been kept in the
laboratory for some time would not kill his
animals as fresh cultures did, but would
merely cause a passing illness from which
the chickens recovered.

Then he discovered that the animals that

had recovered from a previous inoculation of
weakened germs were immune, and did not
succumb to the disease. Pasteur
immediately perceived that it might be
possible to make individuals resistant by
inoculating them with the weakened (and
therefore harmless) germs of a particular
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 8/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

10. In 1880, he first successfully cultured

staphylococci in liquid medium and
produced abscesses by inoculating them into

11. In 1881, he developed live attenuated

anthrax vaccine.

12. In 1881, pneumococci were first noticed

by Pasteur and Sternberg independently.

13. Pasteur’s crowning achievement was the

successful application of the principle of
vaccination to the prevention of rabies, or
hydrophobia, in human beings and the
development of rabies vaccine in 1885.

He did not find the germs of this disease

under his microscope (now known as rabies
virus) but he was able to propagate them by
artificial inoculation into the brains of dogs
and rabbits.

Finally he evolved a system of vaccination

with weakened virus which prevented the
development of this fatal disease it the
inoculations are given soon after the bite of
the rabid animal. He gave the first successful
treatment for rabies in 1885 to a young boy
bitten by a rabid dog.

14. In 1887, Pasteur and Joubert first

described Clostridium septicum and called it

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 9/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Vibrion septique.

15. In 1888, in recognition of his

incomparable achievements, the Pasteur
Institute of Paris was established by public
contribution during his lifetime for
investigations of infectious diseases and
preparation of vaccines. Acclaimed the
world over for his epoch making discoveries,
Pasteur died in Paris on September 28,
1895. His body lies in Pasteur Institute of

Microbiologist # 3. Robert Koch:

A bacteriologist second only to Louis

Pasteur and popularly called the ‘Founder of
Microbial Techniques’ was Robert Koch
(1843-1910). He was born on December 11,
1843 in Germany. In 1866, he took his
degree in Medicine and began a general
practice in a small country town. In 1872, he
took a diploma in Public Health and became
interested in microscopical studies.

With a microscope given as a birthday

present by his wife he set up a primitive
laboratory and started his studies on
microbes in relation to diseases. Later, he
became the first director of the Koch
Institute for infectious diseases which was
established in 1891.

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 10/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Koch attracted many pupils from all over the

world; his pupils include famous
bacteriologists as bacillus), Loeffler
(discoverer of diphtheria bacillus) von
Behring (discoverer of diphtheria antitoxin),
Pfieffer (described Pfieffer’s bacillus and
phenomenon), Kitasato (discoverer of
plague bacillus), Welch (discoverer of gas
gangrene bacillus), Ehrlich and Wasserman.
In 1905, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in
Medicine for his work on tuberculosis.

His contributions to microbiology are

variegated and enormous:

1. In 1876, Robert Koch successfully isolated

anthrax bacillus in pure culture, studied the
formation and germination of its spores, and
provided the proof of its infectiousness. This
agent as the sole cause of anthrax was
confirmed by Pasteur.

2. In 1877, he introduced the method of

making smears of bacteria on glass slides,
and of staining them with the aniline dyes.
He was also the first to employ in
bacteriological work the improved
compound microscope of Abbe.

3. In 1878, his studies of would infections

explored the role of animal experimentation
in establishing the cause of bacterial
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 11/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

4. In 1881, he described means of cultivating

bacteria on solid media, thus making it
possible to obtain pure cultures by
transferring material from a single colony.

First he used as his growth medium pieces of

potato, then 2.5-5.0% gelatin to prepare
solid media fortifying them with 1% meat
extract as an essential ingredient. He poured
melted nutrient gelatin on glass slides and
allowed them to set under a bell jar to
prevent contamination.

He inoculated media using sterile needles or

platinum wires dipped in suspensions to
take minimum inoculum and lightly drawing
lines across the medium. He also developed
pour-plate method. At the suggestion of
Frau Hesse, his cook, he substituted agar in
place of gelatin as solidifying agent for the
media. The hanging-drop method of
studying bacteria as used today is a product
of his genius.

5. In 1882, Koch surprised the world by

announcing his discovery of tubercle
bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), the
causative agent of tuberculosis. He
described a special staining method for
detection of this organism and grew it in
pure cultures in the laboratory.

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 12/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

He showed that animals would develop

tuberculosis when inoculated with pure
cultures of this organism, and recovered the
identical organisms from the diseased
tissues of the animals. The discovery of the
tubercle bacillus made him internationally
famous and the bacillus was called Koch’s
bacillus and tuberculosis, Koch’s disease

6. In 1883 he discovered the causative

agents of cholera (Vibrio cholerae), Egyptian
ophthalmia (pink eye) and Koch Week’s

7. In 1884, Koch expounded the postulates

or laws by which an organism may be
proved to be the cause of a particular
disease. These are known as Koch’s
postulates. He showed how he had fulfilled
these laws in his own studies on the
causation of tuberculosis.

He also discovered tuberculin a substance in

cultures of tubercle bacilli that causes a
specific reaction when injected into a
tuberculous individual. He advocated use of
tuberculin in the treatment of tuberculosis.
But unfortunately it was a grievous error
committed by him.

8. Koch continued his work on tuberculosis

with respect to tuberculin reactivity and in
1890-91, he showed how a normal guinea-
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 13/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

pig and an already infected guinea-pig

behaved differently to an infection with
tubercle bacillus. This is known as Koch’s

9. From 1885-90 Koch studies various

organisms present in water, soil and air and
their relation in prevention of disease.

10. He invented the hot air oven and steam

sterilizer, basic tools in any microbiology
laboratory. He developed methods for
testing antiseptics and to distinguish
between bacteriostatic and bactericidal

Microbiologist # 4. Edward Jenner:

Edward Jenner (1749-1823) was born in

Berkeley in 1749. Orphaned before he was 5-
years-old, his brothers and sister set him on
a career of medicine. He completed his
training with the great surgeon John Hunter
in London.

He introduced the modern method of

vaccination to prevent smallpox. He
observed that milkmaids who contracted
cowpox or vaccinia while milking were
subsequently immune to smallpox. On May
14, 1796 he devised a brave experiment.

He performed a vaccination against

smallpox by transferring material from a
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 14/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

cowpox pustule on the hand of a milkmaid,

Sarah Nelmes, to the arm of a small boy
named James Phipps his gardener s son. Six
weeks later the boy was inoculated with

He failed to develop the disease. By 1798

Jenner published his results in 23 cases and
by 1800 about 6000 persons had been
inoculated with cowpox to prevent smallpox.
The terms vaccine and vaccination were first
used by Pasteur out of deference to Jenner.

In 1967 the World Health Organisation

masterminded final global plan to eradicate
smallpox. Success was announced in 1980
with the declaration Smallpox is dead.
Thanks to Jenner.

Edward Jenner’s discovery has now been

developed into one of the most important
parts of modern medicine-Immunology.
This science helps us to treat many
infectious diseases, and to understand
transplantation, allergies and diseases such
as rheumatoid arthritis and AIDS.

Jenner made several other important

contributions to medicine. He was probably
the first to associate angina with hardening
of the arteries. He also described rheumatic
hear, disease and purified important
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 15/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Edward Jenner has also become in other

field of science. He was made a follow of the
Royal Society in 1789 for correctly described
the curious nesting behaviour of cuckoos.
He was also one of the first to publish
convincing evidence that some species of
birds migrated to other countries in the
winter (many believed they hibernated).

Together with John Hunter, he studied the

hibernation of mammals such as hedgehogs
and dormice. Edward Jenner was probably
the first person to fly a balloon in Britain
Filled with hydrogen and launched from
Berkeley Castle, it travelled 24 miles. A
skilled geologist and fossil-hunter, Jenner
discovered the first Plesiosaurus fossil on
nearby Stinchcombe Hill.

Jenner’s home is now dedicated to the

memory of the man and his work. His study
remains much as it was the day he died in
1823. In its peaceful garden is the thatched
hut where he vaccinated the poor, free of
charge. Grape vines that he planted still crop

Microbiologist # 5. Paul Ehrlich:

Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), an outstanding
German scientist and genius of
extraordinary activity, added a great mass to
our knowledge of medical science, and a

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 16/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

large number of technical methods he

proposed are now in daily use in
microbiological and chemical laboratories.

1. In 1879, he applied stains to cells and

tissues for the purpose of revealing their

2. In 1882, he reported the acid-fastness of

tubercle bacillus.

3. From 1890-1900 he did important

research in immunology. He soon found that
the specific effect of immune serum could be
demonstrated in vivo and in vitro and
introduced methods of standardizing toxin
and antitoxin. To him goes the credit of
minimum lethal dose.

4. In 1898, he proposed side chain theory of

antibody production.

5. In 1909, he introduced salvarsan, an

arsenical compound, sometimes called the
‘magic bullet’. It was capable of destroying
the spirochaete of syphilis with only
moderate toxic effects. He continued his
experimentation until 1912 when he
announced the discovery of neosalvarsan.
Thus he created a new branch of medicine
known as chemotherapy.

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 17/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Microbiologist # 6. Martinus W.
Martinus W. Beijerinck (1851-1931) was a
professor at the Delft Polytechnique School
(Holland) in his later years, but was
originally trained in Botany and began his
carrier in Microbiology studying the
microbiology of plants. He was one of the
great general microbiologists who made
fundamental contributions to microbial
ecology and many other fields.

Following are the major contributions

of Beijerinck in the field of

1. Beijerinck’s greatest contribution to the

field of microbiology was perhaps his clear
formulation of the concept of the
enrichment culture. Instead of isolating
microorganisms from nature in a
nonselective fashion, he proposed ‘selecting’
specific microorganisms from a natural
sample through the use of specific culture
media and incubation conditions that
favoured growth of only one type or a
physiologically related group of

Using his enrichment culture (or “selective

culture”, as he called it) technique,
Beijerinck isolated the first pure culture of

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 18/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

many soil and aquatic microorganisms,

including aerobic nitrogen fixing bacteria
(Azotobacter), nitrogen fixing root nodule
bacteria (later named Rhizobium), sulphate-
reducing and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria,
Lactobacillus species, green algae, and many
other microorganisms.

2. Beijerinck described the basic tenets of

virology and in rightly called by many as the
founder of virology. From his studies of
tobacco mosaic disease, he confirmed in
1898, using selective filtration technique,
that the tobacco mosaic disease was caused
not by any pathogenic bacteria or toxin
secreted by bacteria (as stated by Ivanowski)
but by some new type of pathogenic agents,
which he called “contagium vivum fluidum”
(infections living fluid) and referred
subsequently to it as a “virus” (poison). He
also said that these infections agents (the
virus) multiply only inside the living cell.
(Dimitri Ivanovski discovered viruses in
1992, but failed to report his findings.)

Microbiologist # 7. Sergei N.
Sergei N. Winogradsky (1856-1953), a
Russian microbiologist, made many
contributions to soil microbiology and is
rightly called the founder of soil
microbiology. He had interests similar to

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 19/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Beijerinck’s and successfully isolated several

key bacteria for the first time.

Winogradsky lived to be almost 100,

publishing many scientific papers, along
with a major monograph, Microbiologic du
Sol (Soil Microbiology); the latter work, a
true milestone in microbiology, contained
his original drawings of many of the
organisms he had isolated of otherwise
studied in enrichment culture or natural
material during his carrier.

However, the major contributions of

Winogradsky to the field of
microbiology are the following:

1. Winogradsky isolated pure cultures of

nitrifying bacteria and clearly demonstrated
that the process of nitrification (oxidation of
ammonia to nitrate) was the result of
bacterial action.

2. He studied in 1887 the oxidation of H2S

by sulphur oxidizing bacteria directly in
their natural habitats.

3. From his studies of sulphur oxidizing

bacteria, Winogradsky developed the
concept of chemolithotrophy, the oxidation
of inorganic compounds resulting in the
release of energy. He also concluded from
his studies of the nitrifying bacteria that

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 20/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

these organisms obtained carbon from CO2,

in air, i.e., that they were autotrophs.

Although the concepts of chemolithotrophy

and autotrophy were not readily accepted by
his contemporaries, we know now that the
two processes are extremely important
processes on Earth and can even support the
growth of higher organisms.

4. Winogradsky isolated in 1893 the first

nitrogen fixing bacterium (the anaerobe
Clostridium pasteurianum) using
enrichment culture technique and by so
doing developed the concept of bacterial
nitrogen fixation.

Microbiologist # 8. Dimitri Ivanovski:

Dimitri Ivanovski, a Russian botanist, is

famous for his studies on mosaic disease of
tobacco, a severe disease especially in
Holland and Germany at his time. He was
actively engaged in the investigation of this
disease to find out the nature of the agent
causing it.

Ivanovski repealed the experiments carried

out by Adolf Mayer, and first successfully
experimentally demonstrated that the
tobacco mosaic disease has been caused by
agents which successfully passed the
Chamberland-porcelain filter that retains
even the smallest bacteria.
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 21/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

He stated that the juice from infected

tobacco plants did not loss infectivity even
after passage through the filtre which, if the
disease was caused by a bacterium, should
have happened.

It was an important clue but, contrary to his

experimental result and despite his inability
to isolate any bacterium, Ivanovski still
maintained that either the pathogenic
bacterium’ somehow passed through the
filter or a ‘toxin’ secreted by it passed
through the filter and made the filtrate

Microbiologist # 9. Lazzaro

Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799), a forgotten

giant who infact was a true precursor of
modern biology and one of the “founding
fathers” of microbiology, died two centuries

Although he is a comparatively less known

than other great scientists, many aspects of
our current scientific culture are based in his
inspiration. This Italian, born in Modena in
1729, was a follower of the great naturalist
Antonio Vallisnieri (1661-1730) and
attended lectures by the famous Laura Bassi

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 22/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Bassi was a full professor at the University of

Bologna in the middle of the eighteenth
century, and was such a extraordinary
woman—who spoke several languages,
possessed an unusual knowledge of
mathematics, physics and natural sciences,
and still had time to bear twelve children—
inspired the scientific vocation of the young

Triggered by these stimuli, Spallanzani

became professor of natural history at the
Universities of Modena and Pavia and later a
researcher renowned throughout Europe by
the multiplicity and curiosity of his
observations. Since he was ordained by the
Roman Catholic Church, he is also known by
the nickname of abate Spallanzani.

Following are the significant

contributions of Spallanzani in the
field of science:

1. Spallanzani’s classic studies on the

impossibility of spontaneous generation of
life from dead matter contributed to the
setting up of techniques on sterilization later
perfected by Louis Pasteur. Pasteur,
acknowledging the importance of these
studies, hung Spallanzani’s portrait in one of
the halls of his Institute at Paris.

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 23/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

2. Furthermore, the versatility of

Spallanzani’s research contributed quite
efficiently to the progress of physiology in
areas as diverse as blood circulation,
breathing and digestion.

3. Among his many scientific achievements,

the most outstanding discoveries are by far
the various contributions included in his
book Experiences to Serve to the History of
the Generation of Animals and Plants, which
was first published in Genova, in Italian, in

The experiences described in this book arc of

great interest, particularly when analyzed in
the light of modern techniques such as
cloning or in vitro fertilization. Among other
accomplishments, these studies report the
first experimental evidence that ovules are
fertilized by spermatozoa.

4. Spallanzani was able to obtain embryos

which “were born just as if mating had
preceded their life” by means of artificial
fecundations in various animals. On these
bases, he tried to obtain not only hybrid
animals but also imaginary beings, such as
the famous onotauro, an animal supposed to
be the result of breeding between a bull and
a mare or a horse and a cow. He thought
that “Nature always responds to questions
with instructive answers”, hence he
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 24/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

managed to learn valuable lessons even

when he met with failure.

Spallazani’s scrupulous thoroughness in the

performance of experiments, his wide and
imaginative ability to design them, and his
exquisite precaution to interpret the results
were characteristics of his personality. He
clearly demonstrated traits that are typical
of current scientists rather than of ancient

His method of repeating experiments

several times, for instance, met with serious
criticism among his contemporaries, and
even the famous English surgeon John
Hunter (1728-1793) was of the opinion that
he multiplied unnecessarily the experiments
with no known purpose.

But, such an approach, however, allowed

him to reach conclusions that are still valid
after centuries. However, as scientists in all
ages, Spallanzani was not immune to error.

Prisoner in part of Aristotle’s ideas, he

favored some wrong interpretations of the
pre-formationist theory, which supported
the pre-existence of the embryo before
fertilization and assumed a sole animistic
role for the spermatic fluid. Nevertheless, we
owe to Spallanzani the first studies on

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 25/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

reproduction which can be considered really


Microbiologist # 10. Joseph Lister:

Joseph Lister (1827-1912), an English
surgeon, was born at Essex (England) and
died at Walmer (England). He was the son
of a wealthy wine merchant namely, Joseph
Jackson. Lister who developed an
achromatic lens for the microscope. His
parents took a great interest in their son’s
education. They instructed him and sent
him to Quaker schools that imphasized
natural history and science.

At the age 16 his decidea medicines would be

his carrier. Lister graduated from King’s
College, London, and became a house
surgeon at University Hospital in 1852. He
was appointed as assistant to James Symes,
the best surgeon of the day.

He later married Symes’s daughter. Lister

enjoyed a privilege denied many scientific
innovators; he saw his principles accepted
during his lifetime and was honored with the
title of Baronet in 1883.

He was also appointed as one of the twelve

original members of the Order of Merit in
1902. A British Institution of Preventive
Medicine, previously named after Edward
Jenner, was renamed as Lister Institute of
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 26/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Preventive Medicine in 1899 in honour of


Lister was a humble, religious, and

unassuming man, uninterested in financial
gain or fame. After the death of his wife in
1893, he retired from surgery and al his
death in 1912, was almost completely blind
and deaf.

Following are the real contributions

of Lister:

1. Lister’s discovery of antiseptic treatment

of wounds is outstanding. As a surgeon,
Lister was concerned with the high mortality
rate of post-amputation patient and the high
rate of gangrene after surgery.

Applying the knowledge that bacteria caused

disease, and drawing from Louis Pasteur’s
work that proved the existence of airborne
microorganisms, Lister concluded that
airborne bacteria could cause infection in
surgical wounds.

Lister read about the effect of carbolic acid

used on sewage bacteria in outhouses,
cesspools and stable in the about the effect
of carbolic acid used on sewage bacteria in
outhouses, cesspools and stables in the
nearby town of Carlisle, and developed an
antiseptic system whereby he would spray

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 27/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

carbolic acid in the operating room, and use

it to sterilize the surgical instrument and his
hand. In addition, he applied the acid and
around the wound, and directly on the

Lister first used this method in 1865 while

treating a compound fracture of a leg, an
injury that often claimed about 60% of
patients, and where amputation of a limb
was usually the only treatment. The
procedure was successful. Lister published
his antiseptic method in The Lancet, in
1867. There was one problem carbolic acid,
especially the spray, was harmful to those
who came in contact with it.

However Lister found milder antiseptics and

later heat-sterilized the surgical
instruments. At first, the medical found
community did not support Lister’s theory,
but eventually his antiseptic method gained
recognition and was adopted as standard
procedure for treating wounds and during

Medics used Lister’s antiseptic method,

which proved to be effective, during the
Franco-Prussain War (1870-1871). In 1877,
Lister became Professor of Surgery at King’s
College, London.

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 28/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

2. Besides his discovery of antiseptic

treatment of wounds, Lister’s achievements
in the field of surgical techniques also
deserve mention. During his stay at King’s
College Hospital in London, he became the
second man in England to operate on a
brain tumour. He also developed a method
of repairing ‘kneecaps’ with metal wire and
improved the technique of mastectomy.

3. Lister also studied histology under

William Sharpey during which time, he
wrote an important paper on inflammation
where he discussed the susceptibility to
disease of inflammed tissue.

However some consider Lister “the father of

modern antisepsis”. Listerine mouth-wash is
named after him for his work in antisepsis.
Also named in his honour is the bacterial
genus Listeria, typified by the food-borne
pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.

Microbiologist # 11. Alexander

Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) was born to
a Scottish sheep-family. He excelled in
school and entered St Mary’s Hospital in
London to study medicine. He was a short
man, usually clad in a bow tie, who even in
his celebrity never mastered the conventions
of public society.

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 29/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Fleming was a bacteriologist and would have

remained a quiet bacteriologist had
serendipity not come calling that fateful
September in 1928 when he discovered
penicillin, the miracle drug, from the mould
Penicillium notatum. In fact, Fleming was
not even the first to describe the
antibacterial properties of Penicillium.

John Tindall had done so in 1875, E.

Duchesne in 1896 and, likewise, D.A. Gratia
in 1925. However, unlike his predecessors,
Fleming recognized the significance of his
findings. He would later say, “My only merit
is that I did not neglect the observation and
that I pursued the subject as a

The improbable chain of events that led

Alexander Fleming to discover penicillin is
the stuff of which scientific myths are made.
Fleming had been interested in searching
something that would kill pathogens ever
since working on wound infections caused
by staphylococci bacteria. He left a culture
plate smeared with staphylococcus bacteria
on his lab bench while he went on a two-
week holiday.

When he returned, he noticed a clear halo

surrounding the yellow-green growth of a
mould that had accidentally contaminated
the plate. Unknown to him, a spore of a rare
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 30/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

variant called Penicillium notatum had

drifted in from a mycology lab one floor

Luck would have it that Fleming had

decided not to store his culture in a warm
incubator, and that London was then hit by
a cold spell, giving the mould a chance to

Later, as the temperature rose, the

staphylococcus bacteria grew like a lawn,
covering the entire plate — except for the
area surrounding the moldy contaminant.
Seeing that halo was Fleming’s “Eureka”
moment, an instant of great personal insight
and deductive reasoning.

He correctly deduced that the mould must

have released a substance that inhibited the
growth of the bacteria. Fleming’s initial
work was reported in the British Journal of
Experimental Pathology.

By 1932, Fleming stopped his work on

penicillin and happily provided other
researchers with samples of his mould.
Fleming’s work remained in relative
obscurity for a decade. In 1939 a specimen
of Fleming’s mould became available to a
team of scientists at Oxford University led
by Howard Florey. This team had technical

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 31/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

talent, especially in a chemist named Ernst

Boris Chain.

Florey, Chain and their colleagues rapidly

purified penicillin in sufficient quantity and
successfully treated mice that had been
given lethal doses of bacteria.

They also demonstrated in later years that

injections of penicillin caused miraculous
recoveries in patients with a variety of
infections. Pneumonia, syphilis, gonorrhea,
diphtheria, scarlet fever and many other
bacterial infections that once killed patients
suddenly became treatable.

As deaths caused by bacterial infections

plummeted, a grateful world needed a hero
and Fleming become such hero. Fleming
received awards and accolades in rapid
succession, including a Knighthood (with
Florey) in 1944 and the Nobel Prize for
Medicine (with Florey and Chain) in 1945.

When Fleming died of a heart attack in 1955,

he was mourned by the world and burried as
a national hero in the crypt of St. Paul’s
Cathedral in London. Although Fleming’s
scientific findings may not have reached
greatness, his singular contribution, the
discovery of penicillin, changed the practice
of medicine and the course of history.

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 32/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Related Articles:

1. Microbiology and Nursing

You May Like Sponsored Links by Taboola

Surprising Rewards For Filipino People Born

Between 1941 - 1981
Survey Compare

TV Was Changed Forever By This Final MASH


Choose a plane and play this Game for 1 Minute

Delta Wars

Military Watch Everybody in Philippines is

Talking About
Tech Discount Finder

This is One of The Cheapest Ways to Get a Flight


Find Cheap Flights From Lapu-lapu

Trips Shop

11:11 Sale: Everything blow: P1000


Knee Pain Total Relief


http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 33/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Welcome to
BiologyDiscussion! Our
mission is to provide an
online platform to help
students to share notes
in Biology. This website
includes study notes,
research papers, essays,
articles and other allied
information submitted
by visitors like YOU.

Before sharing your

knowledge on this site,
please read the
following pages:

1. Content Guidelines
2. Privacy Policy
3. TOS
4. Disclaimer Copyright

Share Your

Share Your
Word File

Share Your
PDF File

Share Your
PPT File

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 34/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World


What would be the

consequences if there is no
meiosis in organisms that
reproduce sexually? 1

What is meant by external

fertilization? 0 Answers

Why mitochondria is called

as the power house of the
cell? 0 Answers

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 35/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Can plants feel? 3


Bile juice contains no

digestive enzymes, yet it is
important for digestion. Why?
0 Answers

What is heredity? 0 Answers

What are transgenic

bacteria? Give one example.
0 Answers

What is a peptide bond?

How many peptide bonds are
present in a tripeptide? 0

Which organelle is known as

“power house” of the cell?
42 Answer

Why are date palms called

dioecious? 0 Answers

What is open and closed

type of circulatory system? 0

What are the different types

of microscopes? 0 Answers

You Sponsored Links

May Like
Enjoy 25% off
Selected Style Use
code GET25OFF
Zalora com my
Top 7 Places to Go
your Your Kids in
Hong Kong
http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 36/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

New Website Helps
You Find The
Trips Shop
When He Dug This
Massive Hole His
Neighbors Thought…
Surprising Rewards
For People Born
Spelling 1941 - 1981
and Compare
by Taboola



Chemistry Lab

Lab Microscope

Laboratory Science

Cell Biology




http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 37/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World


Biology An
n 11

Biology An

Biology in
Welfare 1


ogy 43

Fluids and

of Gases

Cell 216




Diversity in
the Living

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 38/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

World 12

Ecology 9


ntal Issues






Health and






Microbes in

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 39/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World



Basis of





Growth and





on 245

on in

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 40/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

on in

on in

ve Health


n in

in Plants


This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and

general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Answer
Now and help others.

Answer Now

Here's how it works:

Anybody can Anybody can The best answers are

ask a question answer voted up and rise to the top

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 41/42
11/17/2018 List of 11 Pioneer Microbiologists of the World

Forum Categories
Biological Biology An

Animal Kingdom Biodiversity Classification Introduction 11 Biology An Introduction

Biology in Human Body Fluids and Breathing and

175 Biomolecules Biotechnology
43 Circulation Exchange of Gases

Cell- Structure and Digestion and Diversity in the Living

Cell 216 Function Chemical Coordination Absorption World 125

Ecology 93 Ecosystem Environmental Issues Evolution Excretory System

Genetics and Human Health and Human

Flowering Plants Food Production Evolution

110 Diseases Physiology

Locomotion and Microbes in Human

Human Reproduction Immune System Living World Movement Welfare

Molecualr Basis of Organisms and

Mineral Nutrition Inheritance Neural Coordination Nutrition Population

Plant Growth and Principles and

Photosynthesis Development Plant Kingdom Plant Physiology

261 Processes

Principles of

Inheritance and Reproduction in Reproduction in Reproduction in

Variation Reproduction 245 Animals Flowering Plants Organisms

Structural Organisation

Reproductive Health Respiration in Animals Transport in Plants Trending 14

What is atherosclerosis? How does it affect the heart? Answer Now

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/trending/list-of-11-pioneer-microbiologists-of-the-world/54634 42/42