Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 66

LEVEL 4

Writing
LOG
Teacher’s Guide
Topics 4–6
LEVEL 4

Writing
LOG

Teacher’s Guide
Topics 4–6
Heather Gaddis
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be
58 St Aldates reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
Oxford in any form or by any means without prior written
OX1 1ST permission from the Publisher.
United Kingdom
Richmond Publications may contain links to third
First Edition: 2018 party websites or apps. We have no control over the
ISBN: 978-607-06-1519-1 content of these websites or apps, which may change
frequently, and we are not responsible for the content
Compass Writing Log Teacherʼs Guide or the way it may be used with our materials. Teachers
Level 4 Topics 4–6 and students are advised to exercise discretion when
© Richmond Publishing, S.A. de C.V. 2018 accessing the links.
Av. Río Mixcoac No. 274, Col. Acacias,
Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03240, Ciudad de México The Publisher has made every effort to trace the owner
of copyright material; however, the Publisher will correct
Publisher: Justine Piekarowicz any involuntary omission at the earliest opportunity.
Project Manager: Amanda Guppy
Editor: Kimberly MacCurdy Printed in Mexico by
Design: Orlando Llanas, Erika Martínez
Layout: Claudia Rocha
Cover Illustration: Fernando Rubio Monroy
Illustrations: María Guadalupe Calvo Leyva pp. T88-T91;
María Lydia Lavezzi p. x

Images used under license from © Shutterstock.com


Introduction .................................................................................................................... iv

Strategies .................................................................................................................... vii

Editing ............................................................................................................................. x

Scope and Sequence ........................................................................................... xi

Topic Walkthrough ............................................................................................ xii

Teacher’s Guide for Writing Log ............................................................. xiv

Teaching Notes

Topic 4 Why do we dream? ..................................................................... T55

Topic 5 How do we explain prehistoric times? .......................... T71

Topic 6 What challenges do humans face? ................................... T87

iii
Introduction
Compass is a six-level English program for bilingual
primary schools. The Compass program includes five
interrelated modules for students.
Through its integrated English as a Foreign Language
and English Language Arts programs, Compass offers
a robust curriculum incorporating the rich authentic
content and scaffolded learning outcomes available
to English language learners in an immersive
English-speaking environment.
Compass topics are developed from big questions—life’s
essential questions—about students themselves, about
society and humankind, and about the natural world. In
each log, learners examine the same big questions from
different perspectives. These questions arouse curiosity
in the topics and encourage exploration, personalization,
explanation and elaboration.

Compass English Language Arts


Modules: Reading Log, Writing Log,
Phonics and Spelling Log
• All modules align to US Common Core Standards
• Early literacy support with the Reading Log and
Phonics and Spelling Log
• Comprehensive reading strategy development in the
Reading Log
• A scaffolded writing program in the Writing Log

Compass English as a Foreign Language


Modules: Language Log, Vocabulary and
Grammar Log
• Focus on communication
• Explicit vocabulary and grammar development
• Development of all four skills (reading, listening,
speaking, writing)
• Grammar, skills and assessments aligned to the
Common European Framework of Reference for
Languages (CEFR)

iv
The objective of writing instruction is to help learners Teacher’s Guide for Writing Log
become effective, thoughtful writers. The Compass The Compass Writing Log Teacher’s Guide contains a
Writing Log gives students a practical, immediate variety of approaches and techniques to provide additional
application for the language they are learning. It reinforces support for students’ writing skills development.
their knowledge of vocabulary and grammar and enhances
Process Writing
skills development while fostering students’ creativity and
In Compass Writing Log, students follow a modified
self-expression.
six-stage process. First, they analyze a model text. Students
The Compass Writing Log develops literacy skills through
then enter the planning stage, using the RAFT writing
a hybrid approach that combines English Language Arts
technique, along with brainstorming, concept mapping
instruction with EFL support. Students will acquire a
and, at times, researching in order to focus and inform
sequential, scaffolded set of writing strategies based on the
their writing. After planning and organizing, students
US Common Core Standards for Writing. The Compass
commence the drafting/revising/editing stages. Then, they
Writing Log combines these standards—geared toward
present their final pieces of writing to their classmates.
native speakers of English—with extensive support in
This process instills a habit of planning, writing and
process writing for English language learners. This hybrid
revising, and ensures more thoughtful, organized work.
approach enables students to develop key writing skills
while learning to think critically, plan, write, edit and Model Texts
reflect on their writing. Students are guided to understand Each topic of Compass Writing Log begins with a model
and apply these writing strategies through dynamic, text that helps English language learners identify and
intuitive, age- and level-appropriate activities. understand the featured genre, format and writing strategy
while engaging them in the topic. Model texts facilitate
Compass Writing Log aligns to the Common Core
critical thinking and provide a useful reference for students
Standards in the following way:
during the writing process. The model texts are located on
Level Compass Grade either the Opener or the Getting Started page in a topic.

1 Grade 1 RAFT Writing Technique


The RAFT writing technique helps students plan their
2 Grade 2
writing. The acronym RAFT stands for Role of the Writer,
3 Grade 3 Audience, Format, Topic.
4 Grade 4 Role of the Writer has students consider who they are as a
writer. It encourages them to decide if they will write from
5 Grade 5
their own perspective or from the perspective of another
6 Grade 6 person, allowing them to adopt different personas and
points of view.

Writing Log Audience has students consider who their audience will
be, which guides them to determine appropriate register,
Each level of the Compass Writing Log is divided into
language and information.
nine topics. The titles of the topics are in the form of Big
Questions, which are shared across all components in the Format refers to the text type; for example, blog,
series. Each topic contains eight lessons of class material newspaper article or comic strip. An awareness of the
that is based on six pages of content in the Student format helps students plan appropriate text features and
Book: Opener, Getting Started, Planning, Organizing, consider appropriate language.
My First Draft, My Second Draft and My Story or Topic refers to the subject, or main idea, of the text.
Text pages. Planning the topic helps students maintain focus and
direction in their texts.

v
Students apply the RAFT writing technique twice in each Publishing and Digital Publishing
set of lessons. They analyze the model text with RAFT in As with presenting, publishing motivates students and
Getting Started (Lesson 2) and plan their own writing with gives them a sense of purpose for their writing, as well as a
RAFT in Planning My Text (Lesson 3). clear idea of audience. There are different places in which
students can publish their work. They may be interested,
Peer Review
for example, in creating books of their work or a class
My First Draft and My Second Draft lessons include a
anthology of works on one topic.
peer review checklist. The process of peer review supports
collaboration and enhances student learning. Students Digital publishing makes content accessible via computer
employ critical thinking skills to analyze and comment technology. It also further motivates students and increases
on their classmates’ drafts. In turn, students expand this the audience for their work. It gives them the opportunity
analysis to their own texts, which leads to more organized to practice word processing and digital publishing, and
and accurate pieces of writing. to interact by commenting on each other’s work. The
Compass Digital Platform www.logcompass.com includes a
Illustrations
user-friendly classroom blogging tool for digital publishing.
The My Story or My Text pages in each topic includes
It allows students to publish their writing. The teacher
a page for students to illustrate their work. Illustrations
can check all content before it is published on the blog.
foster visual literacy by helping students understand and
Students can then comment on the work, and the teacher
make connections between language and images. It can
can moderate the comments to ensure they are appropriate
be rewarding for students to explore a variety of types of
and constructive. This gives students a full digital
illustration, such as painting, collage, photos and icons.
publishing experience.
Presenting
Vocabulary Notebook
In Lesson 8, My Presentation, students share their work
Learning new words is a crucial part of language learning.
with their classmates. This has several important benefits.
Reading, writing, researching and brainstorming are
First, knowing their classmates will read and comment on
excellent ways for students to encounter and use new
their writing motivates students and gives them a sense of
words in context. Maintaining a vocabulary notebook
audience. This task also provides an opportunity for students
helps students collect and organize new words so they
to develop a broader range of writing strategies, such as
may continue to expand their lexical range. Consider
note-taking, writing responses and writing introductions for
discussing or demonstrating ways of recording vocabulary,
their presentations. Finally, students develop presentation
such as alphabetically or thematically, with definitions,
skills and reading strategies, such as pacing, pausing, making
sample language and phrases, illustrations or translations.
eye-contact and reading from notes.
Encourage students to regularly record new vocabulary and
Rubrics to refer back to their vocabulary notebooks when writing
The last page of each topic provides an optional rubric and editing their work.
specific to the learning objectives of the topic. Rubrics
Homework
facilitate consistent, objective assessment and make the
There are homework options in some of the lessons
task of evaluating texts more structured for the teacher.
in Compass Writing Log Teacher’s Guide Levels 3 to 6.
Compass Writing Log rubrics provide teachers with the
Homework is not mandatory in the Compass Writing Log;
option of formative or summative assessment by topic or by
however, homework options are included for teachers who
level. Scores can be calculated by assigning two points for
are expected or required to assign homework as a part of
each performance indicator (PI) “above level,” one point for
this course. Where possible, homework options aim to help
each of those “at level” and zero for each PI “below level.”
students explore writing and topics in interesting, practical
Use of the rubrics is entirely at the teacher’s discretion.
and communicative ways.

vi
Writing Strategies Planning Point of View
The point of view is the perspective from which an
Creating a Brochure
author recounts a narrative or presents information.
Creating a brochure requires writers to organize
In the first-person point of view, the author writes about
informative and persuasive content about a product or a
a personal experience using pronouns such as I and we. In
service that readers will want to purchase.
the third-person point of view, a narrator recounts another
Creating Topic Sentences person’s experience and uses pronouns such as he, she
Topic sentences present the topic and main idea of a and they. Writers often choose first-person point of view
paragraph. They are an important signposting technique. because it helps them convey emotions effectively. It also
Developing this strategy helps students produce generates more empathy from readers.
well-organized, coherent texts.
Planning the Purpose of a Text
Citing Sources A text with an easily identifiable purpose indicates focus
When quoting explicitly from a text, it is essential that and organization. Developing planning skills will lead to
writers reference and cite their sources. Sources are often more coherent and cohesive texts.
found in footnotes and the quotations have a superscripted
Quoting Explicitly from a Text
number after them in the text.
A quotation is a word, phrase, sentence or paragraph taken
Developing a Topic directly from a text. A direct quotation from a credible
The ability to develop a topic in an opinion essay requires source can support an explanation or summary of a text.
writers to introduce a topic, express an opinion about it and Writers use quotations to support their ideas.
support their opinions with definitions and examples.
Skimming and Taking Notes
Developing a Narrative Skimming is the ability to quickly read a text for the main
Features of a narrative include a setting, characters, a ideas. It is also an essential step that precedes taking
problem, events and a solution. Learning to develop a notes. When doing research, students must be able to
narrative is fundamental to fiction writing. skim texts for the main ideas and to determine if the text
Editing is an appropriate source. Once students have chosen
Editing is a critical thinking strategy that is essential to suitable reference texts, they take notes. Taking notes is
the draft-writing process. When editing, students identify the ability to concisely write the main ideas or most useful
and correct capitalization and punctuation, spelling and information that will help them write their own texts.
content in their texts. Using Commas
Elements in a Comic Commas are important for making ideas clear and making
This strategy requires students to develop a coherent texts more readable. They can be used to combine ideas
story that combines and balances the elements in a comic: in compound sentences before the words and or but. The
illustrations, dialogue and narration. use of commas can change the meaning of a sentence, so
correct usage is an essential writing skill.
Imagining Your Audience
This strategy enables students to adopt the correct register
and tone for their writing. It also helps them in including
the necessary background information and level of detail in
their texts.

vii
Using End Punctuation Reading Strategies
End punctuation, such as periods, is essential to writing.
Five-Finger Retell
A text must have end punctuation so readers know when
Five-finger retell is a memory aid to help students organize
one idea ends and another begins. An exclamation point
and retell key information in a text. Each finger represents
at the end of a sentence indicates strong feelings, and
a question: Who are the characters? What is the setting?
multiple exclamation points or question marks indicate
What is the problem? What are the events? and What is
even stronger feelings. They can be used to evoke the same
the solution?
feelings in readers.
Fluency: Expression
Using Headings
One aspect of fluency is expression—the appropriate use
Brochures have information organized into sections. Each
of phrasing and intonation in reading. Effective storytellers
section has a title called a heading. Writers use headings
and presenters are able to raise or lower their voice
in brochures to interest and engage readers and to indicate
intonation to match the meaning of the story or text. Using
the main idea of the section. Using headings helps students
expression when reading makes the text more engaging
write well-organized texts, and it helps readers scan for
for the audience. It also enables the audience to better
information quickly.
understand and relate to it.
Using Persuasive Language
Identifying the Elements in a Comic
Writers use persuasive language to evoke an emotional
A comic is composed of four elements: captions
response in readers. The ability to select and use specific
(narration), illustrations, speech balloons and thought
language that corresponds to their intended message is
bubbles. Readers must be able to identify the text format
essential to effective, purpose-driven communication.
of a comic and understand how the elements or features
Using Quotation Marks support or enhance the story.
When quoting explicitly from a text, it is essential to have
Identifying the Author’s Purpose
quotation marks before and after the quotes. They signal to
An author writes for different purposes: to persuade, to
readers that someone said those exact words.
inform or to entertain. Effective readers are able to identify
Writing a Conclusion an author’s purpose by analyzing the text and its features
A conclusion is the last paragraph in a text. It brings the such as word choice and text content. This skill gives
reader’s attention back to the topic of the text and leaves readers an added layer of understanding.
the reader with a sense of closure.
Identifying Opinions
Writing an Introduction Writers often use phrases, such as I like or I think, to
A well-written introduction presents the main idea of a text express opinions. The ability to identify phrases that
and interests the reader. It is a basic writing strategy that express opinions is a critical thinking skill and a feature of
students must develop. text analysis.

Identifying Persuasive Language


The ability to identify persuasive words and phrases is an
important feature of determining an author’s purpose. It is a
critical thinking skill that effective readers use to distinguish
fact from opinion and allow for deeper understanding not only
of text content but also of author bias.

viii
Identifying the Purpose of the Narrator
The narrator (found in captions) in a comic can support the
story line in a number of ways. The narrator may set the
scene, describe illustrations or provide time cue words that
connect one event and frame to another.

Identifying the Topic


The topic is the most important idea of a text. It is usually
in the first paragraph.

Making Eye Contact


Making eye contact while giving a presentation is one of
the most critical presentation skills students must develop.
It signals self-confidence and credibility. When presenters
make eye contact, the audience is also more likely to pay
attention and connect with the presenters.

Pausing for Meaning


Proficient readers pause while reading a text to enhance
comprehension. This strategy also applies to reading aloud.
However, in this context, the reader pauses to improve
the listeners’ understanding of a text or to maintain
their interest.

Scanning
Scanning is the ability to quickly look for and find specific
information in a text. Effective readers can scan a text
for specific information or text features that help them
accomplish a task.

Summarizing
The strategy of summarizing enables students to identify
the topic and the most important ideas in a text. Before,
during and after reading, effective readers ask themselves
questions such as What’s the topic? What are the main
ideas? Are they relevant to the author’s position or topic?

ix
At the end of each Compass Writing Log Student Book, there is an Editing page. It gives
students the opportunity to practice and confirm knowledge of the capitalization,
spelling and punctuation rules they learned throughout the level.

Astrid’s
Kingdom

A strid stretched lazily in bed as the sun streamed through the window.
“Astrid!” her mother called.. G Get up now. There’s a lot to do today.
y.
Astrid groaned loudly. “Can I stay in bed for a bitt P Please, Mom?”
“No,” said her mother firmly. “You need to pick up your room and finish your
schoolwork before lunch h ”
“That is SO unfair ir ” complained Astrid. “You never let me stay in bed on the weekend.
You always make me do chores. It’s my room. I don’t care iff is it a mess.”
“astrid,
“ast we’ve talked about this,” said her mother. “You have a right to your own space ce
but it’s your responsibility to keep it neat! When I get back from the store, I want your
room to be spotless.”
As she heard the apartment door close behind her mother, Astrid pulled the covers
over her head. If I’m in charge someday, she thought, I’ll let people have fun all the time.
I won’t make them do things they don’t want to do. No at all!
o responsabilities a
Suddenly y there
t was a bright flash, and Astrid found herself in the middle of a Str
Street!
She looked around in amazement. People were dancing and singing. Kidss are w were
whizzing around on the sidewalks and roads on scooters and skateboards.

Mark 12 errors in the text using editing marks.


, Insert comma Capitalize a letter

. Insert period Change a capital letter to lower case

? Insert question mark Circle a spelling mistake

“” Insert quotation mark Remove a word

! Insert exclamation point ≈ Change word order

80

p80_U9COwl4.indd 80 4/9/18 9:26 AM

x
Topic Model Text Writing Strategies Capitalization and Punctuation

Are the Rules I Have Expressing Opinions Capitalization: First words


at Home Fair? Punctuation: Period at the end of a
sentence, Comma after introductory
Pages 8-15 phrases

Before and After Using Headings Capitalization: Proper names, Acronyms

Pages 16-23

The Shape of My Writing a Concrete Capitalization: First word of an idea or


Dream Poem line of poetry
Pages 24-31 Punctuation: Period at the end of an
idea, Comma for pausing

Daydreaming Developing a Topic Punctuation: Quotation marks to quote


exact words from a source
Pages 32-39

Prehistoric Adventure Creating a Brochure Punctuation: Quotation marks around


Park definitions, Comma to connect sentences
with and or but
Pages 40-47

A Robot Will Be the Elements in a Comic Punctuation: End punctuation for


Solution stronger feelings

Pages 48-55

Homeless Animals Using Persuasive Punctuation: Comma after introductory


Language phrases and adverbs
Pages 56-63

An Ambassador in Writing in the Third Punctuation: Comma before and after


Utopia Person nonessential words or phrases

Pages 64-71

The Coolest Invention Structuring a Punctuation: Quotation marks around


Ever Five-stage Story dialogue, Punctuation marks inside end
quotation mark
Pages 72-79

Editing Page 80

xi
Think about the Big Question
while you write.
Analyze the
model text.
There is a model text
for every topic.

Identify elements of the


Writing Strategy in the
model text.

Think about Practice correct capitalization


your text. and punctuation.

Connect your ideas.


Brainstorm
words for
your text.

Write notes for Create topic


your text. sentences.

xii
Write your first draft. Write your second draft.

Evaluate
classmates’ texts.

Illustrate your text.


Write your final text.

Evaluate what
you learned.

xiii
Each lesson begins with a Lead in to the
Lesson activity to introduce students to
Each topic provides an the theme of the topic.
overview of the genre, format
and Writing Strategy Focus.
Lesson 1 includes reading
strategies that enable
students to develop their
reading comprehension
and critical thinking skills.

Homework Option
suggests out-of-class
activities for students
to continue exploring
the topic.

Lessons Preview details


the strategies students will
learn and the resources
required in a topic.
The approximate duration of
activities is provided to aid lesson
planning. Actual duration may vary
depending on students’ learning
needs and interests.

xiv
Each topic includes at least one
Subject Connection that incorporates
CLIL (Content and Language Integrated
Learning) activities into a lesson and a
concise explanation of how the activities
link to the subject and the topic. Each lesson focuses on
different, level-appropriate
writing strategies.

Take the Lesson Further


Answers to Writing activities personalize
Log activities are in and expand on learning.
the notes.

Know Your Students recognizes that within any


classroom there are a wide range of students.
This feature offers either procedural notes on how
to carry out activities with students according
to their abilities or personality, or it offers target
outcomes according to what students of different
strengths will be likely to achieve.

xv
Lesson 8 includes reading
strategies that enable students
to develop their reading and
presentation skills.

Lesson 8 ends with a reflection activity


to help students understand and
internalize their learning from the topic.

Many activities can be set up in various


ways—in pairs, groups, as a whole class,
in teams or individually—according to
the needs or preferences of students Each topic includes a Writing Rubric
and teachers. Manage Your Class that facilitates student assessment.
suggests different ways to conduct
activities successfully.

xvi
To p ic 4 Why do we dream?
Writing Log: pages 32-39
Genre Writing Strategy Focus
Opinion Essay Developing a Topic
An opinion essay is a text that expresses the writer’s perspective about a What is it? The ability to develop a topic in an opinion essay requires
subject using rational, convincing reasons, explanations and examples. writers to introduce a topic, express an opinion about it and support
The text may have three or more paragraphs. The introduction presents their opinions with definitions and examples.
the subject and possibly the writer’s opinion. Each following paragraph What will students do? Students will learn to use definitions,
develops the opinion and reasons for it by providing explanations or explanations, examples and reasons to develop a topic.
examples that support it. The conclusion restates the opinion and Why is it important? It is important for students to be able to structure
summarizes the reasons. and write a well-developed essay. It requires them to use critical
thinking skills to analyze a topic, take a position and use the most
Format compelling information to support it.
Newspaper Article How will students build on previous knowledge? In previous
A newspaper is composed of articles organized into sections such as Compass Writing Logs, students learn to write essays that contain
feature articles, editorials, international news, business and entertainment an introduction, body and conclusion. They also learn to express and
or lifestyle. Most newspapers also include opinion articles in any of the support opinions using reasons and examples. In this topic, students
sections and may be written by staff or freelance writers. Characteristics of continue to develop their organizational writing skills.
a newspaper article include a headline, byline and pictures. In this topic,
students will write an opinion essay about daydreaming.

Lessons Preview
Lesson Pages Lesson Focus Teaching Resources

1 Reading the 32 Identifying the Topic • Sheets of paper


Model Text Identifying Opinions • Colored pencils and crayons

Art Connection

2 Getting 32 and 33 Developing a Topic


Started

3 Planning 32-34 Summarizing


My Text Planning the Purpose of a Text

4 Organizing 34 and 35 Developing a Topic • Internet access


My Ideas Skimming and Taking Notes
Quoting Explicitly from a Text
Creating Topic Sentences

5 My First Draft 32, 35 and 36 Writing an Introduction


Writing a Conclusion
Quoting Explicitly from a Text
Citing Sources

6 My Second 33, 36 and 37 Using Quotation Marks • Colored pencils


Draft Citing Sources, Editing

7 My Text 32, 36-39 Editing • Colored pencils

8 My Presentation 32, 38 and 39 Pausing for Meaning


Making Eye Contact

T 55
To p ic 4

by Roger Dorsett

Our minds are always working. If we are bored or distracted, we start imagining things
or daydreaming. Daydreaming means “to think pleasant thoughts about your life or
future while you are awake.”1 It is the opposite of paying attention or being focused.

When I daydream, I like to think about my future, and I imagine fun things. Most of the
time I think about drawing because I want to be a famous illustrator. People would ask
me to draw things such as mythical creatures or superheroes. When I imagine this,
I get excited. I also get a lot of new ideas, and I want to draw them. I think this shows
that daydreaming can motivate people to “work toward accomplishing their goals.”2

In summary, I think daydreaming is something we all do. I also think it is helpful to


daydream because it brings good feelings. These positive feelings stay with us and
can motivate us to do the things we like.
Sources:
1 http://www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/daydreaming
2 http://www.livescience.com/56096-surprising-facts-about-daydreaming.html

32

U4COwl4.indd 32 10/2/17 6:07 PM


T 56
Lesson 1
Teaching Resources Reading Strategies Art Connection
Compass Writing Log 4 page 32 Identifying the Topic Drawing pictures of what students daydream
Sheets of paper (1 per student) The topic is the most important idea of a text. about is a way to create a multisensory
It is usually in the first paragraph. connection to the topic. It serves to further
Colored pencils and crayons
Identifying Opinions engage students and to make the topic and
Writers often use phrases such as I like text more memorable.
or I think to express opinions. The ability
to identify phrases that express opinions
is a critical thinking skill and a feature of
text analysis.

Lead in to the Lesson (25 min.) Take the Lesson Further (10 min.)
Art Connection • Form small groups. Say: The writer daydreams about being
• Write the word Daydreaming on the board. Elicit its a famous illustrator. Ask: When you daydream about your
meaning. (Happy thoughts about your life and your future.) future, what do you see? Have students answer the question.
• Ask: What do you daydream about? Elicit a few ideas. • Encourage students to share their ideas with the class.
• Hand out sheets of paper, colored pencils and crayons.
Homework Option
• Have students draw a picture of what they daydream about.
Suggest that students keep a record of how often they
• Form small groups. Have students share their pictures and
daydream and what they daydream about over the next
describe them.
few days.
Manage Your Class
Some students may not feel comfortable talking about their
daydreams. Encourage them to share, but do not insist
they do so.

Read and Understand the Model Text (20 min.)


Reading Strategies
• Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 32.
• Read it aloud and have students follow along.
• Tell students to circle any new words. Elicit or teach
their meanings.
• Write Topic on the board. Explain that the topic is the subject
of the text. Ask: What is this text about? (Daydreaming.)
Say: Daydreaming is the topic of this text.
• Confirm general understanding of the text. Have students
point out the definition of daydreaming the writer uses.
(To think pleasant thoughts about your life or future when
you are awake.) Ask: What does the writer daydream about?
(He daydreams about drawing.) Why? (Because he wants to
be a famous illustrator.)
• Point to the last paragraph. Read it aloud again. Ask: What is
the writer doing here: giving facts and examples or expressing
an opinion? (Expressing an opinion.)
• Have students point out the phrase the writer uses to express
an opinion. (I think.)

Reading the Model Text T 57


Lesson 2
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy Focus
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 32 and 33 Developing a Topic

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.)


• Write Dreaming and Daydreaming on the board. Know Your Students
• Form small groups. Have students compare and contrast Some students may not recall the purpose of quotation
dreaming and daydreaming. marks or remember how to use them. Be prepared to write
• Encourage students to share their ideas with the class. a few examples on the board.

1 Read the text. Circle the correct words to complete 4 Punctuation Find a sentence with quotation marks in
the sentences. (15 min.) the text. Write it here. (10 min.)
• Have students read the sentences and options, then read the • Read the Punctuation entry aloud and have students
text on page 32 and complete the activity on page 33. follow along.
• Form pairs. Tell students to compare and confirm answers. • Remind students that we use quotation marks when we are
• Write the following questions on the board: writing the exact words from another person or source.
1 How do you know the author is a student? • Have students find and write a quotation from the text.
2 How do you know the text is probably from a
Answers: Daydreaming means “to think pleasant thoughts about your life
school newspaper? or future while you are awake.” / I think this shows that daydreaming can
• Tell students to find information in the text that supports motivate people to “work toward accomplishing their goals.”
their answers. (Possible answers: 1. The picture is of a young
boy, who might be the author. The author writes about Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
wanting to be a famous illustrator, so he probably isn’t • Form small groups. Have students agree or disagree with the
an adult yet. 2. It’s probably an article from a newspaper author’s opinion about daydreaming. Encourage them to give
because it doesn’t have enough scientific information such as reasons for their answers.
facts, statistics and information from studies to be a science
magazine article, and it is not a story.)
Answers: 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. c

2 Read the text again. Number the information in the


correct order. (10 min.)
• Read the information aloud.
• Have students read the text again and number the
information in the correct order.
Answers: 3, 2, 4, 5, 1

3 Developing a Topic Look at the text. Circle Yes or


No. (10 min.)
• Read the Writing Strategy entry aloud. Have students
follow along.
• Confirm understanding of definition, statistics and quotes.
(A definition is the meaning of a word. Statistics is the
interpretation of data, usually in the form of numbers such as
percentages. A quote, or quotation, is something that another
person says or writes, the exact words, that is repeated in a
different text.)
• Ask: How can you identify a quotation in a text? (It has
quotation marks before and after it.)
• Guide students through the activity. Have them identify the
explanation and description of daydreaming as well as how
the author supports his opinion.
Answers: 1. Yes 2. No 3. Yes

T 58 Getting Started
1 Read the text. Circle the correct words to
complete the sentences.

1 The author of the text is… .


a an expert b a student c a fiction writer
2 The text is probably from a… .
a science magazine b storybook c school newspaper

3 The text is written for… .


a everyone b scientists c children
4 The text is about… .
a imagining b illustrating c daydreaming

2 Read the text again. Number the information in the correct order.
What the author daydreams about
What daydreaming means
How the writer feels about his daydreams
The writer’s opinion about daydreaming
The reasons people daydream

3 Developing a Topic Look at the text. Circle Yes or No.


1 The author uses a definition to
Developing a Topic
Writers develop a topic
explain what daydreaming is. Yes No
by organizing their ideas.
2 The author uses statistics to First, they introduce the
describe daydreaming. Yes No topic. Then they state an
opinion and support their
3 The author uses quotes opinion with definitions
to support his opinion. Yes No and examples.

4 Punctuation Find a sentence with quotation marks in the text.


Write it here. Punctuation
Use quotation marks to
quote exact words from
a source.

Topic 4 33

U4COwl4.indd 33 10/2/17 6:08 PM


T 59
1 Answer the questions.
1 What is the purpose of your text?

2 Who are you writing it for?

3 Where will you publish it?

4 What daydreaming ideas could you write about?

2 Think about daydreaming. Brainstorm and write the words you might use.

Things I Daydream About Description Words for Daydreams

Feelings about Daydreaming Opinion Words

3 Choose one thing you daydream about. Write some ideas for your text.

34 Topic 4

U4COwl4.indd 34 10/18/17 1:26 PM


T 60
Lesson 3
Teaching Resources Reading Strategy
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 32-34 Summarizing
The strategy of summarizing enables students to identify the topic and the most important
ideas in a text. Before, during and after reading, effective readers ask themselves questions
such as What’s the topic? What are the main ideas? Are they relevant to the author’s position
or topic?

Writing Strategy
Planning the Purpose of a Text
A text with an easily identifiable purpose indicates focus and organization. Developing
planning skills will lead to more coherent and cohesive texts.

Lead in to the Lesson (15 min.) • Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 32.
Reading Strategy Have them identify opinion words or phrases. (I think.)
Write them on the board.
• Have students read the model text on page 32 again.
• Have students think about daydreaming and add more words
• Write Topic and Main ideas on the board. Elicit the meaning
to the charts in their books.
of each.
• Encourage students to share their ideas with the class.
• Explain that summarizing a text means focusing on the most
important information: the topic and main ideas. Possible answers:
• Ask: What’s the text about? (Daydreaming.) Say: Start your Things I Daydream About Description Words for
summary by saying, “The text is about daydreaming.” the future, fun things, drawing, Daydreams
being a famous illustrator, what he positive, happy, bored,
• Form pairs. Tell students to summarize the model text. would draw distracted, helpful
Remind them they can use the information in activity 2 on
Feelings about Daydreaming Opinion Words
page 33 to help them organize their information. excited, happy, motivated I like, I think, I believe
• Encourage students to share their summaries with the class.

1 Answer the questions. (15 min.) Know Your Students


If students find it difficult to think of description words,
Writing Strategy
encourage them to use a dictionary or thesaurus.
• Write RAFT vertically on the board. Elicit the words in
the acronym. (Role of the writer, audience, format, topic.)
3 Choose one thing you daydream about. Write some
Starting with the T and working up the acronym, explain the
ideas for your text. (10 min.)
meaning and elicit an example for each about the model text.
(Topic: daydreaming. Format: article. Audience: young people. • Ask: What does the author of the model text daydream
Role: a student, a daydreamer.) about? (The future.) What does he imagine about the future?
• Ask: What type of text is it: a story, an informative text or (He imagines being a famous illustrator.)
an opinion text? (An opinion text.) What is the purpose • Elicit specifically what the author imagines doing when
of the model text: to persuade, to inform or to entertain? he is a famous illustrator. (Drawing mythical creatures
(To persuade and to inform.) and superheroes.)
• Explain that there is a reason or purpose for every text. • Explain that the author starts with general information (the
• Tell students to think about the purpose of their articles and future) then makes it more specific (what he will be and do in
answer question 1. the future).
• Have students answer the rest of the questions. Monitor and • Tell students to choose a general topic they daydream about,
help as needed. such as the future, playing a sport or cooking, and write it.
• Have students write one or two more ideas about the
2 Think about daydreaming. Brainstorm and write the general topic.
words you might use. (15 min.)
Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
• Draw the chart in activity 2 on the board. Write the headings.
• Tell students to recall what they daydream about. Write a few • Remind students that the author quotes a Live Science
ideas on the board. article saying that daydreaming can help people work toward
• Elicit a few words that describe daydreaming. Write them on their goals.
the board. • Tell them to read their ideas in activity 3 again and write one
• Ask: How does daydreaming make you feel? Elicit ideas and goal related to their daydream and one way that they can
write a few on the board. work toward that goal.

Planning My Text T 61
Lesson 4
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy Focus
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 34 and 35 Developing a Topic
Internet access Writing Strategies
Skimming and Taking Notes
Skimming is the ability to quickly read a text for the main ideas. It is also an essential step that
precedes taking notes. When doing research, students must be able to skim texts for the main
ideas to determine if the text is an appropriate source. Once students have chosen suitable
reference texts, they take notes. Taking notes is the ability to concisely write the main ideas or
most useful information that will help them write their own texts.
Quoting Explicitly from a Text
A quotation is a word, phrase, sentence or paragraph taken directly from a text. A direct
quotation from a credible source can support an explanation or summary of a text. Writers use
quotations to support their ideas.
Creating Topic Sentences
Topic sentences present the topic and main idea of a paragraph. They are an important
signposting technique. Developing this strategy helps students produce well-organized,
coherent texts.

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.) 5 Write a topic sentence for your introduction,
• Have students recall what they daydream about, but tell them development and conclusion. (15 min.)
not to say it. Writing Strategy
• Form small groups. Have students take turns acting out their • Elicit the meaning and purpose of a topic sentence.
daydreams and guessing what they are. (A topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph.
It presents the main idea for the paragraph.)
4 Do research and complete the concept map for your • Tell students to review the information in the Introduction,
text. (30 min.)
Development and Conclusion sections of their concept maps
Writing Strategies and write topic sentences.
• Point out the sections of the concept map. Elicit the
importance of each section. Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
• Have students review their notes about daydreaming on • Form pairs. Have students share their topic sentences.
page 34. • Encourage students to comment or make suggestions.
• Explain that they are going to do research and find more
information to include in their articles. Ask: When you are
looking for information, do you read everything carefully or do
you read quickly to understand the main ideas? (Read quickly
for main ideas.) What research information will you include?
(Quotations that support my ideas and opinion.)
• Say: After you find information you want to include in your
article, you need to take notes. Ask: What information will
you write in your notes: complete sentences or main ideas?
(Complete sentences if it is a quote and main ideas for
the rest.)
• Tell students to use their mobile devices or school computers
to skim websites and find information that supports
their ideas and opinions and take notes. Monitor and
help as needed.

Manage Your Class


Monitor students closely when they are researching content
online. Sometimes, they inadvertently access irrelevant or
inappropriate sites and need a gentle reminder to focus
on the task.

T 62 Organizing My Ideas
4 Do research and complete the concept
map for your text.

Introduction

What is daydreaming?
Why am I writing about it?

Development

What do I think about when I’m daydreaming?

How does that make me feel?

Conclusion

What have I learned about daydreaming?

How does that make me feel?

Sources

5 Write a topic sentence for your introduction, development and conclusion.


1

2
3

Topic 4 35

U4COwl4.indd 35 10/2/17 6:08 PM


T 63
My First Draft 1 Write your text.

My Classmate’s Checklist
2 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.
1 The text is about daydreaming. Yes No

2 There are three sections in the text: introduction,


development and conclusion. Yes No

3 The writer expresses his or her opinion. Yes No


4 There are sources. Yes No

36 Topic 4

U4COwl4.indd 36 10/2/17 6:08 PM


T 64
Lesson 5
Teaching Resources Writing Strategies
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 32, 35 and 36 Writing an Introduction
A well-written introduction presents the main idea of a text and interests the reader. It is a
basic writing strategy that students must develop.
Writing a Conclusion
A conclusion is the last paragraph in a text. It brings the reader’s attention back to the topic of
the text, restates the writer’s opinion and leaves the reader with a sense of closure.
Quoting Explicitly from a Text
Citing Sources
When quoting explicitly from a text, it is essential that writers reference and cite their sources.
Sources are often found in footnotes and the quotations have a superscripted number
after them in the text.

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.) 2 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the
Writing Strategies sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No. (10 min.)
• Write Introduction, Body and Conclusion on the board. • Form pairs. Have students exchange books. Tell them to read
• Elicit the purpose of each section. (The introduction presents the articles and complete the checklist.
the topic and main ideas of a text. The body provides more • Tell students to return the books to their classmates.
information about the main ideas. The conclusion restates the • Have students read the checklist and circle the items their
main ideas and includes a final analysis or opinions.) classmates marked No. Tell them to circle the sections of the
• Write quotes on the board. Ask: Which section has quotes? articles, if any, that require corrections.
(Any of the sections can have a quote.) • Encourage students to say what they liked about each
• Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 32. Point other’s articles.
to the superscripted numbers 1 and 2 after the quotations.
Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
Ask: What are these numbers for? (They reference a source
cited at the bottom of the page or at the end of the text.) • Form pairs. Have students share their introductions.
Explain that these numbers are called footnote references Encourage students to give feedback.
and that the list of sources at the end of the text are called
footnotes. Remind students they must reference and cite their
sources when quoting other people’s ideas and words.

1 Write your text. (35 min.)


Writing Strategies
• Have students review their concept maps on page 35.
Tell them to use the information to write the first draft of
their articles.
• Remind them that quotations can be used in any part of the
article. The important point is that the quotations enhance
the article and that the sources are cited at the end of the
article. Monitor and help as needed.

My First Draft T 65
Lesson 6
Teaching Resources Writing Strategies
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 33, 36 and 37 Using Quotation Marks
Colored pencils When quoting explicitly from a text, it is essential to have quotation marks before and after
the quotes. They signal to readers that someone said those exact words.
Citing Sources
Editing
Editing is a critical thinking strategy that is essential to the draft-writing process.
When editing, students identify and correct capitalization and punctuation, spelling
and content in their texts.

Lead in to the Lesson (5 min.) Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)


Writing Strategies • Form pairs. Have students look at the corrections marked on
• Write the following sentence on the board: Daydreaming their first and second drafts.
could help with solving problems. “If you are stuck on a • Ask: Where are most of your mistakes: in capitalization,
problem, letting your mind wander for a bit may help you punctuation, spelling or grammar? Elicit answers.
get unstuck. • Remind students that it is normal to make mistakes and that
• Have students read the sentence. Ask: What is missing from they learn by correcting them.
the sentence? (End quotation marks after unstuck and the
footnote reference are missing.)

Writing Strategy (15 min.)


• Elicit the meaning of editing. (Checking their texts
for mistakes in capitalization, punctuation, spelling
and grammar.)
• Elicit the rules for punctuation from page 33.
• Ask: What should each paragraph in the text have?
(A topic sentence.)
• Hand out colored pencils.
• Have students check the first draft of their articles for
mistakes. Tell them to circle any mistakes they find. Monitor
and help as needed.

3 Rewrite your text. (20 min.)


• Have students rewrite their articles on page 37, incorporating
all the changes marked on their first drafts. Monitor and help
as needed.

4 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the


sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No. (10 min.)
• Form pairs. Have students exchange books. Tell them to read
the articles and complete the checklist.
• Tell students to return the books to their classmates.
• Have students read the checklist and circle the items their
classmates marked No. Tell them to circle the sections of the
articles, if any, that require corrections.
• Encourage students to ask about additional information.
These questions may help students think of extra information
they would like to include in their drawings in Lesson 7.

T 66 My Second Draft
My Second Draft
3 Rewrite your text.

My Classmate’s Checklist
4 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.
1 The text is about daydreaming. Yes No

2 There are three sections in the text: introduction,


development and conclusion. Yes No
3 The writer expresses his or her opinion. Yes No
4 There are sources. Yes No

5 There are quotes from the sources. Yes No


6 Quotation marks are used correctly. Yes No

Topic 4 37

U4COwl4.indd 37 10/2/17 6:08 PM


T 67
Lesson 7
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy
Compass Writing Log 3 pages 32, 36-39 Editing
Colored pencils

Lead in to the Lesson (15 min.) • Explain that pictures can help writers provide visual
Writing Strategy details that then help readers understand the text better.
• Have students read their articles and decide what they
• Elicit the types of mistakes students found when editing their
want to draw.
first drafts. (Mistakes in capitalization, punctuation, spelling
• Form small groups. Have students share ideas for their
and grammar.)
drawings. Encourage classmates to ask questions and
• Hand out colored pencils.
give suggestions.
• Have students work individually to review the changes
• Tell students they have twenty minutes to plan and draw
and suggestions on their second drafts. Tell them to mark
their pictures on page 38. Monitor and help as needed.
anything they need to correct. Monitor and help as needed.
Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
Write a Final Version (15 min.)
Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.
• Have students write their final versions on page 39,
incorporating the changes they marked on their second drafts. • Tell students to read the final version of their articles.
• Form pairs. Have students work together to check for errors • Have them complete the checklist on page 39.
and make final corrections. • Explain to students that they will present their articles to
the class in the next lesson.
Illustrate the Text (25 min.)
Homework Option
• Direct students’ attention to page 32.
Suggest that students read their articles in preparation for
• Ask: What picture does Roger use to illustrate his article?
their presentations.
(A picture of a boy daydreaming.)

Title:

My Checklist
Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.

1 I can research and write about daydreaming. Yes No


2 I can develop a topic. Yes No

3 I can use quotes from sources. Yes No


4 I can use quotation marks correctly. Yes No

38 Topic 4 Topic 4 39

T 68 My Text
U4COwl4.indd 38 10/2/17 6:08 PM U4COwl4.indd 39 10/2/17 6:08 PM
Lesson 8
Teaching Resources Reading Strategies
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 32, 38 and 39 Pausing for Meaning
Proficient readers pause while reading a text to enhance comprehension. This strategy also
applies to reading aloud. Readers pause briefly after commas and at the end of sentences in
order to facilitate listeners’ understanding of the text and maintain their interest in it.
Making Eye Contact
Making eye contact while giving a presentation is one of the most critical presentation skills
students must develop. It signals self-confidence and credibility. When presenters make eye
contact, the audience is also more likely to pay attention and connect with the presenters.

Lead in to the Lesson (5 min.)


• Tell students they will present their articles to the class.
• Elicit what students should do when giving their
presentations. (Answers will vary, but you should guide them
to reading clearly and slowly.) Write their ideas on the board.

Reading Strategies (15 min.)


• Explain that they are going to focus on pausing and making
eye contact in their presentations. Write Pausing and Making
eye contact on the board.
• Tell them you are going to present the model text on page 32.
• Model the presentation two ways. Read the model text
quietly and quickly, without pausing between sentences
or looking up from the book. Then present again, reading
clearly and slowly, pausing briefly at the end of each sentence
and making eye contact.
• Elicit what students should do when giving their
presentations. (Answers will vary, but you should guide them
to pausing and making eye contact.)
• Form pairs. Have students take turns quietly practicing giving
their presentations.

Presenting (30 min.)


• Elicit characteristics of good listeners. (They are quiet, and
they listen carefully.)
• Tell students that you will ask them a question, such as What
is the writer’s opinion about daydreaming? What examples
does he or she use to describe daydreaming? at the end of each
presentation to confirm understanding.
• Have students present their articles.

Reflection (10 min.)


• Form small groups. Have students discuss which examples of
daydreaming are the most memorable and why.
• Encourage students to share their opinions with the class.

My Presentation T 69
Topic 4: Why do we dream?
Above Level At Level Below Level

Content / Clearly describes daydreaming. Somewhat clearly describes Does not describe daydreaming.
Information Clearly expresses feelings and daydreaming. Does not express feelings and opinions
opinions about daydreaming. Somewhat clearly expresses feelings about daydreaming.
Effectively uses quotes to support and opinions about daydreaming. Does not use quotes to support ideas
ideas and opinions. Somewhat effectively uses quotes to or opinions.
Accurately uses footnotes to cite support ideas and opinions. Does not use footnotes to cite sources
sources for quotes. Somewhat accurately uses footnotes to for quotes.
cite sources for quotes.

Organization Effectively and logically organizes Adequately and somewhat logically Does not organize content into three
content into three paragraphs: organizes content into three paragraphs: introduction, development
introduction, development paragraphs: introduction, development and conclusion.
and conclusion. and conclusion. Topic sentences do not present
Topic sentences clearly present Topic sentences somewhat clearly paragraph content.
paragraph content. present paragraph content.

Expression Consistently uses above- and Somewhat consistently uses Does not use at-level vocabulary.
• vocabulary at-level vocabulary. at-level vocabulary. Does not use phrases to express
Effectively uses phrases to express Adequately uses phrases to express opinions and feelings.
opinions and feelings. opinions and feelings.

Conventions Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and accurately Does not use simple,
• complete simple, complete sentences. uses simple, complete sentences. complete sentences.
sentences Consistently spells above- and at-level Somewhat consistently spells at-level Does not spell at-level
• spelling vocabulary correctly. vocabulary correctly. vocabulary correctly.
• capitalization
Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and accurately Does not use capital letters at
• punctuation
capital letters at the beginning of uses capital letters at the beginning of the beginning of sentences or for
sentences and for proper nouns. sentences and for proper nouns. proper nouns.
Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and accurately Does not use quotation marks.
quotation marks. uses quotation marks. Does not use footnote references.
Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and accurately
footnote references. uses footnote references.

T 70
To p ic 5 How do we explain
prehistoric times?
Writing Log: pages 40-47
Genre Writing Strategy Focus
Advertising Creating a Brochure
Advertising is a form of marketing material that provides information What is it? Creating a brochure requires writers to organize informative
about a product or service. Its purpose is to persuade or to convince people and persuasive content about a product or a service that readers will
to do something. It uses creative and interesting ways to organize content, want to purchase.
such as attention-getting titles and headings, as well as colorful pictures What will students do? Students will learn to create
or illustrations. Advertising texts can be found in a variety of contexts logically organized, persuasive content.
and formats, such as billboards, TV and radio commericals, magazines, Why is it important? It is important for students to be able to identify,
newspapers, websites and brochures. organize and use persuasive, descriptive language in a text.
How will students build on previous knowledge? In Compass Writing
Format Log 3 Topic 7, students created a persuasive text for an informative
Brochure poster. In this topic, students will continue to develop their persuasive
An advertising brochure is a persuasive text used to promote a product writing skills.
or service. Content in a brochure is succinct and organized into sections
that include headings and illustrations to attract and maintain readers’
attention. In this topic, students will create a brochure for a prehistoric park.

Lessons Preview
Lesson Pages Lesson Focus Teaching Resources

1 Reading the 40 Identifying the Author’s Purpose • Pictures of prehistoric animals


Model Text Identifying Persuasive Language • Salt dough

Art Connection

2 Getting 40 and 41 Creating a Brochure • Students’ sculptures


Started

3 Planning 40 and 42 Scanning • Websites about prehistoric animals


My Brochure Imagining Your Audience • Internet access

Using Persuasive Language

4 Organizing 40, 42 and 43 Skimming and Taking Notes • Websites about prehistoric animals
My Ideas • Internet access

5 My First Draft 40, 42-44 Using Headings


Using Persuasive Language

6 My Second 44 and 45 Using Quotation Marks • Colored pencils


Draft Using Commas
Editing

7 My Brochure 40, 44-47 Editing • Colored pencils


Using End Punctuation

8 My Presentation 40, 46 and 47 Pausing for Meaning


Fluency: Expression

T 71
To p ic 5

historic
Pre
Adventure Tour
Tyrannosaurus Rex
Adventure Park

Where knowledge
and fun meet!

T. rex was the largest predator


from the late Jurassic period.
It was 14 meters long and more
than 6.5 meters tall. Come see
the most ferocious dinosaur!
Visit the late Jurassic period at
the Prehistoric Adventure Park! Pterosaur

ing Center
Interactive Learn

Pterosaur means “flying lizard.”


It was the first vertebrate creature
Learn about prehistoric that could fly. It was not very big,
animals while you take a and it didn’t have feathers.
virtual tour through the park. Come to our park and see them fly!

Book your Adventure Tour now! Contact us at prehistoricap@org.com

40

U5COwl4.indd 40 9/29/17 3:05 PM


T 72
Lesson 1
Teaching Resources Reading Strategies Art Connection Salt Dough Recipe
Compass Writing Log 4 page 40 Identifying the Author’s Purpose Making sculptures of Ingredients: Per three
Pictures of prehistoric animals An author writes for different purposes: prehistoric animals is one students—1 cup of salt, 2
to persuade, to inform or to entertain. way to create a multisensory cups of flour, ¾ cup of water
Salt dough
Effective readers are able to identify an connection to the topic of the Directions: Mix the dry
author’s purpose by analyzing the text and text. It also serves to further ingredients. Gradually stir
its features, such as word choice and text engage students and to make in water. Mix well. Keep the
content. This skill gives readers an added the text more memorable. dough moist.
layer of understanding.
Identifying Persuasive Language
The ability to identify persuasive words
and phrases is an important feature of
determining an author’s purpose. It is a
critical thinking skill that effective readers
use to distinguish fact from opinion and
allow for deeper understanding not only of
text content but also of author bias.

Lead in to the Lesson (15 min.) Reading Strategies (15 min.)


• Draw a mind map on the board. Write Prehistoric times in • Write the acronym PIE vertically on the board. Elicit or teach
the middle. Elicit the meaning of prehistoric times. (The time the words in the acronym. (Persuade, inform, entertain.)
before written history.) Draw a line from the center and write • Explain that authors have a purpose for writing texts.
the heading animals. Display pictures of prehistoric animals. Ask: What is the purpose of this text? (To persuade.)
Elicit the names of these animals and others that existed Elicit reasons for their answers.
in prehistoric times. Encourage students to think beyond • Say: Authors use certain words or even punctuation to
dinosaurs by asking: Were there fish? Insects? Birds? Humans? persuade readers.
Write students’ ideas on the board. • Tell students to circle all the exclamation points in the text.
• Add other categories such as environment, weather and Remind students that exclamation points indicate strong
technology. Elicit ideas for each cateogory and write them feelings. Invite volunteers to read the sentences aloud,
on the board. expressing strong feelings.
• Say: Prehistoric means “before written history,” so how do we • Point to the first sentence in the text. (Visit the late Jurassic
have information about these times? (Fossils, dinosaur eggs period at the Prehistoric Adventure Park!)
and tracks or footprints.) • Ask: Is this sentence asking you to visit or telling you to visit?
• Read the topic question aloud: How do we explain prehistoric (Telling you to visit.) Elicit or teach that when an action (or
times? Explain that many of the things we know about verb) is the first word in a sentence, the writer may be telling
prehistoric times are a combination of evidence, knowledge readers to do something.
and educated guesswork and that we are still learning. • Have students underline other actions (verbs) at the
beginning of sentences. (Learn about… , Come see… ,
Read and Understand the Model Text (15 min.) Come to… .)
• Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 40. • Explain that using this writing style, the imperative form, and
• Point to the top left of the brochure and read the name of exclamation points are common in advertisements.
the place.
• Tell students to identify the headings. (Where knowledge and Take the Lesson Further (15 min.)
fun meet!, Interactive Learning Center, Adventure Tour.) Art Connection
• Ask: What do you think the text is about? (A prehistoric • Hand out salt dough to students.
adventure park.) What do you think you can do there? (Go to • Tell them to create sculptures of their favorite
the learning center or take an adventure tour.) What do you prehistoric animals.
think you can see on the adventure tour? (Tyrannosaurus rex • Set the sculptures aside to dry. They will need them for
and pterosaurs.) Lesson 2.
• Read the model text aloud. Have students follow along.
• Tell students to underline any new words. Elicit or teach Homework Option
their meanings. Encourage students to research dinosaurs that have been
discovered in their own country.

Reading the Model Text T 73


Lesson 2
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy Focus
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 40 and 41 Creating a Brochure
Students’ sculptures

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.) • Have students identify the introduction line and complete
• Have students collect their sculptures from the drying area. item 2.
• Ask: What information can you give about your prehistoric • Form pairs. Have students complete items 3 to 5 together.
animals? (Color, size, food, abilities, etc.) Answers: 1. Prehistoric Adventure Park 2. Where knowledge and fun meet!
• Form small groups. Have students describe their 3. Tyrannosaurus rex, pterosaurs 4. Interactive Learning Center, Adventure
Tour 5. prehistoricap@org.com
prehistoric animals.
4 Punctuation Follow the instructions. (10 min.)
Know Your Students
Students haven’t researched prehistoric animals yet, so their • Read the Punctuation entry aloud and have students
knowledge about them may be limited. Be prepared to give follow along.
students some basic information about their prehistoric • Elicit other uses of quotation marks, such as for
animals so they can share descriptions in their groups. direct quotations.
• Have students complete activity 4 individually.
1 Read the text. Circle the correct words to complete Answers: 1. Pterosaur means “flying lizard.” 2. It was not very big, and it
didn’t have feathers.
the sentences. (10 min.)
• Have students read the incomplete sentences, then read Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
the text. • Have students talk about different theme or adventure parks
• Tell them to complete the activity individually. they have visited or know about.
Answers: 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. a

2 Read the text again. Circle the correct answers. (10 min.)
• Have students read the questions, then read the text again.
• Tell them to answer question 1 individually.
• For questions 2 and 3, elicit the words in the acronym PIE.
(Persuade, inform and entertain.)
• Explain that the objective of the park (question 2) is different
from the purpose of the text.
• Have students complete questions 2 and 3.
Answers: 1. c 2. a 3. b

3 Creating a Brochure Look at the text. Write the


information. (15 min.)
• Read the Writing Strategy entry aloud and have students
follow along.
• Point to the brochure on page 40. Explain that a brochure is
a way to advertise products or services. It is usually printed
on one sheet of paper and the information is divided into
easy-to-find sections.
• Ask: What is this brochure advertising? (A prehistoric
adventure park.)
• Elicit the name of the park. (Prehistoric Adventure Park.)
Have students complete item 1.
• Elicit the meaning of Introduction. (A sentence or paragraph
that presents the main idea of a text.) Ask: What do you think
an introduction line is? (A sentence that presents the product
or service.)

T 74 Getting Started
1 Read the text. Circle the correct words to
complete the sentences.

1 The author of the text wants you to… .


a study science b visit a park c become a historian
2 The text is from a… .
a commercial brochure b textbook c history website

3 The text is for… .


a students b scientific explorers c possible visitors
4 The text is about… .
a a prehistoric park b a science class c dinosaurs

2 Read the text again. Circle the correct answers.


1 What can you see in this park?
a pets b technology c dinosaurs
2 What is the objective of the park?
a to educate and entertain b to educate c to entertain
3 What is the purpose of this text? Creating a Brochure
a to inform b to persuade c to entertain A brochure gives
information about a place
3 Creating a Brochure Look at the text. Write the information. or a product that the writer
wants people to see or
1 Name of the park:
buy. To make a brochure
2 Introduction line: clear and attractive, the
writer divides the content
3 Main attractions: into sections and uses
4 Park activities: headings and pictures.

5 Contact information:

4 Punctuation Follow the instructions. Punctuation


1 Find a sentence with a definition in quotation marks. Write it here. Use quotation marks around
definitions that follow the
word means. Use a comma
to connect two sentences
2 Find a sentence with two parts connected by and. Write it here.
with the words and or but.

Topic 5 41

U5COwl4.indd 41 9/29/17 3:05 PM


T 75
1 Answer the questions.
1 What is the purpose of your brochure?

2 Who are you writing it for?

3 Where will you publish your brochure?

4 What animals do you want in your prehistoric park?

2 Think about your prehistoric park. Brainstorm and write the words you might use.

Park Description Main Attractions

Park Activities Phrases to Invite People to the Park

3 Choose two main attractions. Write some ideas for your brochure.

42 Topic 5

U5COwl4.indd 42 9/29/17 3:05 PM


T 76
Lesson 3
Teaching Resources Reading Strategy
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 40 and 42 Scanning
Websites about prehistoric animals: https:// Scanning is the ability to quickly look for and find specific information in a text. Effective readers
www.activewild.com/list-of-prehistoric- can scan a text for specific information or text features that help them accomplish a task.
animals-that-are-not-dinosaurs/, https://www. Writing Strategies
kids-dinosaurs.com/dinosaur-facts.html
Imagining Your Audience
Internet access This strategy enables students to adopt the correct register and tone for their writing. It also assists
them in including the necessary background information and level of detail in their texts.
Using Persuasive Language
Writers use persuasive language to evoke an emotional response in readers. The ability to select
and use specific language that corresponds to their intended message is essential to effective,
purpose-driven communication.

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.) 2 Think about your prehistoric park. Brainstorm and
• Write RAFT on the board. Elicit the words in the acronym. write the words you might use. (15 min.)
(Role of the writer, audience, format, topic.) Writing Strategies
• Explain that for this text type, role of the writer is replaced • Draw the chart and write the headings on the board.
with purpose of the text. • Have students refer to the model text on page 40.
• Form pairs. Have students think about the model text and Elicit information for each category. (Park Description:
identify the purpose, audience, format and topic. where knowledge and fun meet, prehistoric, adventure.
• Encourage students to share their answers with the Main Attractions: Tyrannosaurus rex and pterosaurs.
class. (Purpose: persuade. Audience: anyone interested in Park Activities: interactive learning center, adventure tour.
prehistoric animals. Format: brochure. Topic: prehistoric Phrases to Invite People to the Park: visit, come see, come to
adventure park.) our park.)
• Form small groups. Have students brainstorm and write
1 Answer the questions. (20 min.)
more words for each category.
Writing Strategy and Reading Strategy
Possible answers:
• Explain that students will create brochures for a prehistoric
Park Description Main Attractions
theme park. prehistoric, adventurous, fun, T. rex, pterosaur, panoplosaurus,
• Have students answer questions 1 to 3. For question 2, tell educational, exciting, thrilling, minmi, stegosaurus, confuciusornis
them to think about who would be interested in their type of unbelievable, incredible,
breathtaking, frightening
theme park. Monitor and help as needed.
• Read question 4 aloud. Elicit a few ideas. Park Activities Phrases to Invite People to
virtual tour, safari, guided tour, the Park
• Write scanning on the board. Elicit or teach its meaning. interactive learning center, visit, learn about, come, discover,
(To quickly look for specific information.) adventure tour, dinner with experience, meet, see
• Write the website links on the board. a dinosaur
• Form pairs. Have students use their mobile devices or school
computers to scan websites about prehistoric animals and 3 Choose two main attractions. Write some ideas for
answer question 4. Explain that they are only choosing two your brochure. (10 min.)
prehistoric animals at this time and that it is not necessary to • Ask: What are the two main attractions at the Prehistoric
take notes. Adventure Park? (T. rex, pterosaurs.)
• Form small groups. Have students share their answers. • Have students think about two main attractions for their
theme parks and write some ideas for their brochures.

Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)


• Form pairs. Tell students to talk about where they would
build their parks.
• Encourage students to share their ideas with the class.

Planning My Brochure T 77
Lesson 4
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 40, 42 and 43 Skimming and Taking Notes
Websites about prehistoric animals: https://www. Skimming is the ability to quickly read a text for the main ideas. It is also an essential step that
activewild.com/list-of-prehistoric-animals-that-are- precedes taking notes. When doing research, students must be able to skim texts for the main
not-dinosaurs/, https://www.kids-dinosaurs.com/ ideas to determine if the text is an appropriate source. Once students have chosen suitable
dinosaur-facts.html reference texts, they take notes. Taking notes is the ability to concisely write the main ideas or
most useful information that will help them write their own texts.
Internet access

Lead in to the Lesson (5 min.) • Have students think of an attention-getting name for their
• Write the following sentences on the board before class: theme parks and complete that section in the concept map.
1 means “flying lizard.” It was the first vertebrate • Tell students to review their notes on page 42.
creature that could fly. It was not very big, and it didn’t • For the Main Attractions section, ask: Why did the park in
have feathers. the model text feature the T. rex and pterosaur? (The T. rex
2 was the largest predator from the late Jurassic was the largest dinosaur during the Jurassic period, and the
period. It was 14 meters long and more than 6.5 meters tall. pterosaur was the first vertebrate dinosaur that could fly.)
• Have students recall the adventure tours in the model text. • Tell students to think of reasons why their audiences would
Ask: What are the prehistoric animals you can see there? want to see their chosen main attractions and write notes
(Tyrannosaurus rex and pterosaurs.) about it.
• Tell students to read the descriptions on the board and • Have students complete the rest of the concept map
complete them. (1. Pterosaur. 2. T. rex.) individually. Monitor and help as needed.
• Elicit the information included in the descriptions.
Take the Lesson Further (10 min.)
(Meaning of its name, abilities, period it lived in, size.)
Write the categories on the board. • Form pairs. Have students use the information on their
concept maps to describe their theme parks. Encourage them
Writing Strategy (15 min.) to ask questions and give feedback or suggestions.
• Direct students’ attention to their answers to question 4 in
activity 1 on page 42.
• Write the website links on the board.
• Tell students they have fifteen minutes to research their
prehistoric animals. Explain they can use the website links on
the board or research others.
• Point to the categories on the board. Have them skim
websites for information about the prehistoric animals and
take notes.

Manage Your Class


Monitor students’ progress carefully when they are
researching online. Sometimes, students access irrelevant or
inappropriate websites and need a gentle reminder to focus
on the task.

4 Complete the concept map for your brochure. (25 min.)


• Direct students’ attention to the concept map on page 43.
Read the headings aloud.
• Form pairs. Have students match the information in the
model text with the headings in the concept map. (Name of
the Park: Prehistoric Adventure Park. Main Attractions: T. rex
and pterosaurs. Park Activities: Interactive Learning Center,
Adventure Tour. Contact Information: prehistoricap@org.com.)
• Remind students that the name of the park in the model
text informs the reader of the theme (prehistoric) and type
(adventure) of park.

T 78 Organizing My Ideas
4 Complete the concept map for
your brochure.

Name of the Park

Main Attractions

Park Activities

Contact Information

Topic 5 43

U5COwl4.indd 43 9/29/17 3:06 PM


T 79
My First Draft 1 Write the text for your brochure. Make notes
about the pictures you will include.

Heading: Heading:

Heading: Heading:

My Classmate’s Checklist
2 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.
1 The brochure is about a prehistoric park. Yes No
2 The brochure invites people to go to the park. Yes No
3 There are main attractions. Yes No

4 There are descriptions of activities. Yes No


5 There is contact information. Yes No

44 Topic 5

U5COwl4.indd 44 9/29/17 3:06 PM


T 80
Lesson 5
Teaching Resources Writing Strategies
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 40, 42-44 Using Headings
Brochures have information organized into sections. Each section has a title called a heading.
Writers use headings in brochures to interest and engage readers and to indicate the main idea
of the section. Using headings helps students write well-organized texts, and it helps readers
scan for information quickly.
Using Persuasive Language

Lead in to the Lesson (5 min.) 2 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the
• Write the names of four or five of the students’ prehistoric sentences. Mark () Yes or No. (10 min.)
animals, with the letters scrambled, on the board. • Form pairs. Have students exchange books. Tell them to read
• Form pairs. Have students identify the names of the the brochures and complete the checklist.
prehistoric animals. • Tell students to return the books to their classmates.
• Have students read the checklist and circle the items their
1 Write the text for your brochure. Make notes about classmates marked No. Tell them to circle the sections of the
the pictures you will include. (35 min.) brochures, if any, that require corrections.
Writing Strategies • Encourage students to say what they liked about each
• Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 40. other’s brochures.
• Read the introduction line from the model text aloud: Visit
Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
the late Jurassic period at the Prehistoric Adventure Park!
Ask: What is this? (The introduction line.) What does it do? • Form pairs. Have students share their introduction lines.
(It invites readers to go to the park.) Encourage them to give feedback.
• Ask: What information do you learn about the park in the
Homework Option
introduction line? (The type of park it is and its name.) What
Suggest that students find and bring in a number of images
is the heading above the introduction line? (Where knowledge
to illustrate their brochures.
and fun meet!) What is the purpose of this heading? (To interest
readers and tell them they will learn and have fun there.)
• Remind students that the text combines descriptions with
persuasive language to convince readers to visit the park.
• Have students look at the model text and their charts on
page 42. Ask: What persuasive language does the author use?
(Imperative form: visit, learn, come.)
• Remind students that the model text also describes the main
attractions as a way to interest readers. Ask: How are the
T. rex and pterosaur described? (The author describes the size
of the T. rex and says it was the “most ferocious.” The author
gives the meaning of the name “pterosaur” and describes why
it was special.)
• Tell students they are going to describe the main attractions
and use persuasive language in their brochures.
• Direct students’ attention to the template on page 44.
Ask: What are the headings about? (The topics of the sections
from their concept maps: Name of the Park, Main Attractions,
Park Activities, Contact Information.)
• Have students use information from their concept maps on
page 43 and research notes on page 42 to write the first draft
of their brochures. Monitor and help as needed.
• Direct students’ attention to page 40.
• Ask: What pictures does the author use in the brochure?
(A logo for the park, pictures of the main attractions
and activites.)
• Explain that pictures can help writers provide visual details
that then help readers understand the text better.
• Have students read their brochures and make notes about
what they want to draw.

My First Draft T 81
Lesson 6
Teaching Resources Writing Strategies
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 44 and 45 Using Quotation Marks
Colored pencils When quoting explicitly from a text, it is essential to have quotation marks before and after
the quotes. They signal to readers that someone said those exact words.
Using Commas
Commas are important for making ideas clear and making texts more readable. They can be
used to combine ideas in compound sentences before the words and or but. The use of commas
can change the meaning of a sentence, so correct usage is an essential writing skill.
Editing
Editing is a critical thinking strategy that is essential to the draft-writing process. When editing,
students identify and correct capitalization and punctuation, spelling and content in their texts.

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.) 4 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the
Writing Strategies sentences. Mark () Yes or No. (10 min.)
• Write the following sentences on the board before class: • Form pairs. Have students exchange books. Tell them to read
1 Pterosaur means flying lizard the brochures and complete the checklist.
2 It was not very big and it didn’t have feathers. • Tell students to return the books to their classmates.
• Elicit different types of punctuation. (A comma, period, • Have students read the checklist and circle the items their
quotation marks.) classmates marked No. Tell them to circle the sections of the
• Form pairs. Have students rewrite the sentences using brochures, if any, that require corrections.
correct punctuation. (1. Quotation marks around flying • Encourage students to ask about additional information.
lizard, period after lizard inside end quotation mark. These questions may help students think of extra information
2. A comma after big.) they would like to include in their drawings in Lesson 7.
• Invite a volunteer to add the correct punctuation marks to
Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
the sentences on the board.
• Form pairs. Have students share the descriptions of their
Writing Strategy (15 min.) prehistoric animals. Encourage them to give feedback
• Elicit the meaning of editing. (Checking their texts and suggestions.
for mistakes in capitalization, punctuation, spelling
and grammar.)
• Ask: What should each section have? (A heading, persuasive
language and possible descriptions.)
• Hand out colored pencils.
• Have students check the first draft of their brochures for
mistakes. Tell them to circle any mistakes they find. Monitor
and help as needed.

3 Rewrite the text for your brochure. Make notes about


the pictures you will include. (20 min.)
• Have students rewrite their brochures and notes for drawings
on page 45, incorporating all the changes marked on their
first drafts. Monitor and help as needed.

T 82 My Second Draft
My Second Draft
3 Rewrite the text for your brochure. Make notes
about the pictures you will include.

Heading: Heading:

Heading: Heading:

My Classmate’s Checklist
4 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.
1 The brochure is about a prehistoric park. Yes No
2 The brochure invites people to go to the park. Yes No
3 There are main attractions and descriptions of activities. Yes No
4 There is contact information. Yes No

5 Quotation marks are used correctly. Yes No


6 Commas are used to connect ideas. Yes No

Topic 5 45

U5COwl4.indd 45 10/11/17 4:16 PM


T 83
Lesson 7
Teaching Resources Writing Strategies
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 40, 44-47 Editing
Colored pencils Using End Punctuation
End punctuation, such as periods, is essential to writing. A text must have end punctuation so
readers know when one idea ends and another begins. An exclamation point at the end of a
sentence indicates strong feelings and can be used to evoke the same feelings in readers.

Lead in to the Lesson (15 min.) • Have students write their final versions on pages 46 and 47,
Writing Strategies incorporating the changes they marked on their second drafts.
• Form pairs. Have students work together to check for errors
• Elicit the types of mistakes students found when editing their
and make final corrections.
first drafts. (Mistakes in capitalization, punctuation, spelling
and grammar.) Illustrate the Brochure (20 min.)
• Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 40.
• Have students read their brochures and notes for drawings.
Ask: Why does the writer use exclamation points? (To get
• Tell students they have fifteen minutes to draw their pictures.
readers excited about the adventure park.) Tell students to
Monitor and help as needed.
think about using exclamation points in their brochures.
• Hand out colored pencils. Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
• Have students work individually to review the changes
Read the sentences. Mark () Yes or No.
and suggestions on their second drafts. Tell them to mark
anything they need to correct. Monitor and help as needed.  • Tell students to read the final version of their brochures.
• Have them complete the checklist on page 47.
Write a Final Version (15 min.)
• Direct students’ attention to pages 46 and 47. Explain that they
can use both pages to organize the sections of their brochures.
Remind them to leave space in each section for their drawings.

My Checklist
Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.

1 I can create a brochure. Yes No


2 I can use headings and pictures. Yes No

3 I can use quotation marks with definitions. Yes No


4 I can use commas to connect sentences. Yes No

46 Topic 5 Topic 5 47

T 84 My Brochure
U5COwl4.indd 46 9/29/17 3:06 PM U5COwl4.indd 47 9/29/17 3:06 PM
Lesson 8
Teaching Resources Reading Strategies
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 40, 46 and 47 Pausing for Meaning
Proficient readers pause while reading a text to enhance comprehension. This strategy also
applies to reading aloud. Readers pause briefly after commas and at the end of sentences in
order to facilitate listeners’ understanding of the text and maintain their interest in it.
Fluency: Expression
One aspect of fluency is expression—the appropriate use of phrasing and intonation in
reading. Effective storytellers and presenters are able to raise or lower their voice intonation
to match the meaning of the text or emphasize certain information. Using expression when
reading makes the text more engaging for the audience. It also enables the audience to better
understand and relate to the text.

Lead in to the Lesson (5 min.) Reflection (10 min.)


• Tell students they will present their brochures to the class. • Write the following sentence starter on the board: In my
• Elicit what students should do when giving their presentation I felt…
presentations. (Answers will vary, but you should guide them • Tell students to complete the sentence in their notebooks.
to reading clearly, pausing for meaning and using their voices • Encourage students to share their reflections with the class.
to match the meaning of their texts.) Write their ideas on
the board. Know Your Students
Seeing their work in print can be very motivating for
Reading Strategies (15 min.) students. If possible, give them the opportunity to publish
• Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 40. their brochures using a word processing or design program.
Tell students you are going to read it aloud. Have them pay Then arrange a place in school, such as the school library or
attention to where you pause or emphasize a point. (Note: a hallway, for students to display their brochures.
Stress the sentences that end in exclamation points.)
• Read the model text aloud. Have students listen and follow
along in their books.
• Elicit the places you paused and emphasized a point.
(Paused at the end of sentences and sections in the brochure.
Emphasized persuasive sentences.) Ask: Why did I pause in
those places? (To help listeners understand the text better.)
Why do you think I raised my voice in those places? (To place
emphasis on information you think will convince readers to go
to the theme park.)
• Form pairs. Have students take turns quietly practicing giving
their presentations.

Presenting (30 min.)


• Elicit characteristics of good listeners. (They are quiet, and
they listen carefully.)
• Tell students that during presentations the audience should
write questions they want to ask the presenters.
• Have students present their brochures. At the end of each
presentation, have the audience ask a few questions.

Manage Your Class


Some students may have difficulty remaining seated and
quiet throughout the presentations. Consider allowing your
more active students to take turns standing quietly at the
back of the classroom. This subtle change may help them
focus on the presentations better.

My Presentation T 85
Topic 5: How do we explain prehistoric times?
Above Level At Level Below Level

Content / Clearly describes a theme park, its Somewhat clearly describes a Does not describe a theme park, its
Information main attractions and activities. theme park, its main attractions main attractions or activities.
Effectively uses persuasive language to and activities. Does not use persuasive language to
interest readers. Adequately uses persuasive language interest readers.
Effectively uses drawings and pictures to interest readers. Does not use drawings or pictures
to represent section content and to Adequately uses drawings and pictures to represent section content or to
engage readers. to represent section content and to engage readers.
engage readers.

Organization Effectively and logically organizes Adequately and somewhat logically Does not organize content
content into sections. organizes content into sections. into sections.
Uses a title and headings that Uses a title and headings that Does not use a title and headings
accurately describe the brochure somewhat accurately describe the that describe the brochure or section
or section content and gets brochure or section content and gets content or gets readers’ attention.
readers’ attention. readers’ attention.

Expression Consistently uses above- and at- Somewhat consistently uses at- Does not use at-level vocabulary.
• vocabulary level vocabulary. level vocabulary. Does not use imperatives as a form of
• grammar Effectively uses imperatives as a form Adequately uses imperatives as a form persuasive language.
of persuasive language. of persuasive language.

Conventions Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and accurately Does not use simple,
• complete simple, complete sentences. uses simple, complete sentences. complete sentences.
sentences Consistently spells above- or at-level Somewhat consistently spells at-level Does not spell at-level
• spelling vocabulary correctly. vocabulary correctly. vocabulary correctly.
• capitalization
Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and Does not use capital letters or end
• punctuation
capital letters and end punctuation. accurately uses capital letters and punctuation correctly.
Consistently and accurately uses end punctuation. Does not use quotation marks.
quotation marks. Somewhat consistently and accurately Does not use commas to
Consistently and accurately uses uses quotation marks. combine ideas.
commas to combine ideas. Somewhat consistently and accurately
uses commas to combine ideas.

T 86
To p ic 6 What challenges do humans face?
Writing Log: pages 48-55
Genre Writing Strategy Focus
Realistic Fiction Elements in a Comic
Realistic fiction is a made-up story with imaginary What is it? This strategy requires students to develop a coherent story that combines
characters in situations that can happen in real life. and balances the elements in a comic: illustrations, dialogue and narration.
What will students do? Students will learn to incorporate elements of a comic so that
Format each one supports and enhances the story.
Comic Why is it important? The ability to create a comic that blends visual and textual
A comic is a sequence of interrelated, illustrated scenes features in order to tell an engaging story helps students further develop their creative
that tell a story that is often humorous or centers around an writing and critical thinking skills.
adventure or a challenge. In this topic, students will create How will students build on previous knowledge?
a comic about a challenge that is solved when the main In Compass Writing Log 3 Topic 8, students learn to create a comic by using pictures
character creates an invention. and dialogue to tell a story. In this topic, students learn to incorporate a narrative
element (captions) into their comics.

Lessons Preview
Lesson Pages Lesson Focus Teaching Resources

1 Reading the 48 Identifying Elements • Construction paper signs


Model Text in a Comic • Sheets of paper
Art Connection • Colored pencils

2 Getting 48 and 49 Elements in a Comic • Construction paper signs (from Lesson 1)


Started Five-Finger Retell • Students’ drawings (from Lesson 1)

Using End Punctuation

3 Planning 48 and 50 Identifying the Purpose of • Construction paper signs with the captions from the model text
My Comic the Narrator • Construction paper signs with the purposes of a narrator
Planning Point of View • A dictionary
• A thesaurus

4 Organizing 48, 50 and 51 Developing a Narrative


My Ideas

5 My First Draft 48, 51 and 52 Elements in a Comic


Using End Punctuation

6 My Second 49, 52 and 53 Elements in a Comic • Colored pencils


Draft Editing
Using End Punctuation

7 My Comic 52-55 Editing • Colored pencils

8 My Presentation 48, 54 and 55 Fluency: Expression

T 87
To p ic 6

SCHOOLS FACE MANY


CHALLENGES…

We are wasteful!
We use too much
water and energy!!
What can we do???

Hmm…

THE NEXT DAY…


Ms. Robbins,
here’s a
solution! LEE WORKS ALL NIGHT…

Maximus is not a
toy! He’ll help. He will
find leaks, and remind
children not to leave
lights on.

This is Maximus,
the super helper!

AND THEN…

What??? We don’t
need a crazy toy
around here!

48

U6COwl4.indd 48 9/29/17 3:07 PM


T 88
Lesson 1
Teaching Resources Reading Strategy Art Connection
Compass Writing Log 4 page 48 Identifying Elements in a Comic Drawing the final frame of a comic is one way
Construction paper signs: caption, illustration, A comic is composed of four elements: to create a multisensory connection to the text.
speech balloon, thought bubble captions (narration), illustrations, speech It also serves to further engage students and
balloons and thought bubbles. Readers must to make the text more memorable.
Sheets of paper (1 per student)
be able to identify the text format of a comic
Colored pencils and understand how the elements or features
support or enhance the story.

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.)


• Write the topic question on the board: What challenges do Manage Your Class
humans face?. Confirm understanding of the word challenge. If you have more than two volunteers who want to read the
(A difficult task or problem.) comic aloud to the class, consider forming groups of three
• Form small groups. Have students make a list of challenges after the first read and having students read the comic again.
humans face in their notebooks.
• Encourage students to share ideas with the class. Take the Lesson Further (15 min.)
Art Connection
Reading Strategy (15 min.)
• Point to the caption (AND THEN…) in the last frame of
• Direct students’ attention to the comic on page 48.
the comic.
Elicit or teach the type of text. (A comic.) Explain that
• Ask: What do you think happens next? Elicit a few ideas.
a comic is an illustrated story told in a series of actions,
• Hand out sheets of paper and colored pencils.
usually with one action scene per frame.
• Tell students to create the next frame in the comic.
• Tell students to count the number of frames in the comic.
• Collect students’ drawings. They will need them for Lesson 2.
(There are six frames.)
• Display the construction paper signs with the elements of a Homework Option
comic on the board. Robots help humans in many innovative ways.
• Explain that comics have different elements that help tell Have students research information about the latest
a story. developments in different areas of robotics to inform their
• Point to the sign illustration. Say: Comics use illustrations texts for this topic.
(pictures) to tell a story. Have students point out the
illustrations in the story. Point to the sign speech balloon.
Say: Speech balloons show what the characters are saying.
Tell students to point out the speech balloons in the comic.
Point to the sign thought bubble. Say: Thought bubbles show
what the characters are thinking. They can have words or
pictures in them. Have students point out the thought bubble
in the second frame. Point to the sign caption. Say: Captions
show what the narrator is saying. Tell students to point
out the captions in the comic.

Read and Understand the Model Text (20 min.)


• Tell students they’re going to help read the comic.
• Invite two volunteers to the front of the class. Assign the
roles of Lee and the narrator to them. Explain that you will
read the part of Ms. Robbins, the principal of the school.
• Read the comic aloud. Have students follow along.
• Confirm general understanding of the comic. Ask: Who are
the main characters? (Lee and Ms. Robbins.) Where are they?
(At school, at Lee’s home, perhaps in the basement.) What’s
the problem? (They use too much water and energy at the
school.) What is the solution? (Lee created a robot that finds
water leaks and reminds children to turn off the lights.)

Reading the Model Text T 89


Lesson 2
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy Focus
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 48 and 49 Elements in a Comic
Construction paper signs (from Lesson 1) Reading Strategy
Students’ drawings (from Lesson 1) Five-Finger Retell
Five-finger retell is a memory aid to help students organize and retell key information in a text.
Each finger represents a question: Who are the characters? What is the setting? What is the
problem? What are the events? and What is the solution?

Writing Strategy
Using End Punctation
End punctuation, such as periods, is essential to writing. A text must have end punctuation so
readers know when one idea ends and another begins. An exclamation point at the end of a
sentence indicates strong feelings, and multiple exclamation points or question marks indicate
even stronger feelings. They can be used to evoke the same feelings in readers.

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.) 3 Elements in a Comic Look at the comic. How do you
Reading Strategy learn the following information? Write D (Dialogue),
N (Narrator) or I (Illustration). (10 min.)
• Draw a hand on the board before class. Write characters
above the thumb and setting, problem, events and solution • Display the construction paper signs on the board. Elicit the
above the fingers. meaning or purpose for each element.
• Explain to students that five-finger retell is a strategy to help • Direct students’ attention to the comic on page 48.
them recall and retell a story. • Ask: Which elements give us information about the
• Hold up your thumb. Ask: Who are the characters in the characters? (All of them do.) Which elements give us
model text? (Lee and Ms. Robbins.) information about the setting? (The illustrations and the
• Form pairs. Have students continue using the five-finger narrator’s line in the first frame.)
retell strategy to talk about the setting, problem, events • Read the Writing Strategy entry aloud and have students
and solution. follow along. Confirm that students understand that
• Ask: Is there a solution to the problem in the comic? (Yes, Lee Dialogue refers to the speech bubbles and that Narrator
invents a robot.) refers to the captions.
• Form pairs. Have students complete the activity.
Know Your Students Answers: 1. I 2. I (Thought bubble) 3. N 4. D
Some students may not recall the details of the comic.
If necessary, have them read the comic again before they 4 Punctuation Follow the instructions. (10 min.)
complete the five-finger retell. Writing Strategy
• Read the Punctuation entry aloud and have students
1 Read the comic. Circle the correct words to complete follow along.
the sentences. (10 min.) • Read question 1 aloud. Have students find a sentence in the
• Have students read the sentences, then read the comic. comic with more than one exclamation point.
• Tell them to complete the activity. • Have students answer question 2 individually.
Answers: 1. c 2. b 3. a 4. c Answers: 1. Ms. Robbins feels frustrated. 2. She feels frustrated and stressed.

2 Choose the best ending for the story. (10 min.) Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
• Direct students’ attention to the last frame of the comic. • Form pairs. Have students think of one or two other ways to
• Hand out students’ drawings. Have them share their endings solve the problem of using too much water and energy.
to the comic. • Encourage students to share their ideas with the class.
• Direct their attention to activity 2. Tell students to choose
the best ending. (Answers will vary, and they may prefer their
own endings to those in the book.)

T 90 Getting Started
1 Read the comic. Circle the correct words to
complete the sentences.

1 The author of the comic is a… .


a journalist b teacher c writer and illustrator
2 The comic is for… .
a adults b children c everyone

3 The comic is from a… .


a newspaper b journal c science magazine
4 The comic is about… .
a life in the future b building robots c finding solutions

2 Choose the best ending for the story. Lee saw a


a AND THEN… Lee! I thought you said b AND THEN…
problem, and he
Maximus was not a toy! built the solution!
He’s very creative!

He’s not a toy. He’s a robot!

3 Elements in a Comic Look at the comic. How do you learn


Elements in a Comic
the following information? Write D (Dialogue), N (Narrator)
The visual elements
or I (Illustration).
in a comic support the
1 Who the principal is narrative. Dialogue is short,
but relevant. Illustrations,
2 That Lee has an excellent idea narrative and dialogue
3 That Lee works hard and fast are balanced.

4 How Maximus will help

4 Punctuation Follow the instructions. Punctuation


1 Find a sentence with more than one exclamation point. How does In comics, more than
one exclamation point or
the character feel? question mark reinforces
the feelings or reactions of
2 Find a question with more than one question mark. How does the
characters.
character feel?
Topic 6 49

U6COwl4.indd 49 10/5/17 10:59 AM


T 91
1 Answer the questions.
1 Are you the narrator or the main character of your comic?

2 Who are you writing the comic for?

3 Where will you publish your comic?

4 What challenge can you write about? Is there an invention that could solve it?

2 Think about challenges we face and the inventions that could help us. Brainstorm and
write the words you might use.

Challenges Inventions

What Inventions Will Do Characters and Descriptions

3 Choose an invention. Write some ideas for your comic.

50 Topic 6

U6COwl4.indd 50 9/29/17 3:07 PM


T 92
Lesson 3
Teaching Resources Reading Strategy
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 48 and 50 Identifying the Purpose of the Narrator
Construction paper signs with the captions from The narrator (found in captions) in a comic can support the story line in a number of ways.
the model text The narrator may set the scene, describe illustrations or provide time cue words that connect
one event and frame to another.
Construction paper signs with the purposes of
a narrator: Set the scene, Describe the event Writing Strategy
illustrated in the frame, Time cue words Planning Point of View
A dictionary The point of view is the perspective from which an author recounts a narrative or presents
A thesaurus information. In the first-person point of view, the author writes about a personal experience
using pronouns such as I and we. In the third-person point of view, a narrator recounts another
person’s experience and uses pronouns such as he, she and they. Writers often choose
first-person point of view because it helps them convey emotions effectively. It also generates
more empathy from readers.

Lead in to the Lesson (5 min.) 2 Think about challenges we face and the inventions
• Write RAFT on the board. Elicit the words that form the that could help us. Brainstorm and write the words
acronym. (Role of the writer, audience, format, topic.) you might use. (15 min.)
• Elicit the RAFT information for the model text. (Role: writer • Draw the chart in activity 2 on the board. Write the headings.
and illustrator. Audience: children. Format: comic book. • Elicit the students’ challenges and inventions from activity 1.
Topic: finding solutions.) Write a few ideas on the board.
• Form small groups. Have students brainstorm more
Reading Strategy (10 min.) challenges, inventions and what the inventions can do.
• Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 48. Tell students to think of characters and descriptions.
• Have students point out the narrator’s words. (Words Remind them they can use a dictionary or thesaurus to
in captions.) look for description words.
• Explain that the narrator can have more than one purpose. • Encourage students to share their ideas with the class.
Display the construction paper signs with captions on the Possible answers:
board in a column, then display the construction paper signs
Challenges Inventions
with the purposes of a narrator in another column. pollution, traffic, bad roads, solar energy, flying cars, jet packs,
• Point to the first caption (SCHOOLS FACE MANY unclean water, no public water filters
CHALLENGES…) and ask: What is the purpose of this transportation

caption? (To set the scene.) What Inventions Will Do Characters and Descriptions
• Continue the process for the other captions in the model catch pollution, stop the creation hardworking, creative, mad
of pollution, reduce the need for professor, genius science teacher,
text. (Caption 2: Describe the event. Captions 3 and 4: Provide roads, reduce traffic lazy uncle, stressed janitor
time cues.)
• Explain that a narrator provides important information in
3 Choose an invention. Write some ideas for your
a comic.
comic. (10 min.)
1 Answer the questions. (15 min.) • Ask: What was the invention in the model text? (A robot.)
Writing Strategy What did it do? (It found leaks and reminded children to turn
off the lights.)
• Write first-person point of view and third-person point of
• Have students review their notes and choose an invention
view on the board. Elicit or teach the meaning of point of
and write what it will do.
view. (The perspective from which a story is told.) Explain
that in the first-person point of view, a story is told by one of Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
the characters who uses I or we, and in the third-person point
• Form small groups. Have students share their invention ideas.
of view, a narrator tells the story using he, she or they.
• Read question 1 aloud. Have students decide if they want to
be the main character or a narrator.
• Tell students to answer questions 2 and 3 individually.
• For question 4, tell students that if they don’t know about
an invention to resolve a challenging situation, they can
create one.

Planning My Comic T 93
Lesson 4
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 48, 50 and 51 Developing a Narrative
Features of a narrative include a setting, characters, a problem, events and a solution.
Learning to develop a narrative is fundamental to fiction writing.

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.)


Writing Strategy
• Write setting on the board.
• Form pairs. Have students brainstorm settings for
their comics.
• Encourage students to share their ideas with the class.

4 Complete the chart for your comic. (15 min.)


Writing Strategy
• Direct students’ attention to the chart on page 51. Read the
headings in the chart. Explain that they, along with setting,
are the basic features of a narrative.
• Have students review their notes on page 50 and complete
the chart. Monitor and help as needed.

5 Look at your chart. Organize the information you will


need for each frame of your comic. (25 min.)
Writing Strategy
• Ask: How many frames are in the model text? (Six.)
Tell students they will be creating a six-frame comic, too.
• Explain that each frame will show a character or characters
and a setting. Each frame will also show different events in
the story that progresses from presenting the problem to
finding a solution.
• Have them make notes about the information (characters,
settings and events) they will include in each frame of their
comics. Explain that at this stage they can just make notes;
they don’t have to draw anything.
• Tell students to confirm that the information shows a
problem and then moves to a resolution. Monitor and help
as needed.

Take the Lesson Further (10 min.)


• Form pairs. Have students share their notes for their comics.
Tell them to talk about how their characters will look.
• Encourage students to ask each other questions and give
suggestions or feedback.

T 94 Organizing My Ideas
4 Complete the chart for your comic.

What are their


Characters names? Where are
they?

What challenges do
Problem
the characters face?

What is the
Solution invention? What is it
like? What will it do?

What happens at
the end? Is the
End
ending funny? Sad?
Educational?

5 Look at your chart. Organize the information you will need for each frame of
your comic.

Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3

Frame 4 Frame 5 Frame 6

Topic 6 51

U6COwl4.indd 51 9/29/17 3:07 PM


T 95
My First Draft 1 Write the dialogue and narrator lines for your comic.
Make notes about the drawings you will include.

My Classmate’s Checklist
2 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.
1 The comic is about a problem and its solution. Yes No

2 The sequence is logical and easy to follow. Yes No


3 There is dialogue and there are narrator lines. Yes No
4 The drawings help me understand the comic. Yes No

52 Topic 6

U6COwl4.indd 52 9/29/17 3:07 PM


T 96
Lesson 5
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy Focus
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 48, 51 and 52 Elements in a Comic

Writing Strategy
Using End Punctuation

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.)


• Elicit the elements of a comic. (Captions, illustrations, speech
balloons and thought bubbles.)
• Form pairs. Have students look at the model comic on page
48 and identify the elements.

1 Write the dialogue and narrator lines for your


comic. Make notes about the drawings you will
include. (35 min.)
Writing Strategies
• Ask: What element do you use for dialogue? (Speech
balloons.) What do you use for narrator lines? (Captions.)
How can you use narrator lines? (To set the scene, to describe
an event or to include time cue words.) Are the dialogues and
narrator lines long or short? (They’re short.) How can you
express very strong feelings? (More than one question mark or
exclamation point.)
• Have students review their charts on page 51. Tell them to
use the information to write the first draft of their comics.
Monitor and help as needed.
• Tell students to read their comics and make notes about what
they want to draw in each frame.

2 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the


sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No. (10 min.)
• Form pairs. Have students exchange books. Tell them to
read the dialogue, narrator lines and notes for drawings and
complete the checklist.
• Tell students to return the books to their classmates.
• Have students read the checklist and circle the items their
classmates marked No. Tell them to circle the sections of the
dialogue, narrator lines and notes for drawings, if any, that
require corrections.

Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)


• Form pairs. Have students describe their main characters.

Homework Option
Suggest that students find one or two comics with
illustrations that they like and bring them to class.
Explain that these can help them think about the kind
of information they can include in their illustrations.

My First Draft T 97
Lesson 6
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy Focus
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 49, 52 and 53 Elements in a Comic
Colored pencils Writing Strategies
Editing
Editing is a critical thinking strategy that is essential to the draft-writing process.
When editing, students identify and correct capitalization and punctuation, spelling
and content in their texts.
Using End Punctuation

Lead in to the Lesson (10 min.) Take the Lesson Further (20 min.)
Writing Strategies • Have students draw six frames in their notebooks.
• Elicit the meaning of editing. (Checking their comics • Tell them to draw initial sketches of the illustrations for
for mistakes in capitalization, punctuation, spelling their comics.
and grammar.)
Know Your Students
• Elicit the rule for punctuation from page 49. Ask: Which
Some students may be critical about their drawing abilities
sentences should have more than one question mark
and reluctant to draw as a a result. Try to mitigate any
or exclamation point? (The sentences that express very
resulting anxiety by reminding them that this activity
strong feelings.)
is meant to be fun and they will not be graded on their
• Ask: What should each frame in the comic have? (One or
drawing skills.
more elements, such as captions, illustrations, speech balloons
or thought bubbles.)
• Hand out colored pencils.
• Have students check the first draft of their comics for
mistakes. Tell them to circle any mistakes they find.
Monitor and help as needed.

3 Rewrite the dialogue and narrator lines for your


comic. Make notes about drawings you will
include. (20 min.)
• Have students rewrite their comics and notes for drawings on
page 53, incorporating all the changes marked on their first
drafts. Monitor and help as needed.

4 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the


sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No. (10 min.)
• Form pairs. Have students exchange books. Tell them to
read the dialogue, narrator lines and notes for drawings and
complete the checklist.
• Tell students to return the books to their classmates.
• Have students read the checklist and circle the items their
classmates marked No. Tell them to circle the sections of the
dialogue, narrator lines and notes for drawings, if any, that
require corrections.

T 98 My Second Draft
My Second Draft
3 Rewrite the dialogue and narrator lines for your
comic. Make notes about drawings you will include.

My Classmate’s Checklist
4 Exchange books with a classmate. Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.
1 The comic is about a problem and its solution. Yes No
2 The sequence is logical and easy to follow. Yes No
3 There is dialogue and there are narrator lines. Yes No

4 The drawings help me understand the comic. Yes No


5 Question marks and exclamation points are used correctly. Yes No

Topic 6 53

U6COwl4.indd 53 9/29/17 3:07 PM


T 99
Lesson 7
Teaching Resources Writing Strategy
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 52-55 Editing
Colored pencils

Lead in to the Lesson (15 min.) • Guide students through the process. First, have them draw
Writing Strategy the outlines for the frames. Then, suggest they sketch their
illustrations and outline the spaces needed for captions,
• Elicit the types of mistakes students found when editing their
speech balloons and thought bubbles. After that, students
first drafts. (Mistakes in capitalization, punctuation, spelling
should fill in the narrator lines and dialogue and complete
and grammar.)
their illustrations.
• Hand out colored pencils.
• Have students work individually to review the changes Take the Lesson Further (5 min.)
and suggestions on their second drafts. Tell them to mark
Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.
anything they need to correct. Monitor and help as needed.
• Tell students to read the final version of their comics.
Write and Illustrate a Final Version (40 min.) • Have them complete the checklist on page 55.
• Tell students to look at pages 54 and 55. • Explain to students that they will present their comics to the
• Explain that they will use the pages for their comics and that class in the next lesson.
they need to think about which frames, if any, need more
space for illustrations.

My Checklist
Read the sentences. Mark (✓) Yes or No.

1 I can create a comic. Yes No


2 I can present a problem and a solution. Yes No

3 I can use dialogue, narrator lines and drawings. Yes No


4 I can use question marks and exclamation points correctly. Yes No

54 Topic 6 Topic 6 55

T 100 My Comic
U6COwl4.indd 54 10/11/17 4:18 PM U6COwl4.indd 55 9/29/17 3:07 PM
Lesson 8
Teaching Resources Reading Strategy
Compass Writing Log 4 pages 48, 54 and 55 Fluency: Expression
One aspect of fluency is expression—the appropriate use of phrasing and intonation in
reading. Effective storytellers and presenters are able to raise or lower their voice intonation
to match the meaning of the text or emphasize certain information. Using expression when
reading makes the text more engaging for the audience. It also enables the audience to better
understand and relate to the text.

Lead in to the Lesson (5 min.) Reflection (5 min.)


• Tell students they will present their comics to the class. • Write the following sentence starter on the board: I like
• Elicit what students should do when giving their making comics because…
presentations. (Answers will vary, but you should guide them • Tell students to complete the sentence starter in
to reading clearly and using their voices to match the meaning their notebooks.
of their comics.) Write their ideas on the board. • Encourage them to share their ideas with the class.

Reading Strategy (15 min.)


• Direct students’ attention to the model text on page 48. Invite
two volunteers to help you read it. Assign them the roles of
the narrator and Lee, while you read the part of Ms. Robbins.
Tell students you are going to read it aloud. Have them pay
attention to where you emphasize a point. (Note: Stress
the sentences that end in exclamation points and question
marks.)
• Read the model text aloud with your volunteers. Have
students listen and follow along in their books.
• Elicit the places you emphasized a point. (Sentences that
have more than one question mark or exclamation point.)
Ask: Why do you think I raised my voice in those places?
(To express very strong feelings.)
• Form small groups. Explain that students may ask their
classmates to help read different characters or the narrator
lines in their comics. Have students practice reading
their comics.

Presenting (35 min.)


• Elicit characteristics of good listeners. (They are quiet, and
they listen carefully.)
• Tell students that during presentations the audience should
write questions they want to ask the presenters.
• Have students read their comics. At the end of each
presentation, have the audience ask a few questions.
• After students have read their comics to the class, have them
display the comics around the room so everyone has the
opportunity to take a closer look at the illustrations and read
the comics again.

My Presentation T 101
Topic 6: What challenges do humans face?
Above Level At Level Below Level

Content / Clearly sets the scene. Somewhat clearly sets the scene. Does not set the scene.
Information Effectively presents a problem and Adequately presents a problem and Does not present a problem or events
events that lead to an invention and events that lead to an invention and that lead to an invention or a solution.
a solution. a solution. Does not use elements of a comic
Effectively uses elements of a comic Adequately uses elements of a comic (captions, illustrations, speech
(captions, illustrations, speech (captions, illustrations, speech balloons, thought bubbles) to tell
balloons, thought bubbles) to tell balloons, thought bubbles) to tell a story.
a story. a story.

Organization Effectively and logically organizes Adequately and somewhat logically Does not organize content into frames.
content into frames. organizes content into frames. Does not use captions for narrator lines
Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and accurately and speech bubbles for dialogue.
captions for narrator lines and speech uses captions for narrator lines and
bubbles for dialogue. speech bubbles for dialogue.

Expression Consistently uses above- and Somewhat consistently uses Does not use at-level vocabulary.
• vocabulary at-level vocabulary. at-level vocabulary. Does not use time cue words in
Effectively uses time cue words in Adequately uses time cue words in narrator lines.
narrator lines. narrator lines.

Conventions Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and accurately Does not use simple,
• complete simple, complete sentences. uses simple, complete sentences. complete sentences.
sentences Consistently spells above- or at-level Somewhat consistently spells at-level Does not spell at-level
• spelling vocabulary correctly. vocabulary correctly. vocabulary correctly.
• capitalization
Consistently and accurately uses Somewhat consistently and Does not use capital letters or end
• punctuation
capital letters and end punctuation. accurately uses capital letters and punctuation correctly.
Consistently and accurately end punctuation. Does not use multiple question marks
uses multiple question marks or Somewhat consistently and accurately or exclamation points to express very
exclamation points to express very uses multiple question marks or strong feelings.
strong feelings. exclamation points to express very
strong feelings.

T 102
• What are my rights and responsibilities?
• How have I changed?
• What are my goals?
• Why do we dream?
• How do we explain prehistoric times?
• What challenges do humans face?
• How can I help?
• What would animals say to us?
• Could I be an inventor?

7 506402 101671