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JOURNAL OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY

which Mr. Ware has accorded to him. But his importance lies outside h:
services to medicine and learning in Chios.
Born towards the end of the seventeenth century, the later stages of hi
education were completed at the Patriarchal School at Constantinople and i;
the west. A practising doctor, it was not until quite late in life that he was t
produce the theological treatises which establish for him a place in the histor
of the controversy between the orthodox and the western churches. Mr. War'
has not only explained very lucidly the relationship between the churches in th>
middle of the eighteenth century. He has also made effective use of the treatise
of Argenti to show how far apart—and sometimes not so far apart—are thf
churches in their attitude towards Baptism, the Lord's Supper, Purgatory anc
the papal claims.
Mr. Ware rightly stresses that Argenti was not an original thinker, though
superior to most of his contemporaries in clarity of thought. The dependence oi
orthodox theologians on tradition may tend to make for dull reading, but who
would deny that it is the strength of their Church ? It was also, and this point
Mr. Ware does not make so clearly, the strength of the Greek Church at a time
when the identity of the Greek nation was imperilled. It is hardly too much to
say that it was the Church which preserved this identity. The close bond which
resulted was surely a major reason for the more violent opposition to the
Roman Church in the eighteenth century, when national aspirations grew
stronger, than in the seventeenth century when, as Mr. Ware demonstrates
with convincing examples in an introduction, relations could be cordial between
the rival communities in Greece itself.
The sub-title of the work 'A study of the Greek Church under Turkish Rule'
is perhaps a little ambitious, but Mr. Ware has produced a most readable and
informative book written without partiality and with a real appreciation of
the subject.
TRINITY COLLEGE, R. A. FLETCHER
OXFORD

The Pentecostal Movement: its Origin, Development, and Distinctive Character. By


Nils Bloch-Hoell. Pp. 256. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget; London: Allen &
Unwin, 1964. 35s.
Among what are sometimes called the 'Christian Deviations' of this century
none is more popular, none perhaps more significant, than the so-called
Pentecostal movement. 'The correct total number of Pentecostal believers is
probably something close to 5,000,000' and 'it can be justly claimed that the
Movement is the largest and most wide-spread of all the ecstatic movements in
Church history'. In 1961 two Pentecostal Churches in Chile were received into
membership by the World Council of Churches. Yet for English readers no full
and impartial account of the movement has been available. In The Pentecostal
Movement we now have Dr. Bloch-Hoell's own translation into English of his
Pinsebevegelsen (Bergen 1956). With the interests of his new readers in mind, the
writer has greatly reduced the section on the movement in Norway and has
enlarged the sections dealing with Britain and the United States. This is a
magistral work; Over fifty pages are devoted to documentation. The biblio-
graphy lists not only books but thirty-seven non-Pentecostal periodicals and
newspapers published in Britain, Germany, the Scandinavian countries and the
United States.
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REVIEWS
The movement appears to have originated among students at an inter-
denominational Bible school, called Bethel College, at Topeka, Kansas, which
was opened in 1900 under the leadership of an evangelist named C. F. Parham.
On 3 January 1901 Parham'was Spirit baptized'and'immediately . . . preached
in other languages'. In 1906 the movement 'first truly took root and flourished'
in Los Angeles, whence by the end of that year it had spread to Europe and
India. The 'carrier' to Europe was T. B. Barratt (1862-1940), a native of
Albaston, Cornwall, the son of 'devoted Wesleyan Methodists' and an alum-
nus of Queen's College, Taunton. From 1889 to 1907 Barratt was a minister in
the Methodist Episcopal Church of Norway. After reading about the Pente-
costal Movement in Los Angeles, on 7 October 1906 Barratt 'had an ecstatic
experience' in New York which 'he believed to be his Pentecostal baptism', and
on 15 November this was followed by 'the gift of speaking with tongues'. By
Boxing Day Barratt, with others, was speaking with tongues in Oslo, and to-day
more than three hundred congregations exist in Norway and support about 160
missionaries in other parts of the world. In 1907 Barratt visited England at the
invitation of the rector of All Saints', Monkwearmouth, but met with little
success. In England the Pentecostals are to be found mainly in the Assemblies
of God (474 congregations), which originated in 1914 in Hot Springs, Arkansas,
and in the Elim Foursquare Gospel Alliance, which takes its inspiration from
Aimee McPherson (1890-1944), of Los Angeles, 'the most famous American
revival preacher of her age'.
Besides describing these international ramifications in detail, Dr. Bloch-
Hoell writes at length on the movement's 'Doctrine, Organization, and Ways of
Worship'. This chapter covers theology, demonology, Christology, soteriology,
charismata, ecclesiology, eschatology, liturgy, hymnology and the doctrine of
the sacraments. In his 'Concluding Remarks' the author writes:
the Pentecostal Movement is characteristic of its time and of the American
revivalist movements, with its roots in early Methodism and the Holiness
Movement. The Pentecostal Movement belongs also to the type of puritani-
cal-charismatic reactionary movement which is common throughout Church
history. It is distinguished from similar movements not only by its size and
rapid growth, but also by its democratic emphasis on the Spirit baptism and
charismata as experiences obtainable by all Christians.
NEW COLLEGE, GEOFFREY F. NUTTALL
UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

Kirchenkampf in Deutschland, 1933-1945: Religionsverfolgung und Selbstbehauptung


der Kirchen in der nationalsozialistischen /(at. By Friedrich Zipfel. (Veroffent-
lichungen der historischen Kommission zu Berlin, 11). Pp. xvi + 572.
Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1965. DM. 38.00.
The history of the Nazi period probably evokes more problems than any
other known area of research. The vast accumulation of documentation places
upon the historian a unique burden of selection. The task of reducing the data
to an intelligible framework is rendered more difficult because the subject is also
essentially irrational. We know what happened, but it is beyond the power of
human reasoning to say why. Nevertheless, the historian must not taint himself
with the hysteria implicit in his matter, though he cannot altogether withhold
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