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International conflicts and Violation on Human Rights

Traditionally, the term "international conflict" referred to conflicts between different nation-
states and conflicts between people and organizations in different nation-states. The cause of
conflict can result from a combination of the following factors: We also know that a key issue is
how conflict is handled. Disputants may practice denial and avoidance, may continue an acrimonious
ongoing argument, or resort to either violence or litigation. For example, teens may get into fights that
could escalate from words to fists to weapons. Divorcing couples may be drawn into bitter long-term
legal battles over child custody and support or division of marital property. Parents of a learning-
disabled child may be drawn into a conflict with a school system over education for their child. Workers
and management, environmental activists and developers, neighbors, community groups, and
governments, as well as ethnic groups and nations may find their interests at odds and find themselves
in the role of opponents in a conflict.

The conflict in Myanmar refers to a series of primarily ethnic conflicts within

Myanmar that began shortly after the country, then known as Burma, became independent from
the United Kingdom in 1948.
The conflict has been labeled as the world's longest running civil war. The Rohingya, who
numbered around one million in Myanmar at the start of 2017, are one of the many ethnic
minorities in the country. Rohingya Muslims represent the largest percentage of Muslims in
Myanmar, with the majority living in Rakhine state.
They have their own language and culture and say they are descendants of Arab traders and
other groups who have been in the region for generations.
But the government of Myanmar, a predominantly Buddhist country, denies the Rohingya
citizenship and even excluded them from the 2014 census, refusing to recognise them as a
people. It sees them as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh.
In the last few years, before the latest crisis, thousands of Rohingya were making perilous
journeys out of Myanmar to escape communal violence or alleged abuses by the security
The latest exodus began on 25 August 2017 after Rohingya Arsa militants launched deadly
attacks on more than 30 police posts.
Rohingyas arriving in an area known as Cox's Bazaar - a district in Bangladesh - say they fled
after troops, backed by local Buddhist mobs, responded by burning their villages and attacking
and killing civilians.

Human Rights Violations in Myanmar

While Myanmar is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious country, the Bamar (Burmese)
nonetheless comprise almost 70 percent of the country’s total population. Of the many ethnic
groups in Myanmar, the Muslim Rohingya, are mainly centered in the Rakhine State, which
borders Bangladesh, the introduction of the 1982 Citizenship Act by the country’s military
government, however, have rendered them stateless.
Subject to a wide range of systematic human rights violations by the Myanmar authorities,
the Rohingya have often sought refugee in Bangladesh as well as many other countries in
the region and beyond. Whilst most like-minded states and international organizations have
duly responded to the issue, especially by providing humanitarian assistance and criticizing
the Myanmar junta for its treatment of the Rohingya, however, much remains to be done to
and a permanent solution to the issue of statelessness of these people. The purpose of this
article is therefore to analyze responses from some segments of the international community
over the issue of human rights violations on the Rohingya and the resulting exodus of these
people from Myanmar. As such, this article will examine responses from Bangladesh, the
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the regional community, the United
States, the European Union (EU), the United Nations (UN) and the Organization of the
Islamic Conference.
Four years after the 2012 violence in Rakhine State, some 120,000 Muslims Rohingya still live in IDP
camps. There is also an alarming increase in incitement to hatred and religious intolerance by ultra-
nationalist Buddhist organizations. The report finds that these violations against the Rohingya may
constitute crimes against humanity.
In recent months, international pressure has increased over Myanmar to give more rights to the
Rohingyas, but Aung San Suu Kyi, the country’s top Nobel Peace Prize winner, has hitherto held a hard
line. Even Pope Francis, who will visit Myanmar and Bangladesh in November, expressed his solidarity.
Last Sunday, from the Vatican, he called for respect for human rights “of the Rohingyas brothers.”

The Conflict in Syria

On May 13, 2014, Ladhkar Brahimi, UN Syria envoy, announced his resignation from his
role accepting his inability to negotiate an agreement amongst the Syrian President Assad
Bashar and the opposition group Syrian National Coalition. The opposition group desires a
transitional government without Assad, while the Syrian President insists that the actual war is a
result of terrorist actions undertaken by the Syrian opponents backed by international powers.
Two rounds of negotiations already took place in order to provide a solution to this violent war.
A third negotiations round is supposed to take place, but so far there is no consensus that will
bring an end to the conflict. Therefore, there comes the question why it is so difficult to reach a
political solution in this case? Why these types of negotiations fail? What are the causes that
hinder a peaceful resolution of this conflict? This is what this thesis is aimed to discover. The
arguments developed in this project lay on the theories produced by Barbara Walter, Zartman
and Cuningham. Analyzing the conflict by employing 3 different theoretical approaches and
through a full examination over the internal and external development of the Syrian armed
conflict.t I was be able to identify the factors that inhibit a successful conflict resolution. With
the help of documentary research data and secondary data as books, academic articles or
journalistic sources a versatile analysis of this contemporary issue was realized.The Syrian
imbroglio is complex and difficult to explain being much more entangled than it looks like at a
first sight. In the end I argue that the Syrian war has a bad configuration of seriously
commitment issues, veto-players, lack of mutually hurting stalemate along with highly
fragmented opposition and international discord being far from a negotiated settlement.

Human Rights Violation During The Syrian Civil war

Syria has signed the United Nations Convention Against Torture, yet during this civil war they
have tortured everyone. During this civil war, sexual and physical torture was committed. Mainly
it was sexual torture on women and girls up to the age of 12, but men and boys were also
victims. Mostly soldiers and pro-government militias sexually tortured women and girls during
residential areas sweeps. They were tortured in many ways, stated some interviewers. They were
either tortured physically or forced to witness the sexual abuse during the detention. The types
these innocent people were abused were by rape, penetration with objects, sexual groping, long
time forced nudity,

Human rights violations during the Syrian Civil War electroshocking the genetilia and many
more painful and inhumanly ways that these so called soldiers used. Making it worse on these
innocent people, it was hard for them to leave or run away, until they were ordered to. It was
hard for them to seek medical or psychological attention in their own country; even if they fled
to neighboring countries it
was hard, from fear, especially fear of “honor” and shame. Women that are married are later on
looked down at by their husbands and are treated differently.

Mediation, as used in law, is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), a way of resolving disputes
between two or more parties with concrete effects. Typically, a third party, the mediator, assists the
parties to negotiate a settlement. Disputants may mediate disputes in a variety of domains, such as
commercial, legal, diplomatic, workplace, community and family matters. In mediation the parties

 who the mediator will be;

 when the mediation will occur; and
 how the dispute will be resolved.

This article is not just an exercise in exegesis. We believe that the fields of human rights and
conflict resolution are interdependent, that they must operate in a complementary fashion, and
that they have much to learn from one another. This is not to suggest that the two fields should
merge. To the contrary, their greatest strength lies in the fact that they are separate, that they
address the problems of violent conflict from different perspectives. But professionals in these
two fields need to understand one another and learn to work better together. Where violent
conflicts or massive violations of human rights are occurring, all interveners are likely to feel
pressure to act urgently to reduce the likelihood of continuing bloodshed or abuse; to react to
events rather than to anticipate them; and to be impatient with those whose aims or philosophies
diverge from their own. These are poor circumstances in which one might try to foster better
interdisciplinary communication and cooperation to achieve common goals.