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Life Processes

Class – 10th
-Arpita Bhowal
I am Arpita Bhowal
I am here because I love to give
presentations in Science and
I am an experienced teacher of
Biology and ha Currently I am
teaching in Abu Dhabi Indian
School , Abu Dhabi, UAE
You can find me at
Life processes
The maintaining processes
which make us alive.
Various Life processes
1. Nutrition
2. Respiration
3. Transport
4. Excretion
5. Respond to Stimuli
6. Growth
7. Reproduction
Chemical Reactions Inside a Cell
Oxidation-reduction reactions(
Metabolism) are most common
inside cells to breakdown molecules
of glucose ,fatty acid or amino acid .
It is a process of intake of nutrients (like
carbohydrates, fats, protein, minerals and water)
by an organism as well as the utilization of these
nutrients by the organism.
These are component of food with specific
1. Carbohydrate
2. Fat
3. Protein
4. Vitamin
5. Minerals
6. Fiber (Roughage)
7. Water
Types of Nutrition
1. Autotrophic Nutrition
2. Heterotrophic Nutrition
Autotrophic Nutrition
Auto = Self
Trophic = to nourish
When an organisms can prepare
their own food such an organism
is called autotrophs and mode of
nutrition is called autotrophic
Ex. – Green Plants
Heterotrophic Nutrition
Hetero = others
Trophic = to nourish
When an organisms can not prepare
their own food and depends upon
other organisms for food
requirement is called heterotrophs
and mode of nutrition is called
heterotrophic nutrition.
Ex. – In animals.
Types of Autotrophic Nutrition
1. Chemosynthesis
2. Photosynthesis
In some small organisms the
production of organic
compounds takes place by
oxidation reaction of molecules
found in surrounding.
Ex – Sulphur bacteria , Iron
The process by which green plants
prepare their own food ( like
glucose) from carbon dioxide and
water by using sunlight energy in
the presence of chlorophyll, is
called photosynthesis.

6CO2 +6H2O  C6H12O6 +6O2

Equation of Photosynthesis
Pigment of Photosynthesis
Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll b
Carotene (Orange )
Xanthophyll (Yellow)

Function of Chlorophyll:-
1 To trap solar energy
2 To act as catalyst
Cross Section of leaf
Site of Photosynthesis: Chloroplast
Steps of Photosynthesis
1. Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll
2. Conversion of light energy to chemical energy
3. Photolysis of H2O
2 H2O  2 H+ + O2
4. Reduction of CO2 to carbohydrate
H2 + CO2 C6H12O6
Deviation from Steps of
These steps need not take place one after the
other immediately.
For example, desert plants take up carbon
dioxide at night and prepare an intermediate
which is acted upon by the energy absorbed by
the chlorophyll during the day.
Requirement of Photosynthesis
1. Sunlight
2. Chlorophyll
3. CO2
4. H2O
Experiment to show Sunlight in necessary
for Photosynthesis
-Take a potted plant .
-Keep the plant in the dark room for 3- 4 days to de starch it.
-Take a thin strip of black paper and wrap it in the center of
one leaf on the both the sides.
-Keep this potted plant in sunlight for three to four days.
-Pluck the partially covered leaf from the plant and remove
its black paper.
-Dip the leaf in boiling water for few minutes.
-After this, boil the leaf in alcohol containing water bath.
-Leaf will become colorless and alcohol will become green. -
Remove the colorless leaf from alcohol and wash it thoroughly
with water.
-Place the colorless leaf in Petri dish and drop iodine solution
over it.
-Covered portion of the leaf did not turn blue black but
exposed portion of the leaf turns blue black.

Conclusion :- Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis and

leaves makes starch as food by photosynthesis.
Experiment to show Chlorophyll is
necessary for Photosynthesis
Take a potted plant with variegated leaves.
Keep the plant in the dark room for 3- 4 days to
destarch it.
Pluck a leaf from the plant . Mark the green areas in
it and trace them on a sheet of paper.
Dip the leaf in boiling water for few minutes.
After this, boil the leaf in alcohol containing water
Leaf will become colorless and alcohol will become
These are tiny pores present Open and Closed Stomata
on the surface of the leaves.
Role of Stomata :-
1. Gaseous Exchange
2. Transpiration
Loss of water in the form of vapour
from the aerial part of the plant.
In monocot stomata is present
both the surface of leaf but in dicot
stomata is present in the lower
Types of Heterotrophic Nutrition
1. Saprophytic Nutrition
2. Parasitic Nutrition
3. Holozoic Nutrition
Saprophytic mode of Nutrition
The mode of nutrition in which
organism derive its food from
dead and decayed organism .
The organisms having
saprophytic mode of nutrition
is called saprophytes.
Ex:- Fungi, Bacteria
Parasitic Mode of Nutrition
The mode of nutrition in which
organism derive its food from
other organisms by harming it.
The organisms having parasitic
mode of nutrition is called
Ex:- Plasmodium, Round worm,
Holozoic Mode of nutrition
It is the kind of nutrition in which an organism
intake the food materials into the body by the
process of ingestion ,the ingested food is
digested and absorbed into the body .
Undigested and unabsorbed food is thrown out
of the body by the process of egestion.
Ex:- man, cat, dog, tiger and amoeba
Steps of Holozoic Mode of Nutrition
Alimentary Canal / Digestive system
1 Ingestion
2. Digestion
3 Absorption
4 Assimilation
5 Egestion
Holozoic Nutrition
1. Ingestion :- The process of taking food into the body is called ingestion.
Ex:- Through mouth in human being.
2. Digestion :- The physical or chemical process in which food containing
large insoluble molecules are broken down into simple and soluble forms.
– Carbohydrate Glucose
– Protein  Amino acid
– Fat  Fatty Acid + Glycerol
– 3. Absorption :- The process by which digested food is absorbed by
the blood stream.
– 4. Assimilation :- The process in which the absorbed food is taken
in by body cells and used for energy, growth and repair.
– 5. Egestion :- The process in which the undigested food is removed
from the body is called egestion.
Nutrition In Amoeba
1. Ingestion :- Amoeba ingests food by using its pseudopodia.

2. Digestion :- Around the food a cavity called food vacuole is formed . Enzymes
from cytoplasm rushes to food vacuole and brought about digestion.

3. Absorption :- The digested food present in food vacuole is absorbed directly into
the cytoplasm by diffusion . After absorption food vacuole disappears.

4. Assimilation :- Amoeba uses absorbed food for obtaining energy and for growth.

5. Egestion :-For removal of undigested food cell membrane suddenly rupture at any
place and undigested food is thrown out of cell.
Paramaecium uses its hair like structure called cilia to sweep the food and put them
into mouth.
Holozoic Nutrition
Alimentary Canal
Tube like structure in human being starting from
mouth and ending in anus.
Organs of Alimentary Canal :- Mouth, Buccal
cavity, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine,
Large Intestine, Rectum and Anus.
Glands of Alimentary Canal :- Salivary Glands,
Liver, Pancreas
1. Mouth :- Ingest food
2. Buccal Cavity :-Contains three pairs of salivary glands
which produces saliva ; saliva makes the food wet so
that it can be swallowed easily. Saliva contain an
enzyme called Salivary amylase which breaks down
starch to give maltose and isomaltose.
Starch (Salivary Amylase) Maltose+Isomaltose
3.Teeth :-It crushes the food into smaller particles and
does physical digestion.
4.Tongue:- It tastes food and mixes food with saliva.
5.Esophagus:-It performs peristaltic movement.
Peristaltic Movement :-The rhythmic contraction and
relaxation of alimentary canal.
Stomach:- The wall of stomach has gastric glands which
secrete gastric juices which digest protein.

Composition of Gastric Juice:- HCl, pepsin and Mucus

-HCl acid provides acidic medium for the action of pepsin.

-It kills germs.
-Protein (Pepsin)Amino Acid
-Mucus protects the inner lining of stomach from acid.

-Between stomach and small intestine a sphincter muscle is

present which regulate the release of food from stomach to
small intestine.
Small Intestine :-It is the site of complete digestion of food.It receives secretion of bile and
pancreas for this purpose.
– Bile Juice :- It is the secretion of liver which is stored in gall bladder.
– Function of Bile Juice:-1. It provide alkaline medium for the activation of pancreatic
– 2. Emulsification of Fat:- Breaking down of bigger fat molecules into small globules of
• Function of Pancreatic Juice:-Pancreatic juice contain trypsin, amylase and lipase.
- Trypsin acts on protein , amylase works on starch and lipase on fat.
- Starch(Amylase) Maltose +Isomaltose
- Protein (Trypsin) Amino Acid
- Fat (Lipase) Fatty Acid + Glycerol

• Function of Intestinal Juice:-The wall of intestine secrete intestinal juice which brought
about complete digestion of food.
• Starch  Glucose
• FatFatty Acid +Glycerol
• Protein Amino Acid
Absorption of Food by Small Intestine
The inner lining of small intestine contain
numerous finger like projections called villi and
microvilli which increases the surface area for
absorption. Villi are provided by numerous blood
• Villi of large intestine absorbs water from
unabsorbed food and then egested out of the body
through anus.
• The exit of the anus is regulated by anal sphincter.
Dental Carries
• The formation of small cavities in the teeth
due to the action of acid forming bacteria
and improper dental care are called dental
Dental Plaque
• IfIf the teeth are not cleaned properly, then they
become covered with a sticky yellowish layer of food
particles and bacterial cell called dental plaque.
• the teeth are not cleaned properly, then
they become covered with a sticky
yellowish layer of food particles and
bacterial cell called dental plaque.
Types of Respiration
Some organisms involves oxygen to break down food
completely while some other breaks down food without
involving oxygen.

1. Aerobic Respiration
2.Anaerobic Respiration
1. Aerobic Respiration
The kind of respiration which takes place in the presence
of oxygen where complete oxidation of food takes place to
produce energy. Organism which
perform aerobic respiration is called aerobes.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6 H2O +38 ATP

Aerobes are higher animals.
Pathways of Respiration
• 1) Glycolysis:- It is the first metabolic
pathway of respiration where one glucose
molecule is converted to 2 molecules of
Pyruvate in the absence of oxygen in the
• C6H12O6 𝐼𝑛 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑂2 𝐼𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑚
, , 2 Pyruvate
Pathways of Respiration
• 1) Glycolysis:- It is the first metabolic
pathway of respiration where one glucose
molecule is converted to 2 molecules of
Pyruvate in the absence of oxygen in the
• C6H12O6 𝐼𝑛 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑂2 𝐼𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑚
, , 2 Pyruvate
2. Anaerobic Respiration
It is a kind of respiration which takes place in absence of O2 where
food is incompletely oxidized to form Ethyl Alcohol , CO2 or lactic
acid by the release of small amount of energy.
Ex:- In yeast.

• C6H12O6 𝐼𝑛 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑂2 𝐼𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑚

, , 2 Pyruvate(3C molecule)
𝐼𝑛 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑂2 ,
• 2 Pyruvate >2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP
𝐼𝑛 𝐶𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑚
• The organisms that perform anaerobic respiration are called
anaerobes. They are lower organisms.
• It is the Second metabolic pathway of
anaerobic respiration which takes place in
yeast. The product of fermentation are
Ethyl alcohol, CO2 and two molecules of
𝐼𝑛 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑂2 ,
2 Pyruvate >2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP
𝐼𝑛 𝐶𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑚
Breakdown of Glucose by Various Pathways
• The energy released during cellular respiration
is used to synthesis a molecule called ATP
(Adenosine Triphosphate) which is used to fuel
all life process and cellular activities . That’s
why it’s called energy currency of the cell.
• ADP + iP  ADP~P = ATP
Gaseous Exchange in plants
Phenomenon :- Diffusion
In Leaf :- Stomata

In Stem :- 1. Stomata in herbaceous stem

2. Lenticels in woody plant.

In Root :- 1. Root Hairs

2. Lenticels
Q. What are the direction of diffusion of
gases in plants?
The direction of diffusion depends upon the environmental
conditions and the requirements of the plant.
At night, when there is no photosynthesis occurring, CO2
elimination is the major exchange activity going on.
During the day, CO2 generated during respiration is used up
for photosynthesis, hence there is no CO2 release.
oxygen release is the major event at this time.
Respiratory Organs
In unicellular Animals :-By
in Animals
diffusion through cell membrane.

In Earthworm and Frog :- Through

moist skin by diffusion.
(Cutaneous Respiration)

In Terrestrial Organisms :-
By lungs.
Respiratory Organs in Various Animals
• In Aquatic Animals :- Fish and prawns
extract dissolved oxygen from water
through their gills.
• Since the
amount of dissolved oxygen is fairly
low as compared to the atmosphere
so their rate of breathing is more.

• In Insects :- Grasshopper, cockroach,

housefly and mosquitoes has tiny
pores present in the body which is
called spiracles. Inside their body
spiracles makes a tubular structure
called tracheal system.
Respiration in Terrestrial Animals
By lungs (Pulmonary Respiration)
Common Features of All respiratory Organs
1.All the respiratory organs have a large surface area to get
enough oxygen.

2.All the respiratory organs have thin walls for easy

diffusion of respiratory gases.

3.All the respiratory organs have rich supply of blood.

Q. Why the rate of breathing is more in aqatic organisms than
terrestrial organisms?

Since the amount of dissolved oxygen is fairly low compared to the

amount of oxygen in the air, the rate of breathing in aquatic
organisms is much faster than that seen in terrestrial

Fishes take in water through their mouths and force it passed the gills
where the dissolved oxygen is taken up by blood.
Human Respiratory System
• Lungs are the
respiratory organs in
humans and are located
in the thoracic cavity.

• Respiration by lungs is
called Pulmonary
1.Nostrils :- Intake of O rich air.
Respiratory System

2.Nasal Cavity :- Nostrils contain fine hairs and

mucus which filters dust and germs.

3. Trachea:-It is provided by rings of cartilage so

that it doesn’t collapse when air is not present in

4.Alveoli :- Within the lungs ,the trachea divides

into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchus
and bronchioles which finally terminate into
balloon-like structures which are called alveoli.
The alveoli provide a surface where the exchange
of gases can take place. The walls of the alveoli
contain an extensive network of blood-vessels
Mechanism of Breathing
Step 1 Inspiration/ Inhalation :- During this step volume of thoracic
cavity increases as ribs moves outward and diaphragm
Due to increased volume of thoracic air cavity pressure decreases. So
air rushes from lungs through respiratory system.

Step 2 Expiration/Exhalation :- During this step volume of thoracic

cavity decreases as ribs comes downward and diaphragm attains
normal position. Due to decreased volume of thoracic cavity pressure
of air in the thoracic cavity increases and air rushes out of the lungs
through respiratory passage.
Residual Volume
Volume of air left in the lungs after a forceful
expiration. It is about 500 ml.

Importance of Residual Volume :-

Residual volume is needed during breathing cycle so that
there is sufficient time for oxygen to be
absorbed and CO2 to be released.
Why diffusion is not enough to deliver
respiratory gases to all the parts of body?

When the body size of animals is large, the diffusion

pressure alone cannot take care of oxygen delivery to all parts of the

If diffusion were to move oxygen in our body, it is estimated that it

would take 3 years for a molecule of oxygen to get to our toes from
our lungs.
Gas Exchange in Alveoli
• Alveoli has higher concentration of oxygen as
compared to blood capillaries.

• Therefore O2 diffuses into the capillary and

combine with hemoglobin to form
Oxyhemoglobin and in this way transported
throughout the body.

• Same time blood capillary has higher

concentration of CO2 as compared to lungs.

• Therefore CO2 diffuses out of the capillaries

and moves to alveoli of the lungs.
Transport of O2 and CO2
Transport of Oxygen :-
O2 + Hemoglobin  Oxyhemoglobin
Transport of CO2 :-
CO2 is transported by blood plasma.
In human beings, the respiratory pigment is hemoglobin
which has a very high affinity for oxygen. This pigment is
present in the red blood corpuscles.
Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen is and hence
is mostly transported in the dissolved form in our blood.
Gas Exchange in Tissue
• In the cell concentration of CO2
increases by cellular respiration
and concentration of O2 gradually
• So oxyhemoglobin breaks down by
releasing CO2 from cell.
• Blood plasma at the same time
absorbs CO2 from cell.
Life process: Transport
Class 10th
Subject : Biology
• Blood is a liquid connective tissue
which consists Cells like RBC, WBC
and Platelets present on a liquid
matrix called plasma.
• The volume of the blood is 6 liters in
adult human body.
Composition of blood

(55%) CELLS(45%)

White blood Platelets

Red blood
cells (thrombocytes)
(Erythrocytes) (Leucocytes)
Components of Blood:-
– 1. Red Blood Corpuscles (Erythrocytes):- It
is red in color due to the presence of
pigment hemoglobin.
– 2. White Blood Corpuscles (Leukocytes):-
These are colorless cells which protects
body from many diseases.
– 3 Platelets (Thrombocytes):- It helps in
blood clotting.
– 4. Plasma :- It is the liquid part of the
blood excluding blood corpuscles.
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY
Functions of Blood
• Transport of Oxygen
• Transport of Carbon dioxide.
• Transport of nutrients.
• Transport of excretory wastes
• Transport of hormones
• Regulation of Body Temperature.
• Protection from diseases.
Blood Vessels and its types
• Blood Vessels :- The tube like structure in which blood flows in
• 1. Artery :- They carry blood away from the heart to various
organs of the body.
– -Blood flows in it in a high pressure.
– -They have thick elastic walls.
– They don’t have valves.
• 2. Veins :- They collects the blood from different organs and bring
it back to the heart.
– - Blood flows in it in a very low pressure.
– They have thin walls
– They have valves to check the backflow of blood
3.Capillaries:- The artery divides into
smaller and smaller vessels to bring
the blood in contact with all the
individuals cells.
-This smallest blood vessels which is
one celled thick is called capillaries.
-Exchange of materials takes place
through these thin walls.
-Capillaries then join together to
form veins.
• Location :- In thoracic cavity
inside rib cage.
• Size :- Size of a closed fists.
• Weight :- 300 gm in male and
250 gm in female
• Length :- 12 inches
• Breadth :- 9 inches
• Coronary artery supplies
blood to the heart.
Human Heart
Our Heart
It is a hollow and a muscular pumping organ to push the
blood around the body.
• Because both oxygen and carbon dioxide have to be
transported by the blood, the heart has 4 chambers to
prevent the oxygen-rich blood from mixing with the
blood containing carbon dioxide
• . The carbon dioxide-rich blood has to reach the lungs
for the carbon dioxide to be removed, and the
oxygenated blood from the lungs has to be brought
back to the heart.
• This oxygen-rich blood is then pumped to the rest of
the body.
• Left and right sides are divided by septum so that the
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood do not get mixed
• Upper two chambers are called Atria and lower two
chambers are called ventricles.
Valves of Heart
• Auriculo Ventricular Valves
A- V aperture is guarded by
auriculo ventricular valve to
check the back flow of blood.
• Semilunar Valves  Present in
the beginning of aorta and
pulmonary artery.
Blood Vessels of Heart: -
• Venacava:- Venacava collects deoxygenated blood
from various parts of body and brings it back to
right part of heart.
• Superior Venacava – Upper Part
• Inferior Venacava – Lower Part
• Pulmonary Artery: - It takes deoxygenated blood
to the lungs where oxygenation takes place.
• Pulmonary Vein: - Oxygenated blood is brought
back to left atrium by 2 pairs of pulmonary veins
from each lung.
• Aorta: - Aorta starts from left ventricle and
supplies blood to all parts of the body.
Working of Heart:.
• Left Side: -
• Left atrium relaxes and oxygenated blood enters there from
lungs through 4 pulmonary veins two each from either side of
the lungs.
• Left atrium contracts, while the next chamber, the left
ventricle, expands, so that the blood is transferred to it.
• Left atrium contracts and the blood enters the left ventricle
through the left auriculo-ventricular aperture.
• Left ventricle contracts and the blood is pumped into the
largest artery Aorta and is carried to all the parts of the body.
Working of Heart
• Right Side: -:-
• Right atrium relaxes and deoxygenated blood
enters their through superior and inferior
• Right atrium contracts and the blood enters the
right ventricle through auriculo- ventricular
• Right ventricle contracts and the blood enters
the pair of pulmonary arteries and carried to
the lungs for oxygenation.
Q – Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated
and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?
• Ans - The separation of the right side and the left
side of the heart is useful to keep oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood from mixing.
• Such separation allows a highly efficient supply of
oxygen to the body.
• This is useful in animals that have high energy
needs, such as birds and mammals, which
constantly use energy to maintain their body
Q What is the kind of heart in cold
blooded animals?
• Ans - In animals that do not use energy for
maintaining constant temperature (cold blooded
animals) their body temperature depends on the
temperature in the environment.
• Such animals, like amphibians or many reptiles have
three-chambered hearts and tolerate some mixing
of the oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood
• Fishes, on the other hand, have only two chambers
to their hearts, and the blood is pumped
Double Circulation:
• -The blood passes twice through the heart to
supply once to the body.

• Pulmonary Circulation: - It is the circulation of

deoxygenated blood to the lungs and return of
oxygenated blood back to the heart.
• It takes place through pulmonary artery and

• Systemic Circulation: - It is the circulation of

oxygenated blood away from the heart and
return of deoxygenated blood back to the
• Aorta and Vena cava are involved in this
process .
Heart of Different Vertebrates
▪ 1. In Fish:- They contain one auricle and one
ventricle - Two chambered heart and their
circulation is called Single Circulation.
▪ 2. In Amphibians and Reptiles :- 2 auricles 1
ventricle – 3 Chambered Heart – Mixing of
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood takes
▪ 3. In Birds and Mammals :- 2 auricles and 2
Ventricles- 4 Chambered Heart- No mixing of
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
Difference between Warm blooded
and Cold Blooded Animals
▪ Warm Blooded Animal ▪ Cold Blooded
▪ The animals who can maintain ▪ The animals who can not maintain
constant body temperature constant body temperature their
irrespective of climatic change are body temperature varies with
called warm blooded animal. climatic change.
▪ Ex- Birds and mammals. ▪ Ex – Fish, Amphibians and Reptiles
▪ Separation of oxygenated and ▪ Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
deoxygenated blood provide highly is not separated so there is no rapid
efficient supply of oxygen to the supply of oxygen to the body Animal
body to maintain constant body
Blood pressure
Pressure exerted by blood against the wall of
Systolic Pressure :- The pressure of the heart
when heart contracts. This is 120 mm Hg
Diastolic Pressure :- The pressure of the
heart when heart relaxes. This is 80 mm Hg
Blood Pressure is measured by :-
Blood Clot
Conversion of blood to a jelly like substance
when there is a cut or wound is called blood
clotting. Blood Clotting is controlled by Blood
This is extracellular fluid similar to
blood plasma but colorless with less
Function of Lymph:-
1 Transportation of digested fat from
the small intestine.
2 Drains excess fluid from the
intercellular spaces back to the blood.
3. Lymphocyte cell protects the body
from germs.
Transportation in Plants
1 Transportation of H2O and Minerals 
Xylem Tissue
2 Transportation of Food and Hormones 
Phloem Tissue
Conducting Tissue :- Xylem and Phloem
Xylem + Phloem = Vascular Bundle
Xylem is located inner side of the vascular
Transportation of Water and Minerals
In xylem, tracheids and Vessels of roots , stems and
leaves are interconnected to form a continuous
system of water conducting channels reaching all
parts of the plants.

The cells of the root are in contact with the soil and
takes up ions from soil. This creates a difference in
the concentrations of ions between root and soil .
H2O therefore moves to the root to eliminate the

Transpiration from leaves creates a suction pressure

which pulls H2O from the xylem of the roots.
Transpiration :-
The loss of water in the form of vapors
from the aerial part of the plant.
Importance of Transpiration :-
It helps in absorption and upward
movement of water and minerals from
roots to leaves.

It helps in temperature regulation by

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC
BY-SA reducing the temperature of plant.
Transport of food, amino acids and hormones from the leaves
to other part of the plant through phloem.

Mechanism of Translocation :-
– Translocation of food , amino acid and hormones takes place
through sieve tubes and companion cells of phloem.
– It is achieved by utilizing energy from ATP
– Food is transported to various organs including storage organs
like roots, stems and leaves and growing parts of the plant.
According to need of plant food is transported to various parts
of the plants in both directions.
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND
This Photo by Unknown Author is
licensed under CC BY-SA
I am Arpita Bhowal
I am here because I love to give
presentations in Science and
I am an experienced teacher of
Biology and ha Currently I am
teaching in Abu Dhabi Indian
School , Abu Dhabi, UAE
You can find me at
Living Organisms

▹ Gaseous wastes generated during respiration and

▹ Nitrogenous wastes product due to cellular
▹ Digestive Waste Product.
The biological process involved in the removal of
harmful metabolic wastes from the body is called
excretion.Skin,rectum,kidneys and lungs are the
organs of excretion in human beings.
Excretion in Plants
▹ 1. Oxygen and Carbon di oxide- are excreted through stomata and

▹ 2. Excess Water – by transpiration.

▹ 3.Some metabolic wastes are stored in cellular vacuole.
▹ 4. Some wastes are stored in dead tissues.
▹ 5.Some wastes are stored in leaves and bark and seasonally or occasionally
they fall.
▹ 6.Some waste products are stored in old xylem cells as gums and resins.
7.Some plants stores waste materials as raphides (Calcium oxalate)
crystals in zamikand (yam).
▹ 6. Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them.
Excretion in Lower
▹ By Diffusion in Amoeba and other
unicellular organisms. Contractile
vacuole also plays a major role in this.
▹ -In earthworm-Nephridia
Human Being: -

▹ Large Intestine: - Feces

▹ Skin: - Sweats
▹ Kidneys: - Urine
▹ Lungs: - CO2
Waste such as urea or uric acid are
removed from blood in the kidneys.
Human Beings
▹ 1. Kidneys :- Man has a pair of kidneys. Kidney is bean shaped reddish brown in
106 color and are in the lower abdomen in the posterior side both on the either side
of the vertebral column.
▹ Right kidney is slightly lower as compared to the left kidney as it is pushed by the
▹ 10-13 cm long, 5-6 cm broad , 4 cm thick
▹ Weight-120 gm-170 gm in male
▹ 120 gm to 140 gm in female
▹ Kidney receives Renal artery, renal vein and ureter from its concave depression
called hilum
▹ Kidneys carries millions of nephrons for filtering urine from blood.
▹ At any moment, they carry 20%of total blood volume.
▹ Kidney filters 120-140 liters of blood every day.
107 ▹ 2. Ureters: - These are the tubes coming out from each
kidney and opens into the urinary bladder. Ureters in the
beginning form a funnel shaped structure called Renal pelvis.

▹ 3. Urinary Bladder: - It’s a triangular sac and stores urine

before being discharged.

▹ 4. Urethra: - It is a muscular tube that arises from the urinary

bladder and conducts the urine outside. Female urethra-4
cm, Male urethra 20 cms.
▹ It removes the poisonous
substances such as urea, uric acid
other wastes, H2O from the blood
and excrete in the form of
yellowish liquid called urine.
▹ It regulates osmotic pressure of
▹ It regulates pH of blood.
▹ Maintains blood pressure.
▹ Kidneys are made up of millions of excretory units called nephrons.
▹ Anterior end forms a cup like structure which is called Bowman’s Capsule.
▹ Bowman’s Capsule leads to the “U” shaped structure which is called Henle’s Loop.
▹ Distal end opens into Collecting Duct.
▹ Renal artery brings blood which has nitrogenous wastes.
▹ Renal artery breaks into afferent renal arteriole.
▹ Afferent renal arteriole forms a network of capillaries in Bowman’s Capsule which is
called Glomerulus.
▹ Later Glomerulus join to form Efferent Renal Arteriole.
▹ Efferent arteriole breaks up again into many capillaries and join around loop of
Henle called Vasa Rectae.
▹ Vasa Rectae later join to form Renal Vein
111 Steps in Urine Formation

▹ 1. Glomerular Filtration
▹ 2. Selective Reabsorption
▹ 3. Tubular Secretion
1. Glomerular Filtration: -The blood enters glomerulus
under very high pressure from the afferent renal
• The pressure of the blood is maintained in the
glomerulus as the diameter of the Afferent Renal
Arteriole is more than Efferent Renal Arteriole.
• Due to high pressure filtration of blood takes place
and filtrate comes into the cavity of perforated
Bowman’s Capsule.
• Filtrate contains water, urea, uric acid, glucose,
minerals and Vitamins and are called Glomerular

▹ 2. Selective Reabsorption: -The process is done by Vasa

Rectae where the useful substances of glomerular filtrate
is reabsorbed by Vasa Retace side by side excess amount
of H2O is also absorbed.
▹ After Selective Reabsorption, the liquid which is collected
in the Collecting duct is called Urine.

▹ Artificial removal of
nitrogenous waste
products from
blood in case of
kidney failure.
115 Principle of hemodialysis
▹ 1-Hemodialyser contains highly coiled tubes with a Semi
permeable lining suspended in a tank filled with
dialyzing fluid.

▹ Dialysis fluid has the same concentration as blood but it

lacks nitrogenous wastes. So, when the blood passes
through dialyzing solution nitrogenous wastes comes out
in dialyzing fluid by osmosis.
Procedure of Hemodialysis

116 The blood from an artery in the patient’s arm is made to flow into

the dialyzer machine made of long tubes of selective permeable

membrane coiled in a tank containing dialyzing solution.

▹ The dialyzing solution contains water, glucose and salts in similar

concentrations to those in normal blood.

▹ As patients’ blood pass through the dialyzing solution , most of the

nitrogenous wastes like Urea present in it pass through the
selective permeable cellulose tubes into the dialyzing solution. The
clean blood is pumped back into the vein of the patient’s arm.

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