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Ring Documentation, Release 1.

GetChar() GetChar() # End of line

# the previous two lines can be replaced with the next line
# Give Option

if Option = 1
see "Enter your name : " give cName
see "Hello " + cName
else
bye
ok
End

23.3 Input() Function

We can get input from the keyboard using the Input() function
Syntax:
Input(nCount) ---> string

The function will wait until nCount characters (at least) are read
Example:
See "Enter message (30 characters) : " cMsg = input(30)
See "Message : " + cMsg

23.3. Input() Function 202


CHAPTER

TWENTYFOUR

FUNCTIONS - FIRST STYLE

In this chapter we are going to learn about the next topics :-


• Define functions
• Call functions
• Declare parameters
• Send parameters
• Main Function
• Variables Scope
• Return Value
• Recursion

24.1 Define Functions

To define new function


Syntax:
func <function_name> [parameters]
Block of statements

Note: No keyword is required to end the function definition.

Example:
func hello
see "Hello from function" + nl

24.2 Call Functions

To call function without parameters, we type the function name then ()

Tip: We can call the function before the function definition and the function code.

Example:

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hello()

func hello
see "Hello from function" + nl

Example:
first() second()

func first see "message from the first function" + nl

func second see "message from the second function" + nl

24.3 Declare parameters

To declare the function parameters, after the function name type the list of parameters as a group of identifiers separated
by comma.
Example:
func sum x,y
see x+y+nl

24.4 Send Parameters

To send parameters to function, type the parameters inside () after the function name
Syntax:
funcname(parameters)

Example:
/* output
** 8
** 3000
*/

sum(3,5) sum(1000,2000)

func sum x,y see x+y+nl

24.5 Main Function

Using the Ring programming language, the Main Function is optional, when it’s defined, it will be executed after the
end of other statements.
if no other statements comes alone, the main function will be the first entry point
Example:

24.3. Declare parameters 204


Ring Documentation, Release 1.7

# this program will print the hello world message first then execute the main function

See "Hello World!" + nl

func main
see "Message from the main function" + nl

24.6 Variables Scope

The Ring programming language uses lexical scoping to determine the scope of a variable.
Variables defined inside functions (including function parameters) are local variables. Variables defined outside func-
tions (before any function) are global variables.
Inside any function we can access the variables defined inside this function beside the global variables.
Example:
# the program will print numbers from 10 to 1

x = 10 # x is a global variable.

func main

for t = 1 to 10 # t is a local variable


mycounter() # call function
next

func mycounter

see x + nl # print the global variable value


x-- # decrement

Note: Using the main function before the for loop declare the t variable as a local variable, It’s recommended to use
the main functions instead of typing the instructions directly to set the scope of the new variables to local.

24.7 Return Value

The function can return a value using the Return command.


Syntax:
Return [Expression]

Tip: the Expression after the return command is optional and we can use the return command to end the function
execution without returning any value.

Note: if the function doesn’t return explicit value, it will return NULL (empty string = “” ).

Example:

24.6. Variables Scope 205


Ring Documentation, Release 1.7

if novalue() = NULL
See "the function doesn't return a value" + nl
ok

func novalue

24.8 Recursion

The Ring programming language support Recursion and the function can call itself using different parameters.
Example:
see fact(5) # output = 120

func fact x if x = 0 return 1 else return x * fact(x-1) ok

24.8. Recursion 206


CHAPTER

TWENTYFIVE

FUNCTIONS - SECOND STYLE

In this chapter we are going to learn about the next topics :-


• Define functions
• Call functions
• Declare parameters
• Send parameters
• Main Function
• Variables Scope
• Return Value
• Recursion

25.1 Define Functions

To define new function


Syntax:
def <function_name> [parameters]
Block of statements
[end]

Note: the keyword ‘end’ is optional.

Example:
def hello
put "Hello from function" + nl
end

25.2 Call Functions

To call function without parameters, we type the function name then ()

Tip: We can call the function before the function definition and the function code.

Example:

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hello()

def hello
put "Hello from function" + nl
end

Example:
first() second()

def first put "message from the first function" + nl

def second put "message from the second function" + nl

25.3 Declare parameters

To declare the function parameters, after the function name type the list of parameters as a group of identifiers separated
by comma.
Example:
def sum x,y
put x+y+nl
end

25.4 Send Parameters

To send parameters to function, type the parameters inside () after the function name
Syntax:
funcname(parameters)

Example:
/* output
** 8
** 3000
*/

sum(3,5) sum(1000,2000)

def sum x,y put x+y+nl

25.5 Main Function

Using the Ring programming language, the Main Function is optional, when it’s defined, it will be executed after the
end of other statements.
if no other statements comes alone, the main function will be the first entry point
Example:

25.3. Declare parameters 208


Ring Documentation, Release 1.7

# this program will print the hello world message first then execute the main function

put "Hello World!" + nl

def main
put "Message from the main function" + nl
end

25.6 Variables Scope

The Ring programming language uses lexical scoping to determine the scope of a variable.
Variables defined inside functions (including function parameters) are local variables. Variables defined outside func-
tions (before any function) are global variables.
Inside any function we can access the variables defined inside this function beside the global variables.
Example:
# the program will print numbers from 10 to 1

x = 10 # x is a global variable.

def main
for t = 1 to 10 # t is a local variable
mycounter() # call function
end
end

def mycounter
put x + nl # print the global variable value
x-- # decrement
end

Note: Using the main function before the for loop declare the t variable as a local variable, It’s recommended to use
the main functions instead of typing the instructions directly to set the scope of the new variables to local.

25.7 Return Value

The function can return a value using the Return command.


Syntax:
Return [Expression]

Tip: the Expression after the return command is optional and we can use the return command to end the function
execution without returning any value.

Note: if the function doesn’t return explicit value, it will return NULL (empty string = “” ).

Example:

25.6. Variables Scope 209


Ring Documentation, Release 1.7

if novalue() = NULL
put "the function doesn't return a value" + nl
end

def novalue

25.8 Recursion

The Ring programming language support Recursion and the function can call itself using different parameters.
Example:
put fact(5) # output = 120

def fact x if x = 0 return 1 else return x * fact(x-1) end

25.8. Recursion 210


CHAPTER

TWENTYSIX

FUNCTIONS - THIRD STYLE

In this chapter we are going to learn about the next topics :-


• Define functions
• Call functions
• Declare parameters
• Send parameters
• Main Function
• Variables Scope
• Return Value
• Recursion

26.1 Define Functions

To define new function


Syntax:
func <function_name> [parameters] ['{']
Block of statements
['}']

Example:
load "stdlib.ring"
func hello {
print("Hello from function \n")
}

26.2 Call Functions

To call function without parameters, we type the function name then ()

Tip: We can call the function before the function definition and the function code.

Example:

211