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COPING UP MECHANISM

OF PERSON WITH DISABILITIES

_________________________

A Qualitative Research Presented to the Faculty of


LUPON VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Lupon, Davao Oriental

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the


Subject
Practical Research 1
(Qualitative Research)

_________________________

ANDREA MAY ORDONIO


REIN HEART PITOGO
TRISHA MAE SALIDA
ARIAN MENDOZA
JASON SALCEDO

March 2019
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APPROVAL SHEET

This research endeavour entitled “COPING UP MECHANISM OF PERSON WITH


DISABILITIES”, prepared and submitted by ANDREA MAY S.ORDONIO, REINHEART
E.PITOGO, TRISHA MAE C.SALIDA, ARIAN G.MENDOZA AND JASON RYAN M.
SALCEDO, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the subject Practical Research 1
(Qualitative Research), has been examined and is, hereby, recommended for the
corresponding oral examination, approval and acceptance.

NESSIE KATHERINE O. CABUSAO, MED-LT Cand.


Adviser

PANEL OF EXAMINERS

APPROVED by the Panel of Examiners.

ALEN KELLY R. CONTE, MAED


Chairman

IVY V. BAGAY, MAED NESSIE KATHERINE O. CABUSAO, MED-LT Cand.


Member Member

ACCEPTED in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the subject Practical Research 1
(Qualitative Research).
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers wish to formally state and recognize the individuals that

made certain contribution of the accomplishment of their work. Without them, it would

be a rough road for them to succeed. They were the ones who lessen the difficulty in

the making of this study.

Firstly, to the Almighty God, who guides us in the entire journey we’ve

been through, He made us safe and knowledgeable, that made these research a

successful one. Also He showered us with blessing in times of joyful moments in our

lives.

We would also like to express our sincere gratitude to Mr. Allen Kelly

Conte, Ms. Ivy Bagay, and Ms. Nessie Katherine Cabusao, for their continuous support

of this study, for their patience, for motivational advises and immense knowledge they

have shared to the researchers. Their guidance helped us a lot.

To our parents, who endlessly supported us to accomplish this study,

moral and financially. We also acknowledge our parents understanding to us for going

home late at night because of this study. We wish to express our sincere gratefulness

for giving us enough strength and motivation to succeed in this trial.

To our classmates, who supported us throughout the day in order for

this study to be accomplished. We were thankful also for their invaluably constructive

criticism and friendly advises even though we are in different groups.


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DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to our family for their love and support, both

mentally and financially. To our parents, for the endless understanding and patience. To

our brothers and sisters, who shared their words of advice to us.

To our classmates who are with us all throughout this study. Through thick

and thin even we are dealing with our own studies but still they send us support and

motivation. As we are together in unity it became easy for us to continue.

We also dedicate this to our friends and church family who have

supported us throughout the process. Who continually provide their moral, spiritual and

emotional support to us. We will always appreciate all they have done.

We also dedicate this to person with disabilities that are facing hardships

in life and coping up with it. We also dedicate this to the PWDs who willingly became

our respondent and became an inspiration for us and to others.

And lastly, we dedicate this to the Almighty God, thank you for the

guidance, strength, power of mind, protection and skills and for giving us a healthy life.

All of these, we offer to you.


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Abstract

Disability of any form usually places the individual at some form of

disadvantage in our life. Learning to live with a disability can be a significant transition,

and many individuals struggle with the complex challenge examining how the disability

will affect who they are and what their role in the society. This study is entitled “Coping

Up Mechanism of person with Disabilities”. This study is a qualitative research using

interview and phenomenological statements. The respondents were person with

disabilities. Results revealed on how they live with their disability and sought to find out

their coping strategies. The study enables to raise awareness about the living a life with

disability. The findings show that the first step of coping up to their problems is

acceptance. Acceptance and self-esteem plays a great role of helping them to feel that

they are not marginalized.

The main discussions raised in this study have been related to the lives of

persons with physical disabilities in regard to the societies attitude towards them,

employment after study and their life experiences. Another research question is : What

is your occupation? How long have you been working in that job? How does it feel like

to work with a disability? What are your experiences?. The results indicated that one out

of five is only employed and there is a reasonable percentage of unemployment. The

study also confirms that still there is social exclusion of persons with disabilities in the

society.

Keywords: causes, effects, disabilities, challenges, and experiences.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Title Page………………………………………………………………………………….. i
Approval sheet…………………………………………………………………………..... ii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………... iii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………. iv
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………….. v
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………. vi
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………… vii

CHAPTER

1 Introduction
Rationale…………………………………………………………... 1
Research Objective……………………………………………….. 3
Review of Related Literature…………………………………….. 4
Significance of the Study……………………………………….... 10
Definition of Terms………………………………………………... 11

2 Methodology
Research Design………………………………………………….. 12
Scope and Limitation……………………………………………… 13
Research Instrument……………………………………………… 14

3 RESULT
……………………………………………………………………….. 15

4 DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATION


Discussions…………………………………………………………. 20
Conclusions……………………………………………………….... 22
Recommendation…………………………………………………... 23

References…………………………………………………………………………. 24

Appendices…………………………………………………………………………. 25

Appendix A- Letter to the Respondents………………………….. 26

Appendix B-Research Instrument………………………………… 29

Research Questions……………………………….. 30

Curriculum Vitae………………………………………………………………….31-36
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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

1 Map of Davao Oriental highlighting Lupon 13


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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Rationale

In a stratified society characterized by inequality, certain groups experience

marginalization. Marginalization refers to the unequal distribution of resources and

power which produces conflict between groups, leaving some more vulnerable to abuse

than others. Persons with disabilities are one such group (Oliver, 1996; Campbell and

Oliver, 1996). They are marginalized socially, economically and politically and frequently

are treated as a subordinate group within society. Individually and collectively they are

denied full participation in society. Their marginalization places them at a serious

disadvantage within the community.

People with disabilities experience conflict in a variety of forms, including

problems of physical accessibility, lack of employment opportunities and lower salaries,

and problems accessing health care. Adjusting to life with a disability can be a difficult

transition. We all tend to take our health for granted until it’s gone. Then, it’s all too easy

to obsess over what we’ve lost, but while you can’t go back in time or you want to take

away your limitations, you can change the way you think about yourself and cope with

your disability. Empowering persons with disabilities means supporting the development
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of their willingness to the responsibility for their growth and development within the

community (Jythi, 2016).In this message during the International day of PWDs’ in 2009,

the United Nation Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said that the UN should advance its

Millennium Development Goals only after the PWDs; and their community has become

the fruit of UN’s effort. He added that when the person with disabilities is empowered to

participate and lead the process of developments, the entire community opens up. Their

environment creates opportunities for everyone with or without disability (UN, 2019).

There are many things you can do to improve your independence, sense of

empowerment, and outlook. No matter your disability it’s entirely possible to overcome

your challenges and you’re still in control of your life.

In the country, former president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo designated

December 3, 2006 as "International Day of Persons with Disabilities in the Philippines."

The National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons (now called the National

Council on Disability Affairs, or NCDA) was tasked as lead agency for all activities

related to this celebration. Republic Act 7277, or the Magna Carta for Disabled Persons,

defined PWDs as "those suffering from restriction of different abilities, as a result of a

mental, physical or sensory impairment, to perform an activity in the manner or within

the range considered normal for a human being." There are 1,443,000 PWDs

comprising 1.57% of the total population in the country base on the 2010 census. In the

2013 elections, there were around 365,000 registered PWD voters.

The whole nation celebrated the 39th National Disability and Prevention

(NDPR) week in pursuant to proclamation no.361 (2000) as amended by order no.35


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with the theme “Karapatan Prebelehiyo ng Maykapansanan: Isakatuparan at

Ipaglaban”. The 2017 NPDF theme focuses on the realization of fundamental freedoms

and rights of persons with disabilities. In conection to the celebration, Comara T.

Manuel Central Elementary School-SPED coordinated with TESDA Lupon School of

Fisheries in conducting a technology-based community training program (TBCTP) to

persons with disabilities as part of their transition. Through the leadership of Mrs. Imelda

N. Garcia, SPED coordinator with the support of Mr. Alvin T. Abendan, school principal

III, and in the partnership with TESDA Lupon School of Fisheries, the training had been

successfully conducted on July 29, 2017 at Lupon School of Fisheries, Lupon, Davao

Oriental with a total of 30 participants and they joyfully did their activity with confidence.

Its’ been 4 years since LSF has taken part of the NDPR Celebration. Thru those years,

the partnership of the two schools did not end after that they’ve continued and now it’s

getting efficient and even more igniting helping more persons with disabilities.

The main aim of the study is to elicit the views of various stakeholders on

independent living, community participation, and quality of life options for the people

with disabilities. We chose this topic to raise awareness about the people with

disabilities so that we could recognize their hardships.

Research Objective

The purpose of this study is to find out how the people with disabilities live

their life and how they deal with the challenges. This also aims to describe their

experiences at work despite their disability. Lastly, this study seeks to find out how they

provide for their family.


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Review of Related Literature

A disability is any continuing condition that restricts everyday activities.

Disabilities can affect a persons’ capacity to communicate, interact with others, learn

and get about independently. Disability is usually permanent but may be episodic. (WA

Disability Services Act, 1993).The International Classification of Functioning, Disability

and Health (IFC) depicts, disability as a wide description, classifying a number of

impairments which limit an individuals’ activity and function. Disability is inevitable;

influencing every region, nation, and society on planet Earth. Whether fleeting or

permanent, welcomed or unexpected, significant or not; experience with disability is

highly probable in any lifetime (WHO, 2015).

As mentioned by Carmona & Moritsigu (2005) an individuals’ chance of

experiencing disability significantly increases with age. Research shows that in United

States, disability affects less than 10% of people 15 and younger and almost 75% of

people who are 80 and older .Regardless of an individual is familiar with disability or

not, it is likely that they will personally encounter disability at some point in life.

There are different types of disability it can be sensory, neurological,

physical, and intellectual. A sensory disability is a disability of the senses. As 95% of the

information about the world around us comes from our sight and hearing, a sensory

disability affects the persons gathering of information from the world around them. While

neurological disorder are health conditions that involves the nervous system. This can

be a disease or injury of the central nervous system that causes paralysis in any part of
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the body. On the other hand a physical disability is a limitation on persons’ physical

functioning, mobility, dexterity, or stamina. Intellectual disabilities includes intellectual

and developmental disabilities which can relate to difficulties with thought processes,

learning, communicating, remembering information and using it appropriately, making

judgements and problem solving. Psychiatric disability affects persons’ emotions,

thought, processes, and behavior.15% of the worlds’ population experience some form

of disability, and the most common disability is the physical, followed by the intellectual

and psychiatric disability and lastly the sensory. (World Health Organization, Disability

Statistics 2018).

Moreover, people may have more than one disability and may experience

additional disadvantages to adequate service provision due to factors such as being

from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds or because they live outside a

regional centre. The causes of disability may vary. As a person ages the severity of the

disability can change. The disabilities may be genetically determined, environmentally,

or of unknown case. A genetically disability is usually inherited from the parents.

However, a new genetic error can arise leading to symptoms of the condition. Examples

of this are fibrosis and muscular dystrophy. An environment determined disability results

from an accident, injury, and diabetes. Examples include acquired brain injury, spinal

cord injury and diabetes. Sometimes a disability is of unknown origin. This is the case

with many physical and intellectual disabilities. Disabilities vary according to individual

circumstances.

While the degree and type of disability varies with individual

circumstances, people with disabilities frequently report that they experience difficulty
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being independently mobile, or being able to see, hear, or communicate. As a

consequence, people with disabilities face barriers with everyday activities such as

hearing or understanding what is said, seeing small print, climbing stairs or

understanding signage. The impact on the life of the person concerned can be major,

particularly if the individual has multiple disabilities. Often people with disabilities are

unable to do things most of us take for granted, such as reading and understanding

public notices or newsletters, accessing websites, participating on local swimming pool

or recreational centre, playing on the play equipment at the park, hearing what is said in

a public meeting and shopping local shops.

The exact impact of a disability on the life of an individual varies according

to a number of factors including the specific nature and severity of the disability, the

persons’ strength, stamina, size, weight and age, the persons’ ability to cope and the

physical, social and economic environment within which the person is living.

Communities which are accessible and inclusive minimize the effect of disability.

The negative belief towards the person with disabilities can be easily

noticed the fact that society has literally categorized them into a separate group of

people. They are not referred to as “people”, they are referred to as person with

disabilities. A staggering fact that people with disabilities comprise the worlds’ largest

minority group (WHO,2011).

One margin of the population, the majority, experience luxuries while the other

part, the minority, does not. The fight for equivalence that persons with disabilities face

is arguably more complicated than just overcoming attitudinal biases that are oftentimes
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placed on them by the majority of people who do not have disabilities. Achieving to have

a true state of equality is not easy because persons with disabilities are not always

given the opportunity to access their full potential. However, since a society that is free

from discrimination and lack of accommodation does not exist it is impossible to witness

the full capacities that the persons with disabilities possess.

Abbott & McConkey (2006), Ferrara, Burns, & Mills (2015) stated that the

evidence indicates that people hold negative perceptions toward persons with

disabilities. This stigma often arises due to cultural norms, trends and beliefs that are

associated with people that have disabilities.

The words “disability”, “impairment”, and “handicap” are often times used

interchangeably even though all of them have precisely different meanings. As

traditionally used, impairment refers to a problem with a structure or organ of the body;

while disability is a functional limitation with regard to a particular activity; and handicap

refers to a disadvantage in filling a role in life relative to a peer group.

According to Carter (2015), he emphasized the distinguishing factors of each of

these three terms through a relevant example:

Consider a 4-year old boy who has a congenital disorder called cerebral palsy

(CP). The presence of CP causes his legs to become tight, stiff, and challenging to

move. He is unable to walk or even stand. From the given scenario, the proper

definitions include the following. The Impairment is the inability to move the legs while

the inability to walk is the disability and the extent to which CP can prevent this

individual from fulfilling a normal role at home, in school, and in the community.
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Although CP will disallow this particular 4-yearold from taking elementary activities, it

may deter him from participating in recreational events that are considered “normal” for

a child his age.

On a broader spectrum, the National Council on Disability (2003) states that

persons with disabilities are often clustered into their own population group. Members of

society generally classify people into one of two groups: people with disabilities, and

people without disabilities. The presence of disability is widespread and often affects

more than just the person who is experiencing the disability.

Ridding stigma and discrimination towards persons with disabilities would not

only contribute to equality and overall acceptance, but also to the United States work

force. Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon preached that “As a

member of civilization we must remove all barriers that affect the inclusion and

participation of persons with disabilities in society, including through changing that fuel

stigma and institutionalize discrimination.” He went on further to say that “We need to

work harder to ensure that infrastructure and services support inclusive, equitable, and

sustainable development for all”. (UN News Centre, 2013)

Another study by Erickson et al (2014) stated that in a population size composed

of individuals from all races, ethnicities, genders, and education levels in the year 2012,

approximately 33.5% of persons with disabilities at the working age of 21-64 were

employed in the United States. An additional 10% were not working, but were actively

looking for work. The national average for persons with disabilities living below the

poverty line was 28.4% in 2012. It was also reported that 19.9% of persons with
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disabilities were receiving Supplemental Security Income benefits. Persons with

disabilities represent a minority group that is part a large amount of the unemployed

population. While persons without disabilities have unemployment rate of 5.6%, persons

with disabilities are unemployed at a rate which is almost double: a staggering 11.2%

(United States Department of Labor, 2015).

Retrieved from SSI Annual Statistical Report (2003) much of the increase in cost

for Social Security disability benefits is due to increases in the number of beneficiaries.

According to the United States Social Security Administration since 1990, the number of

disabled-worker beneficiaries has increased 84%; disabled widows, 105%; and disabled

adult children, 24%.” It is also noted that “increasing numbers of blind and disabled SSI

recipients contribute to the higher cost of the SSI program” (U.S. Social Security

Administration, n d.).

Consequently, if more persons with disabilities became employed, Social

Security would see an increased number of individuals that would participate in

depositing funds, rather than retrieving them. Furthermore, the financial resources that

compose SSI would not be continually accessed at such a consistent rate. An article

titled “Economics and People with Disabilities” in the center for an accessible society

(2015) comments:

Recent research has confirmed that the economic expansion of the 1990s has

significantly boosted the incomes of most working-age men and women without

disabilities but men and women with disabilities have been left behind, and did not

share in the economic growth of the 1990s. Not only did their employment and labor
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earnings fall during the recession of the early 1990s, but employment and earnings

continued to fall during the long economic expansion that followed. Many of these

people are skilled professionals who are highly marketable in today's economy (p. 1)

Often there are multiple barriers that can make it extremely difficult or even

impossible for people with disabilities to function. Many social barriers have been

removed or reduced for people with disabilities but there is more work that needs to be

done for people with disabilities to become more independent and involved in their

world.

Significance of the study

This information will be useful in planning and designing programs

that will essentially support the person with disabilities in improving their quality of living.

The result of this study will be very beneficial to the following:

Authorities. The results of the study will provide feedback to the authorities on

person with disabilities’ strengths and weaknesses which will be the basis in providing

support, resources and opportunities to improve their living.

Person with Disabilities. The results of the study will inspire the person with disabilities

to enhance their current practices through development.

Learners. The results of the study will benefit the learners in learning

better since this study is conducted to recognize and evaluate the person with

disabilities.

Future researchers. This will serve as a springboard to future researchers

who will undertake a more in-depth study along with this aspect.
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Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally in order to

have a better understanding on the terminologies mentioned in the study:

Subordinate Group. As used in the study, the term refers to the

marginalized group also called minority group, which refers to the person with

disabilities, they have less power or control than the dominant group.

Elicit means to get or to gather a response or information. This includes

the views of various stakeholders on independent living, community participation, and

quality of life options for the people with disabilities.

Broader spectrum is something that is effective in a wide variety of ways.

In the study broader spectrum is used to show that the presence of disability is

widespread and often affects more than just the person who is experiencing the

disability.

Disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental,

intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these and a disability is

any continuing condition that restricts everyday activities.

Staggering means shocking or surprising. In the study, it was used to state

the unemployment rate that the persons with disabilities have, which is 11.2 % it almost

doubles the unemployment rate of the person without disabilities.

Stigma is a negative belief that a group of people have about. In the

study the stigma and discrimination towards persons with disabilities are stated.
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CHAPTER 2

METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the method and tactics of research, observation, interviews

and synthesis of gathered data will be discussed.

Research Design

Qualitative research is development of concepts which help us to

understand social phenomena in natural (rather than experimental) settings, giving due

emphasis of the meanings experience and views of the participants.

(Marys,1995).Qualitative research is primarily exploratory research.

Qualitative research involves examining non-numerical data in-depth

.Phenomenology is a qualitative research method that is used to describe how human

beings experience a certain phenomenon. A phenomenological study attempts to set

aside biases and preconceived assumptions about human experiences, feelings, and

responses to a particular situation. Data collection involves interview, its goal is to

provide further insight into the topic, or to develop ideas for potential quantitative

research.
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Scope and Limitations

The research was held in Lupon, Davao Oriental. The interviews were

conducted in every respondent who were chosen for having a disability. They are the

person with disabilities that is willing to share their personal experiences in facing

disability from the past until present.

Furthermore, Lupon is a 1st class municipality in the province of Davao

Oriental it consist of 21 barangays and according to the 2015 census, it has a

population of 65, 785 people.

Figure1. Map of Davao Oriental highlighting Lupon


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Research Instrument

A. Questions for the personal background of the respondents.

1. What is your name?

2. How old are you?

3. Where do you live?

B. These set of questions were ask in order to get the needed information to be use in
this study.

1. How do you live your life and deal with challenges despitep your disability?

2. What is your occupation? How long have you been working in that job? How does it
feel like to work with a disability? What are your experiences?

3. Do you provide for your family? In what way can you provide?
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Chapter 3

RESULT

Presented in this chapter are the results that we gathered from our

respondents. These results are the ideas of the respondents that we have

interviewed.

All of our respondents share the same type of disability

which is they are all physically restraint. All of them also has their own families.

Our respondents also share the same belief about how they live their life and

deal with challenges.

The Spectacular Life Experiences of PWDs’

Mr. Edgar Mendador,58 years old, said, that he faced so

many challenges when he was young up to now. Discrimination is one of his

worst experiences that even his friends tease him with that. Before he wasn’t

able to embrace and accept himself for what he have and what he doen’t he finds

it so hard to believe that his disability had a purpose. ”but I wasn’t matured back

then,” he added. He told us that you just have to face and accept the struggle

and challenges you have in life and find solution to your problems with a boost of

your self-esteem, perseverance, hardwork, and patience. Lastly, you need to


xxiii

believe that you have a purpose in this world. Mr. Lebranon Luna, 42 years old,

doesn’t have both his arms and legs it really affects his life especially to his

family. His wife with their 3 children left him because of his disability and because

his earnings are not stable. Sometimes he regrets having his own life and thinks

life is very unfair. He also told us that why of all people he’s the one who is

suffering and not the others. But then he said that life must go on even though he

had a disability, he should continue and accept it because he had nothing to do

with it, its Gods plan. His life is still very hard and right now he’s all alone and he

really misses his family. Another respondent, Mr. Noel Bautista said that he live a

simple life. He clearly stated that it’s very important to be wise and have a

positive outlook in life and living with a disability takes courage to stand up and

accept it. He also stated that he need acceptance from everyone so that he could

feel that he is a part of the society because sometimes even if he already

accepted himself, others still doubt him then he somehow also started to doubt

his self. Continuing to improve his life is what he do right now. Mr. Bautista also

said that the acceptance should start with their self because it’s their self also

who is going to help them in the end. He also talked about his life experiences

that when he was a lot younger he experienced discrimination and that

discrimination made him to be confuse about his self. When he started to

embrace and accept his disability that discrimination made him suddenly be

angry about it. He doubted why is he the one who has this disability and why not

others, he started complaining about everything. But with the help of his family he

was able to get over with it and start again. He first accepted his self for who he
xxiv

is having the disability and hoping that others may accept him also. Our fourth

respondent is Mr. Antonio Dalman, 49 years old, both he’s feet is smaller in size

compared to the feet of the person without a disability. It is an abnormality of his

growth. To those person that are first time to see me they belittle me for having

this kind of feet. Most of all my disability gave a great difficulty in my life. Before

back when I was studying in Elementary most of my co-students discriminate me

, it’s very hard for me and sometimes he losses hope but it was his dream to

finish study even if it’s just for Elementary. So he continued and bear all the pain.

He was an Elementary graduate and he did not proceed to High School. Facing

life now with his age is more difficult because it requires too much responsibility

but he still continue and find strength and motivation from his family. He also

added that he is very proud that right now two of his children are currently

studying in college. Our last respondent, Mr. Eden Celestino Cacho, said, that he

live his life believing that there is a reason for losing his left arm. As an amputee,

it is difficult to do things that require the use of two arms but he learned to be

humble and ask help from other people. He also added that although life with

physical disability is difficult, that’s not a reason to give in to depression and

negativity. Having faith and loving God helps him to see the brighter side of life.

PWDs’ Workplace Adversity and Resilience

Mr. Luna is a coconut wine vendor. At some point his earnings are

not enough that’s why sometimes he asks alms from other people. He wasn’t

able to attend school that’s why he thinks that no one would accept him to work.

He also said that it’s not easy and sometimes losses hope but he had no choice
xxv

but to do something in order for him to live. He added that sometimes he feel

mistreated because many people judge him from what he looks like and he

wasn’t given enough opportunity regarding with work but he had nothing to do

but to accept the reality and do everything and anything he can. Mr. Dalman

repairs shoes, sandals, and others to earn. His job is quite stressful and needs a

lot of effort but he still continues because there are people who really trust him on

his job. He is very thankful to those people who became his costumer because

its them who made his job be stable. Mr. Bautista sells his planted vegetables

and sometimes work in a lotto outlet. He experienced difficulty and sometimes

the earning is not enough but he still find for ways in order for him to continue.

Mr. Mendador is a fish vendor for 22 years, he says that it’s really hard especially

when there’s a price hike on fish because he only has a small capital amount and

he could not buy a lot for him to sell, but the hardest part of his job according to

him is selling it because he needs to go to distant places in order for him to sell it

all. Lastly, Mr. Cacho is presently working as the Secretary to the Sanggunian for

18 years. He is able to do his job quite well and less difficulty. The nature of his

job needs the use of intelligence, which he is well prepared in school and to his

previous jobs. His initial problem was when computer were not friendly that he

needed to use the typewriter to make his reports and minutes of sessions but

with the aid of the computer it became easier for him.

How PWDs’ Manage Their Finances

Mr. Luna said, that before, he can provide for his family because he

always do what it takes just to earn or have some money. He always strive hard
xxvi

and do all kinds of work just to earn but now he is on his own because he is

separated from them. He still continue to search for stable job and hope that he’ll

be accepted. Mr. Dalman is able to provide for his family because of his

hardwork and perseverance. He told us that he saves money for emergency

purposes and told his children that they should be thrifty, be wise about how they

use their money and live in honesty even if they’ll be lacking money. Mr.

Mendador told us, that yes, he can provide his family needs especially the rice

but sometimes also he can’t. Time comes that he’s not able to buy their simple

needs because of lack of money and he feel sorry for it but somehow he find

ways just to earn. He search for immediate job even if it’s just for one day and

paid for just a small amount just enough for that day also, he’ll go for it. Mr.

Bautista said that he can provide to his family, through because of his work and

perseverance. He continues to plant vegetables so that he could have even a

small time business that he can have earnings of. While selling vegetables he

also work in the lotto outlet that’s why he has a double source of money and he

manage to support his 3 children that are studying and he’s able buy their

necessary needs. Mr. Cacho is a father of 4 kids. As a government department

head, his salary is sufficient to provide for the basic needs of his family. He is

thankful that despite his disability he is employed in the government and given a

high position with higher compensation. Instead of complaining about his

disability, he uses it as an asset to live a better life. Even if he had a sufficient

salary he doesn’t tolerate his kids on spending too much instead he teaches

them how to spend wisely and they save money on their bank accounts.\
xxvii

Chapter 4

DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the discussion of the result of the study. It also

presents the conclusions and recommendations for the research study.

Discussions

This represents the discussions that regards from the findings. This

includes the respondents answer on how they cope up mechanism.

The main focus of our study was to find out how the live and deal

with their life while having a disability. Our findings confirmed that self-esteem,

acceptance and social support played important roles in adjustment to disability.

Traditionally, people with disabilities like other minority groups are isolated

and segregated from society. Societal integration for person with disabilities requires

self-empowerment in addition to mastery of the problems posed by extreme

discrimination. Acceptance of disability, as defined by Wright (1960), “conditions

facilitating acceptance of ones disability as non-devaluating”. (Wright,1960, p.108)

As our respondents said having self-esteem have helped them, and

personal acceptance of their disability may become the first step toward their social
xxviii

acceptance. Consistent with previous researchers (Belgrave, 1991; Heinemann &

Shontz, 1982; Linkowski & Dunn, 1974; Star & Heiserman, 1977), we found a strong

relationship between self-esteem and acceptance of disability, once again revealing that

the extent of acceptance of disability is significantly related to how they see their self.

We also found out that acceptance of disability was significantly affected by perceived

social discrimination against person with disabilities. The more participants believed that

they would be devalued and discriminated against, the less likely they were to accept

disability. One study of Abbott & McConkey (2006); Ferrara, Burns, & Mills, (2015)

shows that the evidence indicates that people hold negative perceptions toward persons

with disabilities and this stigma often arises due to cultural norms, trends and beliefs

that are associated with people that have disabilities.

Person with disabilities always encounter daily barriers not only to their

participation in the society, but also in terms of employment issues. As could be

understood, employment is critical and vital for every individual including PWDs.

Through employment, one can earn a livelihood, enjoy social contacts and gain self-

esteem (Heron and Murray, 2003). Only one out of our five respondents is only

employed. It shows that their disability is also one of the factors that they are

unemployed. According to the United States Department of Labor (2015) persons with

disabilities represent a minority group that is part a large amount of the unemployed

population. While persons without disabilities have an unemployment rate of 5.6%,

persons with disabilities are unemployed at a rate which is almost double: a staggering

11.2%.
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Conclusions

With regards to our study, we concluded that each one of the person with

disabilities, experienced social exclusion and they are discriminated for having a

disability but as they recognize and their self and learn their coping strategies they are

able to continue despite it all.

We also come up to the conclusion that every disabled person needs to

have acceptance with their self especially with their disability. Coping up with the

challenges that they are facing, their first step is on their self, building up strength and

courage in order to stand up on their own. Accepting their self helps them to maintain a

positive outlook in life to eradicate negativity.

Another conclusion is that, most of the PWD’s are facing unemployment

issues because they lack the opportunity and some of them was not able to go school

resulting to unemployment.

Also, in conclusion, person with disabilities can live meaningful,

satisfying, and productive lives, within their own communities, when provided adequate

supports. We salute the courage and dedication of families and other advocates who

have tirelessly worked to improve the lives of these deserving citizens.

Lastly, we conclude that the disabilities do not just affect the persons who

have it or the PWD’s but also the person who is related to them. Their family plays a

great role in their life making them dependent into each other. The impact of having a

disability is that either you’ll be left alone or they’ll stay with you because you needed

support.
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RECOMMENDATIONS

In the light of forgoing findings and conclusion, the following

recommendations are presented.

To the friends, they may be able to help us to support on raising

awareness about PWDs. Help us to spread understanding about this issue so that the

PWDs will not feel that they are isolated from us.

To the people involved in this issue, you may be able help the PWDs that

are in need. Support them from what they are able to do and accept them for who they

are. Let’s help them cope up with the challenges that we are involved.

Since this study shows that persons with disabilities are faced with

challenges of unemployment, the government should encourage labour organisations

through the employment act to include reasonable percentage of their workers to be

persons with disabilities. May you also give attention to the enforcement of non-

discrimination or anti-bullying act so that we could eliminate the social exclusion

experienced by the persons with disabilities.


xxxi

To the PWD’s just continue to live on your dream and develop your coping

strategies. Just strive hard because there will be many opportunities that will be offered

to you. Just trust the authorities for they are finding ways and implementing PWD’s

benefits to help all of you.

To the future researcher(s), take time to study the research well. This will

be a big tool for you to gather information to help and improved you research.

REFERENCES

Abott & McConkey 2006;Ferrara, Burns, & Mills 2015. Evidence includes that
people hold negative perceptions toward person with disabilities.

Carmona & Moritsigu, 2005.An individuals chance of experiencing disability


significantly increase with age.

Carter 2015.Emphasized the distinguishing factors of each of these three terms


through relevant example.

Erickson et al 2014.Population size composed of individuals in the year 2012.

Marys, 1995. Qualitative research is development of concepts.

Oliver 1996; Campbell and Oliver 1996. Person with disabilities are one of the
marginalized group.

UN News Centre,2013.Ridding stigma and discrimination towards persons with


disabilities would not only contribute to equality and overall acceptance, but also to the
united States work force.

WA Disability Services Act, 1993.Disability is usually permanent but may be


episodic.
xxxii

WHO 2015.Disability is inevitable; influencing every tregion, nation, and society


on planet Earth.

WHO 2011.A staggering fact the peole with disabilities comprise the the worlds
largest minority group.

World Health Organization, Disability Statistics 2018.The types of disdability.

(Heron and Murray, 2003),PWDs employment issues; facing barriers.

(Marys,1995). Qualitative research development concepts.

Appendices
xxxiii

Appendix A

Letter to the Respondents


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xxxv
xxxvi
xxxvii
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Appendix B

Research Instrument
xli

Research Questions

These questions were used to gather information from the 5 respondents.

1. How do you live your life and deal with challenges despite your

disability?

2. What is your occupation? How long have you been working in that job?

How does it feel like to work with a disability? What are your experiences?

3. Do you provide for your family? In what way can you provide?
xlii

CURRICULUM VITAE
xliii

PERSONAL INFORMATION
____________________________________

Surname: Pitogo

Name: Reinheart

Middle Name: Escolano

Civil Status: Single

Address: Baryo Picas, Lupon Davao Oriental

Birthdate: November 9,2001

Age: 17

Gender: Female
xliv

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

____________________________________

Elementary: Alliongto Elementary School S.Y.:2008-2014

Secondary: Calumpang National High School S.Y.:2015-2018

Lupon Vocational High School S.Y.:2018-Present

PERSONAL INFORMATION
____________________________________

Surname: Salcedo

Name: Jason Ryan

Middle Name: Maano

Civil Status: Single

Address: Cambing Baratua St.,Lupon,Davao Oriental

Birthdate: September 8,2000

Age: 18

Gender: Male
xlv

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

____________________________________

Elementary: Comara T. Manuel Elementary School I S.Y.:2008-2014

Secondary: Lupon Vocational High School S.Y.:2014-Present

PERSONAL INFORMATION
____________________________________

Surname: Mendoza

Name: Arian

Middle Name: Getes

Civil Status: Single

Address: Townsite,block 5,Lupon,Davao Oriental

Birthdate: October 5,2001

Age: 17

Gender: Male
xlvi

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

____________________________________

Elementary: Comara T.Manuel Central Elementary School I S.Y.:2008-2014

Secondary: Lupon Vocational High School S.Y.:2014-Present

PERSONAL INFORMATION
____________________________________

Surname: Ordonio

Name: Andrea May

Middle Name: Solamo

Civil Status: Single

Address: Purok 3-A,Poblacion,Banaybanay,Davao Oriental

Birthdate: May 15,2002

Age: 16

Gender: Female
xlvii

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

____________________________________

Elementary: Banaybanay Central Elementary School S.Y.:2008-2014

Secondary: Manuel B. Guiñez Sr. National High School S.Y.:2014-2018

Lupon Vocational High School S.Y.:2018-Present


xlviii

PERSONAL INFORMATION
____________________________________

Surname: Salida

Name: Trisha Mae

Middle Name: Castillones

Civil Status: Single

Address: Baryo Pikas,Lupon,Davao Oriental

Birthdate: July 18,2001

Age: 17

Gender: Female

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

____________________________________

Elementary: Comara T. Manuel Elementary School I S.Y.:2008-2014

Secondary: Matiao National High School S.Y.:2014-2015

Lupon Vocational High School S.Y.:2015-Present


xlix