Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 285

7

Ailene L. Lopez
Michael Angelo E. Malicsi
Authors

Leopoldo A. Rojas
Author-Editor

Sr. Bernadette S. Racadio, SPC, Ph.D.


Consultant

i
High School English Series
Language in Literature for Grade 7
PHILIPPINE Literature
A Learning Guide based on UbD
Kto12 Edition

ISBN 978-971-07-3102-2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Copyright © 2013 by Vibal Group, Inc. and Ailene L. Lopez,


Michael Angelo E. Malicsi, and Leopoldo A. Rojas.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means—electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from
the publisher and the authors.

Artwork belongs solely to Vibal Group, Inc.

Published and printed by Vibal Group, Inc.


MANILA: 1253 Gregorio Araneta Avenue cor. Maria Clara Street, Quezon City,
Philippines
CEBU: 0290 Nivel Hills, Lahug, Cebu City, Philippines
DAVAO: Kalamansi St. cor. 1st Avenue, Juna Subdivision, Matina, Davao City,
Philippines

Member: Philippine Educational Publishers Association (PEPA); Book Development


Association of the Philippines (BDAP); and National Book Development Board (NBDB)

ii
PREFACE

The Language in Literature 7, K to 12 Edition, is organized based on the K to 12


Curriculum issued by the Department of Education (DepEd).
Moreover, Language in Literature 7 K to 12 Edition, considers the following
instructional approaches:
• Literature-based. The worktext uses literary selections that represent
the four periods in Philippine literature, namely, The Period of Ancient
Literature, The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence, The Period of
Rapid Development, and The Contemporary Period. Philippine literatures
in these four periods are considered to gain better understanding of our
ancestral beginnings, values, culture, and traditions that may help students
chart direction for a well-defined future.
• Inquiry-based. The Unit and Lesson Openers present Big Ideas and Essential
Questions to spark the learners’ thinking caps which may help them become
critical-thinkers, decision-makers, and life-long learners. The instructional
framework espoused by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe is deliberately used
in the development of these materials.
• Theme-based. The worktext also takes on themes that make use of
informative texts as parallel texts to connect students to current affairs,
issues, and concerns. All lessons in this worktext follow themes that correlate
with the thematic value of the literary events of the period.
• Task-based. To make the students demonstrate the facets of understanding,
aside from the sets of exercises provided after the discussion of a topic,
Performance Task, which is a culminating task in every lesson, is provided to
allow them to transfer what has been learned. Self and peer assessments are
carried out through the use of rubric.

The Authors

iii
Textbook Walkthrough

1 Literary Period
Fosters appreciation and
understanding of our 5 Learning Objectives
Filipino roots, customs, Consist of a summary
and traditions through the of skills and objectives
literary selections represen­ covered per lesson.
tatives of the respective
periods.

2 Big Idea

3 Big Question

4 Essential Question
Develop students’
inquisitive mind, critical-
thinking skill, and problem-
solving skill which can help
them become life-long
learners.

7 Unveil What You


Know
Activates the learner’s prior
knowledge parallel with the reading
text.

8 Unlock the
Meaning of Words
Prompts the students to decode
6 Reading
the meaning of unfamiliar
Text
words used in the reading text.

9 Underscore a Motive
for Reading
Sets a goal for reading the
text.

11 For Your Information 10 Understand Literary


Background/Author’s Profile
Provides additional information
related to the reading text. Provides information on the literary
piece or author.

iv
12 Sharing
Insights
Discusses questions
ranging from recall to
evaluation level—in
between or after the
reading text. 14 Exercises
Provide activities to
facilitate mastery of
13 Literary Skills the focused skill.
Introduce literary
concepts, devices, and
strategies for literary
comprehension aids. 15 Web Links
Provide interactive
learning
supplements.

16 Vocabulary
Focuses on the semantic
relationship of words and
expressions—familiar, colloquial,
and idiomatic types.

17 Study and Research


Delves extensively with skills
on locating, organizing, and
evaluating; using the library,
the Internet and its embedded
educational materials.

18 Concept Notes
Provide concept digest
that capsulizes main
or basic concepts
with their substantial
definition, supplementary
information, or how-to
instructions.

v
19 Prompt
Questions
Provide students some
cues that serve as guides
to exploring the concept in
the section.

20 Listening/Viewing
Provides strategies and
processes on how to
effectively decode, infer, and
draw messages from the
expository texts listened to or
current television programs
seen.

21 Speaking
Provides activities on pronunciation
and enunciation skills, public
speaking skills, and interpersonal
skills.
22 Grammar
Provides a guided instruction to
gaining mastery of language forms
and rules of usage that will prepare
the students for their writing task.

23 Writing
Explores the writing process
that allows students to rethink,
refine, and revise their craft to
perfection.

24 Supplementary
Reference
For enrichment purposes,
an additional resource on
grammar and composition
is given. The page numbers
where such discussion and
exercises may be found are
provided.

vi
25 Revisiting the
Essential Question
Allows students to comprehensively
compare and contrast their initial
and final responses to the essential
question posed at the beginning
of the lesson. This part helps
students underscore the enduring
understanding of the lesson.

26 Performance
Task
Presents a GRASPS
formatted task which may
either be a production
of an output or a
performance which calls
for the demonstration of
the student’s facets of
understanding.

27 Unit Learning
Assessment
Presents self-and-peer assessment
worksheet (synthesis and reflection)
of all that has been acquired and
learned, and that which will help
students chart direction for the next
unit or next level.

vii
TMRM WALKTHROUGH

viii
I. Stage 1—Desired Results
Essential or Enduring Understandings (EUs)
Are insights into ideas, people, situations, and processes manifested in various appropriate
performances.

Guide Question for designing EUs:

• What will students understand about the big ideas as a result of this unit?

Transfer Goal
A Transfer Goal states what students should be able to do with knowledge and skill, on their
own, in general terms, in the long run.

Guide Questions for designing Transfer Goal:

• What is the desired long-term i­ndependent ability?

• What is the point of all the knowledge, skill, and understanding?

Essential Questions (EQs)


Are questions that lie at the heart of a subject or a curriculum and are meant to be
­investigated, argued, and looked at from ­different points of view. They can fruitfully be asked and
re-asked over time as a result of ­further learning.

Guide Question for designing EQs:

• What arguable, recurring, and thought-provoking questions will guide inquiry and point to
the big ideas of the unit?

Knowledge
Knowledge items reflect the targeted and enabling knowledge implied in the EU and ­Transfer
Goal. They state what students should know as a result of the unit.

Guide Question for designing Knowledge:

• What is the key knowledge needed to develop the desired understandings?

Skills
Skills reflect the targeted and enabling skills implied in the EU and Transfer Goals. They state
what students should be able to do as a result of the unit.

Guide Question for designing Skills:

• What skills will students need in order to achieve the transfer goals and understandings?

ix
II. Stage 2—Assessment Evidence
Performance Tasks
Performance Tasks are engaging and authentic tasks that serve as the application and sum­
mative assessment of the student’s understanding. They are as faithful as possible to real-world
contexts, audiences, and purposes and are related to the Desired Results of Stage 1.

Guide Question for designing Performance Tasks:


• Through what authentic performance tasks will students demonstrate the desired
understandings?

Other Evidence
Other Evidences refer to non-­performance-based evidence collected to assess the
­understanding, knowledge, and skills indicated in Stage 1. These formative assessments can over­
lap with the performance tasks, thus increasing the reliability of the overall assessment.

Guide Questions for designing Other Evidences:


• Through what other evidence (e.g. quizzes, tests, academic prompts, observations,
homework, journals) will students demonstrate achievement of the desired results?
• How will students reflect upon and self-assess their learning?

Rubric
A Rubric is a tool used to assess the performance task using valid criteria and indicators,
­reflective of not only quality performance but related to the Desired Results of Stage 1.

Guide Question for designing Rubrics:


• By what criteria will performances of understanding be judged

x
III. Stage 3—Learning Plan
The Learning Plan is the sequence of learning activities to help students construct and realize
the understanding through learning the requisite knowledge and skills. The entire learning plan is
derived from the goals of Stage 1 and the assessments of Stage 2 to ensure the alignment of the
plan and the effectiveness of the activities. The learning plan should be thought through in terms
of WHERETO:

• Where is the unit headed?

• Hook the learner with engaging work

• Equip for understanding, experience and explore the big ideas

• Rethink opinions, revise ideas and work

• Evaluate your work and adjust as needed

• Tailor the work to reflect individual needs, interests, styles

• Organize the work flow to maximize in-depth understanding and success at the
summative tasks
Also, the learning plan should reflect the teaching approach that is logi­cally required by the
goals, not the teaching ap­proach that is most comfortable for or familiar to the teacher.

Guide Question for designing the Learning Plan:


• What learning experiences and instruction will enable students to achieve the desired
results?

xi
Content Standard

Content And Performance Standards For Grade 7 English


CONTENT STANDARD FIRST QUARTER SECOND QUARTER THIRD QUARTER FOURTH QUARTER
LC1: Determine how stress, LC2: Use active listening LC3: Use active listening LC4: Listen to appreciate
pitch, intonation, phrasing, strategies based on purpose, strategies based on purpose, communication roles,
pacing, and non verbal cues familiarity with the topic and familiarity with the topic and expectations, and intentions
serve as carriers of meaning the level of difficulty of short the level of difficulty of simple in specific communicative
that may aid or interfere in the narrative texts. informative texts. contexts or situations.
message of the text listened
to.
LC1a: Recognize differences in voice LC2a: Note specific elements of the LC3a: Note specific details of the LC4a: Note the roles and
levels and speech patterns. narrative listened to. text listened to. expectations of each speaker in
intimate and consultative situations.
LC1b: Explain the influence of LC2b: Determine the order of LC3b: Determine the order of ideas
differences in tone and accent significant events in the text or how the ideas are organized in LC4b: Note the roles and
patterns in understanding a listened to. the text listened to. expectations of each speaker in
message. casual, conversational, or informal
LC2c: Identify key ideas or turning LC3c: Identify main points and situations.
LC1c: Listen for important points points in the narrative text listened supporting ideas in the text listened
signaled by shifts in stress and to. to. LC4c: Note the roles and
intonation. expectations of each speaker in
LC2d: Note specific words or LC2d: Note specific words or formal situations.
LC1d: Determine how pitch, expressions that signal or emphasize expressions that signal or emphasize

xii
SS: Listening Comprehension phrasing, and pacing affect crucial details in the narrative crucial details of the text listened LC4d: Determine the intentions of
understanding of a message. listened to. to. speakers by focusing on their unique
verbal and non-verbal cues and
LC1e: Determine the effect of facial LC2e: Determine the tone and mood LC3e: Determine the tone and mood quality of participation.
expressions and eye contact in of the speaker or characters in the of the speaker in the text listened
understanding a message. narrative listened to. to. LC4e: Predict the outcomes of
a verbal exchange listened to
LC1f: Determine the effect of LC2f: Note familiar and unfamiliar LC3f: Note familiar and unfamiliar and their possible effects on the
posture and bodily gestures in details from the narrative listened details from the text listened to. speakers and their relationships.
understanding a message. to.
LC3g: Formulate assumptions or LC4f: Identify the most effective
LC1g: Distinguish between and LC2g: Formulate assumptions or predictions about the contents of or least helpful strategies used by
among the functions of non-verbal predictions about about the contents the narrative texts. different speakers to achieve specific
cues: repetition, contradiction, of the narrative texts. intentions.
substitution, complementation, and LC3h: Infer appropriate responses to
accentuation. LC2h: Infer appropriate responses to listening guide questions.
listening guide questions.
LC3i: Infer the purpose of the text
LC2i: Infer the purpose of the listened to vis-à-vis the author’s
narrative listened to vis-à-vis background and the historical
the author’s background and the period.
historical period.
High/
PSLCH Perform an enhanced rendition of a listening text.
Independent
Average/
PERFORMANCE STANDARD PSLCA State specific recommendations to enhance the delivery of the text listened to.
Instructional

PSLCL Low/Frustration Formulate evaluative statements about the clarity of a listening text’s message.
CONTENT
FIRST QUARTER SECOND QUARTER THIRD QUARTER FOURTH QUARTER
STANDARD
OL1: Use the right stress, OL2: Talk about significant human OL3: Use appropriate verbal OL4: Use appropriate verbal
intonation, phrasing, and pacing experiences and ideas based on and non-verbal turn-taking, and non-verbal turn-taking,
when reading short written literary or expository reading, turn-giving, and topic control turn-giving, and topic control
passages aloud and engaging in listening, or viewing selections strategies while participating in strategies while participating in
interpersonal communication. in unrehearsed and rehearsed dialogues and interviews. panel discussions.
individual and group modalities.

OL1a: Use appropriate volume and OL2a: Narrate specific personal OL3a: Express needs, opinions, OL3a: Express needs, opinions, feelings,
enunciation that meet the needs of an experiences related to the ideas presented feelings, and attitudes in explicit but and attitudes in explicit but polite ways.
oral communication situation. in a selection. polite ways.
OL3b: Use appropriate turn-taking cues
OL1b: Observe correct pronunciation of OL2b: Compare and contrast ideas OL3b: Use appropriate turn-taking cues at the level of words, phrases, clauses,
critical vowel and consonant sounds. presented in a selection or a set of related at the level of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.
selections. and sentences.
OL1c: Observe the right syllable stress OL3c: Vary the organization of
pattern in three categories: two-syllable OL2c: Give meaningful comments and OL3c: Vary the organization of interaction using the three-ordered
word stress, compound noun stress, and insightful observations based on ideas interaction using the three-ordered options: current speaker selects next
words with stress derived from suffixes. presented in a selection. options: current speaker selects next speaker; next speaker self-selects as
speaker; next speaker self-selects as next; or current speaker continues.
OL: Oral OL1d: Observe the right sentence stress OL2d: Express agreement or disagreement next; or current speaker continues.
Language and using the Rhythm Rule guidelines for with ideas presented in a selection. OL2d: Use appropriate verbal and non-
Fluency both stressed and unstressed words. OL2d: Use appropriate verbal and non- verbal turn-giving cues.

xiii
OL2e: Talk about why and how people verbal turn-giving cues.
OL1e: Distinguish between and among react differently to a text listened to, OL3e: Use appropriate topic control
the rising-falling intonation, rising read, or viewed based on one’s background OL3e: Use appropriate topic control strategies to expand one’s responses,
intonation, and non-final intonation knowledge, purpose, and point of view. strategies to expand one’s responses, to emphasize a point, and to evade
patterns. to emphasize a point, and to evade possible misinterpretations.
OL2f: State the effect of a text listened possible misinterpretations.
OL1f: Observe the right phrasing and to, read, or viewed to one’s value system. OL3f: Use a variety of ways to
pacing when reading texts or passages OL3f: Use a variety of ways to strike begin a panel discussion, introduce
aloud or participating in conversations. OL2g: Present points of view and opinions a conversation, introduce a topic, and the discussion topic, summarize
concerning the message of a selection in terminate a conversation. the discussion, and terminate the
OL1g: Observe the right oral language creative oral means. discussion.
conventions when inquiring about, OL3g: Ask and answer different types
summarizing, or reacting to what has OL2h: Provide suggestions in addressing of questions in a dialogue or interview. OL3g: Ask and answer different types of
been listened to/read or observed. controversial, problematic, or debatable questions in a panel discussion.
ideas, issues, or concerns in a selection. OL3h: Use a variety of expressions
to affirm, to negate, to see further OL3h: Use a variety of expressions
clarification, and to summarize points to affirm, to negate, to see further
in a dialogue or interview. clarification, and to summarize points in
a panel discussion.

PSLCH High/Independent Deliver an unrehearsed oral reading of a reading passage or facilitate an unrehearsed interview or panel discussion.
PERFORMANCE Average/
PSLCA Formulate and carry out spontaneously a list of interview questions, small group discussion guide, or panel discussion guide.
STANDARD Instructional
PSLCL Low/Frustration Participate in structured small group or whole-class discussions, interviews, or panel discussions using written notes.
CONTENT STANDARD FIRST QUARTER SECOND QUARTER THIRD QUARTER FOURTH QUARTER
VD1: Establish semantic VD2: Establish semantic VD3: Identify collocations and VD3: Analyze analogies and
relationships of words as well relationships of words including arrange words or expressions in arrange words or expressions in
as familiar, colloquial, and figurative and academic categories and clusters. clines.
idiomatic expressions. language.

VD1a: Determine words or VD2a: Distinguish between literal VD3a: Identify collocations used in VD4a: Determine the relationship
expressions in a selection that are and figurative expressions. a selection. of words or expressions arranged in
similar or opposite. analogies.
VD2b: Identify figures of speech VD3b: Identify the common forms of
VD1b: Determine words or that show comparison (simile, collocations: (a) adverb + adjective, VD4b: Supply other words or
expressions in a selection that have metaphor, and analogy). (b) adjective + noun, (c) noun + expressions that complete an
causal or associative relations. noun, (d) noun + verb, (e) verb + analogous series of words or
VD2c: Identify figures of speech that noun), (f) verb + expression with expressions.
VD1c: Determine words or show contrast (irony, oxymoron, and preposition, and (g) verb + adverb.
expressions in a selection that have paradox). VD4c: Identify words or expressions
time (temporal) or place (locative) VD3c: Explain why collocations are that have multiple meanings
relations. VD2d: Identify figures of speech useful in making the meaning of (homonymous or polysemous words
that show emphasis (hyperbole and expressions clearer. or expressions).
VD1d: Distinguish between litotes).
VD: Vocabulary familiar and colloquial expressions VD3d: Determine words or VD4d: Identify words or expressions
Development commonly used in casual or informal VD2e: Differentiate figurative expressions in a selection with used in a selection that show
conversations. language from academic language. genus-species (hyponymous) varying shades of meaning
relations. (gradients).
VD1e: Distinguish between colloquial VD2f: Explain the three functions

xiv
language and slang. of academic language: to describe VD3e: Determine words or VD4e: Identify common categories
complexity, to describe higher expressions with part-whole of clines that are useful in learning
VD1f: Use appropriate idiomatic order thinking, and to describe (partitive) relations. vocabulary in specific fields.
expressions in a variety of basic abstraction.
interpersonal communicative VD3f: Devise categories and sub- VD4f: Create or expand word clines.
situations. VD3f: Devise categories and sub- categories to cluster ideas.
categories to cluster ideas. VD4g: Explain how analogies and
VD1g: Select an appropriate VD3g: Use a variety of semantic clines enrich one’s vocabulary.
familiar, colloquial, or idiomatic VD3g: Use a variety of semantic organizers to show categorization
word or expression as a substitute organizers to show categorization and clustering of words or
for another word or expression. and clustering of words or expressions.
expressions.
VD1h: Explain why familiar,
colloquial, and idiomatic
expressions are used more often in
oral communication.

High/ Create three versions of a written or spoken passage showing shifts in purpose, level of formality, and vocabulary
PSLCH Independent load.
Average/ Convert a written or spoken passage into a version that shows shift in purpose, level of formality, and vocabulary
PERFORMANCE STANDARD PSLCA Instructional load.
Provide a word or expression that is a more appropriate substitute for another given the purpose and level of
PSLCL Low/Frustration
formality.
CONTENT STANDARD FIRST QUARTER SECOND QUARTER THIRD QUARTER FOURTH QUARTER
RC1: Engage in becoming RC2: Engage in becoming RC3: Engage in becoming RC4: Engage in becoming
familiar with, appreciative familiar with, appreciative familiar with, appreciative familiar with, appreciative
of, and critical towards the of, and critical towards the of, and critical towards the of, and critical towards the
backgrounds, features, and backgrounds, features, and backgrounds, features, and backgrounds, features, and
sample translated texts of sample texts of Philippine sample texts of Philippine sample texts of Philippine
Philippine folk literature and literature in English during literature in English during the literature in English during
other parallel selections. the Apprenticeship Period and Emergence Period and other the Modern Period and other
other parallel selections. parallel selections. parallel selections.

RC1a: Use predictive and RC2a: Use predictive and RC3a: Use predictive and RC4a: Use predictive and
anticipatory devices/tasks to anticipatory devices/tasks to anticipatory devices/tasks to anticipatory devices/tasks to
activate prior knowledge about the activate prior knowledge about the activate prior knowledge about the activate prior knowledge about the
topic of reading/viewing selection. topic of reading/viewing selection. topic of reading/viewing selection. topic of reading/viewing selection.

RC1b: Use information presented RC2b: Use information presented in RC3b: Use information presented RC4b: Use information presented
in a reading or viewing selection to a reading or viewing selection to in a reading or viewing selection to in a reading or viewing selection to
infer, to evaluate, and to express infer, to evaluate, and to express infer, to evaluate, and to express infer, to evaluate, and to express
RC: Reading Comprehension critical ideas. critical ideas. critical ideas. critical ideas.

RC1c: Determine the relevance and RC2c: Determine the relevance and RC3c: Determine the relevance and RC4c: Determine the relevance and
unity of the elements of a literary unity of the elements of a literary unity of the elements of a literary unity of the elements of a literary
text vis-à-vis its intended purpose text vis-à-vis its intended purpose text vis-à-vis its intended purpose text vis-à-vis its intended purpose

xv
and production milieu. and production milieu. and production milieu. and production milieu.

RC1d: Determine the validity and RC2d: Determine the validity and RC3d: Determine the validity and RC4d: Determine the validity and
unity of the details of a parallel unity of the details of a parallel unity of the details of a parallel unity of the details of a parallel
informative text vis-à-vis its informative text vis-à-vis its informative text vis-à-vis its informative text vis-à-vis its
intended purpose and production intended purpose and production intended purpose and production intended purpose and production
milieu. milieu. milieu. milieu.

RC1e: Respond to ideas, issues, and RC2e: Respond to ideas, issues, and RC3e: Respond to ideas, issues, and RC4e: Respond to ideas, issues, and
concerns presented in a reading or concerns presented in a reading or concerns presented in a reading or concerns presented in a reading or
viewing selection in creative forms. viewing selection in creative forms. viewing selection in creative forms. viewing selection in creative forms.

High/ Compile a series of four texts representing the development periods of Philippine literature and relate each to an
PSLCH Independent informative text to discuss in a personally preferred format a chosen theme expressive of a social issue or concern.

Average/ Compare and contrast a series of four texts representing the development periods of Philippine literature to discuss
PERFORMANCE STANDARD PSLCA Instructional in a personally preferred format a chosen theme expressive of a social issue or concern.

Compare and contrast a pair of texts consisting of a representative text of development period of Philippine
PSLCL Low/Frustration literature and a parallel informative text to discuss in a personally preferred format a chosen theme expressive of a
social issue or concern.
CONTENT STANDARD FIRST QUARTER SECOND QUARTER THIRD QUARTER FOURTH QUARTER
WC1: Distinguish between WC2: Compose short personal WC3: Organize information into WC4: Use persuasive devices to
oral and written modes of narrative texts using short written discourse using express opinion and to construct
language use with emphasis appropriate literary and appropriate literary and cohesive basic mass communication
on their exclusive features and cohesive devices. devices. materials.
properties.

WC1a: Identify the exclusive WC2a: Identify features of narrative WC3a: Identify features and basic WC4a: Formulate a statement of opinion
features and properties of oral writing. types of short written personal essays. or assertion.
language.
WC2b: Distinguish between and WC3b: Distinguish between and among WC4b: Distinguish between and among
WC1b: Identify the exclusive among a journal entry, an anecdote, a capsule biography, biographical the three categories of persuasive
features and properties of written a travelogue, a personal letter, and sketch, and feature article. strategies: pathos, logos, and ethos.
language. a blog entry.
WC3c: Organize information gathered WC4c: Identify elements and features of
WC1c: Distinguish the features of WC2c: Compose a series of journal from primary and secondary sources print, radio, and TV ads and campaigns.
literary and academic writing. entries. using a graphic organizer.
WC4d: Use basic persuasion techniques
WC1d: Enumerate the common WC2d: Compose an anecdote WC3d: Organize information gathered to create a print ad and campaign:
purposes for writing. based on a significant personal from primary and secondary sources association, bandwagon, testimonials,
WC: Writing and experience. using a simple topic outline. fear, humor, bribery, intensity, and
Composition WC1e: Recognize the parts of a repetition.
simple paragraph based on writing WD2e: Compose a travelogue. WC3e: Compose a capsule biography of
WC4e: Use intermediate persuasion

xvi
purpose. a person interviewed.
WD2f: Compose a personal letter to techniques to create a radio ad and
WC1f: Follow steps in crafting a a friend, relative, and other people. WC3f: Compose a biographical sketch campaign script: glittering generalities,
simple paragraph of five to seven of an interviewed person whose name-calling, flattery, scientific evidence,
sentences. WC2g: Compose and upload a blog backgrounds were also researched. rhetorical questions, simple solution, and
entry based on a particular personal slippery slope.
WC1g: Retell a chosen myth or topic of interest. WC3g: Compose a feature article based
legend in a series of three five-to- on a personally selected topic. WC4f: Use advanced persuasion
seven-sentence paragraphs. WC2h: Revise a piece of narrative techniques to compose a TV ad script and
writing in terms of content, style, WC3h: Revise a piece of short personal to produce its corresponding commercial:
WC1h: Revise a series of simple and mechanics collaboratively and writing in terms of content, style, analogy, card-stacking, red herring or
paragraphs in terms of content, independently. and mechanics collaboratively and diversion, majority belief, and timing
style, and mechanics collaboratively independently.
and independently. WC4g: Revise the written components of
a persuasive material in terms of content,
style, and mechanics collaboratively and
independently.

High/ Create a set of advocacy campaign materials consisting of a variety of short narrative and basic mass communication
PSLCH Independent materials.
PERFORMANCE Average/
STANDARD PSLCA Compose a simple narrative text or a basic mass communication material revolving on a particular personal advocacy.
Instructional
PSLCL Low/Frustration Create a paragraph or a series of paragraphs using a model.
CONTENT STANDARD FIRST QUARTER SECOND QUARTER THIRD QUARTER FOURTH QUARTER
GS1: Formulate grammatically GS2: Expand grammatically GS3: Formulate meaningful and GS4: Use simplified and
correct sentences. correct sentences. grammatically correct speech grammatically correct
forms. expressions.

GS1a: Observe rules on subject-verb GS2a: Use correct determiners. GS3a: Formulate meaningful GS4a: Observe proper tense
agreement. question forms. simplification rules.
GS2b: Use varied noun
GS1b: Observe consistent tense. complementation forms. GS3b: Formulate meaningful short GS4b: Use appropriate auxiliary and
answers. modal verbs.
GS1c: Observe rules on pronoun- GS2c: Use varied verb
antecedent agreement. complementation forms. GS3c: Formulate meaningful reply GS4c: Use persuasive language
GS: Grammar Awareness questions. forms or expressions.
and Structure GS1d: Formulate correct simple GS2d: Formulate meaningful kernel
sentences. GS3d: Formulate direct speech GS4d: Use varied adjective
sentences.
forms. complementation forms.
GS2e: Formulate embedded
GS1e: Formulate compound
sentences. GS3e: Formulate reported speech
sentences.
forms.
GS2f: Employ a variety of cohesive
devices in composing short personal GS3f: Employ a variety of cohesive
narratives. devices in composing short written
personal discourse.

xvii
High/ Compose a series of grammatically correct, meaningful, and related expressions in extended narrative, informative,
PSLCH Independent or persuasive discourse forms in light of a specific purpose and intended audience.
Average/
PERFORMANCE STANDARD PSLCA Compose a series of grammatically correct, meaningful, and related expressions in short paragraphs.
Instructional

PSLCL Low/Frustration Compose grammatically correct discrete expressions and sentences.


CONTENT STANDARD FIRST QUARTER SECOND QUARTER THIRD QUARTER FOURTH QUARTER
AT1: Ask sensible questions on his or her own initiative.

AT2: Express a different opinion without being difficult.


AT: Attitude
AT3: Give credence to well thought-out ideas.

AT4: Set new goals for learning on the basis of self-assessment made.
High/ Articulate specific answers, questions, suggestions, and goals in oral and written ways in both rehearsed/structured
PSLCH Independent and unrehearsed/spontaneous opportunities.
Average/
PERFORMANCE STANDARD PSLCA Express specific answers, questions, and suggestions in rehearsed and structured opportunities.
Instructional

PSLCL Low/Frustration Participate in class discussions and activities only when called or specifically prompted to do so.

xviii
CONTENT STANDARD FIRST QUARTER SECOND QUARTER THIRD QUARTER FOURTH QUARTER
SS1: Use appropriate SS2: Distinguish between SS3: Select appropriate SS4: Support an assertion,
mechanisms/tools in the primary and secondary primary and secondary validate assumptions, and
library for locating resources. information sources. information sources related to draw conclusions using
a particular topic. primary and secondary
sources.
SS1a: Recognize the features SS2a: Identify the features of SS3a: Formulate an inquiry map SS4a: Formulate an inquiry outline
and codes of the school’s library primary information sources. concerning a particular topic. concerning an assertion.
catalogue system (typically the
Dewey Decimal System). SS2b: Identify the features of SS3b: Prepare a list of available SS4b: Locate primary and secondary
secondary information sources. primary and secondary information information sources related
SS1b: Use the card catalogue, the sources concerning a particular to assumptions concerning an
online public access catalogue, or SS2c: Follow protocols in electronic topic. assertion.
electronic search engine to locate search engines to limit the
information search process. SS3c: Formulate a bibliographical SS4c: Prepare an expanded reference
specific resources.
SS: Study Strategies entry according to the type of list in which primary and secondary
SS2d: Distinguish between credible information source. information sources that support an
SS1c: Recognize the various sections
and incredible electronic information assertion or validate an assumption
of the library. sources. SS3d: Prepare a bibliography are shown.
SS1d: Use the special collections in showing a balanced list of primary
SS2e: Explain the value of using and secondary information sources. SS4d: Use direct quotations and
the library such as archives, vertical more primary information sources in
files, and electronic databases to restatements based on information
an inquiry process. SS3e: Use direct quotations from sources to expand a written output.
locate information. information sources to expand a

xix
written output.
SS1e: Accomplish the appropriate
library forms to locate, process, and
document resource information.

High/
PSLCH Cite appropriate information from a source to support an assertion, validate
Independent
Average/
PERFORMANCE STANDARD PSLCA Create a relevant reference list for a particular topic of inquiry.
Instructional
Compose grammatically correct discrete expressions and sentenc Access the appropriate section and information
PSLCL Low/Frustration
search mechanisms/structures in the library.
table of contents

Listening/ Study and Writing/


Readings/Literature Vocabulary Speaking Grammar
Viewing Research Performance

Lesson 1 • How the World Began; Drawing a Time- Using Context Processing Using Intonation Developing Good • Differentiating the Writing a Myth
line; Interpreting Character Clues Rapid Speech and Pitch Correctly Study Sentence from (pp. 29-30)
Tracing Our pp. 7-10 p. 14 pp. 16-17 Habits; Using the Sentence
• Questions Tracing Origin
Ancestral Roots • Housewarming Song; Using Figurative SQ3R Fragment
• Sentences
Language • Intro Phrase • Informational • Recognizing Sub-
What does Philippine an- pp. 11-14 ject and Predicate
• Listing Text: The Many
cient literature tell us about • Using Compound
our ancestors and their • Rhetorical Legends and *Rubric Assisted
Sentences Myths in the Subject and pp. 21-23
society?
pp. 15-16 Philippines Compound
pp. 14-15 Predicate
pp. 18-21
pp. 2-23

Lesson 2 • Indarapatra and Sulayman; Interpreting Using Appreciating Reading a Play • Getting Ac- • Kinds of Sen- Writing a Script
Character Synonyms a Play quainted with tences According
Encountering and • Excerpt from Writing a Script
pp. 29-31 p. 35 p. 36 the Library to Purpose
Busman’s Holiday for Dramatic
Becoming Heroes • Ibalon; Identifying Conflict and Suspense • Getting Ac- • Kinds of Sen-
p. 36 Presentation
pp. 31-33 quainted with a tences According
What do epics embody? • Love Dawns on Lam-ang; More on Inter- Card Catalogue to
Are they just adventure sto- preting Character pp. 36-37 Structure
ries to be excited about or
pp. 33-35 pp. 37-41

xx
do they convey something *Rubric Assisted
deeper? • Informational Text: A CNN Hero Started pp. 41-42
with a Pushcart Full of Hope

pp. 24-42

Lesson 3 • Ibong Adarna Part I; Predicting an Out- Using Words Summarizing Expressing Recognizing Types Using Correct Writing a Differ-
come with Multiple a Biography Encouragement of Readings Subject-Verb ent Ending
Revisiting Our Ances- pp. 46-48 Meanings p. 55 p. 56 Agreement
• Informational Writing a
tors’ Mission • Ibong Adarna Part II; Identifying Elements p. 54 pp. 56-57
Text: The Different Ending
of a Short Story Spanish Era in
Why are literary pieces of pp. 48-52 the Philippines
different genres written? • The Man; Understanding Paradox
What purpose do they serve p. 56
pp. 52-54 *Rubric Assisted
humanity?
• Informational Text: Why we should not pp. 57-58
celebrate Philippine Independence Day
pp. 43-58

Lesson 4 • The True Decalogue; Using Deductive Using Idioms Geting the • Making an Apol- Studying Parts of Using Correct Writing Idioms
Reasoning pp. 69-70 Main Idea ogy the Book Pronoun-Anteced-
Imbibing the Nation- Idiom Story
pp. 63-65 pp. 70-71 • Saying Words p. 72 ent Agreement
Writing
alistic Spirit • My Last Farewell; Recognizing Apostrophe Correctly pp. 72-73
pp. 65-67 pp. 71-72
How effective is literature in • El Filibusterismo; Predicting an Ending
influencing national reform? pp. 67-69 *Rubric Assisted
• Informational Text: Remembering EDSA
pp. 59-74 Unit Learning
People Power Revolution
Assessment
pp. 73-74

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature


Listening/ Study and Writing/
Readings/Literature Vocabulary Speaking Grammar
Viewing Research Performance

Lesson 5 • The Return; Making Inferences; Using Imagery Recognizing Sensing Rhythm Using the Index • Using the Writing Verses
Visualizing Setting pp. 84-85 Metaphors in Poetry p. 87 Intransitive Verb Joining a Poetry
Meeting Halfway pp. 80-81 pp. 85-86 pp. 86-87 • Using the Transitive Verb Festival
• The Rhymes; Identifying and • Using the Indirect Object
What can make literature
Creating Metaphors • Informational Text: Thomasites
interesting and
pp. 81-84
memorable? pp. 87-92 *Rubric Assisted
pp. 92-93
pp. 75-93

Lesson 6 • Silent Trails; Interpreting Personi- Using the Spotting for Asking/Answer- Using Reference Using the Objective Complement Writing an Essay
fication Right Word Bias ing Questions Materials pp. 107-108
Blending Traditions Writing an Essay
pp. 98-100 p. 104 p. 105 Intelligently pp. 106-107
and Innovations • Dahong Palay; Noting Foreshad- p. 106
What can the integration of owing Devices
classical influences pp. 100-102 *Rubric Assisted
and new styles of writing • What Is an Educated Filipino?; pp. 108-109
do to literature? Studying an Essay
pp. 102-104
pp. 94-109 • Informational Text: People and
People

xxi
Lesson 7 • My Father’s Tragedy; Identifying Learning More Identifying Distinguishing /s/ Using an Ency- • Recognizing Nouns Through Achieving Hu-
Irony about Similes the Punch from /z/ clopedia Noun mor in Writing
Emerging Achievers pp. 115-116 pp. 119-120 Line in a Joke p. 121 pp. 121-122 Signalling Devices an Anecdote
What can make us excel • God Said , “I Made a Man”; p. 120
• Recognizing Other Noun Signal- Writing and
in what we do? Why do Understanding Symbols in Telling an
we need to strive for ling Devices
Literature Anecdote
excellence? pp. 117-119 • Using A and An Correctly

pp. 110-125 • Informational Text: Philippines:


The Irony of the Orient *Rubric Assisted
pp. 122-124 pp. 124-125

Lesson 8 • The Good Fight; Identifying the Recognizing Relaying Pronouncing Learning to Use • Capitalizing Proper Nouns Writing an
Elements of an Autobiography Connotation Information Words with /i/ a Dictionary • Using Mass Nouns and Count Autobiography
Fighting pp. 130-132 p. 136 pp. 136-137 and /I/ pp. 138-139 Nouns Writing an
for Freedom • Last Man off Bataan; Interpret- p. 137 • Using the Correct Noun Autobiography
ing Mood pp. 139-141
Why fight for freedom? pp. 132-134
What does freedom bring • The March of Death; Reviewing
a person or a country? *Rubric Assisted
the Apostrophe
pp. 126-142 pp. 134-136 Unit Learning
Assessment
pp. 141-142

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emrgence


Listening/ Study and Writing/
Readings/Literature Vocabulary Speaking Grammar
Viewing Research Performance

Lesson 9 • We Filipinos Are Mild Drinkers; Recognizing Reacting to a Pronouncing Getting Infor- • Formulating Meaningful Kernel Taking Down
Recognizing Point of View; Homonyms Discussion Final Sounds mation from a Sentences Notes
Wallowing in Freedom Recognizing Local Color pp. 155-156 p. 156 Distinctly Newspaper • Formulating Embedded Sen- Writing a
pp. 148-152 p. 156 p. 157 tences
What effect does freedom Reaction Paper
• The Land and The Rain; Identify- • Informational Text: The Filipino-
have on people and
ing Conflict American Friendship Day
nation?
pp. 153-155 pp. 157-159
*Rubric Assisted
pp. 143-161 pp. 159-161

Lesson 10 • May Day Eve; Recognizing Using Com- Identifying Conducting an Locating Places Forming Plural of Nouns; Capital- Writing to Give
Flashback pound Words Cause-Effect Interview Through Maps izing Proper Nouns a Message
Immersing in a pp. 167-171 and Blended Relationship p. 175 p. 176 pp. 176-178
Coducting an
Changed Life • Prayer of a Student; Reading a Words by Noting
Interview
Poem pp. 173-174 Signals of
What may chart new
pp. 171-173 Causality
direction in our lives?
pp. 174-175
*Rubric Assisted
pp. 162-179
pp. 178-179

Lesson 11 • When He Walks into the Room; Using Idi- Noting Acting Out a Play Following Street Using Rejoinders Writing an
Learning about Free Verse and omatic Significant pp. 187-188 Signs and Other pp. 188-189 Explanation; Us-
Getting Real

xxii
some Poetical Devices Expressions Details Signs ing Transitional
Is reality reflected in pp. 183-185 Again p. 187 p. 188 Devices
literature? • New Yorker in Tondo; Studying pp. 186-187
Writing a
the Elements of a Play; Reading Paragraph of
pp. 180-190 a Satire Explanation
pp. 185-186
• Informational Text: Willie Nep
made my day
*Rubric Assisted
pp. 189-190

Lesson 12 • Song of the Teargassed Man; Inferring the Expressing a Giving a Report Getting Infor- Using Direct and Reported Speech Utilizing Infor-
More on Identifying Irony Meaning of Reaction pp. 199-200 mation from pp. 201-202 mation Taken
Elevating Creative pp. 194-196 Compound p. 199 Diagrams; from Diagrams
Expression • The Untouchable Trees; Learn- Words Learning from and Charts
ing about the Essay; p. 199 Charts
How do writers make Oral Presenta-
pp. 196-199 pp. 200-201
their poems or stories tion Using
interesting to read? Diagrams and
Charts
pp. 191-203

*Rubric Assisted
Unit Learning
Assessment
pp. 202-203

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development


Listening/ Study and Writing/
Readings/Literature Vocabulary Speaking Grammar
Viewing Research Performance

Lesson 13 • Tartanilla; Learning about Ono- Recognizing Gathering Reading Poetry Reading a Table • Using Adjectives Plotting Infor-
matopeia Words Taken Information Aloud pp. 217-218 • The Positions and Functions of mation on a
Valuing pp. 209-211 from Mythol- from Radio pp. 216-217 Adjectives Table
Treasured Memories • i apologize, ogy and Televi- • Comparing Adjectives Presenting
waling waling; Finding Mes- pp. 214-215 sion
How do treasured • Recognizing Adjective Endings Survey Results
sages in Poetry; Learning Again p. 216
memories affect present- • Making Clear and Correct Com-
day relationship? about Free Verse
parisons
pp. 211-214
• Informational Text: A Glass of *Rubric Assisted
pp. 204-223 Milk – Paid in Full p. 223
pp. 218-223

Lesson 14 • Penmanship; Learning about Two-Word Tuning in to Participating in a Reading Graphs Using Adverbs; Comparing Ad- Writing a
Stream of Consciousness Verbs with a Program Panel Discussion p. 232 verbs; Using Negatives Correctly Paragraph of
Seeing New Perspec- pp. 229-230 Multiple on Current pp. 231-232 pp. 232-234 Comparison
tive Meanings Issues
Writing a
pp. 230-231 p. 231
What do we gain when we Comparison
consider looking at things Paragraph
from other perspectives?

pp. 224-235
*Rubric Assisted

xxiii
pp. 234-235

Lesson 15 • The Folk Devotion to Black Using Vivid Listening or Giving Interesting Exploring the • Recognizing Word Group Modi- Writing a Per-
Nazarene; Kinds of Essay Expressions Viewing Well Talks Internet fiers suasive Essay
Appreciating Customs pp. 240-241 pp. 241-242 pp. 242-244 p. 244 pp. 244-245 • Using Word Group Modifiers as Writing a
and Traditions Adjectives or Adverbs Persuasive
What effects do customs • Using Prepositions Correctly Speech
and traditions have on pp. 245-247
the present mode of living?
*Rubric Assisted
pp. 236-247
p. 247

Lesson 16 • Busman’s Holiday; Understand- Learning More Identifying Expressing Outlining • Using the Simple Past Supporting an
ing Allusions; Supporting an Idiomatic the Stand Disagreement to pp. 254-256 • The Future Tense Opinion
Exploring the Contem- Opinion Expressions of Speaker Statements and • The Present Perfect Tense Coducting a
porary Scene pp. 251-253 p. 253 Based on Observations
• Expressing Future Possible Action Mock Debate
Explicit State- p. 254
What may be done to make • Using Appropriate Auxiliary and
ments Made
opinions matter? Modal Verbs
pp. 253-254
pp. 256-261 *Rubric Assisted
pp. 248-261
Unit Learning
Assessment
p. 261

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature


xxiv
xxv
I the period of ancient literature

  Why study ancient literature?

  Ancient literature plays a significant role in charting a person’s


life or a nation’s development.

Lesson 1 Tracing Our Ancestral Roots

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Early Philippine narratives reflect our Write a myth.
ancestors’ efforts to explain the origin of
things and show the culture and beliefs Essential Questions
of their society.
What essential questions will be asked?
2. A time line helps one organize data or
1. What does ancient literature tell us about
information chronologically; thus, it
our ancestors and their society?
guides one to think clearly and systemati-
cally. 2. How may events in a story be presented?

3. Interpreting character traits helps one 3. What embodies or makes up literature?


understand why other people behave the 4. How can the interpretation of character
way they do. traits foster better understanding of the
4. Literature embodies the Filipinos’ rich story?
cultural heritage, foreign influences, 5. How can we make written or spoken
inherent customs, beliefs, and traditions language more interesting and
that have shaped our past and shall form memorable?
part our future.
5. Written or spoken language is made vivid
through the use of figures speech.

2  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


6. Good study habits are acquired through 6. What brings forth good study habits?
repeated acts. 7. Why use SQ3R?
7. Using SQ3R helps one set study goals. 8. What makes an oral retelling of a story
8. Oral retelling is also an effective way to effective? How does one retell a story and
pass on a story from generation to gener- make it memorable?
ation. 9. What happens when you listen well?
9. Listening well helps one process rapid 10. What happens if we read a myth or story
speech. whose thoughts are not finished?
10. Thoughts written in complete sentences
make speech or writing clear.

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:


1. the difference between a legend and a 1. answer comprehension questions substan-
myth. tially.
2. how to sequence events. 2. draw a time line to show chronological
3. the various ways to interpret a character. order of events.

4. figurative language. 3. interpret a character.

5. the meaning of words using context 4. arrange events chronologically.


clues. 5. use a figurative language.
6. how to develop good study habits. 6. use context clues.
7. how to use SQ3R. 7. recognize good study habits.
8. the use of intonation and pitch. 8. use SQ3R.
9. how to listen to get the message of the 9. use intonation and pitch correctly.
story. 10. process rapid speech.
10. the difference between a sentence and a 11. restate a commentary.
sentence fragment.
12. differentiate the sentence from the
11. what a subject and a predicate are. sentence fragment.
12. what a compound subject and a 13. identify the compound and compound
compound predicate are. predicate in a sentence.
13. how to write a myth. 14. write a myth.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  3


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence
Performance Task

You have been chosen to represent your school in the search for the Best Written Myth for all
the secondary schools in your place. This search, which aims to enliven Philippine culture and
heritage, is sponsored by the National Commission for Culture and Arts (NCCA). Hence, you
are tasked to explain a natural phenomenon like the origin of your hometown or any place, a
plant, a flower, an animal, an insect, a shape, a color, etc. Also, create a time line of important
events in your myth. School principals from the participating schools and NCAA members
may judge your myth according to the standards below.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Myth

CRITERIA/ 2 - Work Could 1 - Something


4 - Excellent 3 - Strong
SCORE Improve Is Missing

Theme Theme is clear. Theme is Theme is not Theme is not


There is a somewhat really clear. present at all.
clear theme clear. There There is an There is no
that follows is a generally unclear theme clear theme
a creation or clear theme that follows that follows
explanation that follows a creation or a creation or
myth form. a creation or explanation explanation
explanation myth form. myth form.
myth form.

Organization Well-ordered Sentences Some parts do Topic and story


sentences keep to the not keep to are confusing
(beginning, topic, but the the topic. for the reader.
middle, and order is weak.
end) keep to
the topic.

Supporting Exciting Some details Details are Topic and story


Details details make help the not enough are confusing
the reader reader under- to help the for the reader.
“picture” the stand what is reader under-
scene. going on. stand the
story.

4  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Conventions Spelling, Spelling, Spelling, Spelling,
grammar, and grammar, grammar, grammar, and
punctuation and punctu- and punctu- punctuation
are correct. ation are ation contain contain many
Presentation is mostly correct. many errors. errors. Presen-
neat and well Presentation is Presentation tation is not
illustrated. neat and well is somewhat neat and is
illustrated. neat but poorly or not
poorly illus- at all illus-
trated. trated.

Source: http://www.rcampus.com/rubricshowc.cfm?code=D457X3&sp=yes&

Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based upon the ability to
generate and answer high-level questions about the prereading activities and Sharing
Insights of How the World Began, Housewarming Song, The Many Legends and Myths in
the Philippines
2. Chronological arrangement of events of the fable The Monkey and the Crocodile
3. Written character traits of interpreted characters
4. Exercises on figures of speech
5. Vocabulary exercises on using context clues
6. Prepared grid showing budget of one’s study time
7. Practice exercise on the use of SQ3R
8. Speech improvement exercises on using correct intonation and pitch
9. Comprehensive discussion to comprehension questions from listening and viewing texts
10. Grammar exercises on distinguishing sentence and sentence fragment, recognizing
subject and predicate, and identifying compound subject and compound predicate

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ The students’ first days and first year in high school call for a time for teachers to prepare
their students for the new experiences. Give them a bird’s eye view of what may life in the
high school be. Allow them opportunities to share their views, feelings, and expectations.
➲ Explain in detail where they are headed as they start. Lay down ground rules for success
in academics.
➲ Having done an orientation of your class rules, expectations, and routine, proceed to a
speaking activity. Introduction of self by both teachers and students may be helpful in

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  5


establishing rapport and camaraderie. Have them introduce themselves to the whole class
extemporaneously to help them break their shells and feel more comfortable with one
another. Then, segue to the lesson on using intonation and pitch correctly found on pages
21-22. Have them read the section, and do the exercise on page 22.
➲ After the self-introduction speaking activities, invite the students to study the illustrations
on pages 2-3, and allow them to discuss what they think about the title and figure. Then,
let them share their understanding of the big idea: OUR GLORIOUS PAST.
➲ Once the students have shared their thoughts, explain in detail what may be expected in
Unit I, where they are headed and why they are going there. Give them the overview
as an explanation. Then, have them read the unit introduction.
➲ This unit helps the students understand the rich cultural heritage of the Filipinos in lit-
erature which had evolved from foreign influences such as Chinese, Arabs, Persians, and
Spanish, among others. Primarily, the development of Philippine literature took its roots
from literary pieces of long ago.
➲ Tell the students to read through the section Learning Objectives so they know what they
can expect to do in the first lesson of the unit, which includes reading and analyzing early
Philippine literature and writing a myth as a culminating task. Inform them how they will
be evaluated for this culminating activity. Refer them to the rubric on page 33 for self and
peer assessment. Facilitate a discussion on how the rubric will be used.
➲ Have the students read the lesson introduction and its illustration. Ask them what they
know about pre-Spanish literature. Ask them what the illustration suggests. Discuss with
them the background.
➲ Provide the students opportunities to experience the key ideas and explore understanding
by doing the activities that follow.

overview

The rich indigenous literature of the Philippines developed primarily in the oral tradition in
poetic and narrative forms and these were enriched by contacts of the Filipinos with Asians
and other foreign traders. Epic poems, riddles, proverbs, songs, and legends were handed down
from generation to generation through incantation and oral recitation in diverse dialect and
language of the islands. Of these early literary forms, the epics were the most complex. Most
of the major indigents came up with an original epic that was chanted in episodic segments
during the display of social rituals. The epics that have survived are vital records of the ancient
customs of tribal society before the Spaniards came.

Background

Filipinos can claim of having a rich literature even before the Spaniards came. Early Philippine
literature is the product of our ancestors’ traditions, beliefs, and customs. These were interwo-
ven with the influences brought about by the contact of early Filipinos with the Chinese, Arab,

6  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Indonesian, and other foreign traders. Ancient Philippine literature is composed of poems,
riddles, and tales. These, the early Filipinos were fond of reciting and narrating in occasions
such as feasts, weddings, mournings, and others. Their poems, sometimes sung or chanted,
echoed such themes as love, wisdom, devotion to their gods, admiration of their rulers, and
others. It is also notable that they developed certain ways of versification which they employed
in their poems. Riddles were also very common to early Filipinos. Guessing the answers of the
riddles was a usual pastime. Tales, in the form of legends, fables and myths, also interested
them. These tales dealt with the origins of things around them, as well as on morals and certain
customs of the time.

A. Reading 1: How the World Began, Retold, pp. 5-6


1. Ask EQ #1. Such overarching essential question aims at developing students’ under-
standing on how our ancestors lived their past that helps shape their beliefs. Prompt
them with the following:
• What can we learn about our ancestors from this story?
• Why did our ancestors pass on these stories anyway?
Entertain as many possible stories that include informing readers about how the world
began. Have them tell whether or not these stories are true. Encourage them to support
their opinions. Stress that myths and legends have no scientific basis. They were only
made up by the people of long ago to explain the phenomena around them, for at that
time, there were no scientists and scientific instruments yet.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Have the students read and answer the questions in Unveil What You Know.
b. Add to the students’ prior knowledge by letting them read the sections For Your
Information and Understand Literary Background. Ask them to cite some Philip-
pine ethnic groups, e.g., Manobos, Maranaos, Ifugaos, etc.
c. Preview the students the vocabulary expressions listed in Unlock the Meaning of
Words. Tell them that they need to read the story to get the meaning of the words
in context. They may have used the same strategy in the past but activate their prior
knowledge on using context clues. Refer them to the section on Vocabulary: Using
Context Clues on page 16 (see F for instructional procedures). Then, let students
do the section Unlock the Meaning of Words after reading the selection prior to
discussing the answers to the questions in the section Sharing Insights.
d. Make the students aware that they will read a creation story. Direct their attention
to the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading to make the students aware of
what to look out for, as they read the story.
3. Ask the students to do silent reading of the text. The students may be divided into
three groups; each one to focus on a particular character of the story. Then, let each
discuss in the group the characteristics, the role of the assigned character, and how each
contributes to the development of the plot. Make sure that they weave these pieces of
information to foster understanding of the entire story.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  7


4. After checking on the students’ comprehension of the vocabulary expressions, let
students talk about their understanding of the story in the section Sharing Insights.
5. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students what this narrative tells them about our ancestors, their
society, and their beliefs. Instruct students to justify their inferences and conclusions
with details from the story. Elicit EU #1

  Early Philippine narratives reflect our ancestors’ efforts to


explain the origin of things and show the culture and beliefs of
their society.

  What does ancient literature tell us about our


ancestors and their society?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. a small circular space of great brightness
2. Makabughaw’s flapping of his wings
3. because the soil was underneath the ten-headed Dadanyahan
4. by swooping into Dadanyahan’s mouths and diving right through him
5. through Dadanyahan’s ten-drooling mouths, Magbabaya blessed Dadanyahan’s
saliva to become rain, the water that washed over the earth … vegetation
began to sprout and grow
6. sticky clay, wood, rattan, water; the huge garden needed someone to take
care of it (as steward/caretaker)
7. to act as guardians of the soil, water and marine life, the plants, forests, and
creatures of the forest
8. Magbabaya— compassionate (he took pity on Makabughaw); Dadanyahan—
meddling/disobedient (“Left alone with the figures, he couldn’t help touching
them up the way he thought they should look.”); Makabughaw— the peace-
maker (“tried to arbitrate”)
9-11. Responses may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Drawing a Time Line, p. 7


1. Ask students to analyze the structure of the story. In connection to this, pose EQ # 2
which is topical in nature, that is, related to the topic at hand.
2. Let the students recall the folktale How the World Began. Ask them to comment on the
arrangement of the events. Conduct an interactive discussion of their raised points.
Ask the students why narratives usually arrange events chronologically. Ask them what
would happen if they read a story whose events were not arranged chronologically. Ask
them when it is desirable to order events chronologically in a narrative and when it is

8  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


not desirable. Ask them to read the section on page 7. Then, have them do the exercise
on page 8. Their time line would be similar to the one that follows:
3. Return to EQ #2. Extract from students the significance of using a time line. Ask them
how such skill can help them write their myth. Lead them to realize Elicit EU #2.

Like the authors who use time line to present events in a chronological
order, the same strategy may be used by students to help them organize data
for a clear and systematic thinking.

  A time line helps one organize data or information


chronologically, thus, it guides one to think clearly and
systematically.

  How may events in a story be presented?

Possible Answer to the Exercise, p. 8


Time Line
1 2 3

•----------------------------------------------------•----------------------------------------------•----------------------------------------------
Monkey stands by the Monkey sees lazy crocodile, The frightened monkey offers
shore, wondering how to its mouth open, ready to get the crocodile to a place
get across a deep river. to seize him. where there are many monkeys,
as long as the crocodile
spares its life.

spares its life.

1 2 3

•----------------------------------------------------•----------------------------------------------•----------------------------------------------
Crocodile agrees and the Monkey jumps to land Crocodile realizes he has
monkey rides on its back and climbs up a tree. been tricked and vows to get

acroos the river. even.

MEDIA LITERACY ASSESSMENT


Parallel discussion with the soap operas they watch on TV. Have them
discuss the sequence of events in the nightly episode of the cited soap
opera.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  9


C. Literary Skill 2: Interpreting Character, p. 9
1. Ask EQ #3.
2. Instruct students to read the discussion on page 9 and to answer the questions in the
first three paragraphs. Process the students’ answers. Then, let them read through the
entire discussion.
3. Lead the students to realize that as in real life, the qualities of a story character be-
come known to the readers through the story character’s antics, lines or dialog, and
what other story characters say or think about that particular story character. Let the
students draw a parallelism to real life.
4. Have the students interpret the characters of Magbabaya, Dadanyahan, and Maka-
bughaw. Ask them to write their answers making their own web organizer.
5. Let them discuss their work with a partner.
6. Then, have one student or two share in the big group. Ask the students whether there
was a change in how they perceived the characters after completing this exercise. If
so, ask them to explain what caused the change.
7. Revisit EQ #3. Ask students how they interpreted the characters in the story. Elicit EU
#3.

  Written or spoken language is made vivid through the


use of figures of speech.

  How can the interpretation of character traits foster


better understanding of the story?

MEDIA LITERACY ASSESSMENT


As an exercise to help students identify character traits, instruct them to
access the Web link found in this lesson at i-learn.vibalpublishing.com.
Once they have accessed the link, instruct them to click Start to begin
the quiz; after which, they may go through the items. When students
finish the quiz, encourage them to share how they fared and to clarify
any misconceptions which might have been cleared through the quiz.

10  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


D. Reading 2: Housewarming Song, pp. 10-11
1. Develop students’ ability to examine what elements or components may be found in literary
pieces by posing EQ #4. Seek initial responses from the students. Ask them to mention
specific examples of literature. Lead them to mentioning legends or myths as examples of
literature.
2. Ask students to do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Have the students read and answer the questions in Unveil What You Know. Let
them classify the folk songs under the aspect of life each tells about; e.g., planting,
harvesting, housebuying, going off to war, etc.
b. Have the students add to their prior knowledge by letting them read the sections
For Your Information and Understand Literary Background. They may be asked to
give an example of each kind of folk song.
c. Ask students to take note of the vocabulary expressions listed in Unlock the Mean-
ing of Words, and look up for their meaning in context as they read the poem.
d. Make the students aware that they will study an ancient folk song. Direct their at-
tention to the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading to make the students
aware of what to look out for, as they read the poem.
3. Let students do an oral reading of the poem.
Follow standard procedure for reading a poem: first reading by the teacher, second read-
ing by the students and another reading by the students after the discussion of the answers to
the questions.
4. Let the students answer the questions in Sharing Insights.

For Question 4, answers may include blessing of each room of the house
to drive away evil spirits, bringing in San Francisco plants (named Kalipayan,
or happiness in the Leyte-Samar region) to bring happiness; planting so-
called“money trees” for prosperity, and others. Accept all answers to Question
6 as long as they are supported with relevant details.

5. Ask students to chart what they learned about early Filipinos through the two stories
that they read. Lead them to EU #4.

  Literature embodies the Filipinos’ rich cultural


heritage, foreign influences, inherent customs, beliefs, and
traditions that have shaped our past and shall form part our
future.

  What embodies or makes up literature?

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  11


Answers to Sharing Insights
1. comb, water, jar, candle
2. comb − to brush fine tangled thoughts − to straighten things out, to replace
negative with positive (anger-forgiveness) leading to peace, harmony, optimism
or hope; water in the earthen jar − cool heads, open (receptive to reason); candle
− for enlightenment
3. 2nd stanza: people in harmony no to anger and no to frowns! Yes to peace!); the
last two stanzas: ugly thoughts will not crowd the mind, make bright the faces of
the dwellers, make them see their errors or reason for understanding to be present
4. a. holy water sprinkled by the priest around the house and its inwards with the
family and guests holding lighted candles following the priest; family blessed
coins given to guests and all present; fellowship: partaking of prepared food
b. SIMILARITIES: the use of water and lighted candles
5. prosperity, positivity/hope, harmony, peace
6. Responses may vary.

E. Literary Skill 3: Using Figurative Language, pp. 12-15


1. Explain to students how early narratives and legends were passed on orally. They were told
from generation to generation, and remembered. It was only much later on that these stories
were written.
2. Present EQ # 5. Point out how our ancestors remembered spoken stories and passed
them on orally. Elicit opinions and make them defend their answers. Suggest the use
of vivid language to make written or spoken language more interesting.
3. Hook the students’ attention to reading silently and individually the opening section
on page 12. Let them study the examples of simile. Discuss with them the basics.
4. Let them explore their understanding by doing the exercise on page 13. Ask them to
give the objects of comparison and their similarities. Let them explain why.
5. Provide more of the basics by directing their attention to metaphor on page 14, and
ask them to study the section. Facilitate instruction and ask them to work with the
exercises on the same page. Let them discuss their answers.
6. Let the students explore more by studying personification on page 15. Have them show
their understanding by making them do the exercises. Ask them to share their answers.
7. Give repetition drills for mastery when needed. Show a list of figurative expressions,
and let them identify what kind each is.

Examples are:
A. Simile
1. a shout as loud as a carabao’s bellow
2. a star hanging like a jewel in space
3. a room that looks like the garbage dump

12  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


B. Metaphor
1. Morning is a sheet of paper to write on.
2. The continent is a giant spider web.
3. That beast of a concrete mixer sprawled on our narrow street.
C. Personification
1. the colors danced in the light
2. a tree that lifts its leafy arms to pray

8. Process what they learned about how figures of speech make language more vivid and
interesting. Elicit EU #5.

  Written or spoken language is made vivid through the


use of figures of speech.

  How can we make written or spoken language more


interesting and memorable?

Answers to Exercise on Simile, p. 13


1. eyelids as long as the feather’s edge and as black as the night; lips and cheeks as
blooming as a jasmine
2. gay and lovely poems spinning like dancers
3. sharp thoughts as warmless as the glacial sun; sitting alone like a frozen rock;
lonely as the deep glacial rivers
4. German submarines making their presence felt at night like silent, hungry sharks
5. silence dropping like a curtain

Answers to Exercises on Metaphor, p. 14


A. 1. The wind is compared to the trees; the moon with the seas; the road with
the purple moor.
2. The tall trees are the protectors of the mountains and forest.
3. The Philippines is worth dying for as manifested by noble heroes.
4. Word and village are compared for their quick spread. People in a village
spread rumors fast.
5. The power of the crowd and a group of policemen are of equal strength.
B. Possible answers
animal: an eagle soaring high to the achievement of dreams
plant: a pliant bamboo that manifests a strong character
blue: peace-loving person

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  13


Answers to Exercises on Personification, p. 15
Exercise A
1. moon rose lazily into the clear sky
2. staring nipa houses
3. flying shadows
4. laughing leaves; whispering wind
5. sun that forgot to die; lilies revived; dreaming dragonfly

Exercise B
1. the grumbling clock 5. a proud building
2. singing mosquitoes 6. languishing flower
3. cheerful rice stalks 7. industrious ants
4. lonely house 8. a day having tantrums

F. Vocabulary: Using Context Clues, p. 16


1. Lead students to explore the discussion section on page 16, and make them study the
examples given.
2. Let the students work on the 5-item exercise.
3. Check for understanding.

Answers to Exercise, p. 16
1. unsuspecting 4. covered platform
2. careful 5. went through
3. unfriendliness

G. Study and Research: Developing Good Study Habits; Using SQ3R, pp. 17-20
1. Segue: Explain to students that, as freshmen, they should already develop or maintain
good study habits. Ask students the following topical EQ #6 and #7.
2. Make a survey of the study habits of the students in your class using the following
questions:
a. How many hours do you devote to studying your lessons daily?
b. What is your most convenient time for studying?
c. Where do you study?
d. How do you budget your time for study?
e. What is your preferred learning style at home? Do you have to study with music?
or while watching TV?
3. Discuss with the students their answers. Have them compare their study habits with
the tips for studying on page 17.
4. Introduce SQ3R. Explain it using the information on pages 17-18.

14  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


5. Have the students use SQ3R in doing the exercise on pages 19-20.
6. Check answers. Then, go back to EQ #6 and #7. Let students relate how the experience
of using SQ3R help them in answering comprehension questions. Elicit EU #6 and #7.

  Good study habits are acquired through repeated acts.

  What brings forth good study habits?

  Using SQ3R helps one set study goals.

  Why use SQ3R?

Answers to Question 1:
Belief in many myhtological creatures: Aswang, Dila, Diwata and Engkanto, Kapre,
Sirena, Tikbalang, Siyokoy, Mambabarang, Tiyanak, and Duwende

Answers to Question 2:
Myth 1: Ancient people believed in one supreme God.
Myth 2: Creation of the world was the outcome of a struggle between hostile
forces.
Myth 3: The regional groups believed that the sky was low; the universe had many
layers where each of these was an abode to different kinds of being.
Myth 4: Floods happen to punish people for failing to do their God-given respon-
sibilities and observe God’s laws.
Myth 5: The Nabaloi believe that floods happen because of a woman’s negligence
to guard the river.
Legend explaining the natural phenomena: rains, rainbows, lightning and thunder,
and eclipse
Rains are tears streaming from a man who misses his lost wife or a Diwata throws
out water in the sky.
The rainbow is Bathala’s flower loving daughter cursed to stay on Earth; otherwise,
it is a road from the sky to Earth built by a man to meet his wife.
Lightning and thunder is a result of a God and a mortal woman getting married.
Eclipse results when a monster (e.g., snake, tarantula, or lion) swallows the moon.

H. Speaking: Using Intonation and Pitch Correctly, pp. 21-22


1. Pose topical EQ # 8. Elicit answers from students. Let them understand that in retelling a
story, using intonation and pitch correctly helps readers understand clearly what the speaker
relates.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  15


2. Then, ask students to share how they make friends. Ask also what they say when they
introduce themselves.
3. Have the students write some questions they would likely ask an acquaintance. Tell
them that engaging in an introduction exercise like in a retelling activity entails using
intonation and pitch correctly.
4. Ask the students to read the section on pages 21-22. Then, have them draw the intona-
tion lines on the questions they have written earlier to show how the questions should
be said.
5. Introduce to the students the concept of pitch. Then, have them study the pitch pat-
terns on page 22.
6. Have the students plot the intonation lines in the sentences to the given exercise. Then,
have the class read sentences 1-10 following the pitch lines. Correct any error. Then,
let students revisit EQ # 8. Elicit EU #8.

  Oral retelling is also an effective way to pass on a story


from generation to generation.

  What makes an oral retelling of a story effective? How


does one retell a story and make it memorable?

Answers to Exercise, p. 22
1. Good afternoon. 6. Come again.
2. I’m glad to see you. 7. Do you live here?
3. How are you? 8. How do you do?
4. We live upstairs. 9. I’d like to go out.
5. Here’s my house. 10. Thank you.

I. Listening/Viewing: Processing Rapid Speech, p. 23


1. Explain that our ancestors initially passed on their myths and legends not through
writing, but through oral retelling. Thus, because the stories were considered a cultural
heritage, the listeners had to pay close attention to the details and the message of the
stories.
2. Pose topical EQ #9. Entertain all possible answers, and process them. Then, prompt:
• Have you ever attended a storytelling festival?
Have the students realize that listening to storytellers entails listening to the
dialog of the characters; so, ask them how they listen to be able to process the rapid
speech of the characters. Let them share their ways.

16  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Origin of the World
In the beginning, Diwata made the sea and the land and planted trees
of many kinds. Then, he took two lumps of earth and shaped them like
human figures; then he spat on them, and they became man and woman.
The old man was called Tuglay and the old woman, Tuglibong. The two
were married and lived together. Then, Tuglay made a great house and
planted seeds of different kinds that Diwata gave him. Diwata made
the sun, the moon, the stars, and the rivers. First, he made the great eel
kasili, a fish that is like a snake in the river, and wound it all around the
world. Diwata then made the great crab, kayumang, and put it near the
great eel, and let it go wherever it liked. Now, when the great crab bites
the great eel, the eel wriggles and this produces an earthquake. When
the rain falls, it is Diwata throwing out water from the sky. When Di-
wata spits, the showers fall. The sun makes yellow clouds and the yellow
clouds make the colors of the rainbow. But the white clouds are smoke
from the fire of the gods.

Questions:
1. According to the legend, who created the world and everything in it?
(Diwata)
2. According to the legend, what causes an earthquake? the rain? the
clouds? the rainbow? (The wriggling of the eel causes an earthquake to
happen; Diwata throws out water from the sky for rain to happen; the
sun makes the yellow clouds; and the yellow clouds make the colors
of the rainbows.)
3. Compare and contrast this legend with what you have learned in your
science and your Christian living classes about the earth’s beginning.
(Responses may vary.)
4. How would you treat legends like these? Why? (Legends which are
superstitious may be taken as a source of information for a better
understanding of our ancestors’ beliefs.)

3. Process their answers to the questions. Then, tackle Exercise 2.


4. Then, process their learning experiences and let them discuss the significance of listen-
ing. As the cliché goes, “Listening is the beginning of understanding.” Ask them if they
agree with this or not. Elicit EU #9.

  Listening well helps one process rapid speech.

  What happens when you listen well?

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  17


J. Grammar: Differentiating the Sentence from the Sentence Fragment; Recognizing
Subject and Predicate; Using Compound Subject and Compound Predicate, pp. 24-30
1. Remind students of their final task for this lesson—a myth. Ask them what the require-
ments for writing a good myth are.
2. Prompt them with the topical EQ #10. Make them realize that this will result to mis-
communication. Segue to the importance of writing complete sentences, with a clear
subject and predicate.
3. Ask the students to study the groups of words given on page 24. Make them note those
that convey complete thoughts and those that don’t; then, let them do the exercise on
pages 24-25. Check answers for understanding.
4. Ask the students to study the sentences given on page 25. Let them point out the complete
subject and complete predicate of each sentence. Ask them also to identify the simple
subject and simple predicate. Ask the students to do the exercises on pages 26-28. Check
answers for understanding.

Subject Predicate

1. the world consisted only of the sky, the sea, and a kite

2. the kite flew across the sky

3. it became tired

4. it had no place to alight on and rest

5. The kite thought and thought of a way to rest

6. it decided to set the sea and the sky against each other

7. the sea declared war against the sky

8. The sea threw her waters towards the sky

9. the sky became angry

10. He showered rocks upon the sea in order to subdue her

11. The rocks became the islands of the Philippines

12. The sea ran to and fro to escape the avalanche, but to no avail

13. the sea curls around the country’s islands

14. the waves break on the shore

15. The water can never reach as high as the sky again

5. Instruct the students to study the sentences given on Columns A and B on page 27.
Let them identify the compound subjects and the compound predicates. Ask them to
do the exercises on pages 29-30. Check answers for understanding.

18  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


6. Do a wrap-up processing of the language concepts and connect to task of writing a
myth. Ask again EQ #10. Elicit EU #10. Lead them to discuss the importance of writing
complete sentences with clear subject and predicate. Let them realize that thoughts
written in complete sentences make speech or writing clear.

  Thoughts written in complete sentences make speech


or writing clear.

  What happens if we read a myth or story whose


thoughts are not finished?Or engage in a conversation with
people whose thoughts are not understandable?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 24
(/) − nos. 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12

Answers to Exercise B, p. 25
Accept any relevant answer. The following are suggested.
1. witty thought 7. stories
2. folk songs 8. myths
3. by explanation of phenomena 9. literature
4. were cheerful 10. brought their own culture
5. literature 11. he became more receptive to new ideas.
6. the way of life of a people 12. are numerous and diverse

Answers to Exercise B, p. 27
Possible answers are as follows:
1. Richie was an orphan boy left alone in the forest when his parents died.
2. Mang Teng took care of him.
3. Richie learned the language of the birds and the animal of the forest.
4. The birds and animals were his playmates.
5. The birds and animals were his only friends.
6. Animal language was the only language he knew.
7. Richie had no contact with human beings.
8. One day, Mr. Leonard, a rich man, found him.
9. Mr. Leonard took him to the city.
10. Richie was unhappy in the city.
11. He wanted to go back to the forest.
12. Mang Teng would be waiting for him.
13. Then, they could be happy again.
14. But Mr. Leonard would not let him go back to the forest.
15. He wanted him to go to school and learn the ways of human beings.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  19


Answers to Exercise C, p. 28
Possible answers are as follows:
1. A lovely goddess lived in an enchanted garden.
2. One day, she decided to explore the world outside the garden.
3. She chanced upon a lady who became her friend.
4. Together, she and her new-found friend toured around the garden.
5. The gods and goddesses were curious to discover who the goddess’ new friend
was.
6. They forewarned the lady to leave at once and never to mingle with the lovely
goddess.
7. But the goddess and her friend were seen to have figured in an intimate conver-
sation.
8. The gods and goddesses feared for the lady.
9. The lovely goddess tricked her friend.
10. The following day, a slender plant called a bamboo was all that was left of the
lady.

Answers to Exercise A, pp. 29-30


1. Some popular myths and legends/ tell about sky-dwellers.
2. These sky-dwellers/ grew weary of life in the sky and looked for excitement.
3. The green earth below and its shining water/ seemed to beckon them.
4. They/ had seen the earth and the sea through a slit in the floor of heaven.
5. The slit/ was caused by a heavenly hunter who had dropped his arrow’s head.
6. The hunter/ had pulled up his arrow from the ground.
7. In doing so, he/ pulled up also some soil and caused a hole on the sky floor.
8. The hunter and the other sky-dwellers/ often peeped through the hole and
wondered about what they saw.
9. The hunter and his friends/ wanted to experience life on Earth.
10. They/ began to look for a way to go and see earth.

Answers to Exercise B, p. 30

Subject Predicate

1. The hunter and the sky-dwellers peeped through the hole and wondered about
what they saw

2. They began to look for a way to and see earth

3. The hunter volunteered to go first

4. His friends and other sky-dwellers objected

5. Each one of them wanted to go to earth first

6. Each one had a suggestion on how to get there

20  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


7. A sky-dwellers’ meeting was held

8. They suggested and argued against each suggestion

9. no suggestion; the meeting had been considered best; ended unsuccessfully

10. The hunter’s friends and the showered rocks upon the sea in order to
other sky-dwellers subdue her

11. they decided never to leave the sky

12. This myth and other similar compensated their longing to go to earth
legends

MEDIA LITERACY ASSESSMENT


As an additional exercise in identifying sentences and non-sentences,
ask students to access the interactive game found in this lesson at i-learn.
vibalpublishing.com. Ask your students to go through the exercise. After
students accomplish the exercise, ask them which items gave them a
hard time and why. Use this information to clarify essential points in
the lesson. For Grammar and Writing Workbook users, refer them to
pages 118-123 and 66-70 for more text-based discussion and exercises.

K. Writing: Writing a Myth, pp. 31-32


1) Ask the students to recall stories that tell about the origin of a place, fruit, mountain,
river, flower, and others. Encourage them to talk about them.
2) Tell the students that they are going to write such a story. For this exercise, make the
story read How the World Began as their writing model. Ask them to write their myths
by following in the textbook the writing process:
a. Prewriting
1. In this stage, incidents have to be determined. Plan for the beginning and end-
ing. Also, determine which events will highlight the myth. Then, draw these
important events in a time line (see page 8 of textbook).
2. List down word pictures that will appeal the readers’ senses. See examples from
the first paragraph of How the World Began.

Explanation
From this paragraph, the readers’ senses are tickled through the use
of the following words/phrases: small circular space of great brightness,
encircled by a rainbow, large enough for the two gods, winged Makabughaw,
sat precariously between the two, and had to flap his wings continuously.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  21


b. Drafting
In this stage, let students scribble their story in entirety, without minding conventions
and errors in content. Brief them with inciting ideas by lecturing them the following:

In the story, How the World Began, the first paragraph reveals the
characters, the setting, and the problem. In the succeeding five paragraphs,
all details that would explain the unfolding of the main events that would
suffice why it is titled How the World Began are enumerated. Tell students
to show chronological arrangement of events as shown in their time line.
This is important in establishing logical organization in their story. In the
last two paragraphs, the outcome of all the enumerated strings of events is
unveiled. All stories have their end. Let students conclude their myth with
an illustration of how such listed events contribute to the solution of the
problem or conflict articulated in the beginning of the story.

c. Revising and Sharing


Using peer assessment, let students find a partner to have his or her work
checked for accuracy in language, grammar, mechanics, spelling and other conven-
tions. Then, using the comments or corrections made by the partner, let students
revise their work implementing all corrections made.
d. Proofreading
Let students do a review of conventions, that is, checking their work for any
error in grammar, spelling, usage, capitalization, and punctuation. Let them evalu-
ate their work using the checklist on page 32.
e. Preparing the Final Copy
Let students encode their final work for publishing.
f. Sharing
Let students share their work in groups of three. The students will be asked to
read their myth for comments.

3. Let the students do a revisiting of the overarching EQ (EQ #1). Let them read the
question in the section. Let them recall the myth, How the World Began, the folk song,
Housewarming Song, and the informative text, The Many Legends and Myths in the
Philippines, and ask them what these reveal about our ancestors and their beliefs. Let
them share their insightful ideas. Then, ask them to compare and contrast these ideas
with the initial answers they have had to the EQ earlier. Encourage the students to
read articles on these mythical creatures that may be believed to exist in the provinces
and small cities in our country, so they may discover the relevance and importance of
studying narratives that involve such creatures.

22  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


  What does ancient literature tell us about our
ancestors and their society?

L. Performance Task: Tracing the Origin, p. 33


Refer the students to the section on page 33, and allow them sufficient time to carry out
their performance task. Let them do self-assessment of their work against the rubric pro-
vided. Tell students to consider the process they undergo in their previous writing exercise.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  23


Lesson 2 Encountering and Becoming Heroes

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Epics embody a people’s beliefs, customs, Transform an epic into script form for a
ideals, and life values in a given time and dramatic presentation.
place.
2. Interpreting character traits helps one Essential Questions
understand why other people behave the
What essential questions will be asked?
way they do.
1. What do epics embody? Are they just
3. Knowing and understanding conflict help
adventure stories to be excited about or
one to strategically solve it.
do they cover something deeper?
4. Varied sentence structures make writing
2. How can the interpretation of character
clear and interesting.
traits foster better understanding of the
story?
3. Why study conflict and suspense?
4. How do we ensure writing a clear and
interesting paragraph?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:


1. what embodies epics and their impor- 1. define and discuss what epics are and
tance to humanity. their importance to humanity.
2. how to interpret a character. 2. answer comprehension questions fully.
3. the various ways to interpret a character. 3. interpret a character.
4. synonyms. 4. identify conflict and suspense.
5. how to listen well. 5. give the synonym of words.
6. tips on reading a play. 6. appreciate a play.
7. how to interpret the Dewey Decimal 7. recognize tips to reading a play success-
System. fully.
8. how to use card catalog. 8. identify a topic’s Dewey Decimal Classifi-
9. the classification of sentences according cation number.
to purpose and structure. 9. locate print materials using a card
10. how to write elliptical sentences. catalog.
11. the steps in writing a script. 10. discuss how books in the library are
categorized.
11. classify and write sentences according to
purpose and structure.
12. write elliptical sentences.
13. write a script for a dramatic presentation.

24  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence

Performance Task

Your school is going to hold a literary festival, and your class has decided to contribute to this
festival by putting up a play. Your class has chosen to act out the Maranao Epic, Indarapatra
and Sulayman. As your class scriptwriter, you are tasked to transform the epic into script form
for the dramatic presentation. Complete your script for the entire story.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Script

CRITERIA/ 3 - Work Could 2 - Something Is


5 - Excellent 4 - Strong
SCORE Improve Missing

Characters The main The main The main It is hard to tell


characters (3-4) characters (3-4) characters who the main
are named are named are named. characters are.
and clearly and described. The reader There is only 1
described in Most readers knows very main character.
text as well as would have little about Character
pictures. All some idea the characters. analysis
readers could of what the There are less could not be
describe the characters than required completed due
characters looked like. amount to lack of main
accurately. Character of main characters.
Character analysis is characters.
analysis is correct. Character
correct with analysis was
sufficient incomplete.
evidence from
play to back it
up.

Organization The story The story is The story is a There is little


is very well pretty well little hard to evidence of
organized. organized. follow. The creativity in
One idea or One idea or transitions are the story. The
scene follows scene may sometimes not author does
another in seem out of clear. not seem to
a logical place. Clear have used
sequence with transitions are much imagi-
clear transi- used. nation. There
tions. are no stage
directions.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  25


Creativity/Stage The story The story The story The reader
directions contains contains a contains a has trouble
many creative few creative few creative figuring out
details and/ details and/ details and/ when and
or descrip- or descrip- or descrip- where the
tions that tions that tions, but they story took
contribute to contribute to distract from place. No
the reader’s the reader’s the story. The introduction
enjoyment. enjoyment. author has is given, and
The author The author tried to use his if there is,
has really used has used his imagination, specifics are
his imagi- imagination but has not.
nation with with stage minimal stage
regards to directions, but directions.
stage direc- more could
tions. have been
used.

Setting Many vivid, Some vivid, The reader The reader


descriptive descriptive can figure has trouble
words are words are out when and figuring out
used to tell used to tell where the when and
when and the audience story took where the
where the when and place, but the story took
story took where the author didn’t place. No
place. Nothing story took supply much introduction
is left to the place. It is not detail. Hard is given, and
imagination clear where to visualize a if there is,
for any act/ all scenes take stage. specifics are
scene. place. not.

Dialogue It is always It is usually It is usually Hard to follow


clear which clear which clear which characters’
character is character is character is dialogue and
speaking. speaking and speaking, minimal effort
Proper ‘print’ proper ‘print’ but proper is put into
and format and format is ‘print’ is not conversations.
used. Dialogue used. Dialogue used correctly
is well is well throughout.
developed developed, Dialogue is
and varied. but could be choppy and
more varied in not well
structure. developed.

26  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Problem/ It is very easy It is fairly easy It is fairly easy It is not clear
Conflict for the reader for the reader for the reader what problem
to understand to understand to understand the main
the problem the problem the problem characters
the main the main the main face.
characters face characters face characters face
and why it is a and why it is a but it is not
problem. problem. clear why it is
a problem.

Solution/ The solution The solution The solution No solution is


Resolution to the charac- to the to the charac- attempted or
ter’s problem character’s ter’s problem it is impossible
is easy to problem is is a little hard to understand.
understand, easy to under- to understand.
and is logical. stand, and
There are no is somewhat
loose ends. logical.

Spelling and There are no There is one There are 2-3 The final draft
Punctuation spelling or spelling or spelling and has more
punctuation punctuation punctuation than three (3)
errors in the error in the errors in the spelling and
final draft. final draft. final draft. punctuation
Character errors.
and place
names that
the author
invented
are spelled
consistently
throughout.

Requirements All of the Almost all Most (about Many require-


written (about 90%) 75%) of ments were
requirements the written the written not met.
(number of requirements requirements
pages, type, were met. were met, but
title page several were
format) are not.
correct.

Source: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/afergus/script_writing_rubric.htm

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  27


Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based upon the ability to gener-
ate and answer high-level questions about the pre-reading activities and Sharing Insights
of Indarapatra and Sulayman, Ibalon, and Love Dawns on Lam-ang
2. Exercise on interpreting a character and identifying conflict and suspense
3. Giving synonyms
4. Appreciating and reading a play
5. Identifying the Dewey Decimal classification of topics and using the card catalog in locat-
ing books
6. Language exercises on identifying the kind of sentences according to purpose and structure
and writing elliptical clauses

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Introduce the lesson by asking the students to recall epics they have read. Ask the students
what they know about the epics mentioned in the text. Have them read the lesson opener.
Then, facilitate a discussion of the background.
➲ Have the students read the goals in the section Learning Objectives, so they know what
they are expected to do in the lesson ahead.
➲ Hook the students to interpret the unit title and illustration on page 34. Elicit analogies,
and have them justify why.
➲ Preview the students their Performance Task which is script writing for a dramatic pres-
entation. Tell them how they will be evaluated for this culminating activity. Refer them
to the rubric on pages 72-75 for self and peer assessment. Facilitate a discussion on the
criteria and scoring mechanism of the provided rubric.
➲ Tell them that they will read three early Philippine epics. In connection to this, they will
explore the relevance of epics and find out how to interpret character through the literary
and informative texts.

Background

Folk epics are considered the highest form of ancient Philippine literature. According to E.
Arsenio Manuel, a scholar, there are 19 great epics which Filipinos can be proud of. Thirteen
of these epics came from pagan Filipinos, two from Christian Filipinos, and four from Muslim
Filipinos. Manuel found that these folk epics share some common features such as the following:
1. are narratives of sustained length
2. based on oral tradition
3. revolve around supernatural events or heroic deeds
4. in the form of verse

28  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


5. either chanted or sung
6. with certain seriousness of purpose embodying or validating the beliefs, customs, ide-
als, or life-values of the people

A. Reading 1: Indarapatra and Sulayman (A Maranao Epic), pp. 35-38


1. Pose overarching EQ #1. Elicit initial answers. Then, ask students to answer the activi-
ties in the section on Prepare to Read.
a. Ask the students to recall/tell stories about the early Filipino people. Ask them what
these stories were mostly about. Let them discuss what makes an epic interesting.
Encourage students to discuss viewpoints. Have the students read and answer the
questions in Unveil What You Know.
b. Let the students read the text in For Your Information. Ask them what the folk epics
aimed to do.
c. Tell the students they will read one of these epics, the Maranao epic, Indarapatra
and Sulayman. Give the information that this epic, a collection of 25 stories, tells
of only one here. Some scholars believe that Indarapatra and Sulayman is a modi-
fication of an Indian version (information from Philippine Literature from Ancient
Times to the Present). Ask the students to read Understanding Literary Background
for more information.
d. Let some students read the expressions in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Make them
aware that they will get the meanings of these expressions from context. Check on
this before taking up Sharing Insights.
e. Ask the students to study the illustration and the title of the story. Ask them what
they expect the story to be about. Then, let the students read the questions in
Underscore a Motive for Reading to make them aware of what to look for as they
read.
2. Let students read the text silently. Then, group students into three, and have them buzz
pieces of information that will foster understanding of the story.
3. Then, let students answer the discussion questions in the section Sharing Insights.

Questions 1-5 require the students to recall details. Questions 6-8 ask the
students to make an inference about incidents that will lead to identifying some
characteristics of an epic. Question 9 makes the students tell how they feel
about supernatural events; Question 10 asks the students to make a prediction.

4. Ask students if they enjoyed the story. Then, ask them what they learned about ancient
practices and people from this story.
5. Pose EQ #1 again. Ask further what epics reveal. Elicit part of EU #1.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  29


Lead them to the understanding that epics embody the ancient Filipino
beliefs, ideals, customs, and life-values that have served as a form of teaching
and inspiration to the readers.

  Epics embody a people’s beliefs, customs, ideals, and


life values in a given time and place.

  What do epics embody? Are they just adventure


stories to be excited about or do they cover something
deeper?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. Kurita, Tarabusaw, Pah, and a 7-headed bird
2. Sulayman upon the request of King Indarapatra
3. a. Kurita cut into pieces
b. Tarabusaw killed with his sword;
c. Pah severing its wing fell dead at his feet
4. a. King Indarapatra requested his brother to save Maguindaw
b. The brother did not hesitate to help regardless of the danger posed by
his mission.
c. They both loved each other ("embraced")
5. a. King Indarapatra and Sulayman “travelled through the air”
b. “he poured the magic water over his brother's bones and his brother came
to life again”
c. “the woman disappeared through the hole...”
6. a. By the window, he saw the little tree wither.
b. He desired for revenge, and searched for his brother
7. He offered his daughter in marriage.
8. a. exploits of a hero
b. narration
c. heroism
9-10. Responses may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Interpreting Character, pp. 38-39


1. Ask topical EQ #2. Let the students recall their interpretation of the characters of
Magbabaya, Dadanyahan, and Makabughaw in the story How the World Began in les-
son 1. Then, tell them to interpret the characters of Indarapatra and Sulayman.

30  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


2. Instruct students to read the discussion on page 38 and to answer the questions in the
side bars. Process the students’ answers.
3. Let them do the exercise on page 39. Let them discuss their work with a partner.
4. Then, have one student or two share to the whole class. Ask the students whether there
was a change in how they perceived the characters after completing this exercise. If so,
ask them to explain what caused the change.
5. Revisit EQ #2. Ask students how they interpreted the characters in the story. Elicit
EU #2. Lead the students to realize that as in real life, the qualities of a story character
become known to the readers through the characters’ actions, dialogs, author’s descrip-
tions and other characters’ feelings about them.

  Interpreting character traits helps one understand why


other people behave the way they do.

  How can the interpretation of character traits foster


better understanding of the story?

C. reading 2: Ibalon, pp. 40-42


1. Let students find out if the epic they are to read is just an adventure story to be excited
about by posing again EQ #2. Let them share their insights.
2. Have them do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Show a picture of a dinosaur. Have the students identify it; then, ask them why the
animal does not exist anymore today. It is believed that there was a great change
in climate because of a great catastrophe, thus causing the dinosaurs to die as their
warm habitat changed to a cold climate. Let the students read the questions in
Unveil What You Know. Some of these animals probably existed only in myths.
b. For further knowledge, have them read For Your Information on page 41.
c. Check on the students’ understanding of the meanings of the expressions in Unlock
the Meaning of Words. In this case, these expressions should have been assigned a
day before. Ask the students to use the words in a sentence.
d. Tell the students they will read an epic from Bicol. Have them read Understanding
Literary Background. Then, let them read and answer the question in Underscoring
a Goal for Reading.
e. Tell the students that different regions in the Philippines have their own epics.
Tell them that if the Ilocos region has its story of Lam-ang and the Bicol region
has Ibalon, Panay takes pride in its Hinilawod. It is considered Panay’s oldest and
longest epic, consisting of 18 stories representing three generations.
3. a. Check the students’ comprehension of the story through the questions in Sharing
Insights. Encourage the students to support their opinions with details from the
story.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  31


b. After the students have answered Question 5 on page 42, revisit EQ #1 and ask
them if these beliefs, customs, ideals, or life values are still relevant today. Let them
support their answers. Lead them to discuss part of EU #1.

  Epics embody a people’s beliefs, customs, ideals, and


life values in a given time and place.

  What do epics embody? Are they just adventure


stories to be excited about or do they cover something
deeper?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. Baltog, Handiong, Bantong
2. a. Baltog regained Ibalon's peace by overcoming the man-eating wild boar.
b. Handiong freed Ibalon from the wild beasts, encouraged the people to do
productive things for their survival such as to plant rice; to invent farm, sewing,
and kitchen tools; to build homes for protection and schools for education.
Also, he prioritized life and honor or values like justice or fairness.
c. Bantong wounded Rabut whose agony gave rise to a perfect Cone, the Mayon
Volcano.
3. a. Baltog– courage, extraordinary strength– when he overpowered the monster
to save Ibalon
b. Handiong– compassionate, selfless, noble, heroic, strength of character–
when he helped Ibalon in need of of rescue and reforms to be self-reliant
and productive.
c. Bantong – heroic, selfless, loyal— when he said yes to a friend's request to
save Ibalon from an enemy regardless of the impending danger
4. Handiong is the greatest because he didn't just free Ibalon from the wild beasts
but he also helped them get on with life productively.
5. Selflessness, kindness, compassion, leadership, undaunted spirit/courage, loyalty

D. LITERARY SKILL 2: Identifying Conflict and Suspense, p. 43


1. Pose EQ #3. Ask the students to recall any story that struck them the most, and ask them
why. Lead them to discuss conflict and suspense. Have the students read the section. Let
them recall the epic they have read. Then, ask them to identify the conflict and suspense
of the said epic.
2. Ask them to do the exercise on page 43.
3. Process understanding by posing the following questions.
• Are the values or beliefs in a story true for all stories?

32  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


• Are they true for you now?
Elicit responses, and lead students to connect conflict and suspense to the EQ
#3. Elicit EU #3.

Help students realize that epics reveal conflict that may have coincidence
to real life on the whole. After all, life is filled with conflicts that may make
or break a person’s character.

  Knowing and understanding conflict helps one to


strategically solve it.

  Why study conflict and suspense?

E. READING 3: Love Dawns on Lam-ang, pp. 44-47


1. Tell the students to consider EQ #1 again as they read the Ilocano epic. Lead them to
discover the Filipino epic’s characteristics that are found in the story.
2. Have the students answer the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Let the students answer the question in Unveil What You Know. Emphasize the
following:
• The epic is a long narrative poem telling of the exploits of a legendary hero to
save his country, race, or community.
• The hero of an epic is imbued with idealistic characteristics — courage, wisdom,
beauty, endurance, chivalry, and sense of justice.
• The hero’s legendary adventures are full of obstacles put up by supernatural
power.
• To overcome his obstacles, the hero’s prowess has to be aided by friendly su-
pernatural beings.
• The epic reflects the customs and traditions of the early generations.
b. Let the students read the details in For Your Information. Stress that alterations
were made by early epic singers or narrators to make the names and adventures
relevant to the period. Tell the students they will read an excerpt from the Ilocano
epic Biag ni Lam-ang. Some authors title it Biag ti Lam-ang.
c. Ask the students to read Understanding Literary Background. Then, let some
students read aloud the expressions in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Make them
aware that they are to get from context the meanings of the italicized expressions.
Check on comprehension of the meanings before taking up Sharing Insights.
d. Make the students aware of what they are expected to learn from the story by let-
ting them read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  33


3. Have students do a dramatic reading. Assign students to read the speaking parts of
Lam-ang, Namongan, Village Elder, Doña Ines, Rooster, Hen, and White Dog. Assign
a narrator, too, to read the Synopsis and the Narrator’s speaking part.
4. Check comprehension by having the students answer the questions in Sharing Insights.

Questions 1-2 require students to recall events that would name Lam-
ang’s unusual characteristics. Questions 3-4 ask students to identify an epic’s
characteristics in the story. Questions 5-6 require students to share their
belief and perspective. Question 7 asks students to share and classify stories.

Emphasize that in the sharing of stories and classifying if they are epics or not,
stress that in an epic, the hero does not do his brave exploits for himself but for others.
Then, lead the students to discuss part of EU #1.

Make the students understand that more than the exploits of an epic
hero are the lessons that may be learned from the epic hero’s deeds of saving
mankind more than himself. Hence, heroism is a characteristic that may
be drawn an inspiration from that is most needed in addressing today’s
societal problems.

Answers to Sharing Insights (Love Dawns on Lam-ang, pp. 44-47)


1. Lam-ang had the ability to speak upon his birth—he himself requested that
he be named Lam-ang.
2. a. to win the heart of Dona Ines, he was able to gift the family with things
of value, like gold, property and others
b. The stairway danced and the stone broke into two.
c. Bantong wounded Rabut whose agony gave rise to a perfect Cone, the
Mayon Volcano.
3. It features the exploits/adventures of the hero, Lam-ang; the hero is endowed
with superhuman powers.
4. When he surmounted the danger posed by the shark, he showed his bravery.
5. The story is unbelievable because of the extraordinary adventures he experi-
enced with the shark and his pets. Also, the incidents surrounding his birth,
his death, and his rise from the dead—resurrection.
6-7. Responses may vary.

F. Literary Skill 2: More on Interpreting Character, pp. 47-50


1. As they read the informative text, draw students to reflect again on EQ #2.
2. Prompt: Who can become a hero at the present time? Have the students share opinions.

34  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Then, let them read the section on page 47. Ask them to recall how Lam-ang unveiled
his character.
3. Have the students read the informative text on pages 48-50, and ask them to do the
Exercise on page 50. Make them write the character traits of Efren Peñaflorida, Jr.
4. Conduct a discussion and process the answers. Let students rename EU #2 by asking
them how interpreting the character of Efren Peñaflorida Jr. helps them understand
him better.

Possible Interpretation
Efren Peñaflorida Jr. is awarded the 2009 CNN Hero of the year because
of his commitment, devotion, and selfless acts to teach literacy to the poor
children in the slum area in Cavite through his humble pushcart classroom.
His leadership in pursuing feeding programs for the abandoned street kids
also earns him the limelight. He is considered a modern-day hero for such
advocacies.

  Interpreting character traits helps one understand why


other people behave the way they do.

  How can the interpretation of character traits foster


better understanding of the story?

G. Vocabulary: Using Synonyms, pp. 51-52


1. Ask the students what they do when they are in need of a word that expresses exactly
what they want. Make them aware that they can use a thesaurus for this.
2. Let the students read the section on page 51. Review with them the meaning of syno-
nym. Facilitate a brief exercise by asking them to give synonyms of certain words, e.g.,
a. gigantic – monstrous
b. tall and straight – stately
c. strange – peculiar
d. proud – arrogant
3. Have the students work on the exercise on pages 51-52.

Answers to Exercise, pp. 51-52


a. (Given) d. boulder — rock, stone, mound
b. deluge — flood, inundation, torrent e. sorceress — witch, evil spirit, magician
c. enormous — huge, gigantic, monstrous

Sentences may vary.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  35


H. Listening/Viewing: Appreciating a Play, p. 53
1. Review the class once more on the listening pointers learned in earlier lessons.
2. Have the students read the section on page 53.
3. Let them work on the exercise. Remind each group to choose short plays that can be
acted out in thirty minutes or less. Each group should prepare a few questions to check
on their classmates’ listening skill.
4. Let the students answer the reflection questions found in the side bar. Process answers.

I. Speaking: Reading a Play, pp. 54-55


1. Ask the students to tell about their experiences as audience in a play or a television show. Have
them tell whether they were able to enjoy the dialog in the show. Ask them to give reasons for
their answers.
2. Have the students be aware of the importance of reading aloud or saying lines distinctly;
then, let them read the pointers on page 54. Have them summarize what they have
read.
3. Give the students practice by having them read the lines in any of the plays in the
book—not the whole play, but only the lines of a particular character.
4. Have the students work on the exercises on page 55.
5. Process their answers.

J. Study and Research: Getting Acquainted with the Library, pp. 56-57;
Getting Acquainted with a Card Catalog, pp. 58-59
1. Ask the students how they go about finding books in the library. Ask them if they have
experienced difficulty in finding a particular book. Ask: How can you find books eas-
ily in the library? Have the students read the section. Then, ask them to work on the
exercises. Check answers for understanding
2. To further develop their skill, take them to the school library, and have them actually
see how the books are arranged according to the Dewey Decimal System.
3. While in the library, introduce to the students the card catalog to prepare them for the next
lesson.
4. Have the students read the section on pages 58-59. Check up comprehension by asking
the following questions:
a. What are the compartments of a card catalog?
b. What makes up the call number of a book?
c. How can you use the card catalog to help you locate easily a book in the library?
5. To develop further the skill aside from asking them to carry out the given exercise,
exercises similar to the following may be given:
a. Give either an author’s name, the title of a book, or the subject matter of a book, and
have the students tell in which compartment of the card catalog they would find the
author card, the title card, and the subject matter card.

36  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


b. Let students read samples of the spines of books. Have them identify the call number.
6. Let students answer the reflection question found in the side bar, and process their insight-
ful ideas.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 57
1. 100-199 3. 500-599 5. 600-699 7. 700-799 9. 200-299
2. 300-399 4. 400-499 6. 200-299 8. 800-899 10. 700-799

Answers to Exercise B vary.


Students shall have listed accurately the titles of their books with their Dewey
Decimal class number.

K. Grammar: Kinds of Sentences According to Purpose, pp. 60-61;


Kinds of Sentences According to Structure, pp. 62-69;
Elliptical Sentence, pp. 70-71
1. Ask topical EQ #4. Elicit responses. Remind students that since they have to write a
script for a drama presentation, they must make sure that their writing is clear and
interesting.
2. Ask students whether a paragraph with sentences written the same way will be interesting for
them. Introduce the idea of varying sentence structure to make their writing interesting and
memorable.
3. Have the students read the section on page 60. Have them name the kinds of sentences
and note their characteristics. Have the students do the exercises on page 61. Check
answers for understanding.
4. Ask the students to examine the structure of simple sentences and the generalization on
page 62.
5. Have the students examine the structure of compound sentences and the generaliza-
tion on page 63, then have them do the exercises on pp. 64-65. Check answers for
understanding.
6. Have the students study the section on complex sentences. Tell them to take note of the
difference between phrases and clauses. Have them read the boxed generalizations on
page 66. Ask them to do the Exercises on pages 67-69. Check answers for understand-
ing.
7. Ask the students to read the section on elliptical sentences. Have them read the gen-
eralization on page 70, then make them do the Exercise on page 71. You may give ad-
ditional exercises if necessary, to check on comprehension of the students.
8. Process learning experiences, and elicit EU #4. Remind students that, as they write their script,
they must apply what they learned about the different sentences according to purpose and
structure.
9. Have the students do a revisiting of the overarching EQ (EQ #1). Ask them to read the
question in the section. Let them recall the Maranao epic, Indarapatra and Sulayman,

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  37


the Bicolano epic, Ibalon, and the Ilocano epic, Love Dawns on Lam-ang, and the in-
formational text, A CNN hero started with a pushcart full of hopes, and ask them what
features they have in common. Let them share their insightful ideas. Then, ask them
to compare and contrast these ideas with the initial answers they have had to the EQ
earlier. Lead them to realize EU #1.

Let students understand that epics are a great source of life values as
manifested by the characters whether they are considered as epic heroes like
Indarapatra, Sulayman, Baltog, Ibalon, Handiong, Lam-ang, or a modern-day
hero such as Efren Penaflorida, Jr. Their characters could be made as models
for everyone to emulate. In our own little ways, we can show all those who
need our help that we can be depended upon.

  Varied sentence structures make writing clear and


interesting.

  How do we ensure writing a clear and interesting


paragraph?

  Epics embody a people’s beliefs, customs, ideals, and


life values in a given time and place.

What do epics embody? Are they just adventure stories


to be excited about or do they cover something deeper?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 61
1. Declarative
2. Declarative
3. Interrogative
4. Exclamatory
5. Declarative
6. Declarative
7. Declarative
8. Imperative
9. Imperative
10. Declarative

38  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise B, p. 61
1. Declarative
2. Exclamatory
3. Declarative
4. Imperative
5. Declarative
6. Imperative
7. Declarative
8. Exclamatory

Answers to Exercise A, p. 64
1. and
2. but
3. or
4. and
5. and
6. but
7. and
8. and
9. but
10. but

Answers to Exercise B, pp. 64-65


Provide the students with the following clauses to choose from but remind them
that they may use their own clauses.
1. Everyone in the area loved and respected her.
2. She would bathe in a secluded fountain at night.
3. These sounds stopped when attempts were made to follow them up.
4. Life, order, and color were renewed in the fields where she passed.
5. All traces of the storm were wiped away.
6. She aided them further by slipping gold into their firewood.
7. He lost its trail among tall grass and thorny bushes.
8. He was charmed by her beauty.
9. Could he refuse her gift of ginger!
10. As he was walking home, his hat felt heavy.
11. Unknowingly, he left one piece.
12. He was greatly surprised to discover that the ginger was actually solid gold.
13. He could not find them.
14. Others maintain that she has not manifested her presence for a long time.
15. She still remains at the mountainside but does not want to show herself.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  39


Answers vary. Suggestions follow.
1. ...and everyone in the area loved and respected her.
2. ...and bathe in a secluded fountain at night.
3. ...but these sounds stopped when attempts were made to follow them up.
4. ...and life, order and color were renewed whenever she passed.
5. ...and all traces of the storm were wiped away.
6. ...and she circled them further by slipping gold into their firewood.
7. ...but he lost its trail among tall grass and thorny bushes.
8. ...and he was charmed by her beauty.
9. ...nor could he refuse her gift of ginger!
10. ...and as he was walking home, his hat felt heavy.
11. ...but unknowingly, he left one piece.
12. ...and he was greatly surprised to discover that the ginger was actually solid
gold.
13. ...but he could not find them.
14. ...but others maintain that she has not manifested her presence for a long time.
15. ...or she still remains at the mountainside but does not want to show herself.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 67
1. ph 3. ph 5. c 7. c 9. c
2. c 4. c 6. ph 8. ph 10. c

Answers to Exercise B, p. 68
simple subject simple predicate

1. who found

2, they altered

3. he published

4. they were assigned

5. be heard

6. be had

7. they arrived

8. you were

9. community have

40  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise C, p. 68
(✔) — 1, 2, 5, 8
(✗) — 3, 7, 9, 10
phrase — 4, 6

Answers to Exercise D, p. 69
Answers may vary. Suggestions follow.
1. Alim deals with the lives of the gods and the happenings in the skyworld that is
common in pre-Spanish literature.
2. The Apayaos who lived adjacent to the Ibanags have a literature of their own.
3. The literature of the Kalingas has not been fully studied because they are deeply
entrenched in the Cordillera and Caraballo Mountains.
4. The tribal feud sets the background for Aliguyon, an Ifugao epic which bears a
strong resemblance to the Indian epic, Ramayana.
5. Aliguyon and Bugan fell in love with each other although their parents were
bitter enemies.

Answers to Exercise E may vary.

Answers to Exercise, p. 71
Answers may vary. Suggestions follow.
1. Yes I have (read it).
2. (We shall study the lyric poems) tomorrow.
3. Synonyms become useful) when we want to vary our language.
4. (We can find reference books on ancient Philippine literature) in our library.
5. (The classification of sentences serve the writers’ purpose) because they solve
problems of punctuation.
6. (I find Filipino epics) interesting.
7. The strong and bravery acts (usually help the epic hero overcomes his enemy).
8. (I find the story Lam-ang) incredible.
9. (The way Baltog achieved peace was) admiring.
10. Yes I would (like to read other Filipino epics).

L. Writing: Writing a Script, pp. 72-73


1. Have them review the epic, Love Dawns on Lam-ang, and tell them to take note how
the dialogs are written. Tell them that they will have a similar task to do in their writ-
ing exercise. Ask them to take note of the underlying guidelines to follow in writing a
script in the section on page 72.
2. Let students follow the writing process.
a. Prewriting
Since they will write a script to the epic Indarapatra and Sulayman, for their
dramatic presentation as a culminating task, they will have to freewrite on the same

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  41


epic. Let students read and answer the questions in this section on page 70. This
will help them define the parameters of their script.
b. Drafting
At this point, let students scribble the summary of the epic. Then, ask them to
start writing their script making sure that all characters have a role to play.
c. Revising and Editing
Using peer assessment, let students ask their groupmates read out loud their
written script and decide what needs improvement. Make necessary changes,
additions, or deletions. Then, have them check for accuracy in language, gram-
mar, mechanics, spelling, and other conventions. Then, using the comments or
corrections made by the mates, let students revise their work implementing all
corrections made.
f. Publishing
Let students share their script to class by delivering their lines as a group. The
class will be asked to do a critique of their performance for improvement.

M. Performance Task: Script Writing for a Dramatic Presentation, pp. 74-75


1. Describe the Performance Task for the students.
2. Discuss with students the rubric before they finalize their freewritten script. Once, they
have finalized their script, let them exchange their work with a group for peer editing.
3. Give students/groups time to revise their work after peer editing.
4. Let students practice their lines as a group for their dramatic presentation.

42  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Lesson 3 Revisiting Our Ancestors’ Mission

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. National change can be fostered through Write an alternative ending to a story.
literature and other art forms.
2. The writer’s purpose determines the form Essential Questions
of a text that credits writing with quality.
3. Literary pieces of different genres may What essential questions will be asked?
be written for the purpose of educating 1. Why are literary pieces of different
others. genres written?
4. Good stories have common elements that 2. What is the relevance of literary
render them complete. technique and language forms to writing
a creative work?
3. What purposes do literary pieces serve
humanity?
4. What makes a story good?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:


1. the definition of corrido. 1. discuss the definition and importance of
2. how to predict an outcome. corrido.
3. the elements of a short story. 2. discuss answers to comprehension
4. how to identify paradox. questions.
5. words with multiple meanings. 3. predict outcome in a story.
6. how to summarize a biography. 4. identify the elements of a short story.
7. how to express encouragement. 5. identify paradox in given lines.
8. the three types of reading. 6. determine the meaning of a word with
9. subject-verb agreement. multiple meanings.
10. how to write an alternative ending to a 7. listen to or watch a biography and
story. summarize it.
8. use accurate expressions to give encour-
agement.
9. use the type of reading appropriate to
one’s purpose.
10. make the verbs agree with their subjects.
11. write an ending different from the given
text.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  43


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence
Performance Task

Your school’s English Department sponsors a contest to write an alternative ending to Ibong
Adarna. You will get to represent the school in the city-wide level if you win. You are a bank-
able writer yourself, so you decide to join the contest. Write your alternative ending, taking
into account the setting, plot, and character development in the original story.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Different Ending

CRITERIA/
4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Fair 1 - Poor
SCORE

Organi- The story The story is The story is a Ideas and


zation is very well pretty well little hard to scenes seem to
organized. One organized. One follow. The be randomly
idea or scene idea or scene transitions are arranged.
follows another may seem out sometimes not
in a logical of place. Clear clear.
sequence with transitions are
clear transi- used.
tions.

Creativity The story The story The story There is little


contains many contains a contains a few evidence of
creative details few creative creative details creativity in
and/or descrip- details and/ and/or descrip- the story. The
tions that or descriptions tions, but they author does
contribute to that contribute distract from not seem to
the reader’s to the reader’s the story. The have used
enjoyment. enjoyment. author has much imagi-
The author has The author has tried to use his nation.
really used his used his imagi- imagination.
imagination. nation.

Solution/ The solution to The solution The solution to No solution is


Resolution the character’s to the charac- the character’s attempted or it
problem is easy ter’s problem is problem is a is impossible to
to understand, easy to under- little hard to understand.
and is logical. stand, and understand.
There are no is somewhat
loose ends. logical.

44  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Speling There are no There is one There are 2-3 The final draft
and spelling or spelling or spelling and has more than
Punctu- punctuation punctuation punctuation 3 spelling and
ation errors in the error in the errors in the punctuation
final draft. final draft. final draft. errors.
Character and
place names
that the author
invented
are spelled
consistently
throughout.

Source: http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&c-
d=2&ved=0CFYQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lilburnms.com%2Fdownloads%2FM-
CREA%2FWRITING_AN_ALTERNATE_ENDING_RUBRIC.doc&ei=EKfRT9rPM-2XiAeS7pi-
5Aw&usg=AFQjCNGlBq7penzZbYsMPK0roOluMhUa7w

Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based upon the ability to gener-
ate and answer high-level questions about the prereading activities and Sharing Insights
of Ibong Adarna Parts I and II and The Man
2. Exercises on predicting an outcome
3. Identifying the elements of the stories: How the World Began, Indarapatra and Sulayman,
Ibalon, and Love Dawns on Lam-ang
4. Identifying paradox in the poem, The Man and the excerpt, Why we should not celebrate
Philippine Independence Day
5. Determining the meaning of a word from choices
6. Summarized biography of Francisco Balagtas and Dr. Jose Rizal
7. Role play of situations expressing encouragement and corresponding reflections
8. Summary of news skimmed and exercises on skimming, scanning, and identifying topic
sentence
9. Making the verbs agree with their subjects

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Hook the students’ attention to the illustration on page 76. Group them in pairs to have
Two-Minute Talk discussing what they think about the title and the figure. Then, have them

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  45


share their discussion to the rest of the class in a plenary discussion. Ask the students to
read the background. Facilitate a discussion of the background.
➲ Check up comprehension by asking the following questions:
1. Who brought printing equipment to the country?
2. How did the religious literature affect the lives of the Filipinos?
3. How did drama start? What were its early forms?
➲ Have the students read the goals in the section Learning Objectives, so they know what
they are expected to do in the lesson ahead.
➲ Preview the students their Performance Task which is writing an alternative ending to a
story. Tell them how they will be evaluated for this culminating activity. Refer them to
the rubric on page 107 for self and peer assessment. Facilitate a discussion on the criteria
and scoring mechanism of the provided rubric.
➲ Tell them that they will read a corrido, a poem, and an essay in this lesson. In connection
to this, they will explore the relevance of these genres, and find out their importance to
people or a nation.

Background

Aside from drama and early poetry of the ladinos (writers who used a line in Tagalog followed
by its equivalent in Spanish), religious works such as novenas and catechisms thrived. The
most popular, perhaps, were the dalit and the pasyon. Religious prose were also promoted by
the Spaniards to instruct the Filipinos on the Catholic faith and to tighten their hold among
the natives. These religious prose came in form of:
1. dialogo (dialog), expositions on Catholic doctrines made within a minimal plot
2. manual de urbanidad (conduct book), contains prescriptions on social propriety in the
form of proverbs, maxims, and short illustrative tales of behavior
3. ejemplo (example), depicts lives of persons whose virtues are worth emulating
4. tratado (treatise), polemical narratives which indirectly commands subservience as it
asks the natives to submit to their lot. (from CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, Vol.
IX, Philippine Literature) The writers of the time did not only concern themselves
with religious or didactic writings. Lyric poetry also flourished. Perhaps the greatest
example of this is Francisco Balagtas’ Kay Celia, a preface to his masterpiece, Florante
at Laura.

A. Reading 1: Ibong Adarna Part I, pp. 77-79


1. Ask EQ #1. Prompt them with the following: “What have you learned about our
ancestors’ mission from the stories you read in the past?” Entertain and process initial
answers; then, urge students to share the summaries of these stories that include in-
forming readers about the purposes why these stories were written.
2. Let students answer the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Show pictures of a nightingale and a parrot. Ask the students what stories they have

46  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


read about these two birds. Let the students answer the question in Unveil What
You Know. There are stories in the literature of Japan, India, China, and others
about nightingales which can cure sickness and talking parrots and aid the hero
of a story in escaping from captors.
b. For more information, let the students read the text in For Your Information.
c. Ask the students to read the expressions for study in Unlock the Meaning of Words.
Tell them they will find the meanings of the words from context, as they read the
story. Check on their comprehension of the meanings before taking up the ques-
tions in Sharing Insights. An exercise similar to the following may be given.

Directions: Choose the word that gives the correct meaning of the
italicized expressions.
• We tried herbal medicine for the strange malady.
(remedy, illness)
• The area near a pond is the favorite haunt of frogs.
(place to stay in, frightening action)
• The janitors swept away the droppings of the birds.
(feathers, dung)

d. Make the students aware that the story they will read is a metrical tale known as
corrido or awit. Let them read Understand Literary Background for information
about metrical tales. Check on their comprehension through the following ques-
tions.
• How were metrical tales spread throughout the country? (Let the students know
that there were no printing presses yet at that time).
• Why were metrical tales popular among the common folk?
e. Ask the students to study the illustration and the title of the story. Ask them what
they expect the story to be about. Then, let the students read the question in Un-
derscore a Motive for Reading.
3. Allow students to do a silent reading of the text, and ask volunteer(s) to summarize
the story for the class.
4. Have students discuss answers to the questions in Sharing Insights.

a. Questions 1-5 require the students to recall and understand the details
they will need to answer Question 6.
b. Have as many predicted outcomes as possible. Let a student list down
these predicted outcomes in readiness for the next reading selection on
pages 80-81.

Why are literary pieces of different genres written?

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  47


Answers to Sharing Insights
1. Only the song of the Adarna bird can cure him.
2. He came upon a wide river difficult to cross because of its swift current.
3. Along the way, there were many dangers.
4. Don Pedro treated the old man rudely.
5. Don Juan was humble, courteous, friendly, and helpful whereas his two brothers
were haughty and proud.
6. (Possible answers) The droppings woke him up and gave him extraordinary
strength to be able to catch the bird. OR
The droppings became his karma since he was bad to the old man, who trans-
formed into the Adarna bird, so he must have died; like all the others, he didn’t
catch the bird and he never returned home; he didn’t pass the test of generosity,
compassion, selflessness.

B. Literary Skill 1: Predicting an Outcome, pp. 80-81


1. Ask EQ #2. Let the students share what they think. Ask them whether they think a
story should give clues as to its ending. Ask them how they can use the writer’s hints
or details in the story to guess what will happen in the end. Then, let them write the
character traits of Don Pedro on circles around his name.
2. Next, ask them to answer the questions posed in the section (include the questions on
Mt. Tabor and the old man who asked for help).
3. Ask the students to work on the exercises on pages 80-81. Process answers, and explain
to them the importance of noting details on characters, setting, or events in a story. Elicit
EU # 2. Stress that predicting outcomes of stories makes reading more interesting and
that the ability to predict an outcome in a story may help them do the same in real life
events; thus, it helps them avoid untoward circumstances. This is one understanding
why stories are written.

  The writer’s purpose determines the form of a text


that credits writing with quality.

  What is the relevance of literary technique and


language forms to writing a creative work?

C. Reading 2: Ibong Adarna Part II, pp. 82-86


1. Pose EQ #3. Ask the students to recall the first part of Ibong Adarna. Have them think
about the character of Don Pedro.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Let them read and answer the question in Unveil What You Know.

48  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


b. Have them add to their information by letting them read and answer the questions
in For Your Information.
c. Let the students read aloud the expressions in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Have
them try to give synonyms for these words after they have read the story. Check
on their comprehension of the meanings before taking up the questions in Sharing
Insights. Synonyms are:
lull — soothe spell (vt) — charm
ethereal — heavenly famished — hungry
d. Have the students know more about Ibong Adarna by letting them read Understand
Literary Background. Check on their comprehension by asking them the following
questions:
• Who or what caused the adventures of Don Juan? Why?
• What happened as a result of these adventures?
e. Ask the students to read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading in prepa-
ration for their study of Part II of Ibong Adarna.
3. Let students do silent reading of the text. Then, have them discuss their understanding
in triad.
4. Have students answer the questions in Sharing Insights.
Ask the students to recall the outcomes they predicted in the earlier lesson. Were
they able to guess correctly?

Questions 1-3 ask the students to remember details. Question 4


requires them to sense the relationship that exists between Don Juan’s
kindness and his success at capturing the bird. Questions 5 and 6 make
the students relate the story to real life. Lead them to realize EU #2.
Stories are written to draw out relationships from events in stories with
those in real life.

  What purposes do literary pieces serve humanity?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. He met the old man who sought for his help to cross the river.
2. He initiated to help the old man cross the river.
3. He offered help to the old man; he shared his food with the old man because
he sensed the former was hungry.
4. The old man was very grateful.
5. Yes. Because, as the old man said, “ one good turn deserves another,” Don Juan’s
kindness and goodwill deserve to be repaid with the same kindness and goodwill.
6. Responses may vary.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  49


D. Literary Skill 2: Identifying Elements of a Short Story, pp. 86-88
1. Prompt students with EQ #4. Seek initial responses from the students. Lead them to
discuss whether they consider Ibong Adarna a good story or not. Let them explain
what they think makes the story good or not.
2. Let the students read the discussion section. Check on comprehension by having them
answer the following:
• What is setting in a story?
• What is the setting in Ibong Adarna?
• What does character refer to? Who are the characters in Ibong Adarna? Who is the
main character?
• What does plot refer to? What are the parts of a plot? Which events in the Ibong
Adarna correspond to each part of the plot?
3. Ask the students to work on Exercises A and B on pages 87-88. Process understand-
ing. Elicit EU #4. Let students realize that a story is considered to be good if it has the
complete story elements: setting, characters, and plot.

  Good stories have common elements that render them


complete.

  What makes a story good?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 87
Selection Setting Characters Plot

1. How the World small circular space Magbabaya, The gods decide to
Began of great brightness Dadanyahan, build an extension
Makabughaw for Makabughaw,
thus creating a
huge garden in
the world. To take
care of the garden,
they create figures
which become
the ancestors of
the engkanto, the
human being and
the lower forms of
animals.

50  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


2. Indarapatra and ancient Magin- Indarapatra, King Indarapatra
Sulayman danaw Sulayman, Kurita, and his brother
and three other Sulayman move to
monsters save the people
of Magindanaw
from the horrible
monsters.

3. Ibalon Ancient Bicol Baltog, Handiong, Baltog, aided by


(Ibalon) man-eating Handiong, saves the
boar people of Ibalon
from a man-eating
boar and other
winged wild
enemies.

4. Love Dawns on Calunitian, home of Lam-ang, Doña Lam-ang is a hero in


Lam-ang Doña Ines Ines, Rooster, his community but
Hen, White he feels something
Dog, Village missing in his life,
Elder so he marries Doña
Ines from another
community. But to
keep the respect
of this other
community, he has
to undergo the
difficulties of fishing
for rarang. Lam-ang
meets death but is
brought back to life
by his rooster, hen,
and dog.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  51


Answers to Exercise B, p. 88

Selection Setting Characters Plot

Florante at Laura Albania and a forest Florante, Adolfo, Florante becomes


(Synopsis) in Albania Laura, King Linceo, a hero of Albania
Persian general because of his
prowess in the war
against invading
Persians. While he
is away at another
war, his rival,
Adolfo, seizes the
throne of Florante’s
future father-
in-law and upon
his return from
war, he is seized
by Adolfo’s men
and left in a forest
to die. Florante is
saved by a Persian
general and returns
to Albania where he
overthrows Adolfo.

E. READING 3: The Man by Juan de Atayde, p. 89


1. Ask EQ #2 Again. Let them see the purpose behind writing poems. Elicit their brilliant
ideas.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Ask the students to tell when their birthdays are. Then, have them read and answer
the questions in Unveil What You Know.
b. For more information about why some people look forward to birthdays while
others don’t, have the students read the text in For Your Information.
c. Take up the expressions in Unlock the Meaning of Words. These expressions should
have been assigned a day before. Check on comprehension of meanings by having
the students use the expressions in sentences. An exercise similar to the following
may also be given.

Directions: Complete each sentence with either disdain or undermining.


1. The child does not like to wear formal clothes. His _____ for it often
leads to arguments with his mother.
2. Excavating mountainsides for gravel weakens the foundation of the land.
The _____ effect is shown in landslides.

52  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


d. Make the students aware that they are going to study a poem by Juan de Atayde.
For information about the author, let them read Understand Author’s Profile. Then,
ask them to read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading to make them
aware of what to look out for while reading the poem.
3. Facilitate the oral reading of the poem.
4. For comprehension check, have them answer the questions in Sharing Insights.

Questions 1-2 develop the students’ ability to grasp the message of the poem.
Question 3 requires the students to react and to justify their reactions. Question
4 makes the students relate to their lives the significant idea of the poem.

5. Ask the students to read the poem once more for appreciation. Lead them to realize EU
#2.

Significant ideas like life and death are articulated in poems which may
be related to people’s lives. Hence, a poem may be written to convey a mes-
sage that affects life in general.

  The writer’s purpose determines the form of a text


that credits writing with quality.

  What is the relevance of literary technique and


language forms to writing a creative work?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. Man is compared to the tree, for both ignore time and water respectively that
give them life.
2. a. Time , though gives man life; drags him closer to death.
b. “... with an indifferent look.”-man’s procrastination shows how he wastes
and devalues time
3. The flight of time is unkind because life seems to get shorter as time passes by. For
time to be kind, one needs to manage it wisely-- no waste of time be ensured.
4. Responses may vary.

F. Literary Skill 3: Understanding Paradox, pp. 90-92


1. Pose EQ #3 again. Let students recall the message of the poem, The Man. Lead them
to the idea of a paradox. Have the students read the section on paradox. Facilitate a
discussion. Check comprehension by asking them to give examples of paradoxical
situations.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  53


2. Ask the students to do the exercises. Let them read the informative text on paradox
on pages 91-92 and have them list lines that express paradox. Check answers.
3. Process answers, and lead them to connect paradox to EQ #3. Let them realize EU #3.

Paradox is intentionally articulated in literature to convey message that


draws connection to life in reality. Lessons may be drawn; thus, literature,
written for such a purpose, turns out interesting.

  Literary pieces of different genres may be written for


the purpose of educating others.

  What purposes do literary pieces serve humanity?

Answer to Exercise A, p. 91
For though it gives him (man) life, it is dragging him nearer his grave.

Answer to Exercise B, pp. 91-92


The Philippines was a Spanish creation but was freed through the assistance of the
Americans under the presidency of Emilio Aguinaldo whose government was never
recognized by both the Spanish and US authorities and international community of
nations. The independence was just a mere declaration.

G. Vocabulary: Using Words with Multiple Meanings, p. 93


1. Preview final task: Writing a Different Ending (See Stage 2, Performance Task). Explain
that, to do the task well, they will have to use words correctly, especially words with
multiple meanings.
2. Prompt: How can you tell which meaning is appropriate? Let the students answer
through reading the section. Ask them to give examples of words with different mean-
ings. Then, have them do the exercise.
3. Discuss answers to the exercises.
4. More exercises may be given. Then, ask them how this skill will help them accomplish
their writing task.

Answers to Exercise, p. 93
1. c 4. e 7. h 10. j
2. a 5. d 8. i 11. k
3. b 6. f 9. g 12. l

54  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


H. Listening/Viewing: Summarizing a Biography, p. 94
1. Ask EQ #1 again. Explain that in order to write anything that is inspirational and will
foster change, students will have to know a lot about the world and the people. One
good source is to look at the lives of the writers of the literary pieces taken up in this
lesson. The biographies may provide a source of inspiration for others, too.
2. Have the students listen to a biography of Francisco Balagtas. It will be convenient for
you to record the biography on tape. After listening, ask them to give an oral summary
of it. Guide questions are given on page 94.

Listening Selection

Francisco Balagtas was born in Panginay, Bigaa (now Balagtas), Bulacan


on April 2, 1788 to Juan Balagtas and Juana dela Cruz. He was also called
Francisco Baltazar or Kikong Balagtas. He was married to Juana Tiambeng of
Orion, Bataan by whom he had seven children. Even as a boy, Kiko could sense
that there were injustices in his country and that his countrymen were suffer-
ing in the hands of the Spanish rulers. He could feel something was wrong,
but could not fully understand why. He came to understand these when, as
a young man, he fell in love with Celia, a love which brought trouble to his
life. He was put to prison by his strong rival who was the town cacique. He
depicted the injustices his people suffered in his poems, notably the Florante
at Laura. Florante at Laura, Balagtas’ masterpiece, depicts the evils that beset
our countrymen during the Spanish regime. While Albania was the setting and
the characters were of foreign names, the heroes and heroines stood for his
countrymen, and the conditions described were the very ones existing in his
country. The book contains passages on upright living and lessons on justice,
love, respect for elders, industry, discipline, and patriotism. It is considered
one of the best poems and Balagtas is considered the “Prince of Tagalog Poets.”

3. Process their summarizing activity.


4. Ask them how the experience helped them understand how author’s profile affects
writing and purpose.

Why are literary pieces of different genres written?

MEDIA LITERACY ASSESSMENT


Ask them to work on a viewing activity. Let students watch a biography
of Dr. Jose Rizal (google on the Internet), and ask them to make Rizal’s
profile which includes his educational backgrounds and achievements..

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  55


I. Speaking: Expressing Encouragement, p. 95
1. In light of the writing task, ask students how they give encouragement. “Have you had
opportunities where you were caught in situations and you were given encouragement
because you lost hope? Or have you experienced giving encouragement to other people
who need it?” Make the students share.
2. Have the students read the section on page 95. Then, have them role-play the situations
given in Exercise section on the same page.
3. Process the students’ presentation. Ask them to answer the reflection question. Tell
them that they can use what they learn when they give each other encouragement in
the peer editing portion of the task. Lead them to realize that encouragement from
people who love them may put them back on their feet.

J. Study and Research: Recognizing Types of Reading, pp. 96-100


1. Ask the students to read the section on types of reading, and let them note their char-
acteristics. For practice, let them do the Exercises on pages 97-100.
2. Let students do Exercise A, that is, to skim through a newspaper and summarize as
much news they possibly can. Process their learning experiences.
3. Then, group students into three, and let them do Exercise B. Each member takes on a
task: skim, scan, or give the topic sentence. Process their answers.

K. Grammar: Using Correct Subject-Verb Agreement, pp. 101-104


1. Ask EQ #2 again. Have the students read the extracted sentences from the summary of the
corrido Ibong Adarna. Let them analyze the language forms. Guide them to identify the verbs
and their subjects.
2. Ask them to explore the section. Lead them to see the relationship of the verb and its
subject in number.
3. Have the students read the generalization in the side bar. Then, let them work on the ex-
ercises.
4. Process understanding. Ask students how correct subject-verb agreement helps them
in doing their writing or performance task. Elicit EU #2.

  The writer’s purpose determines the form of a text


that credits writing with quality.

  What is the relevance of literary technique and


language forms to writing a creative work?

56  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise A, p. 102
1. shows 6. says 11. comes
2. represents 7. finds 12. join
3. looks 8. organize 13. walk
4. plays 9. take 14. play
5. search 10. waits 15. do

Answers to Exercise B, pp. 103-104


1. dramatizes 6. bases 11. differs
2. act 7. does 12. goes
3. do 8. write 13. takes
4. chooses 9. say 14. remember
5. chooses 10. aims 15. learn

L. Writing: Writing a Different Ending, pp. 105-106


1. Ask the students to think once more of the story Ibong Adarna. Ask them whether or
not they liked the ending. Have them explain their answers.
2. Tell the students that they can create different endings for the story based on situations
which are contrary to what happened in the story, e.g. Suppose the hermit had not come
on time to save Don Juan, what would have happened? Ask the students to create an
ending for such a situation.
3. Have the students read the section on pages 105-106. Then, let them work on the ex-
ercise. Let them follow the writing process outlined on the same pages.
a. Prewriting
Ask students to do the brainstorming activities: difficulties Don Juan would
suffer being unconsciously tied to the tree; outcome between the king and the
Adarna bird; and resolution to Don Juan’s relationship with his father.
b. Drafting
Let students write their different ending using their notes in the prewriting stage.
c. Editing and Proofreading
Ask students to have their work seen by a classmate for corrections in con-
ventions: grammar, mechanics, spelling, and punctuation marks. Then, let each
implement needed corrections.
d. Sharing
Let students read their work in a group of three. Then, have them choose at
least three best work and ask the students to read their work in the class.
4. Revisit EQ #1 and #3. Let them recall the purposes in writing the story Ibong Adarna,
the poem, The Man, and the informational texts, Why we should not celebrate Philip-
pine Independence Day and The Spanish Era in the Philippines. Elicit final answers.
Let students see meeting points between their initial and final answers. Lead them to
realize EU #1 and EU #3.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  57


Both literary and informative texts are written for purposes of fostering
national change, educating young and old alike, and drawing messages which
may be helpful to a morally upright living.

  Choosing to do good or choosing to do evil has its


own inevitable consequences.

  How does goodness or evil define a person’s life?

  Literary pieces of different genres may be written for


the purpose of educating others.

  What purposes do literary pieces serve humanity?

M. Performance Task: Writing a Different Ending, p. 107


1. Let students do what is required of them. Let them use the rubric provided for their
guide in writing an excellent different ending to the corrido Ibong Adarna. Allow stu-
dents time to revise and refine their work. Engage them in peer assessment, so they
can practice what they learn on giving encouragement. Have one best work shared to
the whole class as a model.

58  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Lesson 4 Imbibing the Nationalistic Spirit

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Literature can be a powerful vehicle to Write an idiom story.
advocate patriotism and national reform.
2. Authors make use of literary devices and Essential Questions
varied language forms to make stories
and poems more interesting. What essential questions will be asked?
1. How effective is literature in influencing
national reform?
2. Why do writers use literary devices and
varied language forms?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:


1. how to imbibe nationalistic spirit. 1. discuss the spirit of nationalism in the
2. two types of reasoning. literary and informative texts of the
3. how to recognize apostrophe. period.
4. how to predict an ending. 2. share insights to comprehension
5. idiomatic expressions. questions.
6. how to get the main ideas. 3. name and explain the two types of
7. accurate expressions on making an reasoning.
apology. 4. identify apostrophes in a poem.
8. how to distinguish the sounds /s/ and /z/ 5. predict the ending to a selection.
in words. 6. use idioms in sentences correctly.
9. parts of a book. 7. identify the main idea in a listening text
10. pronoun-antecedent agreement. or a video clip.
11. how to write an idiom story. 8. use accurate expressions in making an
12. how to write synthesis and journal logs. apology.
9. distinguish between the sounds of /s/ and
/z/ in words.
10. identify the different parts of a book.
11. make the pronouns agree with their
antecedents.
12. write an idiom story.
13. write synthesis and journal logs.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  59


Stage 2: Assessment Evidence

Performance Task

You have been tapped as a regular contributing writer to English Magazine published by Vibal
Publishing House Inc. (VPHI). The Vibal English Magazine 7 is a quarterly publication of sup-
plementary materials for its subscribers in Grade Seven of Philippine private schools. Your
writing job for the first issue is to make up a story to explain how the idiom began and what it
means today. Write your story considering the set of criteria below.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Story About an Idiom

CRITERIA/ 5 - Exceeds 4 - Meets 3 - Approaches 2 - Needs 1 - Needs


SCORE Standards Standards Standards Instructions Remediation

Engagement Creatively Capture’s Somewhat Attempts to Attempts to


of Readers captures the readers’ engages the let readers engage the
the readers’ attention. readers. know that readers.
attention. the writer has
a voice and
context.

Organization Establishes a There is a Organi- Attempts Little organi-


clear organi- sound organi- zational to organize zational
zational zational structure is material. structure
structure structure evident but Sequences is evident.
that includes that includes not fully events, but Writing is not
a series of a series of implemented. may not coherent.
incidents incidents Creates a describe
or events. or events. series of them. May
Develops the Develops the events. attempt
action (focal action (focal Begins to to develop
event). Paces event). Paces develop action.
narrative to narrative to the action
highlight highlight (focal event).
significance significance Attempts
of events. of events. to provide
pacing.

60  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Development Clearly gives Gives specific Uses details Gives details Character(s)
specific details about the about the may be
details about the character(s). character(s), mentioned
about the character(s). Somewhat but does but not
character(s). Describes describes the not develop described or
Effectively the charac- character(s). them. developed.
describes ter(s) using Attempts
the charac- concrete to develop
ter(s) using language and character(s).
concrete descriptive Dialogue may
language and word choice. be attempted
descriptive Develops but
word choice. character(s) ineffective.
Develops internally
character(s) and exter-
internally nally through
and exter- dialogue and
nally through action.
effective
dialogue and
action.

Details Details and Details and One or two Much extra- Extraneous
action move action move extraneous neous infor- information
the writing the writing details, not mation may preclude
forward forward. confusing. compre-
without hension.
distracting.

Closure Ends with a Ends with Ends with a Ends with an Simply ends
strong, satis- a satisfying closure that inadequate with no sense
fying closure. closure. is less than sense of of closure
satisfying or closure. evident.
is confusing.

Mechanics Clearly Ends with Explains Attempts to Fails to


explains a satisfying idiom but explain idiom explain
idiom that closure. lacks sense. but inade- idiom.
makes sense quate.
to the reader.

Source: http://www.rcampus.com/rubricshowc.cfm?code=V362A5&sp=yes&

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  61


Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based upon the ability to gener-
ate and answer high-level questions about the prereading activities and Sharing Insights
of The True Decalogue, My Last Farewell, and El Filibusterismo
2. Identifying general statements and specific cases in the informative text Remembering
Edsa People Power Revolution
3. Identifying apostrophe
4. Predicting an ending
5. Using idioms in sentences correctly
6. Getting the main ideas from an excerpt and video clip
7. Expressing an apology
8. Pronouncing correctly words with /s/ and /z/ sounds
9. Identifying parts of a book
10. Writing sentences and paragraphs observing pronoun-antecedent agreement

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Ask students how they can show patriotism and imbibe the spirit of nationalism. Let them
share and justify their answers.
➲ Introduce the lesson by telling the students that they will be reading nationalistic writings
by two Philippine heroes. Inform them that they will explore whether these writings did
have an impact on the nation, and whether literature is an effective medium for national
reform. Tell them at the end of the lesson, they will also be writing an idiom story.
➲ Preview them the rubric that goes with their Performance Task and give them the descrip-
tion (see Stage 2). Discuss with students the Learning Objectives of the lesson.
➲ Encourage the students to study the illustration on page 106. Group them in pairs to have
Two-Minute Talks discussing what they think about the title and the figure. Then, have
them share their discussion to the rest of the class in a plenary discussion. Facilitate a
discussion of the background.
➲ Have the students read the background. For comprehension checkup, ask the following
questions:
1. Who were the major propagandists?
2. How would you characterize Philippine literature in the later part of the Spanish regime?
3. What were the contributions of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo to the country?

Background

The flow of Western liberal ideas brought by the opening of the Suez Canal and by Filipinos who
had studied abroad, powered the minds of Filipino reformists and revolutionaries. Literature

62  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


became a valuable tool for asking reforms from Spain and for impressing among the people
the necessity of a revolution. It played a vital role in uniting the Filipinos in their struggle for
independence.

A. Reading 1: The True Decalogue, pp. 109-111


1. Ask students EQ #1. Elicit responses. Prompt: Which nationalistic writings of Philip-
pine heroes have you read? Let students summarize what they learned from what they
read.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Show a picture of Apolinario Mabini. Have the students identify him. Then, have
them read and answer the question in Unveil What You Know.
b. Have them know more about Apolinario Mabini by letting them read the text in
For Your Information on page 110. Stress that he was not only a patriot but also a
writer.
c. Have them read also Understand Author’s Profile for more information about
Mabini. Check on comprehension through the following questions.
• What kind of papers did Apolinario Mabini write?
• What did he stress in his writings?
• Do you agree with his ideas? Explain.
d. Let the students read aloud the expressions in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Make
the students aware that they will get the meanings of the words in italics from
context. Check on their comprehension of the meanings before taking up Sharing
Insights.
e. Ask the students to study the illustration and the title of the selection. Ask them
what they expect the selection to be about. Then, let them read the questions in
Underscore a Motive for Reading to make them aware of what to look for as they
read the selection.
3. Ask students to do an oral reading of the selection.
a. Introduce the title. Ask the students what they understand from the word decalogue
(deka means ten; decalogue means a code consisting of ten commandments).
b. Ask the students to name another Filipino statesman who wrote a similar code
(Andres Bonifacio, in his Katungkulan ng mga Anak ng Bayan).
c. Divide the class into ten groups with each one to take charge of reading and ex-
plaining one code in The True Decalogue.
4. Let students answer the questions on Sharing Insights. Sum up the important points in
the selection by having the students read and answer the questions in Sharing Insights.
Lead the students to realizing EU #1.

Mabini’s code of conduct expressed in The True Decalogue, if followed


today, would help much in minimizing graft and corruption in government
and dishonesty in private citizens.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  63


  Literature can be a powerful vehicle to advocate patri-
otism and national reform.

  How effective is literature in influencing national


reform?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. Recognize authority duly elected by the people, for true authority emanates
from God.
2. a. help people by all means
b. treat everyone as friend, brother, and comrade-- bound by common aspira-
tions and interests
3. a. because God and honor are our core, the driving force in life.
b. because through the conscience, God directs.
4. a. because our country provides us life, love and interest, happiness, honor,
posterity, and God
b. because if our country is happy, the people are happy, too.
5. because a monarchy is the rule of one or several families to create a dynasty
whereas a republic makes a people worthy through reason; great, through
liberty; prosperous and brilliant, through labor
6. SIMILARITIES – both number ten both are about the good path; both use as
beginning statement: “Thou shalt...”
DIFFERENCES – Ten Commandments: composed of declarative sentences but no further
explanation; True Decalogue: composed of a premise followed by explanation
7. Responses may vary.
8. We can honor God by how we live, like nurturing His many gifts, being God-fearing,
compassionate, loving, and respectful

B. Literary Skill 1: Using Deductive Reasoning, pp. 112-113


1. Ask the students to study once more the tenets in The True Decalogue. Let them note
that each tenet starts with a general statement which is supported by specific cases.
Tell the students this is one type of reasoning.
2. Ask the students to read the section on page 112. Ask them to read the general state-
ment in each tenet. Then, let them read the specific cases.
3. Tell the students that another type — inductive reasoning — is the opposite of deduc-
tive reasoning. In inductive reasoning specific cases are cited, then from the specific
cases, a general statement is made.
4. Give the students practice in reasoning deductively by writing on the board a general
statement, then letting the students cite specific cases, e.g.,

64  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


• Trees are a great help to us. (General statement) (Let the students tell why trees
are a great help. These should be specific cases.)
• People destroy themselves when they destroy the environment. (General statement)
(Have the students tell why.)
5. Ask the students to work on the exercises on pages 112-113.

Answer to Exercise A
(The general statement is expressed in the second paragraph; the subsequent
sentences/paragraphs express the specific cases).

Answer to Exercise B may vary.

C. Reading 2: “My Last Farewell” (An Excerpt), by Jose Rizal, pp. 114-115
1. Pose EQ #1 again. Let students share which Rizal’s works they read in the past. Ask
them to discuss their learning.
2. Have the students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Show a picture of Jose Rizal to the students. Have them identify the man in the
picture. Then, direct them to the text in Unveil What You Know. Jose Rizal has
several works, among them, the poems Maria Clara’s Song and The Motherland;
the story My Mother and the Reading Lesson; and his two novels, Noli Me Tangere
and El Filibusterismo.
b. For more information about Jose Rizal, ask the students to read the text in For Your
Information as well as Understand the Author’s Profile. Check on the students’
comprehension through the following questions:
• What did Jose Rizal seek to do through his writings?
• What poem is considered his best? How was this poem saved for posterity?
• How do many people regard Jose Rizal?
c. Ask the students to read aloud the expressions in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Let
students give the meaning. Check on students’ comprehension of the meanings by
giving them an exercise that follows.

Directions: Replace the underlined word with either hapless, delirium,


or perish.
1. Plants that do not receive water, air, and sunlight are sure to die.
(perish)
2. The unfortunate man met a lot of accidents yesterday. (hapless)
3. The man with a high temperature was in a disordered state of
mind, with incoherent speech.(delirium)

d. Make the students know the purpose for their reading by letting them read the
question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  65


3. Check on students’ comprehension by having them answer the questions on Sharing
Insights.

Question 1 calls for an overall impression about the writer which one
can get from reading the poem. Questions 2,3,5,6 enable the students to re-
call information and make inferences. Question 4 makes the students relate
descriptions in the poem to factual events in Philippine history. Questions 7
and 8 develop the students’ ability to make supported opinions.

4. Ask how Rizal’s writings targeted change in our country. Lead them to realize EU #1.
Touch on the essence of Rizal’s novels to Filipinos and the Spanish friars.

  How effective is literature in influencing national


reform?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. Paragraph 1 shows the writer’s immense love for his country.
a. “Land that I love”
b. “Gaily go I to present you this hapless, hopeless life; were it more brilliant,
had it more freshness, more bloom: still for you would I give it-would give
it for your good.”
2. The speaker used the following expressions to rename his country:
a. ”Land the sun loves”
b. “Pearl in the sea of the Orient”
c. “Eden lost to your brood”
3. The speaker dreamed for his country’s liberation from its colonizers.
a. (paragraph 3)- “I am to die....let spill my blood: Scatter it in good hour,
and drench it in its gold one- the beam of the newborn light.”
b. (paragraph 5)- “Enchantment of my life, my ardent avid obsession: To
your health!...O lovely:how lovely: to fall that you may rise! To perish that
you may live!“ Historically speaking, the speaker’s dream is achieved years
after the writer’s death. Rizal’s surname was used as the password of KKK
(Katipunan), lead by Andres Bonifacio, showed the writer’s influence to the
Filipinos. Rizal died but the battle was continued by those who believed
that the country deserved liberty.
4. Paragraph 4 would give you an idea of how the speaker lived his life and
hoped for a better life. Note the contradictions.
a. ”to behold you one day- Jewel of eastern waters!-griefless the dusky
eyes: lofty the upright brow: unclouded, unfurrowed, unblemished, and

66  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


unashamed!” The writer’s life is the opposite of the underlined words.—
”to behold means his life is not what he envisions—living a life with
independence and a country with liberty—“griefless means his life is
with grief.”—“upright brow means his life is without dignity;hence, it is
clouded, furrowed, blemished, and ashamed.”
b. *Paragraph 2—he mentioned about the battle field where he with the
other citizens were fighting in delirium. Philippine history sketches how
desperate and determine Filipinos are to achieve independence..
5. The speaker is ready to offer his life as a sacrifice to revive his dying country.
This could be read:
a. Paragraph 1- ”Gaily go I to present you this hapless, hopeless life...would
give it for your good.”
b. Paragraph 5- ”To your health!cries the soul, so soon to take the last leap;
to your health!...to perish that you may live!”
6-8. Responses may vary.

D. Literary Skill 2: Recognizing Apostrophe, pp. 116-117


1. Ask the students EQ #2. Entertain initial answers. Then, let them read the section on
page 116. Let them answer the questions in the side bar.
2 To show understanding of the apostrophe, ask the students to look for examples of it
in the given lines or stanzas. Ask them to tell who or what is the addressee of each of
their examples.
3. Let the students work on Exercises A and B on pages 116-117. To end the lesson, ask
the students to tell when an apostrophe is used. Elicit EU #2.

  Authors make use of literary devices and varied


language forms to make stories and poems more interesting.

  Why do writers use literary devices and varied language


forms?

E. Reading 3: “El Filibusterismo” (An Excerpt), by Jose Rizal, pp. 118-122


1. Let students recall the discussion on what Rizal sought through putting his ideas and
experiences into writing. Ask students to discuss the effects of his writings to our
country.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Ask the students to think about and discuss what they know about the Spanish
rule in the Philippines. Make them aware that a book titled El Filibusterismo or The
Reign of Greed was written about that period. Then, have them read and answer
the question in Unveil What You Know. Accept all relevant answers.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  67


b. Have the students know more about the book by letting them read the text in For
Your Information and Understand Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension by
having the students answer the following questions.
• What is the book El Filibusterismo about?
• How are the books Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo related?
c. Let the students read the expressions in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Let them
discuss the meaning of the words. Check on comprehension of the meanings
through the following exercise.

Directions: Replace the underlined expression with either rancor,


iniquity, or servile.
1. The hate he has carried in his heart for a long time made him
bitter. (rancor)
2. He could do nothing but shake his head at the great injustice of
it all. (iniquity)
3. Slave-like obedience encourages tyranny. (servile)

d. Tell the students that they will be reading the excerpt from the last chapter of El
Filibusterismo. Direct the students’ attention to the statement in Underscore a
Motive for Reading.
3. Let the students do a silent reading of the text. Do a numbered head assignment and tell
the class that if their number is called out, they will take responsibility to summarize
a paragraph from the excerpt.
4. Have students answer the Sharing Insights.
a. Check on students’ comprehension of the synopsis preceding the last chapter of
El Filibusterismo by asking the following questions.
• What were Simoun’s two plans? What made him think he could go through with
these plans?
• Why did his plans fail?
• What lessons can we learn from Simoun’s failure?
b. Process answers and ask them the following:
• How does the situation in the Philippines as spoken of in the novel compare with
the situation
• How can our problems caused by greed and injustice be solved?
5. Revisit EQ #1. Lead them to a deeper understanding as to how Rizal’s writings affected
those that were attacked by his words in his novels. Lead them to realize EU #1.

  Literature can be a powerful vehicle to advocate patri-


otism and national reform.

68  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Sharing Insights
1. Padre Florentino was afraid, for he was with a rebel who’s against the Spaniards
and murderer of the oppressors.
2. Simoun’s failure was attributed to lack of worthy means in achieving a worthy
cause. Simoun wanted freedom for his country, equality between the Indios
and Spaniards, and justice for his people. However, Simoun’s hatred only bore
monsters—more crime, more victims, and purposeless death. Padre Florentino
is speaking of Rizal’s view of Himagsikan—by force. Rizal is doubting the
readiness of Filipinos to lead the country by themselves. He fears that some
Filipinos might be the oppressor of their own kind. The priest (Rizal to that
effect) is correct to say that “the slave is the image of his master; the country,
of its government”.
3. From paragraph 8: The just and the worthy must suffer so that their ideas may
be known and spread. The vessel must be shaken or broken to release the
perfume…
Simply, it is saying that some people need to die for a worthy cause to infect
a great number of people to participate in claiming this worthy cause.
4. Paragraph 10 explains how tyranny would only bear a toadstool (a poisonous
fungus);-only make the situation worse. It is like a blind man leading a group
of blind people.
5-8. Responses may vary.

F. Literary Skill 3: Predicting an Ending, p. 123


1. The students have studied this in their earlier lessons. Review them on it. Then, have
them read the section on page 123. Ask them to deliberate on EQ #2 again. Prompt:
“Why do writers predict an ending to a story?” Elicit responses. Make them base their
responses on the recent film they have watched.
2. Let the students work on the exercises. This will encourage them to read one of the
greatest novels written by a Filipino.

G. Vocabulary: Using Idioms, pp. 124-126


1. Pose EQ #2 again. Ask students to discuss what the use of idioms does to stories and
poems. Process initial answers.
2. Ask the students to read the first paragraph on page 124. Lead them to understand the
definition of an idiom given in the last sentence of the paragraph.
3. Cite other common idioms. Let the students guess their meanings of the following from
context.
• We wanted to cut across the plaza to save time. (take a shorter route)
• The teacher told us to say the poem by heart. (from memory)
• Let us face up to our problems instead of running away from them. (face with
courage)
• He tried to clear the air by telling a joke. (to get rid of the emotional tension)

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  69


4. Let the students read the chart of idioms on pages 124-125. Have them use the idioms in
sentences.
5. Let the students study the chart on page 125. Have them use the idioms in sentences.
6. Let the students work on the exercises on pp. 125-126.

  Why do writers use literary devices and varied language


forms?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 125


1. survive 5. inconsistent
2. going down 6. disapprove
3. recover 7. think
4. hasten 8. get involved in

Answers to Exercise B on page 126 may vary.

H. Listening/Viewing: Getting the Main Idea, p. 127


1. Let the students recall the types of reading in the previous lesson. Then, ask them how
they get the main idea in a selection. Let them share.
2. Ask the students to read the section on page 127. Explain that the main idea tells
what the paragraph is about and may be found at the beginning, end, or middle of a
paragraph. Explain further that a main idea may be stated directly (explicit) or it may
be inferred (implicit).
3. Ask the students to do the exercises indicated on page 127. Let them listen to a paragraph,
and ask them to pick out the main idea. For Exercise A, you may choose a paragraph
of your own, or give the following:

Rizal Stands for Change

Rizal constantly repeated his mantra of nationalism, love for country, and
peaceful change through institutional reforms. His wish list of values for the
Filipino challenges each of us to look at ourselves and aspire for the nobility
of character. His message was all about change and transformation.
Change, a very personal process, begins in each and every one of us through
the choices we make every day. It is not so much Rizal’s supreme sacrifice of
martyrdom that is important to our daily lives, but the way he did ordinary
things extraordinarily well.
The exhibition includes an installation as a walking circular meditation.
Visitors are urged to walk around it and to reflect on each of Rizal’s words, to
imbibe them and to live them.

70  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


1. Live a life of honor and integrity.
2. Have the passion to excel.
3. Go for the achievement of your Dreams and aspirations.
4. Respect and love your parents.
5. Use your God-given talents.
6. Have love and pride for the Filipino race.
Source: http://www.yuchengcomuseum.org/press-room/
RIZALizing%20the%20Future%20
-%20media%20information%20sheet.pdf

I. Speaking 1: Making an Apology, pp. 128-129


1. Have the students tell what an apology is and what it infers. Ask them to tell about
situations where they had to make an apology. Stress that the apology infers a request
for forgiveness; therefore, it must be said in a conciliatory tone.
2. Have the students read the section on page 128. Let pairs of students say the dialogs;
then, have them answer the question.
3. Let the students work on the exercise on page 129. Encourage them to create dialogs
based on the given situations.

MEDIA LITERACY ASSESSMENT


Let students do Exercise B. Give the students the website address: http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUXxkjV56xw, and tell them to view the
video. Let them get the main idea. Process their answers.

J. Speaking 2: Saying Words Correctly, p. 130


1. Show to the students pairs of words—one with the /s/ sound and the other with the
/z/ sound. Lead the students to discover the difference in meaning and the confusion
that would arise when these words are not pronounced correctly.
bus — buzz ssay — easy
2. Ask the students to read the section on page 130. Then, have them work on the exer-
cises.

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  71


Answers to Exercise B, p. 130
rice, rise lace, lays phase, faze
1. rice (s) 1. lays (z) 1. phase (s)
2. rise (z) 2. lace (s) 2. faze (z)
3. rice, rise 3. lays, lace 3. faze, phase

mace, maze grace, graze


1. mace (s) 1. grace (s)
2. maze (z) 2. graze (z)
3. mace, maze 3. grace, graze

K. Study and Research: Studying Parts of a Book, pp. 131-132


1. Have the students go over any book they have.
2. Have them turn the page to the title page. Ask them what information they get from
this page. Then, let them know that this is the title page.
3. Follow the same procedure for the other parts of the book. Guide the students to know
that some books do not have a glossary, an appendix, or an index. Show them these
parts of a book from any book at hand.
4. Let the students see the similarity or difference between the table of contents and the
index.
5. To deepen their knowledge on the parts of the book, have them read the section on
page 131; then, let them work on the exercise on page 132.

Answers to Exercise, p. 132


1. glossary 6. table of contents
2. title page 7. title page
3 copyright page 8. title page and copyright page
4. preface 9. appendix
5. copyright page 10. index

L. Grammar: Using Correct Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement, pp. 133-137


1. Ask EQ # 2 again. Let students discuss the significance of observing pronoun-antecedent
agreement in their writing. Tell the students to bear in mind the rules on pronoun-
antecedent agreement as these will help them in writing their final task—idiom story.
2. Ask students to study the sentences given on page 133. Let them explore the explana-
tion notes, the concept digest in the section. Let them take note some of these notes
in the side bar.
3. Let students study the notes on page 134, and facilitate Socratic questioning of these
notes to test understanding.

72  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


4. Have students do the exercises. Discuss answers for accuracy.
5. Allow students time to do research work for a more accurate written paragraph on EDSA
People Power Revolution. Publish the best paragraphs either through a plenary sharing or
gallery walk (post works on the walls of the classroom and let students walk around to read
these works).
6. Remind students to observe correct pronoun-antecedent agreement in doing their
writing or performance task.

  Why do writers use literary devices and varied language


forms?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 135


1. Apolinario Mabini 6. we
2. He 7. Everyone
3. He 8. one
4. people 9. person
5. True Decalogue 10. one

Answers to Exercise B, p. 135


1. a 6. d
2. a 7. c
3. a 8. d
4. d 9. c
5. b 10. a

Answers to Exercise C, D, and E, pp. 136-137 may vary.

M. Writing: Writing Idioms, pp. 138-139


1. Review the students on what an idiom is. Have them give examples.
2. Ask the students to read the section on page 138 . Check on comprehension by asking
them to explain how the idiom give a cold shoulder originated. Ask them how they get
rid politely of an overstaying guest.
3. Have the students work on the exercise on the same page.
a. Prewriting
Ask students to do a brainstorming on the following questions:
• When did the idiom originate?
• In what place did it originate?
• How did it begin?
• How was it spread?

Unit I: The Period of Ancient Literature  |  73


They may use the idioms they studied earlier or use others like:
• a close call (a narrow escape)
• clear away (to remove)
• break one’s heart (to be overcome by disappointment)
• cut and dried (arranged or decided beforehand)
• eat one’s heart out (to grieve or be lost in sorrow)
• face the music (to be ready to take the punishment)
b. Drafting
Let students write their idiom story using their notes in the prewriting stage.
c. Editing and Proofreading
Ask students to have their work edited by a classmate for corrections in con-
ventions: grammar, mechanics, spelling, and punctuation marks. Then, let each
student implement needed corrections.
d. Sharing
Let students read their work in a group of three. Then, have the class choose at
least three best work, and ask the students to read their work in the class.
4. Revisit EQ #1. Let students recall the literary texts: The True Decalogue, My Last
Farewell, and El Filibusterismo and the informational text, Remembering Edsa People
Power Revolution. Ask them how each has contributed to national reform at that time.
Let them see its relevance to life at present. Ask them to compare and contrast their
initial and final answers. Lead them to realize the EU #1.

  Literature can be a powerful vehicle to advocate patri-


otism and national reform.

  How effective is literature in influencing national


reform?

N. Performance Task: Idiom Story Writing, pp. 140-141


1. Let students do what is required of them. Let them use the rubric provided for their
guide in writing a well-crafted idiom story. Allow students time to revise and refine
their work. Engage them in peer assessment, so they can practice what they learn on
making an apology. Publish at least three best works for the whole class to draw in-
spiration from.

O. Unit Learning Assessment: pp. 142-143


1. Let students do the synthesis and reflection of their learning. Let them write on the
worksheets. Have them share in triad. Conduct processing activity after by calling
volunteers randomly to share their learning experiences. Let them keep a journal of
these learnings.

74  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


II the period of apprenticeship
and emergence

  How can the varried literary genres be used to express a whole


range of human experiences?

  Stories, poems, and other literary genres are powerful vehicles


to relating different significant human ideas, experiences, emotions, and
insights.

Lesson 5 Meeting Halfway

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Writers follow sentence patterns and use  Read and write a poem.
poetical devices like metaphors, imagery,
rhyme, and rhythm to convey their Essential Questions
thoughts, feelings, and experiences. What essential questions will be asked?
2. Sentences are the thought units of 1. What can make literature interesting and
poetry. memorable?

2. Is grammar ignored in poetry?

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  75


Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:

1. the form of Philippine literature during 1. discuss literature during the American
the American occupation. occupation.

2. how to make inference. 2. discuss answers to comprehension


questions.
3. how to visualize setting.
3. draw inferences from given lines.
4. imagery and metaphors.
4. describe the setting in a story.
5. how to sense rhythm in poetry.
5. recognize and write metaphors.
6. how to use the index.
6. recognize and explain imagery.
7. the function of intransitive verb,
transitive verb, indirect object, and direct 7. determine the rhythm used in a poem.
object.
8. use the index correctly.
8. how to read and write verses.
9. identify and use transitive and intransitive
verbs in sentences correctly.

10. identify and use indirect objects in


sentences correctly.

11. write and edit verses.

76  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence
Performance Task

You are attending an inter-school poetry festival. Hence, you have been tasked to write a poem
that contains a message for the youth. Focus your message on valuing education. You are re-
quired to make good use of metaphors and imagery in your verse. You may also take advantage
of rhyme and rhythm in poetry.
Prior to joining in the poetry festival, your are going to read your own before your class-
mates and teachers, and be ready for feed backs. Apply what you have learned about sensing
rhythm in poetry, and use the guidelines below for your success.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Poem

CRITERIA/
4 - Superior 3 - Adequate 2 - Minimal 1 - Inadequate
SCORE

Word Choice Writer uses Writer uses Writer uses Writer uses a
vibrant language words that limited vocab-
language that that allows communicate ulary that does
lingers and the reader to clearly, but the not commu-
allows the understand writing lacks nicate strongly
reader to see what is being variety. or capture
what is being written about. the reader’s
written about. interest.

Use of The use of Metaphors Either a There are no


Metaphors metaphors and imagery metaphor or metaphors or
and Imagery and imagery are present, an imagery is imagery.
is creative and though the missing from
logical. use is not the verse.
entirely
creative or
logical.

Content Writer fully Supporting Supporting Supporting


supports the details and details and details and
point of the information information information
poem with are relevant, are relevant, are typically
relevant and but one but several unclear or not
cogent details. key issue or key issues or related to the
portion of the portions of topic.
poem is unsup- the poem are
ported. unsupported.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  77


Spelling Writer makes Writer makes Writer makes Writer makes
no errors in 1 or 2 errors in few errors in several errors
spelling. spelling. spelling. in spelling.

Format Writer follows Writer Writer barely Writer does


the format somewhat follows the not follow the
given. follows the format given. format given.
format given.

Source: http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1487&context=
ipp_collection

Rubric on Reading a Poem

CRITERIA/
4 - Superior 3 - Adequate 2 - Minimal 1 - Inadequate
SCORE

Delivery The speaker The volume is The volume is The volume


delivers the not too low too low or too is so slow and
message in or too loud loud and the the rate is
a confident, and the rate is rate is too fast so fast that
poised, not too fast or or too slow. you cannot
enthusiastic too slow. The The pronun- understand
fashion. The pronunciation ciation and most of the
volume and and enunci- enunciation message. The
rate varies to ation are clear. are unclear. pronunciation
add emphasis The speaker The speaker and enunci-
and interest. exhibits few exhibits many ation are
Pronunci- disfluences, disfluencies very unclear.
ation and such as ‘ahs,’ such as ‘ahs,’ The speaker
enunciation ‘uhms,’ or ‘you ‘uhms,’ or appears
are very clear. knows.’ ‘you knows.’ uninterested.
The speaker The listener is
exhibits very distracted by
few disflu- problems in
encies, such the delivery of
as ‘ahs,’ the message
‘uhms,’ or ‘you and has diffi-
knows.’ culty under-
standing the
words in the
message.

78  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Creativity Very original Some Little or no Repetitive
presentation originality variation; with little or
of material; apparent; material no variety;
captures the good variety presented insufficient use
audiences. and blending with little of materials/
of materials/ originality or media.
media. interpretation.

Source: http://www.uen.org?Rubric/rubric.cgi?rubric_id=3545”http://www.uen.org/
Rubric/rubric.cgi?rubric_id=3545

Other Evidence

1. Active discussion on the salient points and/or features of a literary text through a substan-
tial exchange of ideas in the sections Prepare to Read and Sharing Insights of The Return
and The Rhymes
2. An exercise on making inferences
3. An exercise on visualizing setting
4. Practice exercise on identifying and creating metaphors
5. Vocabulary enrichment through using imagery
6. A listening activity on recognizing metaphors
7. A speaking activity on sensing rhythm in poetry
8. Discussion and exercise on using Index
9. Grammar exercises on intransitive verb, transitive verb, indirect object, and direct object

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Introduce the title of the unit. Then, have the students study the illustration. Ask the
students what the illustration suggests. Initiate a brainstorming activity on the Big Idea
of Unit II—Diversified and Divergent Viewpoints. Ask students to read the unit Essential
Question. Discuss with them the development of Philippine literature during the American
occupation. Have them read the unit introduction to give them more information on the
true state of the formative Philippines. Facilitate a discussion of the overview.
➲ Through playing word association, ask students to supply words synonymous to the lesson
illustration and the title, Meeting Halfway. Then, ask them to read the lesson introduction
and lesson learning objectives to provide them an idea on what to expect in the lesson.
Facilitate a discussion on the background.
➲ Preview students the Performance Task (see Stage 2). Explain to them the rubric to be used.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  79


Background

In the early part of the period, there were writers who still used Spanish as a medium. This,
however, gradually changed as various influences were introduced by the new colonizers — the
Americans. In 1900, English was made the medium of instruction in schools. The Americans
opened more schools. In 1901 an army ship, the US Thomas, brought about six hundred
American teachers who stepped up the teaching of the new language. From these teachers –
the Thomasites – whom the Filipinos learned about American and British literary giants such
as William Cullen Bryant, Geoffrey Chaucer, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson,
Alexander Pope and Lord Byron. The works of these famous writers greatly inspired the early
Filipino writers in English.

overview

The arrival of Americans heralded a new phase in Philippine literature. It brought the flower-
ing of free verse, modern short story, and the critical essay, as well as the use of the English
language. Many Filipinos succeeded in using the new language including young writers from
universities. The writers of the period experimented with modernism in the different literary
forms. Debates on the role of literature also came into picture. The most popular was that be-
tween Jose Garcia Villa’s belief of art for art’s sake and Salvador P. Lopez’ stand that literature
should serve the interests of the masses. As in the Spanish time, literature was also used by
many writers to create an awareness among the people on the contemporary problems faced
by the country.

A. Reading 1: The Return by Enrique K. Laygo translated by Alfredo S. Veloso, pp. 148-
153
1. Pose EQ #1. You may prompt your students with the following questions:
• Does using figurative languages like imagery and metaphors can make a literary
text interesting? Explain your answer.
• Does following sentence patterns help put an author’s ideas in shape that conveys
meaningful thoughts, feelings, and experiences? Explain your answer.
• Does familiarity to the context of a literary selection affect you? Explain your answer.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Activate students’ prior knowledge on the concept of the phrase street children in
Unveil What You Know.
b. Tell the students to read For Your Information and Understand Author’s Profile to
learn more things about the selection they are about to read.
c. Make your students note of the italicized words given in Unlock the Meaning of
Words. Inform them that they will give their meanings through context clues.
d. Ask students to read the questions in Underscore a Motive for Reading to give
students hint on what they are about to uncover in the selection.

80  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. Ask students to do a silent reading of the text.
4. Let students answer questions in Sharing Insights. Check students’ comprehension of
vocabulary expressions. Group students into three or four for the sharing of insights.

  What can make literature interesting and memorable?

B. Literary Skill 1: Making Inferences, p. 154


1 Discuss the meaning of making inferences. Cite an example from the literary selection
The Return. And also, inform students that in real life making inferences helps us to
decide on what to do.
2. Make students answer the exercise on making inferences.

Answers to Exercises 1 and 2 may vary. Possible answers may be written as follows:
Exercise 1: In this line, it is understood that Maria (she) has been familiar with this
olfactory activity. According to the text, she could distinguish what
composes ‘the mixture of the odor’.

Exercise 2: Maria (she) has changed a lot and the experience of being there again
gives her a different experience.

C. Literary Skill 2: Visualizing Setting, p. 155


1. Ask students to describe the setting of the selection The Return. Afterwards, discussion
on visualizing setting will follow. Let students answer the exercise.

Answers to Exercises 1 and 2 vary. Possible answers may be written as follows:


Exercise 1: It is the belief to follow the last will of someone who died especially
parents.

Exercise 2: Even if so much has changed in her (Maria), her home, her sister, Trining,
etc., they remain the same; they just age in time.

D. Reading 2: The Rhymes by Flavio Zaragoza-Cano by Alfredo S. Velasco, pp. 156-157


1. Ask EQ #1 again. Lead students in realizing that metaphors color and prompt readers’
mind to imagine.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Elicit students’ schema by means of answering the questions in Unveil What You
Know. You may ask a volunteer to draw the musical instrument on the board or

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  81


you may divide the class into groups the day before the discussion of the poem;
then, each group will be assigned to complete a task. The completed task will be
presented in the class the following day.

GW (Group Work) Tasks:


- an illustration of the musical instrument sketched the way it is described
in the poem
- a recorded two-minute music of lyre
- information about the origin of lyre and definition of lyric poetry to
be written on a butcher paper or cartolina
- read and give the gist of the article “Lost Dragonfly: Tradition and
Translation” By Oscar Campomanes (Philippine Daily Inquirer) in
the website: http://showbizandstyle.inquirer.net/lifestyle/lifestyle/
view/20090712-215096/Lost-Dragonfly-Tradition-and-translation

b. Add on students’ knowledge by making them read For Your Information and Un-
derstand Author’s Profile.
c. Have the students read aloud the vocabulary expressions in Unlock the Meaning of
Words. Tell them to get the meaning of words through context clues as they read
the poem The Rhymes.
d. Set the students’ mood by asking them to look at the illustration and the title of
the poem. Ask them what they think the poem is about. Then, ask them to read
aloud the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.
3. Let students do an oral reading of the poem.
Follow standard procedure for reading a poem. On the third reading, you may
divide the class into groups as they read the poem.
4. Let students answer the questions on Sharing Insights.
Check students’ comprehension of the poem. Revisit EQs. Let students under-
stand that a metaphor is used in the poem which is a figurative language that directly
expresses comparison between two unlike things.

  What makes a poem interesting?

Answers to Sharing Insights


Below are possible answers.
1. The place is somewhere far from the polluted city- a province. This could be
supported by the description in paragraph 2: Extensive plains were already
yellow...ripe palay plantations...background of the panorama...glimmered
contours of plantations of lofty trees.

82  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


2. The girl is probably going to the barrio where she was born and grown. It says
in paragraph 3: as a barrio lass that the same train had separated her from her
past making her flee to unknown lands....
3. She left the barrio full of hopes in achieving her dreams and desires but she
probably failed to materialize her dreams. She felt lost with what happened
to her so she decided to go back to her family who she ‘betrayed’ by leaving
them.
4. The old man,as described in the text, is armored by a strict moral code. Thus,
the old man felt humiliated just by sustaining a conversation with a woman
like her-a person from the city is considered ‘sinful’. This only showed that she
has changed a lot. She does not look like a barrio girl.
5. Describing the landscape in detail gives a vivid picture of the atmosphere in the
barrio. It implicitly expresses the conflicting standards and norms in the barrio
against the city.
6. It is stated in paragraph 11 that she (Maria) misses the barrio and its purity and
simplicity. As said in paragraph 11:...Maria inhaled with a thirst for sweetness
the afternoon’s breeze....
7. Answers may vary.
8. The probable purpose of mentioning those things is to communicate that things,
in the barrio specifically her (Maria) home have not changed while she (Maria)
has undergone changes.
9. Answers may vary.
10. Maria plans to return to her old life and to her old self with her family because
she has gotten a slice of a tempestuous life in the city.
11. She learned that her mother banned her from her home, so she attempted to
commit suicide.
12. Trining contravenes their mother’s wish. She receives Maria to their home.
13. Answers may vary.
14. Answers may vary.
15. Answers may vary.

E. Literary Skill 3: Identifying and Creating Metaphors, pp. 158-159


1. Guide students in exploring the section by allowing them to read the discussion on
identifying and creating metaphors. Remind them that they will use metaphors in writ-
ing their verses. Then, instruct them to practice identifying and creating metaphors
through answering the exercises.
2. Emphasize to the students that the land referred to in the poem is not really a land that
belongs to the morning, nor it is a son or daughter of the sun. Neither it is a cradle.
These expressions are used to make the descriptions more vivid. Thus, the first two
lines would mean a land where the sun shines almost always. A cradle of noble refers

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  83


to the idea that it is a place where many heroes have been born since cradle means a
baby’s bed. Emphasize further that metaphors are not taken literally but figuratively
or imaginatively.
3. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students how metaphors can make their poem interesting. Lead
them to realize part of EU #1. Metaphors are a poetical device that makes writing of
verses vivid because of the use of comparison or analogy.

  Writers follow sentence patterns and use poetical


devices like metaphors, imagery, rhyme, and rhythm to
convey their thoughts, feelings, and experiences.

  What can make literature interesting and memorable?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 158


- land of the morning, child of the sun, cradle of noble heroes, shining fields, land
of love, land of light, embrace, thou are wronged

Possible Answers to Exercise B, p. 159


1. sweetness 6. incapable to hear
2. radiance 7. big, giant, high
3. reverberating sound or resounding 8. small, little, tiny, low
4. wide-eyed 9. voracious, gluttonous
5. soft sound or a low rustling sound 10. weak, boring

Answers to Exercise C, p. 159 may vary.

F. Vocabulary: Using Imagery, pp. 160-161


1. Instruct students to read the discussion on imagery on page 160. You may use the poem
below to discuss further the use of imagery in Philippine poems. Let students determine
the imagery used.

SANCTUARY
(For Midori)
by Luis H. Francia

New York came, rampaging.


Broadway approached, barking.
The mad heavens roared down,
Clouds enveloped me.
All was motion, darkness, the

84  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Ground rushing up.
Mountains leveled themselves
And my feet, faithful dogs, brought me
Home to you, my anchor, my light.
Source:http://www.meritagepress.com/bspeaks_jan03.htm

2. Tell the students that words (either action words, adjectives, etc. or other suggestive
words) permit readers to visualize or to sketch the scenario in the poem not only inside
their mind but also sometimes on paper.
3. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students how imagery can help them in writing poems. Lead them
to realize part of EU #1.

Imagery is a poetical device that makes their poem interesting because it


enriches the visual representations of ideas illustrated in the poem.

Answers to Exercise A, pp. 160-161


1. sight, sound
2. sound,sight, touch
3. sight,touch
4. touch
5. sight

Answers to Exercise B, p. 161 may vary.

G. LISTENING/VIEWING: Recognizing Metaphors, p. 162


1. Raise the following questions.
• How do you understand metaphors?
• How does metaphor different from simile?
2. Read the poem below from “As You Like It,” 2.7.139-167 by William Shakespeare. If
possible, record the poem below for easier processing of the lesson. You may also
download Audacity a software that could be downloaded for free which could help
you record and edit sounds.

Jacques: All the world’s a stage,


And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  85


And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first, the infant,
Mewling and puking* in the nurse’s arms.
Then the whining schoolboy, with his satchel
And shining morning face, creeping like snail
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover,
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
Made to his mistress’ eyebrow. Then a soldier,
Full of strange oaths and bearded like the pard,
Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel,
Seeking the bubble reputation
Even in the canon’s mouth. And then the justice,
In fair round belly with good capon lined,
With eyes severe and beard of formal cut,
Full of wise saws and modern instances;
And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts
Into the lean and slippered pantaloon
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side;
His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank, and his big manly voice,
Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,
That ends this strange eventful history,
Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.

The underlined words are to be used for easy reference for the discussion on
metaphors. The other lines of the verse will help the students understand why life is
compared to a play.
3. Let students do Exercise B on viewing. Have them compare the given pictures with an
analogy of their own. Ask them to explain.
4. Revisit how metaphors can make poem writing interesting.

H. Speaking: Sensing Rhythm in Poetry, p. 163


1. Dyad: Make students share their favorite song to their partner. Zone in on the idea
of rhythm and melody. Ask if poems have melody or rhythm. Tell them to consider
rhythm in writing their verses.
2. Using the examples on page 163, discuss rhythm in poetry.
3. Tell your students to answer the exercise on the same page.

86  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


4. Process by revisiting EQ #1. Lead them to realize part of EU #1. Rhythm is used by
poets to show the natural rise and fall of language that is necessary in making the read-
ing of the poem interesting.

  Writers follow sentence patterns and use poetical


devices like metaphors, imagery, rhyme, and rhythm to
convey their thoughts, feelings, and experiences.

  What can make literature interesting and memorable?

Answers to exercise, p. 163


Number 1 uses irregular rhythm while number 2 uses regular rhythm.

I. Study and Research: Using the Index, p. 164


1. Tell the students that by this time of the year, they must have gone to their school
library many times for some research work. Prompt.
• Where did you find your sought information?
• What materials did you use?
Process their responses.
2. Instruct students to read and study the section on page 164. Then, ask them to do the
exercise. Correct for any errors.
3. Let the students realize the importance of using the index in research. Have them share
their thoughts in dyads.
4. Ask students how this skill will aid them in doing their Performance Task.

Answers to Exercise, p. 164


1. 105 5. 95-98
2. 204-205 ( not 405) 6. 278-279
3. 132-134, 135-137, 254-255 7. plot
4 Action 8. drama, novel, short story

J. Grammar 1: Using the Intransitive Verb, pp. 165-166


1. Pose EQ #2. Elicit responses. Lead students to the idea that, although poetry may be
creative writing, grammar rules are essentially present. There are still sentences, which
are the thought units of poetry. If there are sentences, then there are subjects and verbs.
2. Have the students study the section. Ask what kind of verb is used in each sample
sentence.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  87


3. Ask the students what they should remember about the intransitive verb. Make sure
they have read the generalization. Then, ask them to do the exercises.

  Is grammar ignored in poetry?

Answers to Exercises A, p. 165


1. A favorite theme of the corrido is the beautiful friendship among friends.
✔ 2. Metrical tales flourished during the early Spanish period.
✔ 3. Traveling minstrels sang to the tune of a guitar.
4. Impoverished singers were familiar figures along the countryside.
5. Cinderella-like stories evoked great interest.
✔ 6. Poets spoke eloquently.
7. Some writers made innovations.
8. They introduced local allegories.
✔ 9. Heroines lived in magnificent castles.
✔ 10. Heroes fought with numerous villains.

Answers to Exercises B and C, p. 166 may vary.

Grammar 2: Using the Transitive Verb, pp. 167-170


1. Ask the students to read the text on the section. Ask what transitive verb needs. Have
the students read the generalization in the side bar; then, ask them to do the exercises.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 167


Transitive Verb Direct Object
1 3 reflect the lives of the people
2 3 show the sorrows and joys of the people
3
4 3 express feelings about work
5
6 3 sing folk songs
7
8 3 composed many folk songs
9 3 reveal customs of the old day
10 3 learn much

Answers to Exercise B, p. 168


1. a spirit of nationalism
2. a change in leadership and policies

88  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. their sentiments in their poetry and prose
4. such writing
5. the sunrise of their fame in Europe
6. social justice and more active participation in the Church hierarchy
7. his pen
8. La Independencia
9. many of his books
10. La Solidaridad
11. consideration
12. the patriotism of the people
13. the true meaning of liberty
14. the Constitution of the First Philippine Republic
15. the spirit and language of the Calderon Constitution

Answers to Exercise C , D, and E on pages 169-170 may vary.


Possible answers are as follows: Exercise C, p. 169
Subject Verbs Direct Object
1. Filipino folk maintain the rich culture of the country.

2. Some folk songs mirror Filipino’s psyche.

3. Many teenagers give hope to the dying folk songs through revival.

4. Others patronize some ‘fresh’ and ‘modern’ songs.

5. Old songs always give a nostalgic experience.

6. Mother sings her favorite folk songs.

7. We revive old songs.

8. Some express familiar emotions.

9. Many metrical tales share values, traditions, culture etc.

10. European themes dominated majority of the metrical tales.

Exercise D, p. 169
1. Apolinario Mabini wrote Kartilya.
2. Mabini’s writings extolled patriotism above all things.
3. In his writings, Mabini dissected his words so that the common man would
understand it.
4. Mabini’s works aroused the patriotic heart of the Filipino people.
5. They described the end goal that each Filipino should work for.
6. Mabini’s writings bolstered the morale of the Filipinos, many of which are still
relevant today.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  89


7. Mabini’s writings deserve an accolade.
8. The American government in the Philippines recognized Mabini’s writing
prowess.
9. Historians admire the True Decalogue of Apolinario Mabini.

Exercise E, p. 170
1. The land gave a good harvest.
2. She write articles about our culture.
3. Her eviction imprisoned her writings.
4. She reads literature that could bolster patriotism.
5. He serves the country half of his existence.
6. He read poems with rich description of our culture through imagery and other
devices.
7. He always adjusts his language usage to reach the marginalized sector.
8. She writes essays with political flavor.
9. They bought books on Philippine History.
10. She explained patriotism in her essays.

Grammar 3: Using the Indirect Object, pp. 170-175


1. Review students on S-TV-DO pattern. Instruct them to analyze the sentences given
on page 170. Ask them to determine the sentence pattern of those sentences. Let them
explore the notes in the side bar.
2. Check students’ comprehension in using indirect object through answering the exer-
cises.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 171


1. The old man gave Maria an annoyed look.
2. The driver showed us the way to the office.
3. The traffic policeman gave the driver a scolding.
4. Mother made me a cake.
5. She sent you a big package.
6. The postman handed my classmate a letter.
7. Many mothers teach their children values to live by.
8. The invention of the telegraph brought Samuel Morse much fame.
9. Technological progress gives our lives more convenience.
10. Satellite communication promises people a faster and more reliable relay of
news.
11. The group offered their new classmate their friendship.
12. Mother bought the family a bag of groceries.
13. She gave her friend a tiny, carved, wooden figure.
14. They handed the refugees some bags of food.
15. Our friend found us some seats.

90  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise B, p. 172

Subject Transitive Verb Indirect Object Direct Object

1. The old man gave Maria an annoyed look

2. The driver showed us the way to the office

3. The traffic gave the driver a scolding


policeman

4. Mother made me a cake

5. She sent you a big package

6. The postman handed my classmate a letter

7. Many mothers teach their children values

8. The invention of brought Samuel Morse much fame


the telegraph

9. Technological gives our lives more convenience


progress

10. Satellite promises people a faster and more


communication reliable relay of news

11. The group offered their new classmate their friendship

12. Mother bought the family a bag of groceries

13. She gave her friend a figure

14. They handed the refugees some bags of food

15. Our friend found us some seats

Answers to Exercise C and D on pages 172-173 may vary.


Possible answers are as follows: Exercise C, p. 172

Subject Transitive Verb Indirect Object Direct Object

1. The writers gave her a pensive article.

2. Soothsayers promise him a better future.

3. The carpenter made his family a house

4. She teaches the youth Philippine Literature.

5. My friend told our teacher his problem in Math.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  91


6. My sister wrote me letters

7. The refugee sent her a thank you letter.


center

8. The salesman offered her a discount.

9. The traffic cop handed me my driver’s license.

10. Mother bought her Jane Austen’s Pride and


Prejudice.

Exercise D, p. 173
1. My friend sent me Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot.
2. Some motorists give beggars food.
3. Mother usually gives her child reminders before he or she leaves home.
4. Some advertisements offer teenagers a false view of what beautiful is.
5. Some schools provide the winning teams an unforgettable vacation outside the
country.
6. Coaches give their athletes rules to follow when participating a competition.
7. Right amount of exercise gives us a healthy body.
8. Trees give human beings clean air.
9. The sun supplies the Earth energy.
10. Aerosol spray gives the environment volatile organic compound (VOC) which
is not good for green living.

Grammar Wrap-Up Exercise, pp.174-175


1. Have students answer the wrap-up exercise on pages 174-175 in relation to the discus-
sion of the three (3) sentence patterns such as S-IV, S-TV-DO, and S-TV-IO-DO.
2. TRIAD: Ask students to do a peer checking.
3. Process by revisiting EQ #2. Lead them to realize EU #2. Sentence patterns help writers
establish their style of writing through their use of language.

  Sentences are the thought units of poetry.

  How can all these sentence patterns help writers prepare


their literary pieces or verses. Can you use the same in your
writing activities?

92  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


K. Writing: Writing Verses, pp. 176-177
1. Prompt: Could a poem be used in relaying a message? Explain your answer. The ques-
tion would prepare the students in accomplishing the Performance Task.
2. Allow the students to read and study the discussion on Writing Verses on page 176.
Underscore the stages of writing to your students for these stages will aid the students
in completing the task.
a. Prewriting
Let students choose a simple poem or two-line rhyme as a model verse. Choices
are provided on page 177, or they may choose their own. Then, let them read the
chosen poem. Have students visualize the picture of images suggested in the poem
and let them create their own mental picture for their verses.
b. Drafting
Let students read their model again. Let them underline the words or phrases
that create pictures. Ask them to substitute these words or phrases with their own.
c. Sharing and Revising
Ask the students to read their work in class. Let the classmates give feedbacks
for improvement. Allow students to implement corrective feedbacks and have them
rewrite their work for final submission.

L. Performance Task: Joining a Poetry Festival, pp.178-179


1. Let students read aloud the GRASP of the Performance Task. Initiate the discussion
on the standards in writing and reading a poem.
2. INDIVIDUAL WORK: Provide students enough time to finish the task on a clean sheet
of pad paper.
3. DYAD: Pair up students in evaluating the written output. Remind students to religiously
follow the rubric on writing a poem in evaluating their partner’s work.
4. Lead students to do a revisiting of EQ #1. Let them review their initial answers to the
EQ. Ask them.
• Are there similarities or differences between your initial and final answers?
• What make the literary texts: The Return and The Rhymes and the informational
text, Thomasites interesting?
Give students ample time to recall their exposure to the mentioned selections. Lead
them to realize EU #1.
5. Ask the students to consider all these poetical devices and sentence patterns learned
when they finalize their verses.

  Writers follow sentence patterns and use poetical


devices like metaphors, imagery, rhyme, and rhythm to
convey their thoughts, feelings, and experiences.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  93


Lesson 6 Blending Traditions and Innovations

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Classical influences and new styles of
 Write an essay.
writing bring forth enrichment to liter-
ature. Essential Questions
2. Authors make good use of literary devices
and conventions like foreshadowing, What essential questions will be asked?
personification, theme, correct usage, and 1. What can the integration of classical
sentence pattern to improve the quality influences and new styles of writing do to
of their poems, stories, and essays. literature?
2. What do authors use to make their
writing(s) remarkable?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:


1. the extent of the American and English 1. discuss how imitations of American and
literature influence to Philippine liter- English literature affected Philippine
ature during the period of appren- literature during the Period of Appren-
ticeship. ticeship.
2. how to explain personification in a poem. 2. share insights to comprehension
3. foreshadowing devices in a story. questions.
4. how to note details to answer essay 3. explain the personification in a poem.
questions. 4. recognize foreshadowing devices in a
5. how to use exact word described in a situation story.
6. how to deliberate radio and/or TV advertise- 5. note details to answer essay questions.
ments’ merits and biases 6. use exact word described in a situation.
7. how to share information. 7. listen to an advertisement or watch one
8. the different reference materials. on TV, and deliberate its merits and
9. how to determine and use objective biases.
complement. 8. share information by asking and
10. how to write an essay. answering questions.
9. use reference materials.
10. identify and use objective complement in
sentences correctly.
11. write an essay on a chosen quotation.

94  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence

Performance Task

An annual Inter-school Essay Competition is conducted by the Rotary Club in your city. The
competition aims at choosing the best writer to represent the city in the same contest at the
regional level. You have been chosen to represent your school.
You will draft your essay on any of the quotations from Emilio Jacinto’s Kartilya drawing
supporting details from your experience and readings.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Poem


CRITERIA/
4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Fair 1 - Poor
SCORE

Focus on Topic There is one Main idea is Main idea is The main
(content) clear, well-fo- clear, but the somewhat idea is not
cused topic. supporting clear, but clear. There is
Main idea information is there is a a seemingly
stands out and general. need for more random
is supported supporting collection of
by detailed information. information.
information.

Accuracy of All supportive Almost all Most No facts are


facts facts are supportive supportive reported
(content) reported facts are facts are or most are
accurately. reported reported inaccurately
accurately. accurately. reported.

Introduction The intro- The intro- The intro- There is no


(organization) duction is duction clearly duction clear intro-
inviting, states states the states the duction of the
the main main topic main topic, main topic or
topic, and and previews but does not structure of
previews the the structure adequately the paper.
structure of of the paper, preview the
the paper. but it is not structure of
inviting to the the paper nor
reader. is it inviting to
the reader.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  95


Sequencing Details are Details are Some details Many details
(organization) placed in a placed in a are not in are not in
logical order logical order, a logical or a logical or
and the way but the way expected expected
they are they are order, and this order. There
presented presented distracts the is little sense
effectively sometimes reader. that the
keeps the makes the writing is
interest of the writing less organized.
reader. interesting. Flow and
Rhythm
(sentence
fluency)

Flow and All sentences Almost all Most The sentences


Rhythm sound sentences sentences are difficult
(sentence natural and sound sound to read aloud
fluency) are easy-on- natural and natural and because
the-ear when are easy-on- are easy-on- they sound
read aloud. the-ear when the-ear when awkward, are
Each sentence read aloud, read aloud, distractingly
is clear and but 1 or 2 are but several repetitive, or
has an obvious awkward or are awkward difficult to
emphasis. difficult to or difficult to understand.
understand. understand.

Word choice Writer uses Writer uses Writer uses Writer uses
vivid words vivid words words that a limited
and phrases and phrases communicate vocabulary,
that linger or that linger or clearly, but the which does
draw pictures draw pictures writing lacks not commu-
in the reader’s in the reader’s variety, punch, nicate strongly
mind, and the mind, but or flair. or capture
choice and occasionally the reader’s
placement the words are interest.
of the used inaccu- Jargon or
words seems rately or seem cliches may be
accurate, overdone. present and
natural, and detract from
not forced. the meaning.

Source: http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images
/lesson398/rubric-essay2.pdf

96  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Other Evidence

1 Substantive discussion on the three literary selections (“Silent Trails,” “Dahong-Palay, and
“What Is an Educated Filipino?”) which show how the imitation of American and English
literature affect Philippine literature during the apprenticeship period.
2. Explanations to personification
3. Use of foreshadowing devices
4. Discussion on the message of an essay
5. Correct word usage
6. Small group discussion on the merits and of TV and/ or radio advertisement
7. Group discussion of answers to questions
8. Inventory of school’s reference materials
9. Grammar discussion and exercises on using the objective complement

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Pose EQ #1: “What can the integration of classical influences and new styles of writing do to
literature?” Have students share initially and take note of these initial answers. Tell them that
as they explore the section, they will discover for themselves the enduring understanding to
the question.
➲ Ask students to study the illustration and title on page 180, and make them do Think-Pair-
Share. Facilitate a discussion of the background.
➲ Preview the students their Performance Task—writing an essay. Ask them to read the les-
son learning objectives, so they will be cognizant where they are headed.
➲ Equip them with needed skills to accomplish their end task by making them explore the fol-
lowing:

Background

The start of the 20th century brought many changes to Philippine literature. The public schools
established by the Americans introduced drastic changes in the country’s political, social, cultural,
and economic status. In 1901, the Americans opened the Philippine Normal School to accommodate
children in the elementary level. More schools were opened all throughout the land. In 1908 the
University of the Philippines was founded. The birth of the UP Folio gave a chance for the Filipinos
to express themselves in the newly-learned language. Young writers from universities made their
marks in prose and poetry writing. The proliferation of literary pieces in English was reflected by
the flowering of literary magazines.
Some of the achievements of this period were the following:
1. the publication of Philippine Prose and Poetry which was used as a textbook;

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  97


2. the emergence of literary contests pioneered by the Free Press; and
3. the publication of Sursum Surda, the first known Filipino poem in English; Filipino
Poetry, the first anthology of poems in English; Thinking for Ourselves, the first notable
collection of Philippine essays in English; and Child of Sorrow (by Zoilo Galang), the
first Filipino novel in English. Perhaps the most significant achievement of this period
was the success of Filipino writers in gradually developing a literary trend character-
ized by Filipino elements.

overview

The arrival of Americans heralded a new phase in Philippine literature. It brought the flower-
ing of free verse, modern short story, and the critical essay, as well as the use of the English
language. Many Filipinos succeeded in using the new language including young writers from
universities. The writers of the period experimented with modernism in the different literary
forms. Debates on the role of literature also came into picture. The most popular was that be-
tween Jose Garcia Villa’s belief of art for art’s sake and Salvador P. Lopez’ stand that literature
should serve the interests of the masses. As in the Spanish time, literature was also used by
many writers to create an awareness among the people on the contemporary problems faced
by the country.

A. Reading I: Silent Trails by Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion, p. 181


1. Ask EQ #2. Let them share. Then, instruct students to study the illustration on page
181. Ask them what sounds they would hear on such path.
2. Ask students to work on the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Have the students read and answer the questions in Unveil What You Know.
b. Let the students read the statement in For Your Information. Ask them whether or
not they agree with the idea expressed. Have them support their answer.
c. Let the students read the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Tell them to
get the meanings of the italicized words from the context, as they read the poem
Silent Trails.
d. Have them read the biographical note about Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion in
Understand Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension through the following
questions.
• What characterizes the poetry of Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion?
• What may have influenced him to write such poetry?
• What are the titles of his volumes of poetry?
e. Ask the students to read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading. Then,
ask them what they expect to learn from the poem based on the illustration and
the title.
3. Let students read the poem.
a. Follow standard procedure for reading poetry with a class.

98  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


b. Remind the students not to pause at the end of a line when there is no punctuation
mark- pause only where there are punctuation marks, a short pause for commas,
and a longer pause for other punctuation marks.
4. Let students answer the questions on Sharing Insights.
a. Process their learning experiences.
5. Revisit EQ #2. Lead students to discuss part of EU #2. Figures of speech, as previously
mentioned, are poetical devices poets use to add color to the language of their poems.
Hence, poems become vivid and remarkable. In the case of the studied poem, it is
embellished with personification.

  An understanding of the characteristics of an epic hero


leads to an appreciation of the ideals, values, and beliefs of a
nation.

  What is the value of understanding the characteristics


of an epic hero?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. The place described is a lonely trail in the Benguet hills.
2. The time of the day is early morning (the mist still veils the sun).
3. The only sounds heard are that of the wind as it blows through the plants and
those of pakkong of the Benguet women who are laden with products to be
sold/ bartered in the town market.
4. The sounds are called silent because they do not grate on the nerves.
5. Accept all answers that are supported by relevant details.
6. Answers may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Interpreting Personification, pp. 182-183


1. Revisit EQ #2. Have them recall their EU to the EQ based on the language structure
of the read poem, Silent Trails. Then, review the students on the common figures of
speech- simile, metaphor etc. Let them give examples of each. Lead them to personi-
fication through giving an example of your own. Ask the students to read the text on
page 182. Go through the section with them. Make the students aware that bamboos
do not really sing but they seem to when they make the creaking sounds as the wind
blows through them.
2. Tell the students to study the examples given in the section. Ask them what human
attribute is given to clouds and to sea.
3. Discuss further personification through giving another example.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  99


More examples:
a. The mountains they are silent folk,
They stand afar- alone;
And the clouds that kiss their brows at night
Hear neither sigh nor groan.
From The mountain Are a Lonely Folk, Hamlin Garland

b. I think that I shall never see


A poem as lovely as a tree.
A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed
Against the earth’s sweet flowing breast.
A tree that looks at God all day,
And lifts its leafy arms to pray.
A tree that may in summer wear
A nest of robins in her hair.
Poems are made by fools like me
But only God can make a tree.
From Trees, Joyce Kilmer

4. Have the students work on the exercise on page 183.


5. Ask students how personification could make a poem remarkable. Let them rename
part of EU #2.

C. Reading 2: Dahong Palay by Arturo B. Rotor, pp. 184-193


1. Show a picture of two or three people pounding palay. Ask the students to tell whether
or not they are familiar with the activity. Call those who know to describe such activity
for those without any idea.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Pose the question in Unveil What You Know. Let them share their responses with a
partner first. Then, ask for volunteers to share their response with the whole class.
b. Prompt them to read For Your Information to provide them more idea on our
culture in the farm.
c. Tell the students to read Understand Author’s Profile. Encourage them to do more
research on the life and works of Arturo B. Rotor.
d. Tell students that, as they read the text, they should try to find the meanings of the
words in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Inform them that they may underline words
that they are unfamiliar with, even if those words do not appear in the original
vocabulary words.
e. Ask the students what a dahong palay is. Then, let them read the question in Un-
derscore a Motive for Reading.

100  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. Ask the students to do a silent reading of the text.
Assign the story for silent reading, and have some students summarize the story
before taking up Sharing Insights. Summarization may be done by part to encourage
more student participation.
4. Ask the students to answer the questions in Sharing Insights.

Questions 1 and 2 require the students to remember details. Questions 3


asks them to recite details to support characterization. Question 4 develops
the ability to make inferences. Question 5 helps the students to give supported
opinions. Question 6 guides them to identify foreshadowing devices. Ques-
tion 7 helps them integrate insights gained from the text with their direct
experiences.

Answers to Sharing Insights


Below are possible answers.
1. He was called Pasmado because of his slight figure, his spindle shanks, and his
timidity.
2. At the beginning of the story, the author describes Sebio as someone with strong
arms. As stated in the text, small were his muscles and flat and flabby when
relaxed. But how hard and powerful they became when he tensed them! As hard
as seasoned, knotted yantok!
3. Sebio probably could not bend the horseshoe because of his timidity. From the
selection it states: He found a seat in the farthest and darkest corner. The line
only speaks of how he was detached from the group of young people like him
maybe because these people bullied him verbally.
4. Sebio was able to redeem himself when he saved his own life from the poison of
a snake called Dahong Palay. He displayed unbelievable strength and bravery.
5. Answers may vary.
6. Answers may vary.
7. Answers may vary.

D. Literary Skill 2: Noting Foreshadowing Devices, pp. 194-197


1. Pose EQ #2 again. Determine whether they think a story should give clues as to its
ending. Let the students pause for thinking. Then, restate the question, and ask them
how one can use the writer’s hints or details in the story to think what lies ahead. Let
them share their ideas.
2. Ask them if the title of the selection they just read gives them idea what the selection will
be about.
3. Let the students read the section on page 194. Help the students understand that

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  101


foreshadowing devices are signals to what will happen. These same devices foster a
deeper understanding of what to expect in the story.
4. Segue to discussing a television or movie show which almost all the students watch.
Ask them what foreshadowing devices they note in the show. Have them predict what
will happen, based on these foreshadowing devices.
5. Then, ask the students to work on the exercises on pages 194-197. Relate that some of
the foreshadowing devices are the heavy rain, the story characters’ being by themselves,
and the mention/ description of the papag.
6. Return to EQ #2. Elicit part of EU #2 on the significance of using foreshadowing de-
vices. Let them realize that these foreshadowing devices (hints or details) in stories
help spark excitement and enjoyment in reading that make stories remarkable.

  Authors make good use of literary devices and


convention, theme, correct usage, and sentence pattern to
improve the quality of their poems, stories and essays.

  What do authors use to make their writing(s)


remarkable?

E. Reading 3: What Is an Educated Filipino? by Francisco Benitez, pp. 198-201


1. Ask EQ #2 again. Prompt: How do writers choose a topic to write on? Elicit answers.
Then, introduce students to the essay by Francisco Benitez.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Synthesize students’ initial answers to the prompt. Lead them to answer the ques-
tion in Unveil What You Know. Ask them further why they consider these people
(their answer to the question) educated.
b. Let them read For Your Information for additional details on how one acquires educa-
tion.
c. Let the students read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Let them
give the meanings of the words based on the way they are used in the phrases. Ask
them to give synonyms of the words.
d. Allow them to read the biographical note of Francisco Benitez in Understand
Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension through the following questions:
• Where is Francisco Benitez from?
• What achievements is he remembered for?
e. Let the students read the statement in Underscore a Motive for Reading to acquaint
them with what to point out as they read the essay. Emphasize that this essay was
written in the 1900s so that they can compare it with conditions after more than
a century has passed.

102  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. Ask students to do a silent reading of the essay.
Have the students read the essay silently. If the teacher has opted to assign it for home
reading, have three students report on it, one student for each subtopic.
4. Have the students answer the questions in Sharing Insights.

Questions 1, 2, and 3 require the students to name details that support


the key ideas of the essay. Questions 4 and 5 develop the ability to evaluate
and react to opinions of the author and to cite details to support evaluation/
reaction.

5. Revisit EQ #2 and ask students how writers develop their essay. Ask students how such
an essay be made remarkable. Lead them to discuss the importance of taking on theme
to writing an essay.

Answers to Sharing Insights


Below are possible answers.
1. According to the essay, as explicitly stated, education’s concept is dependent on
the fundamental changes in details and aims of society.
2. Americans redefined the educational system in the Philippines. For them, an educated
man should work for the following advocacies:
• the alteration in our social life;
• the aim not only for the good of the individual but also for the preservation
and protection of the state itself;
• improved productivity to satisfy the economic needs of self and the country;
• familiarity with Native History and Culture; and
• the refinement in Speech and Conduct.Unlike the Americans, the Spaniards
would see education as not for the liberation of the mind but education is
to see how ignorant we are and how progressive they are.
3. As discussed in the essay, an educated Filipino should be distinguished by the
power to contribute to the economic development,by his knowledge of his past,
his race, his culture, and his values, and by his speech and conduct.
4. Answers may vary.
5. Answers may vary.

F. Literary Skill 3: Studying an Essay, pp. 201-203


1. Let the students recall the essay they just read, and ask them if it dealt with only one
subject. Let them reiterate the subject discussed in the essay. Revisit EQ #2. Ask them
how the essay is elaborated. Lead them to the understanding that it dealt with just one
subject—education. Then, facilitate a discussion on essay.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  103


The word essay literally means an attempt. It is a literary genre that al-
lows the author to customize his subject and pursue diverse theme under one
subject. Popularized by the French 16th century writer Michel de Montaigne,
the essay brought him fame as the greatest early European essayist through his
Essais. The Essay of Francis Bacon were known to rival the works of Montaigne.

2. Let students read the discussion on page 201. Ask the students to do the exercise on
pages 202-203.

  What do authors use to make their writing(s)


remarkable?

G. Vocabulary: Using the Right Word, p. 204


1. Revisit EQ #2 and let students discuss how using the right word could contribute to
the overall quality of a story, a poem, and an essay. Let them do a buzz session in a
group of four.
2. Ask them to read the section on page 204. Conduct a discussion on using the right
word.
3. Ask them to do the exercise on page 204. Then, discuss with them the answers.
4. Explain to students that since choice of words affects the message and tone, it is best
to find out the right/ appropriate word. Elicit part of EU #2.

Answers to the Exercise, p. 204


1. intelligent 6. intelligent
2. educated 7. educated
3. intelligent 8. educated
4. educated 9. educated
5. intelligent 10. intelligent

H. Listening/ Viewing: Spotting for Bias, p. 205


1. Hook the students by initiating the discussion on the speaker’s point of view (Note that
the talk show will be agreed to watch by everyone. This should be given as an assign-
ment.) Allow students to share whether or not they agree with the speaker’s point of
view. Have the students support their opinions.
2. Let the students read the section on page 205. Ask them what bias is and what the ef-
fects are when listeners cannot distinguish bias from fact.

104  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. Instruct students to recall campaign speeches of politicians. Ask them which ones state
a bias and which is fact. Have them tell how they can recognize bias from fact.
4. Let the students work on the exercises on page 205. Read the following essay to them
or give one of your choices.

Santa Claus
Godofredo Rivera

You do not believe in Santa Claus? You heart is dead. Santa


Claus is true. I meet him every day.
He distributes toys to the children, perfumes to women, funds to
the men. He spreads good cheer from fox holes to marble halls.
If you cannot sense the reality of Santa Claus, it is perhaps
because you have been so wrongly educated to believe in a lot
of sophisticated lies.
A fairy tale, you say.
So you don’t believe in fairies, either.
Live, my friend. And dream.
Only the dead do not dream.
Dreams are truer. They can be perceived by the senses.
If the heart has grown so callous that it can no longer react to
what the mind’s eye can see, let us lie down and sleep forever.
As, if the diva sings, you do not see fairies burst out of every
note, you are a dead duck.
These living things are true-as true as Santa Claus. And they
dwell in true hearts.
And they fly away only when the heart has grown cold.
Note: The students may better understand the message in the
essay if they are made aware of the following biographical note:
Godofredo Rivera was an idealist. He believed in the goodness,
in the ability of dreams and hopes to give meaning to a person’s
life, in the strength and final triumph of virtues.

5. Tell the students to do Exercise B. Note: The students must have already listened to or
watched advertisements on radio or television.

I. Speaking: Asking/ Answering Questions Intelligently, pp. 206-207


1. Help the students recall their answer to EQ #1. Ask them if they were able to answer the
question.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  105


2. Prompt the students to discuss how we can use question and answer technique in
gaining information.
3. Let students read the section on page 206. Then, have the students practice by doing
the exercise. Go around the room to tune in to the discussions. After the allotted time,
give each group feedback regarding their discussion. Use the pointers in the section in
order to give them the feedback.

  What can the integration of classical influences and


new styles of writing do to literature?

J. Study and Research: Using Reference Materials, pp. 208-211


1. Small Group Work/Discussion (SGW/D): Divide the class into small groups with three
(3) to four (4) members. Assign each group a reference material to bring in class. (This
should be done the day before the discussion on using reference materials.)
Group 1: Almanac
Group 2: Atlas
Group 3: Biographical Dictionary
Group 4: Directory
Group 5: Newspapers and Periodicals
Group 6: Yearbook
Group 7: Nonprint Sources
Group 8: Posters
Ask students to list and discuss the features of the assigned reference material.
Inform them that they will act like an endorser of the assigned reference material.
2. Ask the students to read the section on pages 208-211. Instruct students to do an in-
ventory of the reference materials and nonprint sources in their school library. (This
activity is a good avenue to visit the library as a class.)
3. You may also give the exercise below as class enrichment.

Directions. Identify the reference material to be used to know more about


the following information.
1. current event
2. the biography of a well-known author
3. how far Mississauga, Canada is from New York
4. the average rainfall last year
5. words that have similar endings
6. a documentary on the Pacific War
7. synonyms and antonyms

106  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


8. summary of statistics of the previous year
9. astronomical information
10. the telephone number of a business establishment

K. Grammar: Using the Objective Complement, pp. 212-214


1. Revisit EQ #2, and prompt students to discuss how sentence patterns can contribute to
the completeness of the statements and smoothness of writing. Prompt them to share
what sentence patterns they have learned. Let them enumerate and have them explain
the distinctions. Focus on the element of the objective complement.
2. Have them explore the section on pages 212-214. Conduct a discussion on the concepts.
3. Ask the students to work with the exercises. Then discuss with them the answers.
4. Ask the students to generalize the concept learned, and find out how they can make
good use of this in improving their communication skills in Speaking and Writing.

  What do authors use to make their writing(s)


remarkable?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 213

Transitive Objective
Subject Indirect Object
Verb Complement

class labeled picture ugly

they painted house yellow

gardener called his newly grafted flower Princess

farmers called event miracle

children named their boat Wanderer

sun makes day bright

rainbow makes sky pretty

heavy clouds make day gloomy

some chemicals make the world dangerous (place)

author titled story Beauty and the Beast

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  107


Answers to Exercise B, p. 214 (Possible Answers)
1. The song of the birds makes us happy.
2. Shoes give us comfort.
3. Clothes keep people comfortable.
4. Vegetables keep us healthy.
5. Houses give us protection.
6. The boy colored his picture sepia.
7. The woman called her friend ‘Best’.
8. The picture made the room empty.
9. Trees make the path narrow.
10. Plants make the air clean.

Answers to Exercise C , p. 214 (Possible Paragraph)


People can make the world a better place to live in. Knowing some of the ways
can make them knowledgeable. They can stay informed. Listening to news on radio
or watching updates on TV can make them keep track of the latest happenings
regarding environmental concerns. Planting a tree makes the air clean. Using paper
bags makes our society plastic-bag free. Donating dead cell phone batteries to
cellphone shops makes our landfills non-toxic.

L. Writing: Writing an Essay, pp. 215-217


1. Ask students to review what they learned in this lesson. Tell them that, in the perfor-
mance assessment, they are going to apply what they learned.
2. Guide the students to read the quotations from Emilio Jacinto’s Kartilya on pages 215-
217. Ask them to choose one of the quotations and paraphrase it.
3. Ask them to develop the chosen quotation into an essay following the writing process.
a. Prewriting
Let students list down experiences and their readings that may serve as sup-
porting sentences to the chosen quotation.
b. Drafting
Ask students to make the chosen quotation as their controlling idea that begins
their essay. Let them develop this quotation into a full-blown essay through sup-
porting it with their enumerated experiences and readings. Let them single out
details that go with these experiences and read information.
c. Sharing and Revising
Group the students into three. Let them read their work for comments. Then,
allow them to revise their work based on the feedback received.

108  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


4. Let students do the section on Revisiting the EQ. Let the students recall the poem,
Silent Trails, the story, Dahong Palay, and the essay, What is an Educated Filipino?
Tell them to enumerate literary devices or elements that the authors use to convey
their messages. Lead them to realize that authors employ personification in poems,
foreshadowing devices in stories, and theme in essays to have their thoughts, feelings,
and experiences conveyed following the classical and modern styles of writing.

  What can the integration of classical influences and


new styles of writing do to literature?

M. Performance Task: Writing an Essay, pp. 218-219


1. Instruct students to explore the rubric for grading on pages 218-219.
2. Allow them to use it for peer editing and self-editing. Again, remind them of the context
of their essay, as described on page 218.
3. Ask students to publish their final work through group sharing.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  109


Lesson 7 Emerging Achievers

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Writers take on different literary forms Write and tell a humorous story.
and techniques to mark excellence in
what they write. Essential Questions
2. Language fluency and proficiency are What essential questions will be asked?
prerequisites to good speaking and
1. What can make us excel in what we do?
writing.
Why do we need to strive for excellence?
2. What make a good speaker and a writer?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:


1. the effect of the Commonwealth Period 1. discuss how the Commonwealth Period
in Philippine literature during the period affected Philippine literature during the
of emergence. Period of Emergence.
2. irony in a story. 2. discuss insights to comprehension
3. how to identify and give meaning to the questions.
symbols in a passage. 3. point out the irony in a story.
4. how to write simile. 4. recognize and explain symbols in a
5. how to identify punch line(s). passage.

6. how to distinguish between /s/ from /z/. 5. compare two persons or things using
simile.
7. how to use encyclopedia.
6. listen to jokes or watch a gag show on TV,
8. noun signaling devices. and identify the punch line(s).
9. when to use a and an in sentences 7. distinguish between /s/ from /z/.
correctly.
8. locate information in an encyclopedia.
10. how to write and tell a humorous
anecdote 9. recognize and identify noun signaling
devices.
10. use a and an in sentences correctly.
11. write a humorous anecdote

110  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence
Performance Task

Your class will have an outreach program in a barangay near the location of your school. Before
breaking in groups and meeting the family assigned to every group, your class will hold an opening
program for the selected families in that barangay.
Your group in particular has been tasked to write and tell a humorous anecdote on that pro-
gram. Being the leader in your group, you are taking on the challenge to do your group a favor, so
you volunteer to take responsibility of the writing and telling of the humorous anecdote.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Poem

CRITERIA/
4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Fair 1 - Poor
SCORE

Organization The The The The writing


description has description description does not have
a stated focus has a focus has an organi- a noticeable
and clear and and a clear zation, but organization.
appropriate organization, either it needs Transi-
organization, such as spatial, improvement tions may
such as spatial, chronological, or it should be lacking,
chronological, or order of be changed and the
or order of importance. to a different relationship
importance. Transitions organization. between
Transitions usually help Some transi- details may be
consistently readers follow tions are used, hard to under-
help readers organization. but more are stand.
follow the needed.
organization.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  111


Elements of The overall The overall The overall The overall
Description purpose is purpose is purpose is not purpose may
clear. Many clear. Sensory always clear. be unclear or
vivid sensory details and Some sensory nonexistent.
details and apt comparisons details and Few sensory
comparisons help readers comparisons details or
help readers visualize a are used, but comparisons
visualize a person, place, more are are included.
person, place, or event. Most needed. Extra-
or event. All details relate neous details
the details to the central should be
relate to the focus and are eliminated.
central focus appropriate to
and are appro- the audience.
priate to the
audience.

Conventions There are few There are There are Numerous


(Grammar, or no errors minor errors numerous errors in
Usage, in mechanics, in mechanics, errors in mechanics,
Mechanics, usage, usage, mechanics, usage,
and Spelling) grammar, grammar, usage, grammar,
or spelling. or spelling. grammar, or or spelling
Word choice Word choice is spelling. Word may hinder
is consistently usually careful choice is often compre-
careful and and precise. general, vague, hension.
precise. or imprecise. Word choice
is general and
imprecise.

Humorous The writer The writer uses The writer The writer
Technique success- a humorous attempts fails to use
fully uses a technique to use a a humorous
humorous but some of humorous technique, and
technique the points in technique the key points
while also the event are but fails to in the event
telling about unclear. tell about key are unclear.
an event. points in the
event.

Source: http://www.rcampus.com/rubricshow.cfm?code=Q3463B&sp=true&

112  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Rubric on Telling a Humorous Anecdote

CRITERIA/
4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Fair 1 - Poor
SCORE

Body Movements Made Very little No movement


Language seemed fluid movements movement or descriptive
and helped or gestures or descriptive gestures.
the audience that enhanced gestures.
visualize. articulation.

Eye Contact Holds Consistent use Displayed No eye contact


attention of direct eye minimal eye with audience.
of entire contact with contact with
audience audience. audience.
with the use
of direct eye
contact.

Introduction Student Student Student clearly Student does


and Closure delivers open displays clear uses either an not display
and closing introductory introductory clear intro-
remarks that or closing or closing ductory
capture the remarks. remark, but or closing
attention of not both. remarks.
the audience
and set the
mood.

Pacing Good use of Delivery is Delivery is in Delivery is


drama and patterned, but bursts and either too
student meets does not meet does not meet quick or too
apportioned apportioned apportioned slow to meet
time interval. time interval. time interval. apportioned
time interval.

Poise Student Makes minor Displays mild Tension and


displays mistakes, tension; has nervousness is
relaxed, but quickly trouble recov- obvious; has
self-confident recovers from ering from trouble recov-
nature about them; displays mistakes. ering from
self, with no little or no mistakes.
mistakes. tension.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  113


Voice Use of fluid Satisfactory Displays Consis-
speech and use of some level tently uses
inflection inflection, of inflection a monotone
maintains the but does not throughout voice.
interest of the consistently delivery.
audience. use fluid
speech.

Source: http://www.teach-nology.com/cgi-bin/oralex.cgi

Other Evidence

1. Essential discussion on the literary selections: “My Father’s Tragedy,” “The Shoes of
Chadliwan,” and “God Said, ‘I Made a Man’,” and the informational text, “Philippines: The
Irony of the Orient”
2. Identified irony in a story
3. Identified symbols in passages
4. Written similes
5. Identified punch lines
6. Reading words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs distinguishing /s/ from /z/
7. Practice exercise in locating information in an encyclopedia
8. Grammar exercise on noun signaling devices and using a and an correctly

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ To begin with Lesson 7, show a picture or a video of excellent Filipinos in their fields both
from the past and present. Highlight rags-to-riches risen Filipinos from all over the world.
➲ Introduce EQ #1. Allow them to initially share their viewpoints and have them support
their claims. Make them think and share any article and/or TV programs they read and/
or watched in the past that show success.
➲ Get them to discuss the title and figure of Lesson 7. Ask them why they think it is entitled
Emerging Achievers. Discuss with them the background.
➲ Preview the students their Performance Task—writing and telling an anecdote. Let students
read the goals in the section Learning Objectives, so they will be aware where they are headed.
➲ Equip them with needed skills to accomplish their end task by making them explore the follow-
ing:

114  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Background

The Emergence Period was characterized by self- discovery and rapid growth. The writers of
this period were trying their hands on different themes. There were those who were concerned
with social consciousness while others concerned themselves with craftsmanship.
The literature of the period was aimed at reflecting the Filipinos’ way of life. The Filipino
writers tried to realize this aim while experimenting with different literary forms and techniques.
They were, at this time, already in full control of the English language. Among the writers who
caused the flowering of literature in this period were Jose Garcia Villa, Salvador Lopez, Manuel
Arguilla, and Rafael Zulueta da Costa.
Ask the following questions to check on comprehension:
1. What was the focus of literature during the Emergence Period?
2. What was the style of writing that prevailed in this period?
3. Why is this period considered the most productive period in the history of Philippine
literature in English?

A. Reading 1: My Father’s Tragedy by Carlos Bulosan, pp. 221-225


1. Show a picture or a video of a cockfight. Pose EQ #1. Let students share how excellence
is cultivated in cockfighting.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read
a. Direct the students’ attention to the question in Unveil What You Know. Let them
answer it.
b. For additional information about the sport, which is cockfighting, have them read
the text in For Your Information.
c. Ask the students to give the meaning of italicized words in the phrases listed in
Unlock the Meaning of Words. Remind them to use context clues.
d. Let the students study the biographical note on Carlos Bulosan in Understanding
Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension through asking the question below.
• What kind of work is Carlos Bulosan noted for worldwide?
e. Have them read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.
f. Direct the students’ attention to study the title and illustration. Have them discuss their
ideas.
3. Reading: You may assign the story as a reading assignment or you may ask the students
to read it in class.
4. Check on the students’ comprehension by making them answer the questions in the
section Sharing Insights.

Questions 1-7 develop the students’ ability to make inferences from de-
tails. Questions 8 develops critical judgment. After discussing the answer
to Question 5, ask the students if their guesses (in Underscore a Motive for
Reading) are right.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  115


Answers to Sharing Insights
Below are possible answers.
1. The economic condition in which the story is set is poor. The locusts destroyed
the rice field and a fire burned the whole plantation. Thus, the whole town lacks
proper nourishment because of food shortage. This could be supported by details
in the story such as the following:
• The men hung on the fence around the market and watched the meat dealers
hungrily.
• The grass did not grow and our carabao became thin.
2. The father does extraordinary things just to ensure the health and safety of his
fighting cock. He makes sure that it is fed. He also sleeps on the bench near it.
He gives it much care to better its chance of winning. It will bring him money.
3. The father’s extreme attention to the fighting cock annoyed the mother because
the father was not working or did anything that could bring food on their table.
4. The father decided for a cockfight when two of his cronies secretly handed him
twenty peso bill. The cockfight was scheduled to condition the cocks.
5. The rooster was cooked by mother out of annoyance.
6. Answers may vary.
7. Answers may vary.
8. Answers may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Identifying Irony, pp. 226-231


1. Ask again EQ #1. Let students recall the story, My Father’s Tragedy. Pose the following
questions:
• What was the father expecting from his rooster?
• Were his expectations fulfilled? Explain.
2. Ask them what they think the author excellently used to make the speaker in the poem
express a statement that is actually opposite to what he meant. Make the students aware
that such situation- where the result is the opposite of what is expected- is called irony.
3. Give them the basics by asking them to read the section on page 226.
4. Have students do the exercise on page 231 after reading the story, The Shoes of Chadli-
wan.
5. Discuss their answers, and lead them to extract part of EU #1. Authors use indirect
forms of expression, like irony, to convey meaning.

  Writers take on different literary forms and techniques


to mark excellence in what they write.

  What can make us excel in what we do? Why do we


need to strive for excellence?

116  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


C. Reading 2: God Said, “I Made a Man” by Jose Garcia Villa, pp. 232-233
1. Re-examine EQ #1. Tell the students that in the poem they will read, they will need to
pay attention to the author’s excellent view of how man interferes with the way God
created man.
2. Ask students to do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Ask the students to think about movies they have seen or stories they have read
where the robot, instead of being helpful, turns into a monster. Then let the students
answer the question in Unveil What You Know.
b. Let the students read the text in For Your Information. Have them tell stories about
the bad effects which sometimes happen when people interfere with the way God
made them e.g. liposuction, nose lift, transformation of sexes, etc.
c. Let the students read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Make
them aware that they will get the meanings of the italicized words from context.
d. Let the students read the biographical note on Jose Garcia Villa in Understanding
Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension through the following questions.
• What is the pseudonym of the author?
• What literary achievements is he known for?
e. The illustration is the artist’s idea of the beginning of creation. Ask the students
what they have read about the creation of the first human being. Then, let them
read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.
3 Facilitate an oral reading of the poem.
a. Select two students from class. Have one student read the part spoken by God.
The other student should read the part spoken by the man. The other students in
class should follow the oral reading by reading the poem silently.
b. After the first reading, divide the class into two groups, and have the half of the
class read the part of God and the other half to read the part of the man.
4. Call the students to the words fountainhead and regal. Ask them what they think is
the meaning of each word, based on the way it is used in the poem.

Fountainhead – source (capitalized because it refers to God)


regal – magnificent; of royal bearing

5. Check on the students’ comprehension by making them answer the questions in the
section Sharing Insights.

The expressions brightest days and all shining gold refer to the efforts of
human beings to improve themselves and their environment. Sometimes,
though, people exceed themselves and aim their bow at God by trying not to
improve themselves, but to change the very nature which God made for them.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  117


Answers to Sharing Insights
Below are possible answers.
1. The phrases brightest day and becoming all shining gold refer to the effort of
humans to improve themselves and their environment.
2. This handsome creature tries to play God in creating another creation like robots
and altering themselves with nose lift and other surgeries that aim to beautify
human.
3. A universal man is aiming a bow to God not only by altering themselves but also
by changing the nature of their environment. This threat-if we could call it that
way-arises because of man’s curiosity to God’s intelligence.
4. The two lines may only mean that humans do not plan to destroy God but humans
do want to know the extent of God’s supremacy.
5. According to the poem, God views His creation as handsome to behold. This
evidently states that God not only admires His creation but is curious on His
creation’s intelligence.
6. Answers may vary.
7. Answers may vary.
8. Answers may vary.

D. Literary Skill 2: Understanding Symbols in Literature, pp. 234-235


1. Ask the students why some boys give flowers to girls on Valentine’s Day, or why a wed-
ded couple exchanges rings during the wedding ceremony. Ask them what the flowers
and the ring stand for. Ask them what special meanings are suggested to them by the
following:
a handshake a red cross
a red paper heart the Philippine flag
2. Ask EQ #1 again. Make the students aware that in literature, writers make excellent
use of symbols for more vivid expression. Let the students read the section on page
234.

Emphasize to them the following ideas:


A symbol is a person, place, event, or object that stands for something
that has a meaning in itself, but suggests other meanings, e.g. gold has its
own meaning, but in the poem just taken up, it suggests another meaning.
A particular symbol may mean different things to different people, e.g.
a car may suggest luxury to some but necessity to others.

3. Instruct students to work on the exercise on pages 234-235.

118  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


  What can make us excel in what we do? Why do we
need to strive for excellence?

Answers to Exercise, pp. 234-235


1. a thousand waters, mountains-problems, difficulties, tasks to be done
a thousand crosses-more sufferings, trials
shoulders are not strong, flaccid-weak nature of the Filipino
another’s wing-under the colonizer, the United States
2. silences-patient, passive or indifferent, acceptance of foreign domination
speeches-brilliant orators of the country; action
3. big, white brothers- the Americans
little brown brothers-the Filipinos
4. wells- stories, examples
water to slake our long thirst- inspiration
5. sapling-the young and weak person
molave- a strong person
6. man who had helped himself to an ounce of gold-petty thief
smiled an appeasing good morning-slavish, groveling manner
man who had pocketed tons of it-big time grafter, smuggler, etc.
7. whips other than leather-punishment
8. a book of paradoxes-of contradicting nature
a pat on one’s back-condescending manner
9. lighting candles in the wind- unfulfilled ambitions, future, disappointment
10. dream-hope for Philippine independence
wood-the dream of independence
blows-struggle for independence

E. Vocabulary: Learning More About Similes, p. 236


1. Review the students on how to recognize similes.
2. Let them read the section on page 236. Ask them to give examples of simile. Then, have
them do the exercise.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 236


Answers vary. Suggestions follow:
1. hard 5. pretty
2. gold 6. while
3. red 7. rough
4. big 8. strong

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  119


Answers to Exercise B, p. 236
Answers vary. Suggestions follow:
1. character as priceless as a diamond
2. hands as cold as ice
3. skin as rough as the bark of a tree
4. cry as loud as thunder
5. voice as hoarse as the croak of a frog
6. face as pale as a sheet
7. a man as tall as a skyscraper
8. a girl as thin as midrib
9. a baby’s skin fragrant like a rose
10. people busy like ants

F. Listening/Viewing: Identifying the Punch Line in a Joke, p. 237


1. Ask EQ #1 again. Focus on Filipino comedians, and ask students who they consider
among the these celebrities are excellent? Let them explain why.
2. Hook students by asking them to tell good-natured jokes to one another. Ask them to
cite the part that makes the story funny:

A college student who had just returned home to the farm was told by his
father to rake up the leaves. The students asked, “Rake? What’s a rake?” And
he didn’t do the job. On his way out of the house, a rake hit him on the head.
Angrily he called out, “Who left a rake standing by the door?”
Adapted from Leo Tolstoy

3. Have the students read and study the pointers in the section on page 237.
4. Let them work on the exercises.

Exercise A. Listening Selection


The students was always late for class. The exasperated teacher asked,
“Why are you always late?”
The students scratched his head and with a puzzle look, said, “Ma’am it’s
because of the sign I have to pass along the way. It says School Ahead, Go Slow!”
For Exercise B. Group students into four, and ask them do the exercise.
This may be given as an assignment.

  What can make us excel in what we do? Why do we


need to strive for excellence?

120  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


G. Speaking: Distinguishing /s/ from /z/, pp.238-239
1. Prompt students to discuss answers to the following questions:
• What usually happens when key words are mispronounced?
• How can we avoid misconception?
2. Have the students read aloud the paragraph from Talaga by F.B. Icasiano. Let them
read silently the rest of the section on page 238.
3. Let the students pronounce the words in the /s/ column, then in /z/ column. Ask them
how they can tell whether s in a word is pronounced /s/ or /z/. Have them read again
the paragraph from Talaga, this time pronouncing correctly the sound of the s letter.
4. Have the students do the reading exercises on page 239.

H. Study and Research: Using an Encyclopedia, pp. 240-243


1. Remind students of the Performance Task. Ask students whether they believe research
has a place in helping them do their Performance Task. Have them defend their answers.
2. Prompt them to discuss how can reading materials like encyclopedia help us in our
research work. Ask who among them have encyclopedias at home and if they use them
when they are given homework. Have the students share experiences.
3. Refer the students to the notes on pages 240-241. Discuss with them key points for
better understanding.
4. To make the lesson more effective, have some encyclopedia in the room which the
students can study. The encyclopedia can be distributed to groups and as the teacher
cites a topic, the group with the volume containing the topic can turn to the indicated
pages. A volunteer may be asked to read a few sentences about the topic.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 242


1. poems 7. story
2. English 8. Man
3. marionette 9. plants
4. folktale 10. gravity
5. water 11. I
6. Balagtas, Francisco 12. plants

Answers to Exercise B, p. 242


1. Vol.9, pp.1020-1030 6. Vol.5, pp.952-955
2. Vol.2, p.275 7. Vol.1, pp.111-112
3. Vol.2, pp.277-280 8. Vol.2, p.250
4. Vol.1, pp.105-107 9. Vol.6, pp.817-818
5. Vol.5, pp.613-617 10. Vol.2, p.250

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  121


Answers to Exercise C, p. 243 (Possible Answer)
• What is Artificial Intelligence?
• According to http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/37146/artificial-intel-
ligence-AI, artificial intelligence is the ability of a digital computer to perform
human tasks proficiently.
• The earliest successful AI program was written in 1951 by Christopher Strachey
from the University of Oxford.

I. Grammar 1: Recognizing Nouns Through Noun Signaling Devices, pp. 244-247


1. Pose EQ #2. Elicit initial answers.
2. Provide them the basics on nouns with their noun signaling device. Let them study
the section on pages 244-246. Then, let them practice the key ideas by asking them to
answer the exercises. Discuss answers to correct any errors.
3. Remind students to read the generalization before answering the exercises on page
247.

  What makes a good speaker and a writer?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 247

Noun Signaling Device

1. answer Preposition (for)

2. hands determiner

3. kisses adjective

4. tears adjective

5. weakness suffix

6. life determiner

7. fool determiner

8. glance determiner

9. face determiner

Answers to Exercise B, p. 247


Answers vary. Suggestion follows.
Several girls walked to the theater to watch the dancers on the stage. They
clapped their hands gleefully as each dancer made a deft turn and bowed to the

122  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


admiring audience. Some girls dared to go near the stage and mimic the dancers of
the Bayanihan as the audience laughed and applauded.

Answers to Exercise C, p. 247


1. painter
2. youngsters; freedom
3. abstinence
4. leakage

J. Grammar 2: Recognizing other Noun Signaling Devices, p. 248

K. Grammar 3: Using A and An Correctly, pp. 248-249


1. Have the students read the section on page 248.
2. Ask them what device to use to show possession.
3. Instruct students to answer the exercises on pages 248-249.
4. Revisit EQ #2. Let students realize the importance of the grammar lesson discussed
and how these can help them become fluent English speaker and proficient writer.
Lead them to name EU #2. In producing quality reading materials, the writer has to
be adept in English. Similarly, to be a good speaker, one has to be equally proficient in
English.
5. Ask students to do the Wrap-Up Exercise. It highlights all topics in the lesson. Let your
students answer the exercises as lesson enrichment.

  Language fluency and proficiency are prerequisites to


good speaking and writing.

  What makes a good speaker and a writer?

Answers to Exercise A, pp. 248-249


a - 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20
an - the rest of the items

Answers to Exercise B, p. 249


1. an hour
2. a hairbrush
3. a hairbrush
4. a hue

Answers to Exercise C, p. 249 may vary.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  123


Answers to Exercise A, p. 251

Signaling Devices Nouns

the Philippines

of, the Orient

small nation

from, international (suffix), monetary (suffix) fund

biggest importer

of rice

country’s(possessive form), military sector

Japanese soldiers

Filipino entertainers

two years

Answers to Exercise B, p. 251

Singular Nouns Plural Nouns

Philippines soldiers
Orient entertainers
nation years
fund
importer
rice
sector

Answers to Exercise C, p. 251 may vary.

L. Writing: Achieving Humor in Writing an Anecdote, pp. 252-253


1. Tell the students to recall the lesson on identifying the punch line. Ask them how humor
was achieved in the jokes they told or listened to.
2. Let the students read the section on page 252. Have them give an example for each way
of achieving humor, e.g. the Juan Tamad stories and other tall tales.
3. Have the students recall their lesson on making a time line. Make them aware that
making a time line will help them tell or write a joke in an organized manner.
4. Let the students do the writing activity on pages 252-253. Let them follow the writing
process.

124  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


a. Prewriting
Make students freewrite on a funny incident that happened to them or a friend.
Let them create humor in writing their anecdote by drawing a time line of events
and deciding on a punch line.
b. Drafting
Let them write their anecdote using what they wrote in the prewriting stage.
c. Editing and Revising
Pair up students for peer editing. Ask them to revise their work after.
d. Publishing
Ask students to read their work in class.
5. Segue to revisit EQ. Let students recall how the authors employ excellent writing tech-
niques in the story, My Father’s Tragedy and the poem, God Said, “I Made a Man”.

M. Performance Task: Writing and Telling a Humorous Anecdote, pp. 254-255


1. Instruct students to read their task in the section on page 254. In dyad, ask students
to discuss with their partner the GRASPS-formatted task.
2 Allow students time to write, rewrite, and finalize their anecdote. If ready, let students
share orally their anecdote in a group of four. Let them discover the best storyteller(s)
and ask them to share in the plenary group.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  125


Lesson 8 Fighting for Freedom

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


Write an autobiography.
1. Rights to speech, writing, and action are
by-products of freedom.
Essential Questions
2. Autobiographies are written to recollect
the person’s life and times that readers What essential questions will be asked?
may learn from. 1. Why fight for freedom? What does
3. Conventions and language determine the freedom bring a person or a country?
mood in a story. 2. Why write autobiographies?
4. Authors employ apostrophe and conno- 3. How and why is mood created in a story?
tation to make their writings interesting
and effective. 4. Why do writers use apostrophe and
connotation?
5. Pronunciation affects meaning.
5. How can pronunciation affect conver-
sation?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:

1. the elements of an autobiography. 1. discuss Philippine literature during the


war years.
2. how to interpret mood.
2. answer discussion questions substantially.
3. apostrophes.
3. identify the elements of an autobiog-
4. connotation of a word.
raphy.
5. how to relay information.
4. note feelings from the reading selection
to interpret mood.

5. name and identify apostrophes.

126  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


6. differentiate the sounds /i/ and /I/. 6. give appropriate connotation of a word.

7. how to use a thumb index and the guide 7. listen to a classmate for information or
words of the dictionary. watch a documentary program, and relay
this information to class.
8. how to capitalize nouns correctly.
8. contrast the sounds /i/ and /I/ in words,
9. the plural forms of count and mass nouns. and use these words in sentences
10. how to use suitable noun-word. correctly.

11. how to write an autobiography. 9. locate words using the thumb index and the
guide words of the dictionary.

10. capitalize nouns correctly.

11. give the plural forms of count and mass


nouns.

12. use suitable noun-word in a given


context.

13. write an autobiography.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  127


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence

Performance Task

The National Library of the Philippines (NLP) will be giving away a copy of the book The
Happiness Project by Gretchen Rubin to ten students with best written autobiography in your
school. Rubin is one of the great autobiographers. Everyone loves to have a copy of the best
selling autobiography, so you grab the opportunity to write and submit your autobiography.
In writing your autobiography, you consider important facts, events, situations, and feelings
that mark and influence your life. Impress the NLP director who gets to scrutinize and choose the
winning pieces by following the criteria.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing an Autobiography

CRITERIA/
4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Fair 1 - Poor
SCORE

Intro- The introduc- The introduc- The introduc- There is no


duction tion is invit- tion states the tion states the clear intro-
ing, states the main topic and main topic, duction of the
main topic and previews the but does not main topic or
previews the structure of the adequately structure of the
structure of the paper, but is preview the paper.
paper. not particularly structure of
inviting to the the paper nor
reader. is particularly
inviting to the
reader.

Content Details are Details are Some details Many details


placed in log- placed in log- are not in are not in
ical order and ical order, but a logical or a logical or
the way they the presenta- expected order, expected order.
are present- tion style some- and this dis- There is little
ed effectively times makes tracts the read- sense that the
keeps the read- the writing er. Included writing is orga-
er. Included less interest- information on nized.
information on ing. Included all 10 required
all 10 required information on topics.
topics. all 10 required
topics.

128  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Focus on Each paragraph Each paragraph Topic sentence The topic
Topic contains a contains a topic is somewhat sentence is not
(Content) topic sentence, sentence, with clear but there clear. There is a
supporting some support- is a need for seemingly ran-
sentences, ing sentences more support- dom collection
and closing and closing ing informa- of information.
sentence that sentence. tion.
clearly makes
a transition to
make a transi-
tion to the next
paragraph.
Word Writer uses Writer uses Writer uses Writer uses
Choice vivid words and vivid words words that limited vocab-
phrases that and phrases communicate ulary that does
linger or draw that linger or clearly, but the not communi-
pictures in the draw pictures writing lacks cate strongly
reader’s mind, in the reader’s variety, punch or capture the
and the choice mind, but oc- or flair. reader’s inter-
and placement casionally the est. Jargon or
of the words words are used cliches may be
seem accurate, inaccurately present and de-
natural and not or seem over- tract meaning.
forced. done.
Spelling No misspell- Some misspell- Some misspell- Many misspell-
Grammar ings. No gram- ings and/or ings and/or ings or gram-
Technical matical errors. some gram- some gram- matical errors
The paper is matical errors. matical errors and/or paper
typewritten, The paper is and/or paper does not follow
double-spaced, typewritten, does not ex- technical re-
12-point font, double-spaced, actly technical quirements.
single page. 12-point font, requirements.
single page.
Source: http://www.wac.gsu.edu/ctw_getuser_data.php?rubric&course_id=60

Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based upon the ability to gener-
ate and answer high-level questions to the autobiography, The Good Fight, the story, Last
Man off Bataan, and the poem, The March of Death
2. Identified elements of an autobiography
3. Identified mood

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  129


4. Identified Apostrophe
5. Vocabulary exercise on connotation
6. Activity on relaying information
7. Exercise on using words with /i/- /I/
8. Practice exercise on using guide words
9. Grammar exercise on capitalizing proper nouns, using mass nouns and count nouns, and
using the correct noun

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Tell the student to read through the section Learning objective sso they know what they
can expect to do in the first lesson of the unit which includes reading and analyzing Philip-
pines literature during the war years and writingan authobiography as a culminating task.
Inform them how they will be evaluated for this culminating activity. Refer them to the
rubic on pages 294-297 for self and peer assessment.
➲ Have the student read the background. Ask them what they know about the war years in
the Philippines. Have them tell stories of their grandparents or parents on the war. Ask:
What would be the situation of the Philippines today if the Japanese succeeded iin having
the Philippines under Japan’s rule? What could have been the trend in literature?
➲ Provide the students opportunities to experience the key ideas and explore understanding
by doing the activities that follow.

Background

When World War II broke out, the Filipinos fought side by side with the Americans to counter
the advancing Japanese force. Many Filipinos, as well as Americans, suffered cruel treatment
from the Japanese. From a productive output during the Emergence Period, literary activities
suffered a blow during the war years. During the Japanese occupation, all forms of writing
were censored. For more than three years, there was no freedom of speech and of the press.
Only the Filipinos living abroad were able to write. Meanwhile with the suppression on the
usage of the English language, by the new rulers, some Filipinos still managed to write, this
time, trying their hand on Tagalog as a medium. These writers include N.V.M. Gonzales, Juan
C. Laya, and E. Aguilar Cruz.

A. Reading 1: “The Good Fight” (An Excerpt), by Manuel L. Quezon, pp. 257-264
1. Pose EQ #1. Invite students to relate what they can do to defend their country from
foreign invasions.
2. Let students answer the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Initiate discussion through asking the students to share what they know about

130  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


the Pacific War or World War II in the Philippine setting. The students may have
learned about it from their grandparents or from their social studies classes. This
will enable them to answer the question in Unveil What You Know. Allow the stu-
dents to read the text in For Your Information.
b. Have the students read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. The
students should have been assigned to look up these words a day prior to the reci-
tation period.
c. Have the students read about Manuel L. Quezon in Understanding Author’s Profile.
Check students’ comprehension by allowing students answer the question below.
• What achievements is Manuel L. Quezon known for? (Make the students aware that
Manuel L. Quezon was the president of the Philippines when Japan declared war on
our country.)
d. Have the students read the questions in Underscore a Motive for Reading.
3. Reading
a. Assign the material for home study.
b. Let some students give a summary before taking up the questions in Sharing In-
sights.
4. Have the students answer the questions on Sharing Insights.

Questions 1-4 call for details. Questions 5-7 encourage the students to
support their opinions. Question 8 encourages the students to learn more
about the life of their forebears during the Japanese occupation.

5. Revisit EQ #1. Ask the students what they learn from the excerpt. Zero in on the plans
of President Quezon and General MacArthur in avoiding the destruction of Manila
and saving the civilian population.

  Why fight for freedom? What does freedom bring a


person or a country?

Answers to Sharing Insights


Below are possible answers only.
1. Manuel L. Quezon was the leader of the Filipino independence movement and
first president of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935.
2. Pres.M.Quezon received the news that Pearl Harbor was bombarded by the Japanese.
The news was a surprise because Pearl Harbor was one of the strongest military bases of
America. In fact, it is the best defended naval station in the world. Japan government
only showed that they could defeat a strong American military base.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  131


3. There was a possibility of war between the two countries because of conflicting
political stand.
4. Answers to this question could be found in the fifth paragraph of page 256.
5. Pres.Quezon and Gen.MacArthur planned to declare Manila as an open city to
avoid its destruction and to go to Corregidor to avoid unnecessary bombings
in Manila for if Japan will follow the international law, Japan will only target
military objectives.
6. In the international perspective, the president’s captivity is also the country’s defeat
since he was the highest ranking official of the government and he represented the
people.
7. President Quezon wanted to stay in Manila to show that he was in solidarity with
his people even in times of chaos.
8. Answers may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Identifying the Elements of an Autobiography, pp. 264-265


1. Pose EQ #2. Ask students if they keep journals of their daily experiences. Let them
share what they write in their journals, and let them explain why they write such things.
2. Ask the students to recall the excerpt The Good Fight. Tell them that the excerpt they
read is a sample autobiography. Ask them to define what an autobiography is.
3. Then, have them read the section on page 264. Check on comprehension by asking
the students what features characterize an autobiography. Lead them to name these
elements.
4. Have the students work on the exercises on page 265.
5. Revisit EQ #2, and remind students about their Performance Task—writing their au-
tobiography. Ask them what they think they will consider in writing one, and make
them explain why. Lead them to name EU #2.

  Autobiographies are written to recollect the person’s


life and times that readers may learn from.

  Why write autobiographies?

C. Reading 2: “Last Man off Bataan” (An Excerpt), by Carlos P. Romulo, pp. 266-275
1. Recall EQ #1. Prompt: If you lived during the Japanese occupation in the Philippines,
how would you defend the country? Let them enumerate their ways.
2. Let the students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Instruct students to answer Unveil What You Know. Lead the students in the dis-
cussion on the Fall or Defeat of Bataan on the ninth day of April.

132  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


b. Tell the students to read For Your Information for more details about the Fall of
Bataan.
c. Ask the students to read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Ask
them what they understand about the italicized words, based on the way each word
is used in Last Man Off Bataan.
d. Have the students study the illustration on the second column. Ask them what
event in Philippine history is depicted (the Death March that began the Japanese
Occupation in the Philippines). Ask the students to tell what they know about the
Death March.
e. Make the students study the biographical note on Carlos P. Romulo in Understand
Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension through the question: What achieve-
ments is Carlos P. Romulo remembered for?
f. Direct your students’ attention in Underscore a Motive for Reading to give the
students idea of what to expect in the selection.
3. Let students do a brainstorming of what transpired in the story. (Reading of the text
must have been done at home.)
4. Have the students answer the questions in the section Sharing Insights.
Let them read lines from the excerpt to support their answers. (Bataan and Cor-
regidor became symbols of the heroic stand of the Filipinos against Japanese invaders.)
5. Return to EQ #1. Recall their answers (how they can show their appreciation for the
patriotism and bravery of the Filipinos who fought during World War II) to question
7 and connect them to realizing EU #1.

  Rights to speech, writing, and action are by-products


of freedom.

  Why fight for freedom? What does freedom bring a


person or a country?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. a. Carlos Romulo was a colonel who never wanted to leave the doctors, nurses,
and other soldiers in Bataan.
b. Lieutenant Barnick was described as a husky soldier from North Dakota, the
wisecracking flier, and the tough guy.
2. Answers may vary.
3. According to the international law, war will only be affecting military objectives
such as bases, naval station etc. Since Corregidor and Bataan were our military
bases in the Philippines, they served as battlefields.
4. On the road to escape of Col.Romulo, two military bases were already abandoned
and destroyed by the Japanese.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  133


5. Answers may vary.
6. Answers may vary.
7. Answers may vary.

D. Literary Skill 2: Interpreting Mood, pp. 275-276


1. Ask EQ #3. Ask the students how they felt as they read the excerpt from Last Man Off
Bataan. Let them ventilate these feelings.
2. Make them aware that the feeling they get in a reading selection is called mood. Have
the students read the section on page 275. Facilitate a guided instruction on mood. Let
them name these factors that lead to the creation of mood in a story.
3. Then, let them work on the exercise on page 276. Let them focus on setting, dialogs,
actions and their choice of phrases, sensory images, details in identifying the mood of
the story they read.
4. Let students go back to EQ #3. Ask them how they identified the mood in the story
they read. Ask them what they felt, and what effects these feelings have on them. Lead
them to name EU #3. Stories create mood to help readers get in touch with feelings.
Such feelings would help them enjoy reading these stories. Hence, mood is derived
from the expose’ of a setting, actions, and language used by the characters. Sensory
words and images do much in creating this mood.

  Conventions and language determine the mood in a


story.

  How and why is mood created in a story?

E. Reading 3: The March of Death by Bienvenido N. Santos, pp. 277-279


1. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students what they would do in a situation where there is war going on.
Let them list down the defense mechanisms against such occurrence and have them share
in class.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Ask the students what the effects of war are. Then, have them read and answer the
questions in Unveil What You Know.
b. Have them read the text in For Your Information. Let the students know about the
punishment that the captives had to endure. Ask them how they would feel if they
had no food and water for nine days or if they had to work without rest for nine
days.
3. Have the students read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Have the
students get the meaning of the italicized expressions from context.

134  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


4. Instruct students to study the illustration. This is the artist’s depiction of the Death
March. Note that one of the men is obviously tired and weak and is held up by the one
standing near him.
5. Allow the students read the biographical note on Bienvenido Santos in Understand
Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension by asking the following questions:
• Where was Bienvenido Santos when war was declared in the Philippines?
• How did he become familiar with the experiences of the Filipinos living in America?
• What award did he win?
6. Let students do oral reading of the poem.
Follow standard procedure. For the class reading, the class may be divided into
groups, each group to read a few stanzas of the poem.
7. Have students answer the questions in the section Sharing Insights.
8. To sum up the message of the poem, lead the students to understand that war is tragic
and is never a way to achieve peace. So, ask students EQ #1 again, and lead them to
share how they can use freedom, in their own little ways, in combating any threats of
war.

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. This might be a personal poem of Bienvenido N. Santos. He himself is the poet
and persona in the poem. From stanza 6, he said
No, you have not died; you cannot die;
I have felt your prayer touch my heart
As I walked along the crowded streets of America.
So the poet and persona of the poem is in America.
2. The poem has a refrain like a song that is repeated to tell us about the march. And also,
on stanza 8, it directly mentions about the death, agony, and the silent tears of the
Filipino soldiers.
3. Stanzas 2 and 3
4. In poetry, refrain is used to put emphasis. It may also serve as a mantra to survive
death in the hands of the yellow men. It expresses the hopes and prayers of the
hungry, tired, and sick soldiers in the march.
5. He literally walked on it when he was a child and figuratively walked on it during the
Death March through the feet of his brothers-fellow Filipinos.
6. Answers may vary.
7. Answers may vary.
8. Answers may vary.

F. Literary Skill 3: Reviewing the Apostrophe, pp. 279-280


1. Ask EQ #4. Let them recall their enduring understanding they learned from Lesson 4 of
Unit I.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  135


2. Small Group Discussion (SGD): Instruct students to read and discuss the section on
page 275. After the SGD, check on comprehension by asking the following questions:
• What is an apostrophe in literature?
• What is the purpose of the apostrophe?
3. Have the students work on the exercises on page 276. The apostrophe is shown in verses
1 and 3. Ask them what the apostrophes make of the stanzas. Lead them to name EU
#4.

  Authors use apostrophe to make their poems inter-


esting.

  Why do writers use apostrophe?

G. Vocabulary: Recognizing Connotation, p. 281


1. Pose EQ #4. In a dyad, ask them to read and discuss the section on page 281. Then,
check on comprehension by having them tell what connotation refers to (the emotional
content or significance of a word).
2. Have the students work on the exercise on page 281.
3. Ask students how they can enrich their writing using connotation. Lead them to real-
ize that understanding connotation helps them comprehend the implied meanings in
a literary text.

Answers to Exercise, p. 281


1. grotesque 4. fanciful
2. fanciful 5. fantastic
3. fantastic

H. Listening/ Viewing: Relaying Information, p. 282


1. Revisit EQ #2. Ask students what information is relayed in an autobiography. Further
ask them to discuss what information about themselves they will share when they will
be tasked to write one.
2. Segue to a discussion of misinterpreting a relayed information because of not listening
attentively. Let them enumerate some effects.
3. Discuss with the class the pointers on page 282.
4. Get a model pair from the class. One will talk about himself or herself following the
pointers on page 282, while the other will listen. Ask the one listening what he or she
learned about his or her partner.

136  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


5. In pairs, have the class do Exercise A. Let students relay information about their partner.
6. For viewing exercise, require students to watch a documentary program that recounts
a person’s autobiography. Then, let students write a one-paragraph précis regarding
the autobiography.

  Why write autobiographies?

I. Speaking: Pronouncing Words with /i/-/I/, p. 283


1. Have students recall their experience in the listening activity. Ask whether they under-
stand clearly the relayed information to them. Further ask what caused misunderstand-
ing if there was any. Ask EQ #5. Seek initial answers, and take note of them.
2. Introduce the sounds. Have the students be aware that the sound of /i/ is cut short
while that of /I/ is prolonged.
3. Have the students read the words and phrases on page 283, first, the whole class; then
by groups; then individually.
4. Allow the students to read the sentences, one group to read the sentences with words
sounded /i/ and another group with words sounded /I/.
5. Ask the students to work on the exercise on page 283.
6. Revisit EQ #5. Ask students how pronunciation changes, alters, or distorts meaning
when words are mispronounced. Lead them to a realization:

“Good speech entails clear and correct pronunciation of words to avoid


misunderstandings.”

  How can pronunciation affect conversation?

Answers to Exercise, p. 283


1. meal 9. keel
2. mill 10. kill
3. sheep 11. heat
4. ship 12. hit
5. hill 13. piece
6. heel 14. peace
7. sill 15. pick
8. seal 16. peak

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  137


J. Study and Research: Learning to Use a Dictionary, pp. 284-285
1. Ask the students what information the dictionary gives. Then, ask what they usually
do to look up quickly the meaning of a word in the dictionary.
2. Introduce thumb index and guide words. Have the students read page 284.
3. Tell the students to do the exercises on page 285.
4. Process with the students how they can use the concepts of thumb index and guide
words in writing their autobiography. Lead them to realize that they use the dictionary
in locating words that are appropriate for their need and context.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 285


Gut, guy, gurgle, gust, gutter, gunsmith, gurney, gusher, guttural, gunboat,
gunwale, gunlock, gunpowder, guppy, and guilt

Answers to Exercise B, p. 285

guide word letter given words

C feat

B fay

A fate

C feature

A father

C February

A fatigue

B fawn

B favor

C fear

C federal

A fathom

C feces

A fault-finder

C febrile

B faux pas

138  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise C, p. 285
1. b, c
2. a, b, and d
3. d
d. a
5. d

K. Grammar 1: Capitalizing Proper Nouns, pp. 286-287


1. Ask students to recall the information they shared in the listening activity. Ask them
how they should write pieces of information like names of persons, address, name of
favorite sport, book, music, and food. Lead them to a discussion on capitalizing proper
nouns.
2. Facilitate a guided instruction on which nouns are capitalized. Ask the students to
explore the section on page 286.
3. Check on comprehension by asking the students to give examples of proper nouns.
4. Have the students work on the exercise on pages 286-287.

Answers to Exercise, pp. 286-287


1. Gigi is a member of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines.
2. I read the story about Ambassador Marquez.
3. The meeting will be held on the last Thursday of May.
4. We may go to Bulacan for the weekend.
5. The American speaks Chinese with a funny accent.
6. I have never been to Malacañang Palace.
7. At the Nacionalista Party meeting held near the Pasig River, two Nacionalistas
were absent.
8. The Ministry of Human Settlements was created during the Martial Law period.

Grammar 2: Using Mass Nouns and Count Nouns, pp. 288-289


1. Ask the students to role play buying scenes at a store, e.g.:

SELLER: May I help you?


CUSTOMER: I’d like to buy two kilos of rice and five cans of evaporated milk.

2. After the role play, let the students discuss the items that were “bought” in each role
play. Write them on the blackboard, including the counters, e.g.: two kilos of rice five
cans of milk
3. Draw attention to the items e.g.: rice, milk. Ask if it is correct to put -s after each noun.
Draw attention to the counters used.

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  139


4. Have the students read the section on page 288. Check on comprehension by having
the students answer the following questions.
• What is a mass noun? A count noun?
• How can you differentiate one from the other? (Emphasize that mass nouns do not
add -s.)
5. Have the students work on the exercises on pages 288-289.
6. Process all learning experiences involving the study of count and mass nouns. Ask
students how they can use such learning in writing their autobiography. Lead them to
the realization:
“Since autobiographies relate factual information about a person, place, event, or
thing, noun words (their kind, capitalization) are essential build-ups to writing a rich
and accurate autobiography.”

Answers to Exercise A, p. 288


1. dust; particles of dust 6. some mail
2. advice 7. any news
3. some fun 8. work
4. luck 9. traffic
5. information 10. pieces of baggage
(Make the students aware that baggages is already accepted. Other nouns in
the same category include equipments, machineries, jewelries. Have them look up
an updated dictionary for guidance.)

Answers to Exercise B, p. 289


1. some information; much; much advice; much information
2. scenery, work, furniture, furniture

Grammar 3: Using the Correct Noun, pp. 290-291


1. Make the students aware that some mass nouns are also used as count nouns but their
meanings are changed. Some of these nouns are paper, work, property, and talk.
2. Let the students read the section on page 290. Then, have them use the -s form of the
nouns in sentences.
3. Have the students work on the exercises on page 290.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 290


1. property 6. paper
2. papers 7. talk
3. work 8. properties
4. talks 9. paper
5. works 10. property

140  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise B, p. 291
1. talk 5. talks
2. papers 6. property
3. work 7. works
4. paper

Answers to Exercise C, p. 291


1. paper 4. works
2. papers 5. talk
3. work 6. talks

L. Writing: Writing an Autobiography, pp. 292-293


1. Gather students’ understandings about autobiography. Inform them that now, they
will exhibit their understandings through the Performance Task.
2. Let the students follow the writing process on pages 292-293.
a. Prewriting
Let students write down information to the following:
1. Personal Information:
Date and place of birth:_________________________________________
Parents: Father________________________________________________
Mother______________________________________________________
Raised Where_________________________________________________
2. Educational Background:
Pre-school____________________________________________________
Elementary___________________________________________________
3. People and events that influenced your life or lessons learned from them
b. Drafting
Let them write the details to their autobiography using the pieces of informa-
tion in the prewriting phase.
c. Sharing and Revising
Let students share their biography with classmates for comments. Let them
revise their work.
d. Proofreading
Allow peer proofreading to correct errors in grammar, spelling, usage, capi-
talization, and punctuation.
e. Preparing the Final Copy
Let students finalize their work. Have it encoded.
f. Sharing
Group students into four, and let them read their work for feedback. Have the
class decide who among them has the best work and have it shared to the whole class.
3. Let students do a revisiting of EQ #1. Ask them to recall the autobiography, The Good
Fight, the account, Last Man Off Bataan, and the poem, The March of Death. Let the

Unit II: The Period of Apprenticeship and Emergence  |  141


students state their significant learnings from these readings. Let them share what they
can do for this country in ensuring the freedom of expression in speech and writing.

M. Performance Task: Writing an Autobiography, pp. 294-295


Refer the students to the section on pages 294-295, and allow them sufficient time to
carry out their performance task. Let them do self-assessment of their work against the
rubric provided.

N. Unit Learning Assessment: pp. 296-297


Ask the students to synthesize and to reflect what they have learned in this unit through
answering the provided Unit Learning Assessment. Through a Small Group Discussion
(SGD), instruct students to share and discuss their learning experiences. Call randomly
for volunteers to share their learning experiences. Let the students update their journal
concerning their learning experiences.

142  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


III the period of rapid development

  The country’s literary development reflects its national and cul-


tural progress and maturity.

  What is the relationship between change and progress?

Lesson 9 Wallowing in Freedom

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Freedom of expression entails responsible  Write a reaction paper.
utilization to effect positive personal and
social changes. Essential Questions

2. The most challenging times in a nation’s life What essential questions will be asked?
allow its people to transform difficulty into 1. What effect does freedom have on
opportunities for change and progress. people and nation?
3. The responsible conveyance of one’s 2. In times of crises, how could literature
opinion and reaction on relevant social offer a sense of relief?
issues translates to people and national
empowerment. 3. What do we need to observe in order to
participate effectively in discussions?

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  143


Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:

1. point of view. 1. discuss Philippine literature during the


Liberation Period.
2. local color.
2. share insightful ideas to comprehension
3. conflict presented in a story.
questions.
4. homonyms.
3. identify from which point of view a story
5. final consonants sounds. is told.

6. the basic and important parts of a 4. recognize details and figures of speech
newspaper. that point to local color.

7. kernel and embedded sentences. 5. identify the conflicts experienced by the


main character in the story.
8. note-taking.
6. read a poem aloud
9. how to write a reaction paper.
7. give the correct meaning of homonyms.

8. listen to a group discussion or watch a TV


interview of our president, and make a
report about it.

9. pronounce distinctly final consonants


sounds in words, phrases, sentences, and
verses.

10. extract information from a newspaper.

11. identify and formulate meaningful kernel


sentences.

12. identify embedded sentences and classify


them according to their kind.

13. write embedded sentences to expand


kernel sentences.

14. take down notes to write reactions about


the material.

144  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence
Performance Task

Writing a Reaction Paper


Your school paper is in need of a new editor-in-chief as the new school year has just kicked
off. You have to submit a reaction paper to qualify for the elimination. You are tasked to write
your reaction to an editorial taken from Manila Bulletin. Support your opinions with facts,
statistics, and examples.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Reaction Paper

CRITERIA/
3 - Superior 2 - Adequate 1 - Minimal
SCORE

Introduction Introduces theme Introduces theme Fails to present


of paper, and of paper and the theme, or fails
articles using rich articles effectively to provide intro-
and descriptive duction to articles
language.

Information Provides accurate Summarizes Fails to summarize


Summary and descriptive, main points articles effectively
concise summary of of the articles due to omission
article information, competently and of key points or
effectively summa- accurately. inaccurate charac-
rizing main points terization of infor-
of articles. mation.

Critique Thoughtfully Critiques author(s)’ Fails to effectively


critiques author(s)’ main points, using present critique;
main points, using evidence to back and/or fails to use
evidence to back up arguments. evidence to back
up arguments. up arguments;
Critique is and/or uses flawed
insightful and logic to support
thorough. statements.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  145


Conclusion Conclusion Effective Missing or incon-
presents partic- conclusion is sistent conclusion.
ularly strong or presented that
compelling closing corresponds with
statement that ties introduction.
closely to intro-
duction

Organization Information is Information is Missing or


organized in a fully organized compe- ineffective
effective manner; tently, with elements.
presents strong thesis, supporting
introduction, information and
expressive body, conclusion.
and purposeful
conclusion.

Sentence Structure Sentences effec- Sentences effec- Repeated errors in


tively constructed tively constructed sentence structure
with no with 1–2 minor or grammar.
grammatical errors. grammatical errors.

Mechanics Spelling, 1–2 minor errors More than 2 errors.


capitalization and in spelling,
punctuation error– punctuation or
free. capitalization.

Source: http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1487&context=
ipp_collection

Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based on the ability to generate
and answer high-level questions about the pre-reading activities and Sharing Insights of
We Filipinos are Mild Drinkers and The Land and The Rain
2. Recognition of the point of view presented in We Filipinos are Mild Drinkers
3. Description of details that point to local color
4. Identification of the type of conflict in a story
5. Vocabulary exercises on homonyms
6. Comprehensive discussion and demonstration of effective discussion and presentation
skills
7. Pronunciation exercises on final sounds

146  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


8. Outline of details from news stories
9. Grammar exercises on writing kernel sentences and embedded clauses

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Tell the students to study the illustrations on pages 298-299, and allow them to discuss
what they think about the title and figure. Pose Unit EQ: “What is the relationship between
change and progress?” Let them interpret.
➲ Tell the students that the unit covers “freedom” as an encompassing theme. Ask the stu-
dents what their concept of freedom is. Elicit initial responses and take note of them. Ask
students to justify their answers.
➲ Explain in detail what may be expected in Unit III, where they are headed, and why they
are going there. Give them this overview as an explanation. Then, have them read the unit
introduction.
➲ Inform the students that, in this lesson, they will be exploring how freedom affects people,
or a whole nation. They will also learn how to write a reaction paper in this lesson. Discuss
with students the learning objectives of the lesson.
➲ Lead the students to study the illustration on page 300. Group them in pairs to have Two-
Minute Talks discussing what they think about the title and the figure. Then, have them
share their discussion to the rest of the class in a plenary discussion. Facilitate a discussion
of the background.
➲ Provide the students opportunities to experience the key ideas and explore understanding
by doing the activities that follow.

BACKGROUND

The Japanese soldiers tried to put off the hope of Filipinos in MacArthur’s return. But they were
wrong. General MacArthur launched a string of air, land and sea attacks in various parts of the
Philippines which were still under Japanese rule. On October 20, 1944, MacArthur surprised
the Japanese forces by landing on Leyte. The victory of American forces in most parts of the
country had the Japanese forces retreating. Meanwhile, the liberation forces were rushing to-
ward Manila. Among the first internee’s camp liberated was the University of Sto. Tomas. On
February 5, 1945, the Battle of Manila erupted. Trapped by Americans, the Japanese fought in
desperation, killing Filipinos, burning houses and buildings, and leaving valuable goods de-
stroyed as they retreated. The battle ended eight days after. Meanwhile, fighting was still on in
other parts of the country. The Japanese forces, seeing that the Americans were overpowering
them, fought stubbornly. Soon, various points occupied by Japanese were liberated. On July 4,
1945, Gen. Douglas MacArthur declared the Philippines liberated from the Japanese.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  147


overview

The country’s liberation from the hands of the Japanese forces gave birth to a dynamic literary
activity. Writers enjoyed freedom of expression and, consequently, produced a good number
of great literary pieces. The poets of this period employed new conventions. Patriotic fervor
rose to a high level, but they did not neglect their sensitive and intense love poems. The short
story became a tool in making the readers aware of the problems of society and human hard-
ship. The essays written in this period reflected liberal ideas and radical forms. They gave rise
to social consciousness, nationalism, and concern for the common man. The screen and radio
provided opportunities for writing scripts. Some authors succeeded in producing fairly present-
able plays. The novels of this period also echoed nationalism. An example is Stevan Javellana’s
Without Seeing the Dawn, a novel set against the Japanese invasion and occupation. By 1960, a
modern period of Philippine literature began to develop. Characterized by a growing sense of
nationalism and by a deeper search for national identity, the literature showed that the writers
had a sharper perception of their country and her problems. The simple, romantic themes of
the earlier periods were replaced by confusion and violence in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Two schools of thought could be detected: one stressed literature from the masses and for
the masses; the other was interested in the art of literature itself. The second group was not
restrained by political considerations and freely experimented with literary forms and themes.

A. Reading 1: We Filipinos Are Mild Drinkers by Alejandro R. Roces, pp. 302-308


1. Present some images of war-torn Manila and its Liberation. Pose EQ#1. Ask the students
for their insights on the images specifically how they appreciate the freedom they are
experiencing at present.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Review the students on the uses of coconut. Then, have them read and answer the
question in Unveil What You Know.

(The fermented drink taken from the coconut tree can be intoxicating.
This drink is called lambanog in Luzon and tuba in the Visayas.)

b. For more information about this drink, have the students read the text in For Your
Information.
c. Have the students read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Make
them aware that they will get the meanings of the italicized words from context.
Check on the students’ understanding of the meanings of these words after they
have read the story. Give an exercise similar to the following:

Directions: Replace the underlined word with either swig, pulverized,


or peculiar.
1. The sea shell when reduced to powder is good feed for chickens.
(pulverized)

148  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


2. The weary man took a deep drink from the bottle of water he
carried as he walked along. (swig)
3. The children stared at the foreigners dressed in strange outfits.
(peculiar)

d. Have the students read the biographical note on Alejandro R. Roces in Understand
Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension through the following questions.

• What awards has Alejandro Roces received?


• How was his work for fostering social consciousness recognized?

e. Let the students study the illustration on pages 302-303. Ask them what they expect
from the story based on the illustration and the title.
f. Have the students read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.
3. Let students do silent reading.
Have the students read the literary selection individually.
4. Have students answer questions in the section Sharing Insights.
a. Process students’ answers to the comprehension questions on Sharing Insights.

Questions 1-4 develop the students’ ability to point out and recall
details. Question 5 develops the students’ creativity to make predictions.
Question 6 develops the students’ appreciation and use of literary humor.
Humor is achieved through irony or contrast of the outcome (the American
passes out after drinking the “mild” Filipino drink). Question 7 develops
the students’ literary interpretation to recognize author’s purpose.

b. Ask the students to share their experiences on how adults in their family use
“drinking” as an opportunity to bond and share moments of togetherness and
camaraderie. Mention that while “drinking” promotes fellowship, its abuse or
excess consumption has negative effects. Lead them to realize part of EU#1. The
use of freedom in this context has indeed bad effects to people’s health and lives.
Ask the students for their thoughts on the author’s assertion that We Filipino Are
Mild Drinkers. Then, mention that the literary selection they read is an example
of how literature achieves one of its aims to enrich man to reflect on the freedom
they enjoy and to fill him with ideas on how to use freedom judiciously.

  Freedom of expression entails responsible utilization


to effect positive personal and social changes.

  What effect does freedom have on people and nation?

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  149


Answers to Sharing Insights
1. Americans are alcoholics. Illustrated in the first paragraph of page 297: Whiskey
bottles seemed part of the American uniform.
2. Yes, certainly because Joe like other American soldiers are asking for bars in the
narrator’s barrio. Specifically, the American soldier in the story was looking for
bars as he met the narrator and thus he asked:Any bars in this town? From pages
297 to 298, Joe enumerated the kinds of alcohols he drinks from all of the places
he went.
3. Lambanog is not really a mild drink. Thrice in the story the narrator diluted his
lambanog with Joe’s whiskey which only proves its strong alcohol content.
4. At first, Joe reacted in peculiar way. His eyes popped out like a frog’s and his
hand clutched his throat. He looked as if he had swallowed a centipede. For the
second time, Joe reacted in a funny way. His neck stretched out like a turtle’s.
And now he was panting like a carabao gone amok. He exclaimed:Oh Christ, for
a while I thought it was my tongue. Third, the narrator saw smoke came out of
Joe’s ears. Then, Joe passed out.
5. The phrases are: with pulverized mangrove bark thrown in to prevent spontaneous
combustion; a remedy for snakebites, as counteractive for malaria chills, as an insec-
ticide, and for tanning carabao hide.
Also, the narrator never drinks lambanog undiluted or without a chaser.
6. Joe has experienced drinking several kinds of alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks.
Non-alcoholic drinks just serve as an alternative in the absence of good alcoholic
drinks in times of desperation. Then, the narrator smoothly developed that
lambanog is one of a kind drink. Ironic to what Joe called the drink as a jungle
juice, it gives the reader an idea that Joe thinks that the drink is nothing compared
to the ones he already tried. Humor is achieved when the narrator said he is a
mild drinker and the one who claims to be a heavy drinker passed out when both
just have three shots of the drink.
7. Answers may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Recognizing Point of View, pp. 308-309


1. Ask the students’ observation on how We Filipinos Are Mild Drinkers was narrated.
2. After processing their answers, discuss comprehensively the various points of view
from which stories are narrated or told. Refer to the input below.
3. Have the students answer the exercises on page 309.
4. Supplement your discussion by presenting narrative snippets found hereunder. Ask
the students to identify the point of view from which each snippet is told.

a. Eragon (Inheritance) By Christopher Paolini


Eragon knelt in a bed of trampled reed grass and scanned the tracks
with a practiced eye. The prints told him that the deer had been in the

150  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


meadow only a half hour before. Soon they would bed down. His target, a
small doe with a pronounced limp in her left forefoot, was still in the herd.
He was amazed she had made it so far without a wolf or a bear catching her.
Point of View: Objective
b. The Abominable Snowman By R.A. Montgomery
You are a mountain climber. Three years ago you spent the summer at
a climbing school in the mountains of Colorado. Your instructors said that
you had natural skills as a climber. You made rapid progress and by the end
of the summer you were leading difficult rock and ice climbs.
Point of View: Third Person
c. Outside the Box By Dan Allosso
Three shots like thunderclaps rang out from surround speakers in the
basement rec room. A white controller jumped in Reid Anderson’s hand
each time he squeezed the trigger. Tactile feedback. A speaker in the con-
troller made snapping sounds like the action of a pistol. Reid felt this more
than he heard it. The shots made his ears ring.
Point of View: Objective
Source: http://www.ereadingworksheets.com/point-of
-view/point-of-view-activities/

Answers to Exercise A, p. 309


Types of Point of View
1. Objective Point of View. With the objective point of view, the writer tells what
happens without stating more than can be inferred from the story’s action and
dialogue. The narrator never discloses anything about what the characters think
or feel, remaining a detached observer.
2. Third Person Point of View. Here the narrator does not participate in the action
of the story as one of the characters, but lets us know exactly how the characters
feel. We learn about the characters through this outside voice.
3. First Person Point of View. In the first person point of view, the narrator does
participate in the action of the story. When reading stories in the first person, we
need to realize that what the narrator is recounting might not be the objective
truth. We should question the trustworthiness of the accounting.
4. Omniscient and Limited Omniscient Points of View. A narrator who knows every-
thing about all the characters is all knowing, or omniscient. A narrator whose
knowledge is limited to one character, either major or minor, has a limited
omniscient point of view.
*Source: http://www.learner.org/interactives/literature/read/pov2.html

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  151


Answers to Exercise B, p. 309
Either the first person or the third person point of view is used in writing an
autobiography and a biography. As evident in the two literary texts given, The Return
is written using the third person point of view while My Father’s Tragedy is written
with the first person point of view.

Answers to Exercise C, p. 309


Recognizing the perspective of a literary text is salient in analyzing the selection.
The kind of perspective used will aid the reader to know what is not written in the
text. The kind of point of view draws the limitation along with the biases of the
perspective used.

C. Literary Skill 2: Recognizing Local Color, pp. 310-311


1. Ask: What makes We Filipinos Are Mild Drinkers distinctly Filipino?
2. Use their responses to lead them to the use of local color. Then, discuss how this is used
in literature. Let them read the section. Check on comprehension by asking them the fol-
lowing questions.
• What is local color?
• How is it achieved? Present some examples that highlight its use.
3. Guide the students to recognize local color by having them note the following:
• the use of non-English words
• descriptions
• customs presented (manners)
• setting (scenery)
4. Have the students list down all the elements of local color in We Filipinos Are Mild
Drinkers by answering Part A of the exercises on page 310.
5. Ask the students to answer Part B on page 311.
6. Let the students write one (1) descriptive paragraph that showcases various elements of
local color.

Answers to Exercise B, p. 311


1. duhat, description of the duhat
2. use of Tatay, buri, Tia
3. use of Tatay and lamparilla
4. use of sabungero, local custom of naming a child after a saint
5. name of place, Udyong, name of person, Lakambini, titles of respect, Mang and
Aling

152  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


D. Reading 2: “The Land and The Rain” An Excerpt from The Winds of April by N.V.M.
Gonzales, pp. 312-315
1. Ask EQ #2. Direct the students’ attention to some images of calamities (e.g. typhoon
and flooding) in recent months or years. Ask who among them have personal experi-
ences which they could share in class.
2. Have students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Process the sharing session. The activity will answer the question in Unveil What
You Know.
b. Let the students read the text in For Your Information on page 313; then, have
them answer the question at the end of the paragraph. The discussion may include
denudation of forests and improper disposal of garbage which prevents water in
the waterways from flowing out to the open sea.
c. Have the students read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Make
them aware that they will find the meanings of the italicized expressions from con-
text. The words for unlocking are respite, debris (not laden), and decrepit. Check
on the students’ understanding of the meanings through the following exercise:

Directions: Replace the underlined expressions with either respite,


debris, or decrepit.
1. The soldiers longed for a few minutes of rest from the constant
gunfire.(respite)
2. Drifted accumulation from the cutting down of trees gathered
at the mouth of the river. (debris)
3. The worn out, dilapidated structure housed several families.
(decrepit)
Note: This activity should be done after the students have read the story.
Have them provide meaningful sentences using the said words.

d. Let the students read the biographical note on N.V.M. Gonzales in Understand the
Author’s Profile. Check on comprehension through the following questions:
• What province is N.V.M. Gonzales from?
• What awards has he received?
e. Have the students study the illustration on the second column. Ask them what it
depicts. Let them read the title of the story; then, ask them what they expect from
the story, based on the illustration and the title.
f. Have the students read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.
3. Let students do silent reading.
Ask the students to read the literary selection individually.
4. Have students answer questions in the section Sharing Insights.
a. Ask the students to do a Snowballing discussion among them by answering the
questions in this section. Review them on the different points of view from which
a story is told.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  153


b. The first four questions develop the students’ ability to recall information and make
inferences. The last two questions develop the students’ awareness of the danger/
causes of floods and how to minimize their occurrence. Encourage discussion on
the answer to the last question.
5. Revisit EQ #2. Ask the students what qualities Filipinos have that enable them to sur-
vive numerous calamities. Lead them to realize EU #2. Add to their understanding that
literature embodies the visions and shared experiences of people both in good and bad
times. As a free nation, people manifest collective efforts in saving lives and property
in odd times.

  The most challenging times in a nation’s life allow its


people to transform difficulty into opportunities for change
and progress.

  In times of crises, how could literature offer a sense of


relief?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. First person point of view as evident by the use of pronouns I, we, us, etc.
2. The characters are the parents (mother and father), brother (Ama Daniw) and
neighbors/relative (Cruz, Berio, Sanoy, Alcantara, Berta, Pedia, Bado) of the
narrator.
3. Ama Daniw was industrious, reliable, and respected as mentioned on page 308.
4. The enemy of the story is the flash flood that is brought by the heavy rains.
5. Yes.
6. Answers may vary.

E. Literary Skill 3: Identifying Conflict, p. 316


1. Ask the students for the struggles experienced in the story The Land and the Rain. Ask
the students who the enemy in the story is. Have them tell why it is an enemy. Point
out that the struggles give rise to the conflict in the story.
2. Have the students read the section on page 316. Check on comprehension through the
following questions.
• What is conflict?
• What are the kinds of conflict?
• What is the use of conflict in a story or play?
• Would you like to read a story or play that has no conflict? Explain.
3. Discuss conflict as an element of a short story. Present the types of conflict by illustrat-
ing some examples.

154  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


There are two types of conflict:
1. Internal -is a struggle within one’s self. The main character must make a
decision, overcome pain, quiet his temper, resist an urge, etc.
2. External – is a struggle with a force outside one’s self. There are four kinds
of conflict of this type.
a. Man vs. Man (physical) - The main character experiences a conflict be-
tween his physical strength and other men, forces of nature, or animals.
b. Man vs. Circumstances (classical) - The main character is in conflict with
fate or the circumstances of life.
c. Man vs. Society (social) - The main character faces a conflict against ideas,
practices, or customs of other people.
d. Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological) - The main character is in con-
flict with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong,
physical limitations, choices, etc.
Source: http://www.writing.com/main/view_item/item_id
/1004812-Conflict-in-the-Short-Story

4. Have the students discuss the type of conflict depicted in the selection. Let the students
tell their classmates about stories or plays they have read, or movies they have seen.
Ask them to tell about the conflict in the story.
5. Let them answer the exercise on page 310.

Answers to Exercise, p. 316


1. Don Juan vs. the Adarna Bird
2. Don Juan vs. his brothers
3. (Man vs. Man)

F. Vocabulary: Recognizing Homonyms, pp. 317-318


1. Present to the students the sentences found on page 317 without them looking at it.
Read the said sentences aloud, and have them identify the words that are pronounced
similarly.

He surveyed his feat with glowing pride.


He surveyed his feet with glowing pride.

2. Emphasize that while those two (2) words are pronounced similarly, they have dif-
ferent meanings. Ask them then what kind of words these are. Lead a discussion on
homonyms.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  155


3. Have them pronounce the pairs of words on page 317 and let them give their meanings.
4. Have them answer the exercises on pages 317 and 318.
5. As a concluding activity, ask the students how homonyms could enrich one’s vocabulary.
State that to grow one’s vocabulary increases the communicative competence which
is pivotal in becoming an effective communicator.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 317 (Sentences may vary.)


1. wood – food 6. sleigh – slay
2. hair – hare 7. some – sum
3. sew – sue 8. groan – grown
4. aloud – allowed 9. two – too
5. sail – sale 10. rein – reign

Answers to Exercise B, p. 318 may vary.

G. Listening/Viewing: Reacting to a Discussion, p. 319


1. Present a video clip of a panel discussion which may be sourced from news channels.
Pose EQ #3. Let students initially share what they think.
2. Ask the students to observe the roles of the discussants from the video clip. Have them
share insights on how effectively one could participate in a discussion.
3. Discuss the input on page 319, and have them accomplish the exercises found on the same
page.
4. Process their learning experiences. Elicit EU #3.

  The responsible conveyance of one’s opinion and


reaction on relevant social issues translates to people and
national empowerment.

  What do we need to observe in order to participate


effectively in discussions?

Answers to Exercises A and B, p. 319 may vary.

H. Speaking: Pronouncing Final Sounds Distinctly, p. 320


1. Present to the students the concept of “aspiration” in pronouncing words and its sounds.
Touch on the input on page 320.
2. Supplement the discussion by having them do the exercises on the same page.

156  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


I. Study and Research: Getting Information from a Newspaper, pp. 321-323
1. Prior to this discussion, have the students bring a newspaper. Have them go through
it with emphasis on news, opinions, and features.
2. Ask the students how the newspaper serves as a source of several kinds of current in-
formation. Touch on the following questions which are found on page 321, and elicit
responses from the students.
• Which part of the newspaper do you read first?
• Why do you like that particular feature of the newspaper?
• Which parts of the newspaper are you familiar with?
• If you were asked to get some particular information from the newspaper, would you
be able to turn the paper at once to the page where the information is available?
3. Discuss significant details on the lead, banner headline, editorial page, and feature
stories. Have the students identify each of these by presenting examples taken from
the newspaper.
4. Have the students accomplish the exercises on pages 322-323.

Answers to Exercise A and B, pages 322-323 may vary.

Answers to Exercise C, p. 323


1. Entertainment 6. News Section
2. Classified Ads 7. Obituary
3. Editorial Page 8. Classified Ads
4. Entertainment 9. News Section
5. Business Section

J. Grammar A: Formulating Meaningful Kernel Sentences, pp. 324-328


1. Ask the students to study the model sentences on page 324. Make them observe the
structure, meaning, and voice that the said sentences follow.
2. Facilitate a guided instruction on simple, declarative, and active sentences. Have the
students provide their own examples on each.
3. Mention that independent clauses that follow such structure, meaning, and voice are
kernel sentences. Let them read the notes in the side bar.
4. Have the students answer exercises on pages 324-328.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 324


1. K 3. K 5. K 7. K 9. O
2. K 4. K 6. K 8. O 10. K

Answers to Exercise B, p. 325


1. j 3. h 5. f 7. d 9. b
2. i 4. g 6. e 8. c 10. a

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  157


Answers to Exercise C, pp. 325-327
1. Other Mangyans had utilized their own novel way of doing things.
2. Mother gave him one from a jute stock
3. The flood had half-covered the islands of cogon grass and the patches of bamboo.
4. Seemingly, the rain of the past night had sheared the trees of their leaves.
5. I asked if we could swim that.
6. Roosters and hens will always do their thing.
7. Fearing the fast growing weeds, Ama Daniw tried planting on mornings and
afternoons.
8. He untied the headgear and squeezed it.
9. After a half-hour panic, we found ourselves on Ama Daniw’s hill.
10. Berio had untethered the milk cows to have run with us uphill.

Answers to Exercise D, pp. 327-328


1. Filipino-American Friendship Day was first celebrated on July 4, 1963.
2. The Filipino celebrated July 4 since 1946 as Philippine Independence Day.
3. United States President Harry S. Truman proclaimed United States withdrawal.
4. In 1964, President Diosdado P. Macapagal moved the celebration of Philippine
Independence Day from July 4 to June 12.
5. President Macapagal proclaimed July 4 as Filipino-American Friendship Day.
6. We celebrate July 4 as Filipino-American Friendship Day to highlight the enduring
relations between the Philippines and the United States.
7. Various factors strengthen these ties.
8. The United States is the Philippines’ major trading partner.
9. The United States is home to more than three million Filipino migrants as well
as Filipino-Americans.
10. Filipino-American relations formally began on December 10, 1898.
11. Until July 4, 1946, the United States governed the Philippines and transformed
it a “show window of American democracy”.
12. Public education and democratic institutions are two of America’s many enduring
contributions to the Philippines.
13. These two contributions molded Filipino-American relations.
14. We celebrate Filipino-American Friendship Day.
15. That friendly ties are the foundations of lasting international ties.

K. Grammar B: Formulating Embedded Sentences, pp. 329-335


1. Remind the students that as a grammatical enrichment to their performance task at the
end of Lesson 9, they should be able to write an effective reaction paper where kernel
sentences and embedded clauses could be applied.
2. Have the students study the underlined word groups on page 329. Have them note
the words (i.e. relative pronouns and subordinators) that begin the underlined word
groups.

158  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. Facilitate a lecture-discussion on embedded clauses and how they could be formulated.
Direct the students to the list of subordinators for proper use on page 323.
4. Have the students accomplish the exercises on pages 324-329.
5. Ask the students how they can use embedded clauses in writing their reaction paper.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 330


1. about four months after Liberation Forces arrived
2. As the country struggled to rebuild itself economically and politically
3. that were about the honor of the war years
4. who were more sensitive to the needs of the country
5. which were created
6. because writers developed a deeper search for identity
7. which many find to be true
8. by which varied ideas are brought to the fore
9. that occupies in his or her mind
10. that become an eye-opener of sort

Answers to Exercise B, pp. 330-331


1. whose works brought him honors and citations – adjective
2. when they are happy or sad – adverb
3. which has become men’s pastime – adjective
4. who was offered a drink – adjective
5. that they are famous for – adjective
6. Because Joe drank too much – adverb
7. which showed compassion for others – adjective
8. that is still practiced today – adjective
9. whom anyone can trust – adjective
10. Because of how American Joe behaved when he was intoxicated – adverb
11. that is advocated – adjective

Answers to C, pp. 331-332 may vary.

Answers to D, pp. 333-334 may vary.

Answers to E, p. 335 may vary.

L. Writing: Taking Down Notes, p. 336


1. Prompt: How does note-taking facilitate understanding?
2. Ask the students how important it is for them to take note in class. Have them share
their insights on how note-taking helps them in their academic tasks.
3. Discuss the input on the section on page 336. Check on comprehension through the
following questions:

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  159


• What is an index card?
• What items are written on an index card?
• How can you use an index card effectively?
• Why is an index card helpful?
4. Have the students accomplish the exercise found on the same page.
5. Let them revisit EQ #1. Lead them to realize that indeed freedom has placed us to
where we are now as a nation. We enjoy life’s many perks that go with freedom. But this
also means that we have to use our freedom with utmost accountability. Let students
realize that through literature, our past struggles and achievements that underscore
the self-expression or freedom have documented its effects that continuously shape
us. Hence, literature embodies emotions representative of past events that may have
a big impact on people’s lives and nation.

  What effect does freedom have on people and nation?

M. Performance Task: Writing a Reaction Paper, pp. 336-337


1. Discuss with students the prerequisites in writing a reaction paper. Facilitate a guided
instruction. The notes that follow will be helpful.

A reaction paper is an essay that documents reactions to the read article


written from the first person point of view. Phrases like “I thought” and “I
believe” are allowed. It is a review that calls for analysis of an article and ex-
pression of opinions.

1. Prewriting
Read the piece for an initial understanding. Review the article and pause to
reflect often. Write down your thoughts, impressions, and reactions. Then, think
of your thesis statement. Develop an outline of your thoughts.
2. Writing
When you have written the outline to your paper, begin to write your intro-
duction which could be a five-sentence paragraph. Include in your introductory
paragraph the title of the object to which you are reacting, the name of the author,
a summary of the article, and your thesis statement.
In writing the body, express your objective analysis and opinions to the merits
and biases of the article. You may agree, disagree, or suggest. You can consider
introductory statements such as the following:
• I felt that
• In my opinion

160  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


• The reader can conclude that
• The author seems to
• I did not like
• The images seem to
• The author was [was not] successful in making me feel
• I was especially moved by
• I didn’t get the connection between
• It was clear that the artist was trying to
• The sound track seems too
• My favorite part was...because
3. Postwriting
Ask a peer to read your paper. Using the provided rubric, let him or her give you
helpful feedbacks for improvement. Have your work revised. Implement corrections.
Review errors in conventions. Prepare the final copy. Have your work published.
Source: http://homeworktips.about.com/od/essaywriting/tp
/How-To-Write-A-Response-Paper.htm

2 Let students do their final task. Have them choose an editorial from Manila Bulletin or
from any other national newspapers. Then, let them write their reaction to the edito-
rial. Let them use the rubric to assess their final work before publishing. Choose the
best work and share it with the whole class.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  161


Lesson 10 Immersing in a Changed Life

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Change spells a difference in life. People
 Conduct an interview.
make changes in their life to become
better individuals. Essential Questions
2. Literature is an avenue for transition from
devastation to recovery. What essential questions will be asked?
3. Flashback helps explain why a character 1. What may chart new direction in our
thinks and acts the way he or she does. lives?
4. Interviewing sharpens one’s thinking and 2. How does literature become an avenue
speaking abilities. for transition from devastation to
recovery?
3. How does the usage of flashback
elements enrich a literary work?
4. In what ways could interviewing improve
one’s communicative skills?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:


1. elements that trigger a flashback in a 1. discuss Philippine literature during the
story. Post-War Period.
2. the effects of rhyme and rhythm in 2. identify the flashback element in a story.
reading a poem. 3. read a poem expressively and appropri-
3. the use of compound and blended words. ately.
4. cause-and-effect relationships in written 4. form blended and compound words, and
discourses. use them in an expository paragraph.
5. pointers for conducting an interview. 5. identify cause-and-effect relationships
6. locating places through the use of maps. in a story listened to or watched news
7. the formation of plural nouns. program..
8. the elements of writing friendly letters. 6. do an interview.
7. answer questions using map.
8. recognize other noun signaling devices.
9. form the plural of nouns correctly.
10. write to give a message.

162  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence

Performance Task

A prestigious university in your city has planned to conduct a research study on the socioeco-
nomic activities of your barangay. They want to find out how the people in your barangay or
community address their problems socially, economically, and environmentally. The research
committee is in need of interviewers who will gather the needed data for their study. Using
what you have learned on how to conduct an interview, you decide to join the group. Each
one of you as an interviewer will take on one reliable personality in your barangay and have
all the research questions answered. The head of the research committee will evaluate your
performance against the provided rubric.

Rubric

Rubric on Conducting an Interview


CRITERIA/
4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Fair 1 - Poor
SCORE

Questions Prepares and Prepares and Prepares Questions and


asks relevant asks largely and asks their delivery
questions relevant question that indicate little
that are aptly questions that demonstrate preparation
informed by demonstrate a minimal and attention
the historical an under- under- to historical
context  and standing, if standing of context, and
the subject’s not mastery, of the historical the subjects’
potential the historical context, and misunder-
misunder- context  and the subjects’ standing or
standing or the subject’s potential biases.
biases. potential misunder-
misunder- standing or
standing or biases.
biases.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  163


Subject Selects Selects Selects Selects
Selection subjects whose subjects whose subjects whose inappropriate
perspectives perspectives perspectives subjects
are likely to be are likely to be may be more or reduces
different. different. similar than interviews
different; to a level
or whose that renders
interviews different
are written perspectives as
as if they are similar.
similar.

Listening Skills Demon- Demonstrates Gives little Gives little or


/ Follow-up strates careful attentiveness evidence no evidence
Questions listening by by interjecting of careful of listening;
interjecting follow-up listening marches
effective questions to by largely through
follow up responses ignoring prepared
questions to that may potentially questions
significant have greater relevant without
responses. significance, responses and regard to
Effectively if pursued. moving on responses.
elicits relevant May elicit to the next Does not elicit
elaboration of some relevant prepared elaborated
answers. elaboration of question. responses.
answers. Elicits little
elaboration.

Tone Uses language Uses language Uses language Uses language


that conveys that, for the that is that charac-
maturity, most part, deficient in teristically
sensitivity, and conveys one or all of demonstrates
respect. maturity, the following little maturity,
sensitivity, and qualities: sensitivity, and
respect. maturity, respect.
sensitivity, and
respect.

Notes Makes careful Makes useful Makes few or Makes careless


notes of notes of the careless notes. or no notes.
interview. interview.

164  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Purpose Demonstrates Demonstrates, Suggests a Suggests little
clear under- but less weak under- or no under-
standing of consistently, standing of standing of
interview’s the inter- the interview’s the interview’s
purpose view’s purpose purpose purpose
through through through through
selection of selection of inclusion of inclusion of
detail included detail included irrelevancies, irrelevancies,
in final written in the final or details that or details too
draft. written draft. distract from inadequate
the subject’s or distracting
perspective. to establish a
perspective.

Conventions Presents Presents Presents Presents


the written the written the written the written
interview in interview in interview in interview in
the appro- the appro- the appro- an uncon-
priate format, priate format, priate format ventional or
demonstrating with a but one that sloppy format
mastery of minimum of includes with errors
grammar, grammatical distracting of grammar
usage, and or usage errors of or usage that
conventions. errors. grammar or impede under-
usage. standing.

Source: http://www.wac.gsu.edu/ctw_getuser_data.php?rubric&course_id=60

Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based on the ability to generate
and answer high-level questions about the pre-reading activities and Sharing Insights of
May Day Eve and Prayer of a Student
2. Identification of flashback elements in a story
3. Reading of poems with rhyme and rhythm
4. Exercises on compound words and blended words
5. Identification of cause-effect relationships in various communication modes such as writ-
ten discourses and news programs
6. Discussion on the significant pointers on conducting an interview
7. Exercises on using maps to locate places
8. Exercises on forming plural nouns
9. Construction of a meaningful friendly letter

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  165


Stage 3:  Learning Plan
Introduction

➲ Ask the students to share some real life experiences when they were at a low point. Have
them describe the situation and how they were able to emerge from it.
➲ Tell the students that the next lesson reflects the challenging transition of the Philippines
from devastation to recovery. Mention to them that the said transition also affected the
literary landscape during the Post-War Period.
➲ Pose EQ #2: Let students share their initial thinking.
➲ Facilitate a discussion on the background.
➲ Let students read the learning objectives to Lesson 10, and preview them their Performance
Task which is to conduct an interview.
➲ Let them explore the following activities:

Background

The early literature of this period was first characterized by guerilla and war stories. The war
provided themes and tones for the literary pieces. The first Filipino post-war novel was Stevan
Javellana’s Without Seeing the Dawn.
Later, different trends came into the picture. Filipino writers became sensitive to foreign
literature in English. Some of the works, however, reflected new foreign influences-symbolism,
existentialism, use of new communication modes, and others.
Among the writers of this period are the following (with examples of their works):
1. N.V.M. Gonzales
Collection of Short Stories: Children of the Ash-Covered Loam and Other Stories;
Selected Stories: Look, Stranger, On This Island Now
Novels: A Season of Grace; The Bamboo Dancers; The Winds of April
2. Nick Joaquin
Short stories: Prose and Poems; May Day Eve
Novels: The Woman Who Had Two Navels; Two Filipino Women
3. Bienvenido Santos
Short stories: Brother, My Brother; The Day the Dancers Came; You Lovely People
4. Jose Garcia Villa
Poems: Poems by Doveglion; Volume Two; Selected Poems and New
5. Amador Daguio
Poems: The Flaming Lyre; Man of Earth
6. Carlos Angeles
Poems: Stone of Jewels (collection)
The great literary pieces of the period were a result of various incentives offered
by periodicals and other literary award-giving bodies.

166  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


  How does literature become an avenue for transition
from devastation to recovery?

A. Reading 1: “May Day Eve” (An excerpt) by Nick Joaquin, pp. 339-346
1. Pose EQ #1. Ask students to share their initial thinking to the EQ. Then, have them
share their knowledge of superstitious beliefs that have been propagated by their elders
especially those in the provinces. Ask them what they get from believing or not believ-
ing in such superstitions. Then, present some of these common superstitious beliefs
on pregnancy, general health, wedding, death, body marks and shapes.

Some examples are:


a. Do not partake of the food being eaten by an expectant mother. If you do,
you will either become sleepy or will feel drowsy or sick.
b. It is believed that when denied the food a pregnant mother likes, her child
will salivate profusely and will be prone to vomiting.
c. Taking pictures of a pregnant woman will cause a difficult delivery.
d. Sleeping after taking a bath during daytime or at night will result in blind-
ness.
e. Sleeping with wet hair makes one crazy.
f. Taking a bath on New Year’s Day and/or Good Friday will cause one to
get sick.
g. Brides shouldn’t try on their wedding dress before the wedding day or the
wedding will not push through.
h. The groom must arrive before the bride at the church to avoid bad luck.
i. The bride should step on the groom’s foot while walking towards the altar if
she wants him to agree to her every whim.
j. A lingering black butterfly is a sign that one of your relatives just died.
k. Do not form groups of three or thirteen, or one of you will die.
l. During a wake, never see your visitors off at the door of the chapel or
funeral parlor.
m. A person with a mole on his foot is a born adventurer.
n. People with eyebrows that almost meet easily get jealous.
o. A person with lines running from the palm of his hand to his fingers is
successful in business.
*Source:http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.phptitle=Philippine_Beliefs
_and_Superstitions#Body_Marks_and_Shapes

2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  167


a. Make a transitional discussion that the literary selection the students are about to
read reflects the Filipinos’ inclination towards superstitious beliefs and practices.
Allude to the previously mentioned beliefs.
b. Provide a general overview of the author Nick Joaquin by presenting his image
and highlights of his literary career. Refer to the text below as a supplementary
reference to the overview provided in the textbook on page 339.

NICK JOAQUIN
Nick Joaquin, reputed as the most distinguished Filipino in the English
language, won in a nationwide essay writing competition for La Naval
de Manila sponsored by the Dominicans. This feat earned for himself an
Associate in Arts degree from the University of Santo Tomas. Joaquin’s
writings gave deepened the English language. He has written novels,
poems, short stories, novels, essays, and plays which manifest the high
caliber of his command of the English language, His works have also ex-
plored the Philippine’s colonial experience with Spain, a past that brought
transformations in the society. Joaquin’s fellow writers and national artists
place him in high esteem as the “greatest Filipino writer in English”. He
was made National Artist for Literature in 1976.

c. Have the students take note of the highlighted words “vengeful”, “scar”, “fury”, and
“pompous” in Unlock the Meaning of Words. Check on the students’ understand-
ing of the said words through context clues. Enrich their understanding by asking
them to provide meaningful sentences using those words.
3. Have the students read the literary selection individually.
4. Have the students answer the comprehension questions on Sharing Insights.

Questions 1-2 develop the students’ ability to point out and recall details.
Question 3a-3c develop the students’ literary criticism by interpreting lines.
Question 4-5 develop the students’ character analysis of a major figure “Badoy”.
Question 6 develop the students’ valuing of marriage and relationships.

5. As a precursor to the performance task on conducting an interview, have the students


interact with their parents to discuss their love story. This activity takes off on the premise
of the literary selection on finding an ideal partner. Have the students be guided by the
following questions:
• How did you two meet each other?
• What qualities attracted you to each other?
• How did you start as a couple?
• What tips or advice could you share on maintaining a relationship?

168  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Have the students write the proceedings of the interview for submission. Their
outputs shall be utilized during the discussion later in the lesson.
6. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students whether superstitious beliefs are helpful in charting direc-
tion in people’s lives or not. Let them justify their answers.

  What may chart new direction in our lives?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. The speaker in the poem wants to learn how things like the leaves, the waves,
rainbows, sun, moon, etc., were created. He wants to learn the scientific expla-
nations to their existence.
2. These questions can be answered through reading scientific articles or essays.
a. It is a common knowledge that plants and flowers reproduce through a
process of pollination.
b. Plants survive because of the availability of soil, carbon dioxide, water, sunlight,
mineral nutrients, atmosphere, etc.
c. Sunlight is usually seen by the naked eyes as white in color. But actually,
sunlight is made up of different colors which the eyes can not see. When the
light beam happens to hit a raindrop on the way down at a certain angle,
the different colors that comprise the beam split up, so a rainbow is formed.
d. Waves are formed through the forward movement of the water caused by
oscillation of water particles by the frictional drag of wind over the water’s
surface.
e. Lightning and thunder occur in a cumulonimbus cloud. Natural energy and
electricity, recognized as lightning, are released through the shuffling and
colliding of tiny frozen units of water with each other. Thunder is the sound
created by lightning. When lightning strikes, nearby air has to move away
quickly to make space for the lightning. Hence, this is what is heard as a big
crash of thunder.
f. Luna is the Latin name for Moon. It is the only natural satellite of the Earth.
The sun is the closest star to the earth. The sun is the center of the solar
system. Other than earth, there are other celestial bodies orbiting the sun (or
the star or stellar remnant) that is massive enough to be rounded by its own
gravity. As of 2012, there are 8 planets, namely, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Pluto, Ceres, Haumea, Makemake, and
Eris are considered dwarf planets.
3. It is learned that all things on earth are created by God.
4. Answers may vary.
5. Answers may vary.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  169


B. Literary Skill 1: Recognizing Flashback, pp. 346-347
1. Pose EQ #3. Mention to the students that one way by which a literary output could
be made more meaningful and creative is through the use of literary devices. Mention
figures of speech as a literary device which is more familiar to the students (i.e. simile,
hyperbole, allegory). Based on the students’ reading of the literary selection, have them
infer on what seemingly emergent literary device was used in the said story. Then,
transition to highlight that the author used flashback in the story. Utilize the reference/
input provided on page 346.
2. After a brief discussion on flashback, have the students manifest their understanding
by answering the questions on page 347.

At which part of the story does Dona Agueda recall the midnight incident
between her and the young Badoy Montiya?
Answer: Dona Agueda recalled the incident between her and Don Badoy
Montiya when her daughter prodded to share her memories
during that one wild May Day midnight many years ago. The
recall begins on page 334 with the part Dona Agueda looked
down at her daughter but her face did not soften though her
eyes were filled with tears. “I saw the devil!” she said bitterly.
What remark of his grandson makes Badoy Montiya remember the love
he once felt for Agueda?
Answer: “Oh come now, Grandpa. This is 1890. There are no witches
anymore.” (page 346)

3. Have the students accomplish the exercise on page 347. Elicit EU #3 after processing
their answers.

  Interviewing sharpens one’s thinking and speaking


abilities.

  How does the usage of flashback elements enrich a


literary work?

Answers to Exercise, p. 347


1. Flashback begins: “...a long-forgotten incident came to my mind and made me
smile.”
Object: “Our group of cousins was trying to get the attention of Elsa, the city
girl who was spending the summer in our barrio…”

170  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


2. Flashback begins: “I wondered where he was now.”
Object: “The last time we had met he had gazed at me with hurt-filled eyes
as though asking me, ‘How could you?’ I had just told him that I was
getting married and would be moving away soon.”
3. Flashback begins: “Six weeks ago that house meant nothing to him save that it
was the Martinez house…”
Object: “One evening he had gone ‘neighboring’ with Don Julian…”

C. Reading 2: Prayer of a Student by Trinidad L. Tarrosa-Subido, pp. 348-349


1. Pose EQ #1 again. Ask students how prayers can help them live a changed life. Let
them share.
2. Let student do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Direct the students’ attention to the question mentioned in Unveil What You Know.
Let them share their experience from their science classes on the transformation
of seeds to plants.
b. Have the student unlock the meaning of words laved, athwart, and cerulescent by
providing visual prompts on the phrases indicated on Unlock the Meaning of Words.

Show each prompt that refers to each phrase: (1) blossoms laved in
dew, (2) athwart the eastern skies, (3) the cerulescent firmament.
Ask the students to infer the meaning of each word based on the visual
prompt presented.

c. Have the students prepare themselves for reading the literary selection Prayer of a
Student by taking note of Underscore a Motive for Reading and Understand Literary
Background.
3. Let the students read the selection individually.
4. After the students read the selection, have the students discuss answers to the ques-
tions on Sharing Insights.
5. Revisit EQ #1. To deepen the valuing aspect of the selection, mention that the poem
touches on our responsibility to be custodians of the environment and all its elements.
Ask how they can be agents of change in the conservation and preservation of our
environment.

Present the song “Brother Sun, Sister Moon” (sourced from http://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=WRDxpmV27p8) by St. Francis of Assissi which talks
about care for God’s creation.

Ask the students for their insights on the song and its lyrics. Have them make some
reconciliations as well between the poem and the song.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  171


Brother Sun, Sister Moon
by St. Francis of Assissi
Brother Sun and Sister Moon,
I seldom see you, seldom hear your tune
Preoccupied with selfish misery.
Brother Wind and Sister Air,
Open my eyes to visions pure and fair.
That I may see the glory around me.
I am God’s creature, of God I am a part
I feel your love awaking in my heart
Brother Sun and Sister Moon
I now do see you, I can hear your tune
So much in love with all that I survey

  What may chart new direction in our lives?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. The speaker in the poem wants to learn how things like the leaves, the waves,
rainbows, sun, moon, etc., were created. He wants to learn the scientific expla-
nations to their existence.
2. These questions can be answered through reading scientific articles or essays.
a. It is a common knowledge that plants and flowers reproduce through a
process of pollination.
b. Plants survive because of the availability of soil, carbon dioxide, water, sunlight,
mineral nutrients, atmosphere, etc.
c. Sunlight is usually seen by the naked eyes as white in color. But actually,
sunlight is made up of different colors which the eyes can not see. When the
light beam happens to hit a raindrop on the way down at a certain angle,
the different colors that comprise the beam split up, so a rainbow is formed.
d. Waves are formed through the forward movement of the water caused by
oscillation of water particles by the frictional drag of wind over the water’s
surface.
e. Lightning and thunder occur in a cumulonimbus cloud. Natural energy and
electricity, recognized as lightning, are released through the shuffling and
colliding of tiny frozen units of water with each other. Thunder is the sound
created by lightning. When lightning strikes, nearby air has to move away
quickly to make space for the lightning. Hence, this is what is heard as a big
crash of thunder.

172  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


f. Luna is the Latin name for Moon. It is the only natural satellite of the Earth.
The sun is the closest star to the earth. The sun is the center of the solar system.
Other than earth, there are other celestial bodies orbiting the sun (or the star
or stellar remnant) that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity.
As of 2012, there are 8 planets, namely, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter,
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Pluto, Ceres, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris are
considered dwarf planets.
3. It is learned that all things on earth are created by God.
4. Answers may vary.
5. Answers may vary.

D. Literary Skill 2: Reading a Poem, p. 350


1. Ask the students to recall the nursery rhymes they used to recite when they were
younger. Have them recite some of those. Then, mention that rhythm and rhyme are
dominant features of literary works such as poems and the said rhymes.
2. Transition now to the discussion on the input provided for rhythm. Touch on the
questions that facilitate the discussion.
3. Provide a brief rundown on the different kinds of rhythm.

a. Iambic (made up of units of : one stressed syllable and one unstressed


syllable, or “x /”)
b. Trochaic (made up of units of: one unstressed stressed and one stressed
syllable, or “/ x”)
c. Spondaic (made up of units of: two unstressed syllables, or “/ /”)
d. Anapestic (made up of units of: two stressed syllables and one unstressed,
or “x x /”)
e. Dactylic (made up of units of: one unstressed syllable and two stressed
syllables, or “/ / x”)

4. Have the students accomplish the exercises on page 350. Let them answer the reflec-
tion question after doing the activities.

E. VOCABULARY: Using Compound and Blended Words, pp. 351-352


1. Ask the students to read the Prayer of a Student and have them take note of the following
words:

tender-petalled, rainbows, sunrays.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  173


2. Ask the students for their observation on the said words.
3. Discuss the kinds of compound words as laid down on page 351:

closed compounds, open compounds, and hyphenated compounds.

Check on the students’ understanding by asking them for examples.


4. Transition now to the discussion on Blending as provided for in the input. Have the
students blend words on the examples indicated.
1. twist+whirl=twirl
2. helicopter+airport=heliport
3. motor+hotel=motel
4. situation+comedy=sitcom
5. television+broadcast=telecast
6. spot+blotch=splotch
5. Have the students accomplish the exercises on page 352.
My friend bashed my seemingly shabby hair so I went to the salon to have a cellophane
treatment. To my dismay, the salon was closed so I flared up and endured the hassle it caused.
I asked the lady at the information counter why the salon was closed. She tried to use the in-
tercom to inquire from her colleague but was suddenly dumbfounded on how it works. I did
not wish to have my day ruined any further so I decided to splurge by buying a humongous
camera with the highest pixel count.

Answers to Exercises, p. 352


COMPOUND WORDS
1. newsstand 6. bedrock
2. paperclip 7. handbag
3. thumbtack 8. wakeboarding
4. printout 9. teapot
5. pigtail 10. household
BLENDED WORDS
1. bash 6. dumbfound
2. cellophane 7. splurge
3. flare 8. flurry
4. hassle 9. pixel
5. intercom 10. humongous

F. Listening/Viewing: Identifying Cause-Effect Relationship by Noting Signals of


Causality, p. 353
1. Direct the students’ attention to the excerpts from May Day Eve presented on page
353. Have them churn out the excerpts by citing the cause and effect presented in it.

174  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


2. Transition now to discuss cause-and-effect relationship by noting signals of causality.
Touch on how this could also be used in literature.
3. Have the students accomplish the exercises on page 353.

Suggested Current Events to Exercise A. p. 353


1. Economic Improvement of the Philippines
2. Heavy Flooding in Metro Manila
3. Increasing Deaths of Sea Animals such as whales and dolphins
4. Increasing Number of Foreign Tourists in the Philippines
5. Implementation of K-12 System

Suggested Example of an expository paragraph for Exercise B, p. 353


A disease that causes chronic gastrological disorders, IBD, is envisioned in
a spectrum of severities. Cats can vomit heavily, and suffer from continuous
diarrhea. Reasons for the disease are yet unknown. Bacterial infections, gas-
trological irritation, lack of vitamins are often quoted as factors contributing
to the development of the disease. Veterinarians, treating IBD in cats, usually
prescribe medicine and advice on the dietary management as well as make
surgical choices. If untreated, IBD, can be fatal for cats. Research - conducted
mostly by pet owners - shows that a cat’s diet can be critical. Further research
will include inspection of several vaccines. So far, grain-free, raw meat diet
has already proved to be largely beneficial.
Source: http://suite101.com/article/example-of-an
-expository-paragraph-a106749

G. Speaking: Conducting an Interview, p. 354-355


1. Pose EQ #4. Let the students discuss their initial answers. Present to the students a
video clip of an interview by a famous personality or broadcast journalist. An example
could be an interview conducted by Jessica Soho.
2. Ask the students for some observations and insights on how the interview was con-
ducted.
3. Referring to the interview that the students conducted with their parents, have them
share the experience. Touch on the side questions to facilitate the discussion.
4. Discuss the pointers presented on page 354.
5. Have the students accomplish the exercise on page 355.
6. Process the students’ learning experiences, and elicit EU #4.

  In what ways could interviewing improve one’s


communicative skills?

  Interviewing sharpens one’s thinking and speaking


abilities.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  175


H. Study and Research: Locating Places through Maps, pp. 356-359
1. Ask the students to think of the top five (5) countries they would like to visit if they are
to embark on a world tour. Let them share the reasons behind their selection of those
countries.
2. Mention that the use of maps in locating places when traveling is helpful.
3. Discuss comprehensively the input provided on pages 356 and 357.
4. Have the students answer the exercise on pages 358-359.

Answers to Exercise, pp. 358-359


1. Cebu: Magellan’s Cross and Lapu-Lapu Shrine / Davao: Philippine Eagle Center
2. Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Misamis
Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, North
Cotabato, South Cotabato, Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani
3. Agusan River
4. First, Second, and Third Class Roads

I. Grammar: Forming Plural of Nouns, pp. 360-365


1. Conduct a guided instruction on forming plural of nouns. Refer to the notes presented
in the sidebars found of the side of pages 360 to 365.
2. Let the students accomplish the exercises provided.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 361


+++++++++++++++++++M
W+++++I++++++++++++S
EALYPOMREHTFOELTTABI
SIT+++E+++ISMR++SS+L
TSE+++L++LAAA++S+N+A
EAX+++D+IDNM+AA++A+I
RTA+++APIIO+SPI++T+N
NSS+++INLN++DI+S+R+O
AAR++NOAM++A++H+AA+L
REA+OELAZIR++++D+P+O
THNSL+G++I++++++DS+C
FTG++S++TPERSIANSU+N
OUE+A++F++++++++++BR
RORY+NOSCALOINESRA+E
MSSGREGORIODELPILART
SA++L++++++++++++++S
Y++T++FIRSTREPUBLICE

176  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


++TMSIUDNIH++++++++W
+A++++++++++++++++++
B+++++++++++++++++++

(Over,Down,Direction)
ARSENIO LACSON (18,14,W)
ASIA (17,9,NW)
BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE (19,3,W)
BATTLE OF TIRAD PASS (1,20,NE)
BUDDHISM (19,13,NW)
FILIPINOS (12,3,SW)
FIRST REPUBLIC (7,17,E)
GREGORIO DEL PILAR (4,15,E)
HINDUISM (11,18,W)
IMELDA (7,2,S)
LEONIDAS (5,11,NE)
MANILA (13,4,SW)
PERSIANS (10,12,E)
RAMON MAGSAYSAY(14,4,SW)
RIZAL (11,10,W)
SOUTHEAST ASIA (2,15,N)
SPARTANS (18,11,N)
TEXAS RANGERS (3,4,S)
WESTERN ARTFORMS (1,2,S)
WESTERN COLONIALISM (20,18,N)

Answers to Exercise B, p. 362


++++R++T+++++++TS+++
+++++OO+++++++S+O+++
A++++PTA+++++I++M+++
+M++Y+FP++E+G+++E+++
++ER+O++LV+O++++F+++
++EDR+++EUL+++++I+++
+V+DI++R+OC+++++L+++
E++++CY+P++S++++I+++
A+N++GAO++++A+++P+++
+N+AA+RL++++++++I+++
++YRMHSEDACEDOWTN+N+
++AGTANYFOREIGNPOWER
+G+NO+ATEACHER++SAK+
E+A++O+++++T+++++PC+

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  177


+N++++DTEOPAO++++EI+
A++++++++++++R+++OH+
+++++++++++++++++PC+
+++++++++++++++++LA+
+++++++++++++++++E++
++++++++++++++++++++

(Over,Down,Direction)
A CHICKEN (19,18,N)
A FORD (8,3,SW)
A MAN (6,12,NW)
A MEDICAL DOCTOR (1,3,SE)
AN ANTHROPOLOGIST (1,16,NE)
ANY FOREIGNPOWER (6,12,E)
ANY GOOD (1,9,SE)
A PEOPLE (18,13,S)
A POET (12,15,W)
A SCULPTOR (13,9,NW)
A TEACHER (7,13,E)
EVERY GARAGE (11,4,SW)
EVERY POT (1,8,NE)
SOME FILIPINOS (17,1,S)
TWO DECADES (16,11,W)

Answers to Exercise C, pp. 362-363

26 singular common nouns 14 common plural nouns

Education, revolution, thinking, money, attitudes, ways, basics, slogans,


fertilizer, power, country, corruption, children, cronies, positions, features,
mayor, president, government, world, people, artists, traditions, professionals,
history, republic, heroism, president, domestics, decades
equivalent, history, man, pass, nation,
earth, novelist, martyr, mark, power,
enemy, intransigence, courage

Answers to Exercise D, p. 363 may vary.

Answers to Exercise E, pp. 364-365 may vary.

178  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


J. Writing: Writing to Give a Message, p. 366-369
1. Ask the students to think of a close friend or relative who has gone far away. Let them
share how they communicate to each other and how they keep their friendship alive.
2. Mention that while there are many modes of communication, writing a letter still
remains to be a time-honored tradition and form of writing.
3. Have the students recall the last time they wrote a friendly letter. Ask them to accom-
plish the checklist on pages 366 to 367.
4. Have the students accomplish the exercise on pages 368 to 369.

K. Performance Task: Conducting an Interview, pp. 370-371


1. Revisit EQ #1. Let students discuss how they manage change in their lives whether at
home or in school.
2. As the final task, ask the students to conduct an interview as stipulated on pages 370-
371. Let the students recall the discussion and exercises conducted earlier in the lesson.
Explain the rubrics for assessment. Encourage them to maximize the opportunity to
improve their communicative skills through interviewing.

  What may chart new direction in our lives?

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  179


Lesson 11 Getting Real

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Literature mirrors real-life situations Write a paragraph of explanation.
that help shape a person’s character and
behavior. Essential Questions

2. Literature reflects not only reality but art What essential questions will be asked?
as well. 1. Is reality reflected in literature?

2. What greater purpose does literature


have: social reform or art for art’s sake?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:

1. literary devices such as alliteration, 1. discuss free verse, and identify poetical
assonance, and consonance. devices.

2. satire as a literary technique. 2. recognize satire in a play.

3. elements of a play. 3. identify the elements of a play.

4. usage of idiomatic expressions. 4. enjoy reading a play.

5. how to note significant details. 5. use idiomatic expressions in sentences


correctly.
6. some pointers in acting out a play.
6. note significant details.
7. the significance of following/adhering to
street signs and other signs. 7. act out a one-act play.

8. how to write rejoinders. 8. interpret and follow street signs and


other signs.
9. transitional devices.
9. write rejoinders correctly.
10. how to write a paragraph of explanation.

180  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence
Performance Task

You happen to stumble upon an advertisement on a national newspaper sponsoring an essay writing
contest for all interested students in the country. You want to share what you think and feel toward
an issue; hence, you are joining. You are tasked to write a paragraph explaining your stand on a
current issue. Support your claim with facts and examples.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing an Explanation

CRITERIA/
4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Fair 1 - Poor
SCORE

Knowledge Conveys Conveys Conveys a Conveys


and Under- several ideas several ideas few ideas and limited ideas
standing and examples and examples examples on and examples
on the topic on the topic the topic with on the topic
with a high with a good some degree with little
degree of degree of of knowledge. knowledge.
knowledge. knowledge.

Thinking Organizes and Organizes and Organizes and Organizes and


plans with a plans with plans with plans with
high degree of considerable some effec- little effec-
effectiveness. effectiveness. tiveness. tiveness.

Application Makes connec- Makes connec- Makes connec- Makes connec-


tions between tions between tions between tions between
the various the various the various the various
texts related texts related texts related texts related
to the subject to the subject to the subject to the subject
with a high with a consid- with some with little
degree of erable degree degree of degree of
clarity and of clarity and clarity and clarity and
effectiveness. effectiveness. effectiveness. effectiveness.

Communi- Shows Shows good Shows average Shows little


cation extensive knowledge knowledge knowledge
knowledge of how to use of how to use of how to use
of how to use conventions conventions conventions
conventions when writing. when writing. when writing.
when writing.

Source: http://www.rcampus.com/rubricshow.cfm?code=Q3463B&sp=true&

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  181


Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based on the ability to generate
and answer high-level questions about the pre-reading activities and Sharing Insights of
When He Walks into the Room and New Yorker in Tondo
2. Reading exercise on free verse and writing of free verse using poetical devices
3. Reading of satires
4. Discussion on the elements of a play
5. Reading of dialogs from a play
6. Exercises on idiomatic expressions
7. Acting of a one-act play
8. Interpretation of street signs
9. Exercises on rejoinders
10. Discussion on transitional devices

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Present to the students the emerging aims of Philippine literature during the Beginning
of the Modern Period. Mention that these aims were divided into (1) social reform and
revolution and (2) art for art’s sake.
➲ Pose EQ # 2: Let the students share their viewpoints in pairs then to the whole class.
➲ Have the students discriminate between these two emerging aims during the said Philip-
pine literary period.
➲ Discuss with the students their learning goals in the lesson. Then, preview them their Per-
formance Task which is to write a paragraph of explanation. Discuss the rubric that they
will consider in grading their paragraph.
➲ Ask the students to bring a photograph of the person they deem the most important in
their life.
➲ Let the students explore the following:

Background

The writers grouped into two different schools of thought which emerged in the late 1920s
continued to uphold their ideas up to the beginning of the modern period. The groups were
led by Salvador P. Lopez and Jose Gracia Villa.
Lopez’ group founded the Philippine Writers’ League. With the motto, “literature from
the masses for the masses,” the group advocated “proletarian literature,” expressing concern
on social problems and issues.

182  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Salvador P. Lopez’ best-known book, Literature and Society: Essays on Life and Letters,
mirrored the influences of John Steinbeck and Ernest Hemingway.
The other school of thought was led by Jose Gracia Villa. Known for introducing innova-
tions in poetry, Villa believed that arts is an end in itself. Thus, his group espoused the “art for
art’s sake” kind of literature.
The Lopez-Villa debate gave birth to young and dynamic writers who well-versed in the
use of language and form and well-informed on the social and political issues around them.

A. Reading 1: When He Walks into the Room by Gloria A Garchitorena-Galoy, p. 373


1. Pose EQ #1. Ask students to justify what they think.
2 Let the students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Direct the students’ attention to Unveil What You Know. Have them share their
thoughts on the questions indicated by thinking of the most important person in
their life.
b. Have the students take note of the words riot, doom, and visage in Unlock the Meaning
of Words. Let them fill in the right word based on the context of the following sentences.

• The news about the election cause a _____ (riot) in the city.
• I read a story of a mysterious creature that lures travelers to their
_____ (doom).
• Mr. Fredrickson is described as an old man with a noticeably happy
_____ (visage).

c. Ask the students to read the questions in Underscore a Motive for Reading. Let
them read also the section Understand Author’s Profile.
3. Have the students read the poem altogether through choral recitation.
4. Facilitate the students’ discussion of the poem by touching on the questions on Sharing
Insights.
a. As a preassigned task, have the students show the photograph of the most important
person in their life. Ask for volunteers who wish to share why they have chosen the
said person.
b. Process their sharing. Elicit EU #1. Let the students discuss the poem’s significance
in their daily life co-existing with loved ones.

  Literature mirrors real-life situations that help shape a


person’s character and behavior.

  Is reality reflected in literature?

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  183


Answers to Sharing Insights
1. The He in the poem is an important person to the speakers. As mentioned in the
poem, the speaker gets lonely when that person leaves his/her sight.
2. The speakers in the poem becomes alive when that person is within sight as
mentioned in lines 1-3: When he walks into the room the corners of my eyes feed
upon the edges of his images. Hence, the speakers is fully aware of that person’s
every movement.
3. Walk out could mean that the person leaves without informing the other person
in the room. But this could also mean an unexpected departure.
4. The speaker of the poem becomes sad and feels lost as mentioned in lines 7-9:
Then he walks out. And my doom begins to grow with the speed of his departure.
5. The expression may mean that the most important person has left and would
never return.
6. The souls are blind when there’s no reason to see. And that usually happens
when we lose the most important person in our lives.
7. Answer may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Learning about Free Verse and Some Poetical Devices, pp. 374-
375
1. Present to the students the following lines:

“Mary sat musing on the lamp-flame at the table


Waiting for Warren. When she heard his step”
-Robin Frost, The Death of the Hired Man
“Since my old friend is grown so great,
As to be Minister of State,
I’m told, but ‘tis not true, I hope,
That Craggs will be ashamed of Pope.”
-Alexander Pope, A Dialogue

“He struck a streak of bad luck.”

2. Ask the students to observe the highlights in boldface on the lines above. Have them
share their insights.
3. Mention that the highlights are literary devices used to achieve a musical effect. Discuss
the input on alliteration, assonance, and consonance on page 374.
4. Have the students accomplish the exercises on pages 374-375.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 374 may vary depending on the students’ reflection.

184  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise B, p. 375
Alliteration: when, we
Assonance: corners, eyes, feed
Consonance: orphaned, breed

Answers to Exercise C, p. 375 may vary.

C. Reading 2: “New Yorker in Tondo” (An Excerpt) by Marcelino Agana Jr., pp. 376-390
1. Present some images of Tondo in Manila, the Philippines and New York in the United
States. Have the students draw up some comparative insights between the two (2)
places.
2. Let the students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Direct the students’ attention to the questions posed on Unveil What You Know.
Let them think of a real life person who has manifested behavioral changes after
having lived in or gone to a foreign place for a long time. Ask them EQ #2 again.
b. Have the students unlock the meaning of flounces, jilt, exile, languishing and mis-
cegenation. Provide sentences using the said words and let the students determine
the meaning through context clues.

• The lady flounced into the lobby.


• She was crushed when he jilted her.
• They hoped that his exile would be temporary.
• The languishing state of the community is depressing.
• The city is a miscegenation of various races and colors.

3. The reading of the play should have been made as an assignment.


4. Have the students answer the comprehension questions on Sharing Insights. Process
their answers, and let them how the play significantly reflects reality.

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. The Mango tree in the backyard of the Mendoza House serves as the playground
of the four Tondo friends.
2. Kikay says that the engagement should be forgotten already because it is arranged
when they are young and impulsive.
3. When Kikay finds out that Nena and Tony are engaged a month ago after her
arrival, she feels humiliated.
4. Kikay decides to drop her New Yorker characteristics when Tony almost decides
to leave her.
5. Nena and Tony’s engagement is called off while Kikay and Tony’s is not because
Nena and Totoy, after the fight between Kikay and Nena, get into a sort of under-

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  185


standing and may lead to a relationship and probably later on to engagement,too.
6. Kikay shows that she’s been off to being a New Yorker when she wants to be
called Kikay, announces that she dislikes eating celery, etc.
7. Answers may vary.
8. Answers may vary.

D. Literary Skill 2: Reading a Satire, pp. 391-393


1. Present the text on Humpty Dumpty provided on page 391. Include a visual prompt.
Ask the students what they recall about the popular children’s verse.
2. Mention that while Humpty Dumpty could evoke funny musings, it is actually a satire
that ridicules or denounces an abuse, a folly, or a custom. Have the students answer
the question on page 385 by providing their reflection on it.
3. Have the students read the article on pages 392-393. Let them note the details that
reflect the satirical tone of the material.
4. Present a video clip of satires on modern day issues. An example could be a parody on
a smart phone found on http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNBP18nrRdw.

E. Literary Skill 3: Studying the Elements of a Play and Reading a Play, pages 394-
395
1. Have the students’ attention directed back to New Yorker in Tondo. Ask the students
what distinctive characteristics this literary work has that separate it from other liter-
ary forms.
2. Mention that New Yorker in Tondo is a good example of a play. Then, transition to a
discussion on its nature and elements as provided on page 394.
3. Highlight the tips on reading a play on page 389. Have the students fulfill as an assign-
ment the exercise given on page 395.

Answers to Exercise, p. 395 may vary.

F. Vocabulary: Using Idiomatic Expressions Again, pp. 396-397


1. Ask two (2) students to read aloud the lines on the thought bubbles on page 396.
Highlight the phrases lost my nerve and have the nerve. Ask the students to infer the
meaning of the said phrases.
2. Transition to a brief discussion on idioms/idiomatic expressions as provided on the
same page. Ask the students for other examples.
3 Have the students answer the exercise on page 397.

186  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise, p. 397
1. got on my nerves
2. lost his nerve
3. have the nerve
4. I lost my nerve
5. got on the nerves
6. had the nerve

G. Listening/Viewing: Noting Significant Details, p. 397


1. Ask the students the importance of noting significant details. Reinforce and reiterate
that noting significant details in a reading selection can help facilitate learning faster.
2. Read to the students your own chosen short selection or you may choose to read the
one below. Ask them to note important details that satirize Pacman’s spelling ability.

A Filipino Satire by Goliath Letterman


(Not Related to David Letterman)
An East-European sports writer allegedly interviewed recently boxing
megastar and now-Philippine Congressman Manny Pacquiao. Here are some of
the questions supposedly asked and his alleged answers during the interview:
Q: Filipino-American columnist Jesse Jose, who writes for the Mabu-
hayRadio.com, spells your family name as “Pakyaw.” What’s really the
right spelling?
A: It’s Pacquiao.
Q: How do you spell it?
A: P as in Philippines, A as in America, C as in China, Q as in Cuba, U as
in Europe, I as in Italy, A as in America again, and O as in Oustralia.
Source: http://www.mabuhayradio.com/humor-satire/how-
do-you-spell-the-surname-of-pacman-and-pacquiaoism-
tidbits-of-or-hearsay-stories-about-the-filipino-boxing-icon

H. Speaking: Acting Out a Play, pp. 398-399


1. Direct the students’ attention once more on New Yorker in Tondo. Mention that the
literary work has been adapted several times as a play by various theatrical groups and
students. Present a video clip on some performances which could be sourced from
www.youtube.com.
2. Provide a comprehensive discussion of the pointers on acting out a play as provided
on page 398.
3. Have the students accomplish the exercise on page 399.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  187


4. As stated on Exercise B, divide the class into groups which will act out New Yorker in
Tondo. Highlight the pointers which each group especially the actors need to employ
in the execution of the play. Provide ample time for the students to prepare.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 399


1. ladder
2. metal
3. wedding
4. medal
5. padding

I. Study and Research: Following Street Signs and Other Signs, pp. 400-401
1. Conduct a game among the students to test their knowledge of basic street signs.
Present the images below to facilitate the quick game.
2. Pose the questions found on page 400 and have the students answer them.
3. Have the students answer the exercise on page 401.

Answers to Exercise, p. 401


1. Pedestrian Crossing – Pedestrians should use this lane in crossing streets whereas
drivers and motorists should apply pedestrian courtesy. If pedestrians do not
cross on the appropriate lane, they might end up in an untoward incident. On
the other hand, if drivers and motorists do not employ the necessary courtesy,
they might put pedestrians in harm.
2. Not Safe Over 5 Tons – Only vehicles weighing below 5 tons are allowed to use
the bridge; otherwise, overweight vehicles might cause the bridge to collapse.
3. Vertical Clearance 11 Ft. – Only vehicle with a height not beyond 11 feet could
pass through the tunnel; otherwise, taller vehicles will damage the structure.
4. Ramp for the Persons with Disability – Only persons with disability (PWD) are
allowed to use the ramp for safe passage. Inappropriate persons who use it might
stall PWDs.

J. Grammar: Using Rejoinders, pp. 402-405


1. Direct the students’ attention to the dialogs between Nena and Tony in New Yorker in
Tondo. Have two (2) volunteers read out the said dialogs. Do the same for the other
sets of dialogs on page 402 by calling on other volunteers.
2. Highlight the use and significance of rejoinders in the dialogs as stated on page 402.
Ask the students how rejoinders sustain a conversation.
3. Have the students answer the exercises on pages 404-405.

188  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise A, p. 404 (Possible Answers)
2. We also prepared the necessary props and costumes for the play.
3. Yes, I am ready to begin my day.
4. Yes, they belong to me.
5. No, the floor director called in sick.
6. Yes, it will add artistry to the performance.
7. No, there are still more to be finished.
8. None, I have everything I need.
9. Yes, everyone is here.
10. Yes, we are all set.

Answers to Exercise B. pp. 404-405


2. That’s good news! We will be able to cover our expenses.
3. Definitely! I was looking forward to this.
4. Oh no! Tigers and crocodiles scare me.
5. All right. You have the food for them.
6. I understand. I hope we could stay longer.
7. That’s exciting! I brought a camera with me.
8. That sounds fun! I am sure they will amaze us.
9. Certainly. I need this vacation.
10. What an adventure! I have always wanted to do that.

Answers to Exercise C, p. 405


2. When is it scheduled?
3. What will you buy?
4. How did she share it?
5. What else did she allow you to bring?
6. What kind of toy?
7. Where will you buy?
8. What else did he say?
9. Did you bring one?
10. How do you feel about it?

K. Writing: Writing an Explanation, pp. 406-408


1. State that presenting an explanation is important. Ask the students why explaining
effectively is significant. Mention that one way to conduct effective explanation is
through writing.
2. Discuss transitional devices as stated on pages 406-407. For smooth flow of their sen-
tences in their paragraph, a working knowledge of transitional devices is helpful.
3. Have the students study the paragraph on page 407. Ask them to highlight the transi-
tional devices used.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  189


4. Ask the students to write a paragraph explaining their opinion on a current issue on
page 402.

L. Performance Task: Writing a Paragraph of Explanation, p. 409


1. Revisit EQ #1. Let students recall the poem and the play they read, and have them
reiterate how and why reality is reflected in literature. Ask them what effects does
employing reality in literature have on the character and behavior of human beings.
2. Have the students accomplish their performance task on writing a paragraph of ex-
planation. Reiterate the use of transitional devices. Assess their outputs by using the
rubrics provided.

  Is reality reflected in literature?

190  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Lesson 12 Elevating Creative Expression

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


Do oral presentation.
1. Creativity is essential to stoking the
imagination and interest of the readers.
Essential Questions
2. Using diagrams and charts makes infor-
mation more understandable. What essential questions will be asked?

1. How do writers make their poems or


stories more interesting?

2. Why use diagrams and charts?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:

1. the nature of irony as used in expression. 1. discuss Philippine literature during the
Martial Law Era.
2. the ways to read an essay.
2. identify the irony in a poem.
3. determine meaning of compound words.
3. discuss what an essay is, and note details
4. the steps in expressing a reaction.
about it.
5. pointers in giving a report.
4. infer the meaning of compound words.
6. the advantage of using diagrams and
5. express reaction to what is listened to or
charts to gather information.
shown.
7. the difference between direct and
6. give a report about an opinion program.
reported speech.
7. draw information from diagrams and
charts.

8. change direct speech to reported speech


and vice-versa.

9. write and present an oral report.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  191


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence

Performance Task

Using Information Taken from Diagrams and Charts


Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation sponsors training in language fluency in your town. You
are one of the participants. Your group is assigned to report on how computers are used not
only to look for information but also to store information. Your group is expected to discuss
the procedures using a diagram or chart. Your teacher and a representative of Pilipinas Shell
Petroleum Corporation will grade your group presentation.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing an Autobiography

CRITERIA/
4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Fair 1 - Poor
SCORE

Partici- All group All group Some group Only 1 or


pation members members members 2 group
participate participate. participate. members
equally. participate.

Cooper- Group Group Some group Most group


ation members help members help members speak members
each other as each other as clearly and are hard to
needed. needed. are easy to understand.
understand.

Enunciation All group Most group Some group Only 1 or


members speak members speak members speak 2 group
clearly and clearly and clearly, but members speak
are easy to are easy to are difficult to and can be
understand. understand. understand. understood.

Audience All group Most group Group Most group


Contact members speak members speak members speak members speak
to the entire to the entire to only part of only to part of
audience. audience. the audience. the audience.

Organi- Information is Information is Information Information is


zation presented in an presented in an may be only presented in a
organized way. organized way. partially disorganized
organized. way.

192  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Oral Presen- Oral Oral Oral Oral
tation presentation presentation presentation presentation
includes many includes some includes few includes few or
details. details. details. no details.

Visual Presentation Presentation is Presentation is Presentation is


Appeal is visually organized and complete. disorganized or
organized and complete. incomplete.
complete.

Source:http://www.sites4teachers.com/links/redirect.php?url=http://www.
readwritethink.org/lesson_images/lesson960/Rubric.pdf

Other Evidence
1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based on the ability to generate
and answer high-level questions about the pre-reading activities and Sharing Insights of
the Song of the Tear-gassed Man and The Untouchable Trees
2. Identification of irony and its usage
3. Reading of essays
4. Exercises on compound words
5. Expression of opinions in given contexts
6. Discussion of pointers in giving a report
7. Reporting of information from diagrams and charts

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Have the students interview their parents or any elder in their family who could share their
memory of the Martial Law Period. Ask the students to present in class the sharing they
received from their parents/elders.
➲ Provide a historical background of the Martial Law Period. Ask the students for implica-
tions should a declaration of the same take place at present.

Background

The Martial law period can be described as the Era of Guided Media and the Rise of the Alter-
native Press. Mass media controls were established. Editors and journalists were among the
first to be arrested and incarcerated in military prison camps. It was a time of Marcos media
vs. Mosquito Press or the alternative press.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  193


Media ownership became more concentrated in the hands of a few individuals or families close
to the regime. There was monopolistic ownership of telecommunications by the regime’s favored
relatives and friends. Telephoney was monopolized by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone
Company, domestic satellite by DomSat Phils., and Cable Television by Sining Makulay.
“Transnationalization” of the Philippine telecommunication started as Marcos cronies
were forced to enter into joint venture with foreign partners because of the capital-intensive
nature of telecommunications. Among foreign partners were Cable and Wireless, Marubeni,
and Siemens GTE.
We Forum, started out as a weekly for the youth; became forerunner of what was called,
the alternative press in the early 1980s together with the Philippine Collegian of the University
of the Philippines
In the 70s, Press Foundation for Asia batted for development Journalism, highlighting
issues and events on population, science and technology, health, nutrition and education. Its
proponents were Juan Mercado, Alan Chalkley, Jose Luna Castro and Romeo Abundo.
The 1980s saw the Emergence of the Alternative Press.
The assasination in 1983 of Senator Benigno Aquino released the floodgates of press free-
dom in the Philippines. Xerox journalism and cassette journalism made it impossible for the
Marcos regime to suppress information on the tragic assasination of Aquino.
There was the pre-eminence of radio as instrument of change: Radio Veritas and Radyo
Bandido. Campus publications took an activist stand on social issues.
The Philippine Daily Inquirer founded on December 9, 1985 became the leading newspaper
after the EDSA Revolution in 1986.

overview

On September 21, 1972, Marcos issued Proclamation 1081, declaring martial law over the entire
country. Under the president’s command, the military arrested opposition figures, including
Benigno Aquino, journalists, student and labor activists, and criminal elements. A total of
about 30,000 detainees were kept at military compounds run by the army and the Philippine
Constabulary. Weapons were confiscated, and “private armies” connected with prominent
politicians and other figures were broken up. Newspapers were shut down, and the mass me-
dia were brought under tight control. With the stroke of a pen, Marcos closed the Philippine
Congress and assumed its legislative responsibilities. During the 1972-81 martial law period,
Marcos, invested with dictatorial powers, issued hundreds of presidential decrees, many of
which were never published.

A. Reading 1: Song of the Tear-gassed Man by Cirlo F. Bautista, pp. 411-412


1. Engage the students in a film showing of the documentary Batas Militar which chroni-
cles the Martial Law Period in the Philippines. Ask for their insights after the viewing.
2. Using the video material as a springboard, mention that the literary selection they are

194  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


about to read was written during the Martial Law Era. Provide a background on the
author, Cirilo Bautista.

CIRILO F. BAUTISTA
Cirilo F. Bautista , poet, fictionist, critic, and writer of nonfiction, was born
in 1941. He received his degrees in AB Literature from the University of Santo
Tomas in 1963, MA Literature from St. Louis University, Baguio City in 1968,
and Doctor of Arts in Language and Literature from De La Salle University-
Manila in 1990. He received a fellowship to attend the International Writing
Program at the University of Iowa (1968-1969) and was awarded an honorary
degree-the only Filipino to have been so honored there.
He is a co-founding member of the Philippine Literary Arts Council (PLAC)
and a member of the Manila Critics Circle, Philippine Center of International
PEN and the Philippine Writers Academy. His awards include the Palanca, Free
Press, National Book Award from the Manila Critics Circle, Gawad Balagtas,
the Pablo Roman Prize for the Novel, and the highest accolades from the City
of Manila, Quezon City, and Iligan City. Bautista was hailed in 1993 as Makata
ng Taon by the Komisyon ng mga Wika ng Pilipinas, and t he last part of his
epic trilogy The Trilogy of Saint Lazarus, entitled Sunlight on Broken Stones,
won the Centennial Prize for the epic in 1998.
Bautista’s works include Boneyard Breaking, Sugat ng Salita, The Archi-
pelago, Telex Moon , Summer Suns, Charts, The Cave and Other Poems, Kirot
ng Kataga, and Bullets and Roses: The Poetry of Amado V. Hernandez. His
novel Galaw ng Asoge was published by the UST Press in 2004. In addition to
being a Professor of Literature in DLSU-Manila, Bautista is also a columnist
and literary editor of the Philippine Panorama.
*Source: http://www.panitikan.com.ph/authors/b/cfbautista.htm

1. Have the students unlock the meaning of corrupted and McCoy using context clues
from the literary selection.
2. Let the students read the poem silently.
3. Touch on the questions from Sharing Insights on page 412.
4. As a culminating activity, have ask the students prepare a visual interpretation
of martial law with details and elements from the poem. Have them use coloring
materials, bond paper, cut-outs, and other materials which will enhance their
creativity.

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. During the martial festival, you’ll get a dose of tear gas.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  195


2. Tear gas in contrast to line 1 that says: I love it! I love it! is something that irritates
the eyes.
3. The poem uses irony as its style in conveying thoughts.
4. The experiences to get a load of tear gas together with floods, garbage, and
Amendment 6 may offset economic problems.
5. Answers may vary.
6. Answers may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: More on Identifying Irony, p. 413


1. Ask the students to share some real life ironic experiences. Mention that irony is also
a literary element which is a contrast between what is expected and what actually hap-
pens. State that it exists when what is said is the opposite of what is meant.
2. Direct the students’ attention to the examples provided on page 413.
3. Have the students accomplish the exercise on the same page.

Possible Answers:
a. This tear gas sanctifies my corrupted soul.
b. The divine odor of it, the excitement better than demos of rock and roll.
c. Get a load of it, brother, while it’s free.
d. We may not have money in the bank, no food on the table, no seat on the Love
Bys, but we have secret marshals and policemen and most of all, we have a lot
of tear gas.
e. We may not have houses and running water, the taxmen may be running after
us, but we have floods, garbage, Amendment 6, and most of all, we have a lot
of tear gas.

C. Reading 2: The Untouchable Trees by Juan M. Flavier, pp. 414-416


1. Refer to the statement on For Your Information on page 415. Ask the students for their
thoughts on the coconut is called the tree of life. Process their insights as a take-off
point for the literary selection The Untouchable Trees.
2. Let the students carryout the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Ask the students to get the meaning of litany and dressing down. Have them con-
struct meaningful sentences for each.
b. Play the song Da Coconut Nut by Smokey Mountain. Ask the students for their
insights on the said song.

196  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Da Coconut Nut
Smokey Mountain
The coconut nut is a giant nut
If you eat too much, you’ll get very fat
Now, the coconut nut is a big, big nut
But its delicious nut is not a nut
It’s the coco fruit (it’s the coco fruit)
Of the coco tree (of the coco tree)
From the coco palm family
There are so many uses of the coconut tree
You can build a big house for the family
All you need is to find a coconut man
If he catch the tree, he gets the fruit free
The coconut bark for the kitchen floor
If you save some of it, you can build the door
Now, the coconut trunk, do not throw this junk
If you save some of it, you’ll have a second floor
The coconut wood is very good
It can stand 20 years if you create (?) wood
Now, the coconut fruit, to tell you the truth
You can probe it or use it as firewood
The coconut leaves could shade it gives
For the roof, for the walls up against the eaves
Now, the coconut fruit, say my relatives
Make good cannonballs up against the eaves
Olé!

c. Have the students share their responses to the questions on Unveil What You Know
and Underscore a Motive for Reading.
3. Reading
The reading of the selection should have been done at home. Use learning strate-
gies to enable the students share their insights on the selection.
4. Have the students answer the comprehension questions on Sharing Insights. Allow the
students to manifest their skill to recall, comprehend and understand, and interpret
the significant details, points, and values of the selection.
5. Let student student revisit EQ# 1 and ask them what makes the selection interesting.
Lead them to realize that the essay employs a realistic theme that has moral to teach.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  197


Answers to Sharing Insights
1. The inherited coconut farm was the financial source of Pare Tonying.
2. The coconut farm looked different because it had never been under any progressive
farming.
3. According to the father of the main character, each one of them-his offspring-
had a hundred of coconut trees. This coconut trees would finance their needs.
When there was less yield, it only meant that they were not in need of money.
The coconut farm was given to him (Tonying) because he was the only one who
failed to finish college. Thus, those coconuts financed his other businesses.
4. Answers may vary.
5. Answers may vary.

D. Literary Skill 2: Learning about the Essay, p. 417


1. Have the students share their experience on reading the essay of Dr. Juan Flavier.
2. Provide a background on the nature of essays. Refer to the input below to supplement
the information on page 417.

What is an essay?
Though the word “essay” has come to be understood as a type of writing
in Modern English, its origins provide us with some useful insights. The word
comes into the English language through the French influence on Middle English;
tracing it back further, we find that the French form of the word comes from
the Latin verb exigere, which means “to examine, test, or (literally) to drive
out.” Through the excavation of this ancient word, we are able to unearth the
essence of the academic essay: to encourage students to test or examine their
ideas concerning a particular topic.
Essays are shorter pieces of writing that often require the student to hone
a number of skills such as close reading, analysis, comparison and contrast,
persuasion, conciseness, clarity, and exposition. As is evidenced by this list of
attributes, there is much to be gained by the student who strives to succeed at
essay writing.
The purpose of an essay is to encourage students to develop ideas and con-
cepts in their writing with the direction of little more than their own thoughts (it
may be helpful to view the essay as the converse of a research paper). Therefore,
essays are (by nature) concise and require clarity in purpose and direction. This
means that there is no room for the student’s thoughts to wander or stray from
her purpose; she must be deliberate and interesting.
*Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/685/1/

198  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. Discuss the ways to read an essay effectively. Have the students accomplish the exercise
that follows.

E. Vocabulary: Inferring the Meanings of Compound Words, p. 418


1. Reinforce the students’ understanding of compound words by allowing them to infer
its meanings.
2. Highlight the word underbrush culled from The Untouchable Trees. Have the students
infer its meaning. Touch on the input on compound words found on page 418.
3. Have the students answer the exercises on the same page.

Exercise A, p. 418
1. stronghold – a place of security or survival
2. flashbulb – an electric bulb that can be used only once to produce a brief and
very bright flash for taking photographs
3. touchdown – the act or moment of touching down as with an airplane or space-
craft
4. grasshopper – a plant-eating insect
5. almshouses – a privately financed home for the poor
6. typewritten – encoded with the use of a typewriter

Exercise B, p. 418
1. tablecloth
2. sailboat
3. sidestreet
4. daytime
5. keyhole

F. Listening/Viewing: Expressing a Reaction, pp. 419-421


1. Have the students read aloud the dialogue on page 419. Assign one side of the class to
read the part of the narrator while the other, the lines of Pareng Tonying.
2. Mention that conversations among friends, family members, classmates, teachers,
relatives, etc. are essential to daily life.
3. Discuss the input on expressing a reaction on page 419. Ask the students why prudence
and listening are important in expressing a reaction.
4. Have the students accomplish the exercises on pages 420 to 421. Answers may vary.

G. Speaking: Giving a Report, pp. 422-423


1. Discuss the pointers on giving a report as provided on page 422.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  199


2. Ask for volunteers to read a report snippet hereunder. Emphasize that they must employ
the pointers earlier discussed.

MANILA, Philippines - The Department of Tourism has released the


official AVP for its “It’s More Fun in the Philippines” campaign.
The video, uploaded on the DOT’s official YouTube channel (youtube.com/
dotphilippines), features video clips and images of tourist spots and activities
throughout the archipelago.
The video was first shown during the 35th Pacific Asia Travel Association
(PATA) Mart last Tuesday, September 25, and was released on social media
October 1.
“The DOT released the campaign through social media sites to extend its
reach to the international community,” the department said.

H. Study and Research: Getting Information from Diagrams, pp. 424-426


1. Ask the students to recall the toys they had during their childhood. Direct them to the
question provided on page 424.
• Have you every bought a toy, the parts of which needed to be put together before it
could be used?
• What helped you to assemble it properly?
2. Then, let the students think of how their textbooks aid them in accomplish school
works. Pose the question on the same page: “In your textbooks, have you come across
drawings that help you understand how something operates?”
3. Discuss how information could be gathered or obtained from diagrams. Touch on the
inputs provided on pages 424-426.

I. Study and Research: Learning from Charts, pp. 427-430


1. Discuss how learning could be facilitated by charts. Ask the students how information
could be arranged and understood easily through charts.
2. Have the students answer the exercises on pages 429 to 430.
3. Revisit EQ#2. Ask students if the presentation of information in daigrams and charts
help them understand better the information they have learn. Let students justify their
answers.

Answer to Exercise A, p. 429


a. front gear c. pedal
b. round disks d. chain

200  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answer to Exercise B, p. 429
a. fine sand, coarse sand, gravel, rocks
b. fine sand, rocks

Answer to Exercise C, p. 430


a. keyboard
b. Central Processing Unit
c. immediate access store>control unit>arithmetic logic unit
d. visua display unit
e. floppy disk drive or compact disc Read Only Memory

J. Grammar: Using Direct and Reported Speech, pp. 431-435


1. Have the students read the statements taken from The Untouchable Trees. Let the
students study the similarities and differences on the statements as provided on page
425.
2. Discuss the input on direct and reported speech found on page 431. State that the
essential skill that the students need to develop is to transform direct speech to reported
vice versa.
3. Have the students answer the exercises on pages 431-435.

Answer to Exercise A, pp. 431-432


1. “Why did the declaration of Martial Law stifle the creativity of most writers?”
I asked.-D
2. She observed that many writers had preferred to write on trivial matters.-R
3. He volunteered only the Romualdez-owned Daily Express was allowed to
continue publications.-R
4. The magazine, Focus Philippines invited its readers to submit literary pieces.-R
5. They inquired, “Were incentives given to the best literary contributions?”-R
6. Proclamation 1144 says, “Elevate creative expression in all its forms to its rightful
status as the vanguard of the country’s spiritual development.”-D
7. I declare, “Jose Garcia Villa deserves the National Artist Award.”-D
8. I asked what the Board of Censors was for.-R
9. “In what way,” I queried, “did the Board of Censors help the government during
martial law.-D
10. “Review all printed materials,” the government ordered the Board of Censors.-D

Answer to Exercise B, pp. 432-433


1. “By the powers vested in me, I declare Martial law in the entire country,” the
President said on national television.
2. The reported said, “I witnessed instances when the rallysists were teargassed.”
3. “There were political prisoners,” the report stated.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  201


4. The first lady proclaimed, “The Lung Center, Kidney Institute, and the Philippine
Heart Center were built.”
5. “I encountered secret marshals and policeman in public transports,” said the
citizen.
6. The reference mentioned, “The Film Center, Cultural Center of the Philippines,
and the Folk Arts were constructed.”
7. “We have our employees to go on strike,” said the manager.
8. A foreign journalist reported, “A number of celebrities visited the Philippines.
Some of them were Van Cliburn, pianist Omar Khaddafy, then world muslim
leader and George Hamilton, US actor.”
9. “Roads were paved; bridges were erected,” the mayor stated.
10. The family governess said, “The Marcos children like Imee and Irene were
involved in piano and voice lessons.”

Answer to Exercise C, p. 433


1. I congratulated my fellow activists for having been teargassed.
2. The man told his comrade to get a load of it.
3. The protester shouted that this is the real McCoy.
4. My colleague warned that the taxmen might be running after us.
5. She asked whether we have floods, garbage, and Amendment 6.
6. He asked why tear gas is lovable.
7. Dave asked if I would accept an invitation to an occasion where I would be
teargassed.
8. The rallyists exclaimed well wishes for the Philippines.
9. The government hailed the martial law babies.
10. Veronica asked me if I loved tear gas.

Answer to Exercise D and E, pp. 434-435 may vary

K. Writing: Utilizing Information Taken from Diagrams and Charts, p. 436-438


1. Have the students recall how information could be obtained or gathered from diagrams and
charts.
2. Discuss several ways of making a written report by discussing the input on page 436.
3. Have the students accomplish the exercise on pages 437-438. Emphasize that they
should follow the writing process earlier discussed.

202  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


L. Performance Task: Using Information Taken from Diagrams and Charts, p. 439.
1. Let students recall the poem and the essay read in this lesson, and ask them to revisit
EQ #1. Let them mention what makes such literary pieces interesting.
2. Let the students accomplish the Performance Task on using information taken from
diagrams and charts. Discuss the rubric to be used.

  Creativity is essential to stoking the imagination and


interest of the readers.

  How do writers make their poems or stories more


interesting?

M. Unit Learning Assessment: pp. 440-441


Let students do the synthesis and reflection of their learning. Instruct students to
answer the worksheet. Conduct processing activity through class sharing and discussion
on the students’ learning experiences.

Unit III: The Period of Rapid Development  |  203


IV the period of contemporary literature

  What does contemporary literature reflect?

  Contemporary literature mirrors the authors’ various styles of


writing, views, and values that shape human experiences.

Lesson 13 Valuing Treasured Memories

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. Good and odd memories make an impact Present survey results.
on people’s relationship with human
beings and environment. Essential Questions

2. Onomatopoeia makes free verse musical. What essential questions will be asked?

3. Poets make use of theme and its elements 1. How do treasured memories affect
to convey messages. present-day relationships?

4. What we hear and see affect how we 2. How do poets maintain musicality in their
make sense of our own world, the world poems?
around us, and of others. 3. What do poets use to effectively convey
5. Tabular presentation helps make infor- what they want?
mation more understandable. 4. Why is it important to form an opinion?

5. When is information easily understood?

204  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:

1. onomatopoeia in a poem. 1. discuss literature of the contemporary


times.
2. how to determine the message of a
poem. 2. recognize onomatopoeia and identify the
message of a poem.
3. free verse.
3. discuss free verse.
4. how to use English expressions in
sentences correctly. 4. use English expressions in sentences
correctly.
5. how to get information from radio and
television. 5. draw information from radio and
television.
6. how to deliver a poem.
6. read a poem aloud.
7. how to answer questions using a table.
7. use a table to answer questions correctly.
8. the functions of adjectives.
8. use adjectives in sentences and paragraph
9. how to construct sentences with clear and
correctly.
correct comparison of adjectives.
9. make clear and correct comparison of
10. how to plot information on a table.
adjectives.

10. plot information on a table.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  205


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence
Performance Task

Presenting Survey Results


Your school outreach program coordinator will conduct a survey on the socio-economic life of the families
in your community in view of the love-drive program every December. You are one of the residents who
happen to live in that community. You volunteer to assist the coordinator in administering the survey.
Your task, then, is to draft the interview questionnaire to obtain such information like the size
of the family, education, income of the working family members, streams of income, to name a few.
Then, go to each household, and interview either the father or the mother of the family, whoever
is available. Consolidate these bits of information, and do an analysis of the implications of such
information to their status quo. You are expected to come up with a tabular presentation comparing
the status quo of all those families included in the survey.

Rubric

Rubric on Presenting Survey Results

CRITERIA/
4 (Superior) 3 (Adequate) 2 (Minimal) 1 (Inadequate)
SCORE

Content- All content Most of the The content Content is


Accuracy throughout content is is generally typically
the presen- accurate accurate, but confusing or
tation is but there is one piece of contains more
accurate. one piece of information is than one
There are no information clearly flawed factual error.
factual errors. that might be or inaccurate.
inaccurate.

Sequencing of Information is Most infor- Some infor- There is no


Information organized in mation is mation is clear plan for
a clear, logical organized in logically the organi-
way. It is easy a clear, logical sequenced. zation of
to anticipate way. One card An occasional information.
the type of or item of card or item
material that information of information
might be on seems out of seems out of
the next card. place. place.

206  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Spelling and Presen- Presentation Presentation Presentation
Grammar tation has no has 1-2 has 1-2 has more than
misspellings or misspellings, grammatical 2 grammatical
grammatical but no errors but no and/or spelling
errors. grammatical misspellings. errors.
errors.

Text- Font Font formats Font formats Font Font


Choice and (e.g., color, have been formatting has formatting
Formatting bold, italic) carefully been carefully makes it
have been planned to planned to very difficult
carefully enhance complement to read the
planned to readability. the content. It material.
enhance may be a little
readability and hard to read.
content.

Source: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php?&screen=ShowRubric&rubric_
id=2201503&

Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based on the ability to generate
and answer high-level questions about the pre-reading activities and Sharing Insights of
the poems, “Tartanilla” and “i apologize, waling-waling”
2. Identified onomatopoeia and the message of poem
3. Exercise on free verse
4. Vocabulary enrichment on using English expression correctlly
5. Exercise on gathering information from radio and television
6. Delivering a poem aloud
7. Exercise on using a table
8. Grammar exercises on using adjectives in sentences and paragraph correctly and making
clear and correct comparrison of adjective

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Ask the students to read the Unit introduction. Instruct them to write down questions
about the introduction as they read it.
➲ Small Group Discussion (SGD): Tell the students to form a group with three (3) members.
Ask the students to share and discuss their questions and answers to their group mates.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  207


➲ Lead the students to initially answer the Unit EQ: What does contemporary literature reflect?
➲ Preview the Performance Task (see Stage II) with the students. Tell them that they will be
expected to present survey results at the end of the lesson.
➲ Then, ask the students to study the illustration on page 436. Group them again into four
and make them do a brainstorming session about what the title and the figure connote.
Then, have a few students share their ideas with the class. Discuss the overview with
them.
➲ Instruct students to read through the section Learning Objectives so they know what to
expect in Lesson 13.
➲ Let students interpret the figure and title on pages 442-443. Process answers and lead them
to discuss the background.
➲ Let students explore the following:

Background

The literary world has welcomed into its fold many writers: those who were the students of
various experienced writers as well as the teachers themselves. Many young writers have tried
their hand at poetry. Some of their works show traces of the influences of their mentors. It is
noticeable, however, that many of them show ideas and forms which are basically Western.
This is due to the writers’ orientation and exposure to modern-day Western poets. They have
utilized postmodernistic techniques and have become more open to various inspirations which
are the results of the events-political and social-around them.

overview

The Contemporary period is characterized by more freedom of expression, variety, and “fresh-
ness.”
The literature produced in this period is far beyond what was produced during martial law
when writers focused on trivial matters, although some writers managed to write substantial
ones opposing the policies of the government.
With the country’s stronger economic muscles and loosened political policies, the publishing
industry has gained much leeway in publishing newspapers and magazines to the advantage of
Filipino writers. These newspapers and magazines, aside from providing ways to reach the Filipino
readers, are also offering incentives. Other incentives are given by literary award-giving bodies such
as the annual Carlos Palanca Memorial Award for Literature in Both English and Filipino.
Another factor which boosts the writers’ creativity are workshops offered by such schools
as the University of the Philippines and Siliman University.

208  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


A. Reading 1: Tartanilla by Ralp Semino Galan, p. 446
1. Ask the students if they are familiar with the illustration on page 446. Lead the class to
the discussion of how technological advancements affect how we relate to each other.
Ask EQ #1.
2. Let students do the activities in the section Prepare to Read.
a. Ask students to answer the questions in Unveil What You Know.
b. Then, let them read For Your Information. Also, have the students read the Under-
stand Author’s Profile to add to their knowledge of Ralph Semino Galan.
c. Tell them to study the meanings of the italicized expressions in Unlock the Mean-
ing of Words. Instruct them to do the chart that follows. Let them tell what they
think or what they associate with the words before reading the story and then after
reading.

word Before Reading After Reading


1. hoofsteps
2. pattering
3. dusk
4. pegasic

d. Direct students’ attention to Underscore a Motive for Reading. This guides students
center their reading on the speaker’s memories.
3. Facilitate the oral reading of the poem.
a. The teacher reads the poem for modeling.
b. The class reads aloud after the teacher has read. They may be divided in groups,
and each group will read an assigned stanza.
c. Remind the students to read in thought units or to pause only where there are
punctuation marks.
4. Ask the students to answer the comprehension questions in the section Sharing Insights.
a. To answer Question 5 and 6, have the students make a Then-Now-Future list using
the graphic organizer below.

NOW
jeepney
THEN FUTURE
calesa moonmobile

b. Ask the students to read the poem once more. Let them note the phrases pattering
on the pavement; sweet scent of summer; early; no carriage can resist, no memory
can recall. Have them think about their past lessons on literary devices. Ask them
to identify the device shown in the phrases.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  209


c. Let the students read once more the third stanza of the poem. Ask them what rhyth-
mic device is used. (...evening...croaking...evoking... is an example of consonance)
5. Elicit EU #1. Lead the students to realize that because of technological advancement,
people tend to forget how to enjoy leisure activities the old way.

  Good and odd memories make an impact on people’s


relationship with human beings and environment.

  How do treasured memories affect present-day


relationships?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. The speaker of the poem is probably someone who has witnessed how time
changes the mode of transportation.
2. The things missed by the speaker of the poem are the calesa, the scent of summer
rain between late dusk, evening sounds created by frogs etc.
3. Probably, it is because of technological advancement.
4. According to the last three lines of the poem, these forgotten things were fled
by time and no memory can recall.
5. Answers may vary.
6. Answers may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Learning about Onomatopoeia, p. 447


1. Ask EQ #2. Let them recall the poems they read, and ask them to share about the
rhyming scheme of these poems. Lead them to distinguish rhyming scheme from free
verse.
2. Have the students read the section on page 447. Check on comprehension by asking
them what onomatopoeia is. Let them give examples, e.g.
the lake rippled
the plop-plop-plop of sandals on the street
the swish-swoosh of wet shoes
3. Have the students work on exercise on page 447.
4. Give more exercises when needed, and process their learning. Elicit EU #2. Lead the
students to a realization that poets may decide to have their poems written in either free
verse or rhyming poetry. Free verse, even without rhyming scheme, may still become
musical when used with onomatopoeia.

210  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


  How do treasured memories affect present-day
relationship?

  How do poets maintain musicality in their poems?

Possible Answers to Exercise, p. 447


pattering on the pavement
croaking of the frogs

C. Reading 2: i apologize, waling-waling by Peter Solis Nery, pp. 448-449


1. Pose EQ #1 again. Lead students to discuss their experience in visiting a zoological
garden. Tell them to share about their observations and feelings about what they saw
in the zoo.
2. Instruct students to look at the illustration on pages 448-449. You may prepare an
environmental song either instrumental or not. The music will serve as a background
music to help the students feel the mood of the poem.
3. Let students do the activities in the section on Prepare to Read.
a. Initiate the discussion on the reasons of forests and wildlife disappearance. The
discussion will answer the question in Unveil What You Know. The causes may
include the following:

– increase of population which makes necessary cutting down more


logs for building of shelter, making of furniture, construction of more
buildings, etc.
– increased use of paper because of increase in business
– changes in climate

b. Let the students read the text in For Your Information to give them information
on why forests are important. Discuss more specific effects of lack of forests like
flooding, lack of purified air, etc.
c. Have the students read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. The
students should have been assigned, before hand, to look up these words in the
dictionary. Check on students’ understanding of the meaning of the words by hav-
ing them use the words in sentences. An exercise may also be given, e.g.:

Directions: replace the underlined word with a word of similar meaning.


– The rallyists raised their clenched fists. (tightly closed, well-secured)
– It is easy to lose oneself in a throng. (chair of state, crowd of people)

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  211


– There is a law prohibiting the use of the chainsaw. (a saw with many
blades, a saw with teeth on an endless chain)
– Some health authorities say we can maintain the luster of our hair by
constant brushing. (growth, brightness)

d. Tell students to read Understand Author’s Profile. Let them read the biographical
note.

Check on comprehension through the following questions.


– What factors inspired Peter Solis Nery to write poems on ecology?
– What literary distinction has he received?

e. Ask them what a waling-waling is. Ask them what they expect to read in the poem.
Then, have the students read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.
4. Let the students do an oral reading of the poem.
Follow the standard procedure for reading a poem. Make the students aware that the
poem has only few punctuation marks, and must be read in thought units to be inferred from
context.
5. Let students discuss answers to the questions in Sharing Insights.
a. Small Group Discussion (SGD): Divide the class into eight groups. Assign each
group one discussion question from Numbers 1-6 of Sharing Insights. For groups
7 and 8, the two groups will create a presentation of the poem. They will interpret
the poem through movement (poetry in interpretative dance) and delivery (reading
in unison or speech choir).
6. Recall the students’ shared observations and feelings about their experience in the zoo.
Ask how they can contribute to the conservation of the zoo. Elicit EU #1. Similarly,
make students become aware of the bad effects of forest denudation and encourage
them not to be wasteful of paper and things made of wood. Inspire them to start a
reforestation campaign.

  Onomatopoeia makes free verse musical.

  How do treasured memories affect present-day


relationships?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. The speaker of the poem apologizes to waling-waling. He says that he does not
betray waling-waling and he respects it. The speaker says that he never intends

212  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


to put the life of the flower to extinction. It was his business partners who get
tempted of the money.
2. Three pictures of waling-waling led to its destruction. The loggers cut the trees.
3. The animals, other plants, and humans could be considered orphans of the forest
because all are part of the ecosystem.
4. Answers may vary.
5. Answers may vary.
6. Answers may vary.

D. Literary Skill 2: Finding Messages in Poetry, p. 451


1. Review EQ #1. Let students recall their answer to question 6 of Sharing Insights on p.
442. Prompt them how they conduct themselves in a situation where they are given
an apology. Ask them how this affects the other party?
2. Pose EQ #3. Ask students to discuss how they could find the message or theme of a
poem. Ask the students to read the section on page 451.
3. Let the students work on the exercise.
4. Process learning experiences by asking them to discuss how a poem’s theme or ex-
periences on relating with man and nature affect how we respond to various human
situations. Elicit EU #3.

  Poets make use of theme and its elements to convey


messages.

  What do poets use to effectively convey what they


want?

E. Literary Skill 3: Learning again about Free Verse, p. 452


1. Let students recall their answers to EQ #2. Ask them to reiterate the definition of free
verse. Have them read the section on page 452. Let the students do the activity sug-
gested in the first paragraph.
2. Give the students other examples of poems written in free verse, e.g.:

a. The eyes get used to sight of shaken stones


And bent steel crumpled in a heap
To the west, dark when the sun is dark,
But the weary heart moved to memory.
From Midsummer: To a Ruined City, Bienvenido N. Santos

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  213


b. The days are blooms swaying on stalks of light.
Their petals widen in the loud fields
And laugh-bright children run to gather them.
From Summer, Recaredo D. Demetillo

  Good and odd memories make an impact on people’s


relationship with human being and environment.

  How do poets maintain musicality in their poems?

F. Vocabulary: Recognizing Words Taken from Mythology, pp. 452-453


1. Revisit EQ #3. Let students recall the elements that go with the theme. In a group of
three, instruct students to study the section on page 452. Instruct them to create a list
of words taken from Greek and Roman mythology, e.g.:

Olympic games – from Mt. Olympus which was said to have been the place
where the gods and goddesses displayed their skill and
prowess in sports.
Odyssey – from the Greek warrior, Odysseus, who had a long string
of adventures after the Trojan War; the word today refers
to a series of wanderings or a long adventurous journey.

2. Let students work on the exercises on pages 452-453.


3. Process the students’ learning about how English expressions from Greek or Roman
mythology affect the theme of a poem. Elicit EU #3. Lead students to realize that words
such as English expressions are a strong factor that affects the choice of a poet’s theme
in conveying meaningful messages to the readers.

  Poets make use of theme and its elements to convey


messages.

214  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise A, page 452

Expression Greek/Roman Origin Present-Day Meaning


1. labyrinth In a Greek legend, the labyrinth refers to a Today, a labyrinth
place which was ordered to be constructed means something
by the King of Crete, Minos and built by extremely complex or
Daedalus. tortuous in structure,
arrangement, or
character.
2. Minotaur A monster shaped half like a man and half Any person or thing
like a bull who was given a periodic tribute of that devours or
youths and maidens as food. destroys.
3. Arachnid The word Arachnid is derived from the Today, arachnid refers
Greek legend which tells of a Lydian maiden, to a class of inverte-
Arachne, who challenged the goddess Athena brates to which the
to a weaving contest and won. Outraged, spiders, scorpions,
Athena changed the maiden into a spider, mites, and ticks belong.
condemned to weave forever.
4. Icarian Icarian is derived from the name Icarus who, Icarian connotes inade-
project in Greek mythology, was the son of Daedalus quacy or incapability
(the builder of labyrinth) with whom he was in bringing about an
imprisoned in the labyrinth by King Minos. To ambitious project.
escape Minos’ wrath, they attached feathered
wings to their shoulders with wax and flew
away. Icarus, however, flew too high; the sun
melted the wax, and he plunged into the sea
and was drowned.
5. Trojan The Trojan horse was a large wooden horse Trojan horse today
horse which was left as a gift to the Trojans by refers to fake gifts
retreating Greeks during the Trojan War. But which bring about
it was just strategy. The Trojans did not know disaster or gifts which
that a squad of Greek soldiers was concelaed are not wholeheartedly
inside the horse. When the horse was dragged given.
into the unsuspecting city of Troy, the Greek
soldiers emerged, opened the city’s gates to
let in their comrades and slaughtered many
Trojans.
6. auroral In Roman legend, Aurora is the goddess of Auroral scene refers to
scene dawn who rose out of the east each morning the beautiful and varied
bringing the sun in her chariot. Her tears for display of lights seen at
her lost son, Memnon, became the morning night in regions of high
dew. altitude.

Answers to Exercise B on page 453 may vary.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  215


G. Listening/ Viewing: Gathering Information from Radio and Television, p. 453
1. Pose EQ #4. Let students discuss how an opinion program on TV and radio affects the
way they think and decide.
2. Discuss with the students the pointers on how to get the most from opinion programs.
3. Tell the students to work on the exercise on page 453.
4. Process the students’ reports on the opinion program they decide to watch. Let them
return to EQ #4, and elicit its EU. Ask the students to express and support their opin-
ions. Let them realize that making and supporting opinions from what we see on TV
and hear over the radio will make us critical thinkers, considering the way we manage
information that promotes awareness and education not only for ourselves but also
for all those that we deal with everyday of our lives.

  Why is it important to form an opinion?

H. Speaking: Reading Poetry Aloud, p. 454


1. Initiate the discussion on how to communicate the idea and feeling of the speaker in
the poem by asking the question in the sidebar:

“How do you communicate the speaker’s ideas and feelings when you
read a poem?”

Seek initial answers.


2. Let students revisit EU #3. Remind them that while poets use the elements of theme
like language, images, sound, form, mood, ideas, and experiences, these same elements,
when figured out in poetry reading, will help readers communicate the speaker’s ideas
and feelings.
3. Ask the students to read the tips on page 454 to give them more information or to
validate their answers.
4. Have the students work on the reading exercise. Then, ask them to answer the reflec-
tion question found in the sidebar:

“Did you follow the tips when you read aloud the two poems? Were these
tips worth-reading?”

5. Give them another poem for enrichment reading exercise.

Night, rest upon these uneasy eyelids a little peace,


for I am tired having written the dangerous dreams
of the intelligent and the apostles of truth.
The delicate membranes of day seek surcease

216  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


From sick heritage; the subtle gleams
In the eyes of the rich politico; the rakish youth
Whose dissipation of time drips as neglected wine
From the hanging hare, clutching a broken glass;
...the city’s secret sounds so crass
Rushing the failing breath; and the slanted street,
Where dust censors the purity of the soul’s retreat.
Night, Balance Upon These Eyelids, Manuel A. Viray

  Poets make use of theme and its elements to convey


messages.

I. Study and Research: Reading a Table, pp. 454-456


1. Pose EQ #5. Let students share and defend their opinions. Then, initiate the discussion
through asking your students to study the table on page 455. Let them read thoroughly
the section.
2. Have the students do the exercise on page 456.
3. Process their answers, and ask them about their experience of answering question with
the use of a table. Elicit EU #5. Then, let them complete the sentence in the “reflection
log”.

I find the activity on reading a table _________________________ because


____________________________________.

  Tabular presentation helps make information more


understandable.

  When is information easily understood?

Answers to Exercise, p. 456


1. a. Ringgit d. Dinar
b. Rupiah e. Rial
c. Dirham

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  217


2. Australia, Brunei, Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore, and United States
3. No. The peso equivalent of the dollar of Australia is higher than that in the United
States.
4. Pound; United Kingdom
5. Rupiah; Indonesia

J. Grammar A: Using Adjectives, pp. 457-459


1. Hook the students by going back to the picture painted in the two poems they read.
Ask them to describe what they visualize from the poems. Tell them to take note of
the words they used. Have them enumerate the words that describe. Pose EQ #6.
2. Ask the students what part of speech these words belong. Direct their attention to the
section on page 457.
3. Let them work on the exercises on pages 458-459.

  How can you make your poem more interesting?

Answers to Exercise A, p. 457

Adjectives Nouns

bright light

the moon

Japanese curtain

Linda’s room

fairy-like shadows

many figurines

the table lamp

first shelf

her cabinet

Answers to Exercise B, p. 457 may vary.

218  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise C. 1, pp. 458-459

Adjectives

1. special attention

2. final bill

3. poor boy

4. big city

5. one day

6. one thin dime

7. rare disease

8. local doctors

9. strong faith

10. large glass

Answers to Exercise C. 2, p. 459


Kindness, at times, can be contagious. The woman and the doctor were figured
in an act of infectious kindness. When the doctor was then a poor boy who felt
hungry one day, there was the woman to give him a glass of milk. When the woman
turned old and got infected with a rare disease, the doctor offered medical help to
save the old woman’s life. Hence, both of them were kind.

K. Grammar B: The Positions and Functions of Adjectives, pp. 459-461


1. Have the students study the three sentences. Direct their attention to the adjective
used in each and the position of the adjective. Let them read further the section. Help
them distinguish the functions of the adjective as shown in the sample sentences- as
modifier, as predicate adjective, and as objective complement.
2. Instruct students to work on the exercises on pages 460-461. Inform students that they
could practice their knowledge of adjectives by accessing an interactive quiz at i-learn.
vibalpublishing.com. More discussions and exercises could also be found at Vibal’s Gram-
mar and Writing Workbook I.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 460

Adjectives Function

1. black; white modifier

2. steep; rocky predicate adjective

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  219


3. five modifier

4. desolate objective complement

5. full interesting Predicate nominative modifier

6. quiet objective complement

7. restless predicate adjective

8. naughty modifier

9. dirty predicate nominative

10. beautiful predicate nominative

Answers to Exercise B, p. 461

Possible Adjectives Function

1. lonesome, exhausted-looking, fair-skinned modifier

2. sour, small, many predicate nominative

3. happy, hopeful, optimistic objective complement

4. sumptuous, full, fiber-rich modifier

5. green, blue, red objective complement

6. dark, crooked, bumpy predicate nominative

7. well-sealed, handy, portable modifier

8. clean, orderly, refreshing objective complement

9. puzzled, disturbed, irritated objective complement

10. inquisitive, curious, conscious predicate nominative

L. Grammar C: Comparing Adjectives, pp. 462-466


1. Direct students’ attention to studying the pictures on Comparing Adjectives on page
462. Ask them to recall their grade school lesson on how to compare adjectives. Elicit
responses. Then, let them read the sentence below each picture. Ask them if the writ-
ten text accurately describes the three pictures.
2. Provide them direct instruction by letting them read and study the tables on compari-
son of adjectives on pages 462-463. Discuss with students the concept digests which
are found in the sidebars. Emphasize that some adjectives are incomparable, namely,
absolute, correct, complete, equal, first, last, perfect, round, square, supreme, unique,
and unanimous.

220  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. Let them do the practice exercises on pages 464-466.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 464

Comparative Superlative

1. stronger strongest

2. more/less nearly perfect most/least nearly perfect

3. healthier healthiest

4. more/less fragrant most/least fragrant

5. better best

6. finer finest

7 less least

8. more/less nearly excellent most/least nearly excellent

9. farther farthest

10. more attentive most attentive

11. more expensive most expensive

12. worse worst

13. more most

14. more/less nearly round most/least nearly round

15. busier busiest

16. more responsible most responsible

17. more elusive most elusive

18. more fearless most fearless

Answers to Exercise B, p. 464


1. most 6. good
2. prettier 7. more comfortable
3. highers 8. cold
4. cheaper 9. happy
5. handsomest 10. perfect

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  221


Answers to Exercise C, p. 465
1. ...most nearly perfect... 6. Change gooder to better.
2. Replace a with the. 7. ...more nearly complete...
3. Replace as with than. 8. Change as to than.
4. ...juicier... 9. ...the healthiest...
5. ...more nearly square... 10. Change lesser to less.

Answers to Exercise D, p. 466


1. bigger 5. least
2. most generous 6. fewer
3. heaviest 7. worse
4. most prosperous

M. Grammar D: Recognizing Adjective Endings, p. 467


1. Direct students’ attention to studying adjective endings. Ask them what is common
with the words restless, playful, and lovable. Help them note the adjective endings
-less, -feel, and -able. They may know what this is called, so ask them to recall their
elementary lesson. Have them mention about suffix. Have them give other examples
of words with these adjective endings. Let them use the words in sentences.
2. Refer them to the notes in the section on page 467. Then, have them do the exercises
on listing adjectives and using them in sentences in accordance with the given function.

Answers to Exercises A and B may vary.

N. Grammar E: Making Clear and Correct Comparisons, pp. 468-469


1. Have the students study the section on page 468.
2. Emphasize that to compare correctly the qualities compared should be of the same
class. For example, it is incorrect to compare a thing (as in Edna’s pencil) with a person
(as in Rose).

Wrong: Edna’s pencil is longer than Rose.


Correct: Edna’s pencil is longer than Rose’s.

3. Have the students work on the exercises on pages 468-469.


4. Revisit EQ #5. Have the students discuss the importance of adjectives in making their
poems more interesting. Lead them to realize that the use of adjectives in poems makes
the language employed vivid and colorful.

  When is information easily understood?

222  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise A, pp. 468-469
1. ...Roy’s. 6. Delete more.
2. ...Gigi’s. 7. Delete less or r in wider.
3. Delete most. 8. ...Susan’s.
4. Delete more. 9. Delete more.
5. ...brother’s. 10. ...the road to Olive’s house

Answers to Exercise B on p. 469 may vary.

O. Writing: Plotting Information on a Table, p. 470


1. Have the students recall how they answer the earlier activity on reading a table. Have
them review how the information is plotted on the table. Ask them the importance of
plotting information on the table.
2. Allow students to study and read the section on page 470. Let them note the head-
ings. Ask them if this table will help them remember better the rules on comparison
of adjectives.
3. Have the students work on the exercise on the same page.

Answers to Exercise, p. 470


Volleyball Barangay Championship Standing as of May 15, 2012
Teams Wins Losses
Diamond 4 1
Emerald 4 3
Pearl 5 2
Ruby 3 3
Sapphire 3 3
Note: Teams are arranged alphabetically.

P. Performance Task: Presenting Survey Results, p. 471


1. Revisit EQ #1: Let students recall the poems, Tartanilla and i apologize, waling-waling,
and ask students to discuss how the speakers or persona in the poems underscored
the effects of their treasured memories to their personal lives. Have students share if
they share similar experiences at present and these experiences affect their relationship
with others.
2. Refer the students to the section on page 471, and allow them sufficient time to carry
out the Performance Task. Let them do self-assessment of their work against the rubric
provided.

  How do treasured memories affect present-day


relationships?

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  223


Lesson 14 Seeing New Perspectives

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


Write a comparison paragraph.
1. Looking at things from other perspectives
helps us gain not only a better under-
standing of others and the world, but Essential Questions
also of ourselves. What essential questions will be asked?
2. Good writing requires the use of 1. What do we gain when we consider
literary techniques such as the stream of looking at things from other perspec-
consciousness. tives?
3. Mass media can be a great source of 2. What is the relevance of literary
useful information that helps develop our techniques to writing creative work?
communicative abilities.
3. How can mass media shape our abilities?
4. Information is made more under-
standable when presented in graphs. 4. When is information easily understood?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:

1. the literary technique stream of 1. discuss how the idea of stream of


consciousness. consciousness influences the literature of
the period.
2. two-word verbs.
2. relate insights to comprehension
3. how to report in class the gathered infor-
questions.
mation from a weather bulletin of a radio
and/or television program. 3. identify the stream of consciousness in
the excerpts.
4. how to conduct a panel discussion.
4. give the correct meaning of the two-word
verbs.

224  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


5. the different graphs. 5. listen to a weather bulletin or watch one
on TV, and report to class the information
6. adverbs and their use.
drawn.
7. the comparative and superlative forms of
6. share information by participating in a
adverbs.
panel discussion.
8. how to correct adjective errors through
7. use graphs to answer comprehension
comparison.
questions.
9. how to use negatives correctly.
8. identify and use adverbs in sentences.
10. how to write a comparison paragraph.
9. give the comparative and superlative
forms of adverbs.

10. correct adjective errors in the use of


comparisons.

11. use negatives correctly.

12. write a comparison paragraph.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  225


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence

Performance Task

Writing a Reaction Paper


As part of the tourism program of the Philippine Department of Tourism, all the grade 7 stu-
dents in your region are invited to join in the Essay Writing Contest.
Participants are expected to promote the region through comparison and contrast by
highlighting the culture, tradition, tourist spot/s and food in the region.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Comparison Paragraph

CRITERIA/ 2 (Work could 1 (Something is


4 (Excellent) 3 (Strong)
SCORE Improve) Missing)

Purpose and The paper The paper The paper The paper
Supporting compares compares compares compares, but
Details items clearly. items clearly, items clearly, there is no
The paper but the but the supporting
points to supporting supporting information
specific information is information or support is
examples to general. The is incomplete. incomplete.
illustrate the paper includes The paper
comparison. only the may include
The paper information information
includes relevant to the that is not
only the comparison. relevant to the
information comparison.
relevant to the
comparison.

226  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Organization The paper The paper The paper Many details
and Structure breaks the breaks the breaks the are not in
information information information a logical or
into whole- into whole- into whole- expected
to-whole or to-whole or to-whole or order. There
point-by-point point-by-point point-by-point is little sense
structure. structure structure, but that the
It follows a but does some infor- writing is
consistent not follow mation is in organized.
order when a consistent the wrong
discussing the order when section. Some
comparison. discussing the details are not
comparison. in a logical
or expected
order, and this
distracts the
reader.

Transitions The paper The paper Some transi- The transitions


moves moves from tions work between ideas
smoothly from one idea to well; but are unclear or
one idea to the next, but connections nonexistent.
the next. The there is little between
paper uses variety. The other ideas
comparison paper uses are fuzzy.
transition comparison
words to show transition
relationships words to show
between relationships
ideas. The between
paper uses ideas.
a variety of
sentence
structures and
transitions.

Grammar Writer makes Writer makes Writer makes Writer makes


and Spelling no errors in 1-2 errors in 3-4 errors in more than
(Conventions) grammar or grammar or grammar or 4 errors in
spelling that spelling that spelling that grammar or
distract the distract the distract the spelling that
reader from reader from reader from distract the
the content. the content. the content. reader from
the content.

Source: http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson275/
compcon_rubric.pdf

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  227


Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based upon the ability to gener-
ate and answer high-level questions about the prereading activities and Sharing Insights
of “Penmanship”
2. Practice exercises in identifying stream of consciousness
3. Answers to exercises on two-word verbs with multiple meanings
4. Oral report about the weather and/or current issues
5. Participation in a panel discussion
6. Exercise on reading graphs
7. Grammar exercises on using adverbs, comparing adverbs, and using negatives correctly

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


introduction

➲ Ask the students what the word perspective means. Have students share their answers in
order to clarify the word for the others who don’t understand it yet.
➲ Pose EQ #1. Let students give and justify their answers.
➲ Instruct students to read the lesson introduction. Ask them what they learned about perspectives
from the lesson introduction and have them share this in class. Discuss the background.
➲ Inform the students that, in this lesson, they will examine the effects of trying to look at
things from new perspectives. In the process, they will read a story to see from other points
of view. Then, by the end of the lesson, they will express what they learned from looking at
things through other perspectives in writing a comparison paragraph. Preview them the
rubric for grading their paragraph. Let them read the learning objectives on page 472.
➲ Let students explore the following:

Background

The contemporary Philippine literature is seeing a variety of ideas and techniques. The rich ex-
periences of the people have resulted in many familiar themes and topics. It is these experiences
that the contemporary reader sees drama on the stage, giving him the chance to see life as it is.
One of the literary techniques being employed in this period is the use of the stream of
consciousness. This technique allows the reader to enter into the mind of the characters. This
also helps the reader to infer the characters’ values and motivations even without basing the
inference on their actions, the words they actually say, and the opinions of the other characters
in the story.

  What do we gain when we consider looking at things


from other perspectives?

228  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


A. Reading: Penmanship by Jose Y. Dalisay, pp. 473-481
1. Ask students to show their penmanship. Ask them whether they know that penman-
ship reveals certain things about an individual’s personality. Then, ask EQ #1 again. Let
them share how they will react to someone who reads their character based on their
penmanship.
2. Inform students that they will read a story entitled Penmanship where they can get to
know a character’s personality through the things revealed about him in the story.
3. Let the students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Ask Unveil What You Know question. Help students unlock words in Unlock the
Meaning of Words by consulting the dictionary.
b. Give the background of the author through Understand Author’s Profile. Ask
students to read also For Your Information. Set motive question in Underscore a
Motive for Reading.
c. Ask students to read the story. Tell students that, as they read, they should write
down questions about the text along the margins or in a separate sheet of paper.
They will use these questions later on to discuss the story.
4. Let students do silent reading of the text.
Divide the class into six groups. Assign each group one question from Numbers 1-6 of
Sharing Insights.
5. Let them do Sharing Insights.
a. Allow each group to discuss their assigned question for 5 minutes. At the end of
5 minutes, have each group lead the class discussion on their assigned question.
b. Have them answer the question they read earlier in Underscore a Motive for Read-
ing. Let them support their predictions.
6. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students why we need to see others’ viewpoints. Elicit EU #1.

  Looking at things from other perspectives helps us


gain not only a better understanding of others and the
world, but also of ourselves.

  What do we gain when we consider looking at things


from other perspectives?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. The main character tries to intimidate the blind girl at the start of the story
because of his insecurity. Then, as the main character and Nora exchange point
of views, the main character expresses the feel of alarm that Nora might be hired
to replace him. As could be sensed in the dialog of the main character on page
466:
“I know where everything is,”

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  229


“Perhaps we can find something more useful for you to do.”
“They’ll be giving you my job, will they?”
2. Probably, the main character feels insecure with Nora because of age. The main
character is in his fifties while Nora is young. Nora communicates that she could
not replace the main character for a very obvious reason- she is blind.
3. On page 468, the main character started to care for Nora because of her uncom-
plaining industry and prodigious memory.
4. The main character learned that Nora came from a wealthy family and that she
had traveled a lot before an accident that caused her blindness.
5. Nora requested the main character if he could write a personal letter for her.
6. He was infected by the platonic love that Nora was giving to Mark-the receiver
of the letter. This could be supported by the content of the letter Nora dictated.

B. Literary Skill 1: Learning about Stream of Consciousness, pp. 482-483


1. Ask students whether the story they read is written the same way other stories they’ve
read are written. If they answer NO, ask them the difference. Pose EQ #2. Seek initial
understandings.
2. Let them explore the notes on page 482 to facilitate better understanding.
3. Discuss with the students how to identify stream of consciousness in passages.
4. Then, provide them practice exercise.
5. Discuss the importance of the exercise, and ask their opinion why the authors use such
writing technique in their works to lead them to realize EU #2.

  Good writing requires the use of literary techniques


such as the stream of consciousness.

  What is the relevance of literary techniques to writing


creative work?

C. Vocabulary: Two-Word Verbs with Multiple Meanings, p. 484


1. Instruct students to read the section. Point out that put off has several meanings and
that the meaning depends on the context (the other words in the sentence).
2. Let the students use put off in different contexts.
3. Make the students aware that the meanings of two-word verbs may be inferred from
context, but if they have doubts, they should look up the word in the dictionary.
4. Have the students work on the exercise. Process their learning experiences. Ask them
how their knowledge of two-word verbs will help them write effectively their paragraph
of comparison.

230  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise A
1. bear with-be patient
2. bear down-move rapidly towards; thrust; apply weight
3. bear out-support
4. bear on-regarding/about
5. bear out-apply

Answers to Exercise B may vary.

D. Listening: Tuning In to a Program on Current Issues, p. 485


1. Pose EQ #3. Initiate discussion through prompting the students on how radio and/or
television program they listen and/or watch affects them.
2. Allow them to read the section on page 485. Ask them why they should listen to radio and
watch television. Have them tell why they should listen to opinion programs on current
issues.
3. Ask them how they can watch opinion programs intelligently and why it is important
to verify information heard.
4. Let the students work on the exercises on page 485.
5. Process their learning experiences, and have them name EU #3. Let them share how
their listening ability is shaped by the activity on listening to a weather bulletin or an
opinion program on radio or television.

  Mass media can be a great source of useful infor-


mation that helps develop our communicative abilities..

  How can mass media shape our abilities?

E. Speaking: Participating in a Panel Discussion, pp. 486-487


1. Revisit EQ #3. Relate the topic on panel discussion to EQ #3 by asking related ques-
tion: How can discussions shape our abilities? Let them share. Then, ask EQ #1 again.
Let students deliberate how listening to people speak in a panel discussion can help
them understand other people. Ask the students to share with their classmates what
they know about a panel discussion. Have them cite occasions when they witnessed
one. Let them share what they learned.
2. Guide the students in exploring the pointers on pages 486-487. You may ask the fol-
lowing questions:
• What is the advantage of participating in a panel discussion?
• How is a panel discussion done?
• What is the purpose of a panel discussion?

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  231


3. Have the students work on the exercise. Process their learning experiences, and lead
them to realize EU #3. Let them state how panel discussions help them improve their
listening and speaking abilities.

  Mass media can be a great source of useful infor-


mation that helps develop our communicative abilities..

  How can mass media shape our abilities?

F. Study and Research: Reading Graphs, pp. 488-490


1. Pose EQ #4. Allow them to discuss their ideas and thoughts. Accept all answers.
2. Instruct them to read the section on pages 488-490. Let them study the notes. Check on
comprehension by having them differentiate the different kinds of graphs- bar graph,
pictograph, line graph, and pie graph.
3. Have them summarize the pointers for reading graphs.
4. Let the students work on the exercise on page 490.
5. Go back to EQ #4. Have students share about the significance of using graphs in dis-
seminating information and establishing comparisons. Elicit EU #4. Ask them how
graphs can help them frame their paragraph of comparison.

  Information is made more understandable when


presented in graphs.

  When is information easily understood?

Answers to Exercise, p. 490


1. February, March 4. seven billion
2. January 5. Antarctica
3. 10 billion 6. South America

G. Grammar A: Using Adverbs, pp. 491-493


1. Hook students with a video clip showing actions like dancing, running, moving, and
the like. Ask the students to name the action done in the video clip. Prompt students
in recalling adverbs through asking them to describe the action as shown in the video
clip. Remind them of Adverb.
2. Let the students study the section on pages 491-493. Help them note the following:
• Adverbs that modify verbs shift position freely.
• Adverbs answer the questions how, when, where, how often.

232  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


3. Let students give examples of adverbs that do not end in -ly, nouns used as adverbs, and
words that may be used both as adjective and as adverb. Small Group Work (SGW):
Instruct students to form a group with three members. Ask them to construct sentences
following the three conditions of adverbs.
4. Help the students express the generalizations expressed in the box.
5. Have the students work on the exercise.

Answers to Exercise, p. 493

Kind of Word
Adverb Word Modified Question Answered
Modified

1. seldom shines verb how often

2. very beautiful adjective how

3. almost there adverb where

4. surprisingly early adverb how

5. slowly walked verb how

H. Grammar B: Comparing Adverbs, pp. 493-494


1. Ask students to share whether the rules on comparing adjectives are similar in com-
paring adverbs. Let them compare and support their answer. Have the students read
the section on pages 493-494.
2. Let the students summarize the pointers, and have them give examples for each.
3. Help the students state the generalizations expressed in the box.
4. Ask students how this lesson can help them write their paragraph of comparison. Have
them work on the exercise.

Answers to Exercise, p. 494

Comparative Superlative

1. more happily most happily

2. there there

3. worse worst

4. less/more neatly least/most neatly

5. somewhat somewhat

6. farther farthest

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  233


7. less/more distinctly least/most distinctly

8. nearer nearest

9. less/more squarely least/most squarely

10. less/more quietly least/most quietly

I. Grammar C: Using Negative Adverbs Correctly, p. 495


1. Ask the students to study the dialog on page 495. Let them point out the error. Then,
have them read the explanation that follows the dialog.
2. Help them recognize negative adverbs; then, let them express a generalization on their
use.
3. Let the students work on the exercise.

Answers to Exercise, p. 495


1. ...has no objection...
2. I can hardly...
3. ...hasn’t done anything... or
...has done nothing...
4. ...to see any horror movie...
5. ...could scarcely... or
...we couldn’t keep...

J. Writing: Writing a Paragraph Using Comparison, p. 496


1. Start the discussion by asking a student to give his/her schema of a paragraph. Then,
make the students aware that they can express their ideas clearly through making
comparisons.
2. Have them read the example on page 496. Another example follows:

The great liability of engineers compared to men and women of other


professions is that their works are out in the open where all can see them.
They cannot bury their mistakes in the grave like the doctors. They cannot
argue them into thin air or blame the judge like the lawyers. They cannot, like
the architects, cover the failures with trees and vines. They cannot, like the
politicians, screen their shortcomings by blaming their opponents and hope
that the people will forget. The engineers simply cannot deny that they did it.
If their works do not function well, they are cursed. That is the phantom that
haunts their nights and dogs their days. They come from the job at the end of

234  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


the day resolved to calculate again. They wake up in the night in cold sweat
and put something on paper that looks silly in the morning. All day they shiver
with the thought of the bugs that will inevitably appear.
Memoirs, Herbert Hoover from English Arts and Skills Vol.10

3. Remind the students that the specific points of comparison are important mainly as
an explanation of the general statement of the topic sentence. Remind them also not
to be engrossed in the details that they may miss the point they intend to illustrate.
4. Let students work on their writing exercise. Let them follow the instructions found in
the sidebar.

K. Performance Task: Writing a Comparison Paragraph, p. 497


1. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students to recall the story, Penmanship, and let students relate how
listening to others’ perspectives help them understand better the people and the world
around them. Ask them if this was manifested in the story. Underscore comparisons
and process why at some point their answers have similarities. Otherwise, highlight
the differences if there are any.
2. Refer the students to the section on page 497, and allow them sufficient time to carry
out their performance task. Let them do self-assessment of their work against the rubric
provided.

  What do we gain when we consider looking at things


from other perspectives?

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  235


Lesson 15 Appreciating Customs and Traditions

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


1. The culture of a society is the product of Write a persuasive essay.
customs and traditions of that society.
Essential Questions
2. Vivid expressions capture imagination
and give life to speech and writing. What essential questions will be asked?
3. Effective use of Internet enables us to 1. What effects do customs and traditions have
live, learn, and work. on the present mode of living?
2. Why use vivid expressions?
3. What is the significance of using the
Internet?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:


1. the customs and traditions of the Filipino 1. discuss customs and traditions embedded
people as reflected in the literature of in the literary selection.
the period. 2. relate insightful ideas to comprehension
2. the different types of essay. questions.
3. how to use vivid expressions. 3. identify and discuss the different types of
4. how to remember significant details from essay.
an audio text or video clip. 4. use vivid expressions in sentences and
5. how to give interesting talk. paragraph.

6. how to find a resource locator (URL) of 5. note significant details in a text listened
given topics. to or a watched video clip.

7. the word group modifiers and the 6. give interesting talks.


headword. 7. list website address to given topics.
8. how to use modifiers to expand 8. identify the word group modifiers and
sentences. the words they modify.
9. the use of prepositions. 9. expand sentences using modifiers.
10. how to write a persuasive essay. 10. use prepositions correctly.
11. write a persuasive essay.

236  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2:  Assessment Evidence
Performance Task

Writing Persuasive Speech


You are joining in the mock debate in preparation for the debate tournament sponsored by
Task Force Hi-Tech Awareness advocates. As part of the preparation, you will be assigned a
topic and a side.
Your task is to research about it, and write your persuasive speech. Prepare for the debate.

Rubric

Rubric on Writing a Persuasive Speech

CRITERIA/
4 (Excellent) 3 (Good) 2 (Fair) 1 (Poor)
SCORE

The claim Makes a claim Makes a claim Claim is buried, Says nothing
and explains but doesn’t confused and/ about the
why it is explain why it or unclear. argument or
controversial. is controversial. claim.

Reasons in Gives clear Gives reasons Gives 1 or 2 Does not give


support of and accurate in support of weak reasons convincing
the claim reasons in the claim but that don’t reasons in
support of the may overlook support the support of the
claim. important claim and/ claim.
reasons. or irrelevant
or confusing
reasons.

Reasons Discusses the Discusses the Says that there Does not
against the reasons against reasons against are reasons acknowledge
claim the claim and the claim but against the or discuss the
explains why leaves some claim but reasons against
it is valid reasons out doesn’t discuss the claim.
anyway. and/or doesn’t them.
explain why
the claim still
stands.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  237


Organi- Writing has Writing has Writing is Writing is
zation a compelling a beginning, organized but aimless and
opening, an middle, and sometimes gets disorganized.
informative end. It marches off topic.
middle, and along but
a satisfying doesn’t dance.
conclusion.

Voice and Cares about Tone is OK but Writing is Writing is too


tone the argument. paper could bland or formal or too
Shows how he have been pretentious. informal. It
thinks and feels written by There is either sounds like he
about it. anyone. Needs no hint of a doesn’t like the
to tell more real person in it topic of the
about how or it sounds like essay.
he thinks and he is a fake.
feels.

Word The words used Makes routine The words used Uses the same
choice are striking but word choices. are often dull words over and
natural, varied or uninspired over and over
and vivid. or sound like and over. Some
he is trying words may be
too hard to confusing to a
impress. reader.

Sentence Sentences are Has well-con- Sentences are Many run-ons,


fluency clear, complete, structed sometimes fragments
and of varying sentences. awkward, and/ and awkward
lengths. or contain phrasings make
run-ons and the essay hard
fragments. to read.

Conven- Uses correct Generally uses Has enough Numerous


tions grammar, correct conven- errors in the errors make the
spelling, and tions. Has a essay to distract paper hard to
punctuation. couple of errors a reader. read.
to correct.

Source: http://pzweb.harvard.edu/Reserach/RubricSelfPE.htm

238  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Other Evidence

1. Essential discussion on the literary selection, The Folk Devotion to the Black Nazarene.
2. Written output on the kinds of essay
3. Exercise on using vivid expressions
4. Practice exercise on listening or viewing well
5. Practice exercise on delivering interesting talks
6. Exercise on finding web site for given topics
7. Grammar exercises on recognizing word group modifiers, using word group modifier as
adjectives or adverbs, and using prepositions correctly

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Have the students analyze the figure in the lesson introduction on page 498. Have them
interpret as well what the title Appreciating Customs and Traditions means to them.
Then, ask them to read the lesson opener to give them a background into the topic and an
overview of the lesson. Lead a whole-class discussion on the background.
➲ Let students preview the Performance Task. They will write a persuasive speech in prepa-
ration for a mock debate. Inform them about the rubric in evaluating their written work.
Then, let them read the learning objectives in the lesson.
➲ Let them explore the following:

Background

The Filipino writers in the contemporary period do not only show their love for the wisdom
that they get from everyday experiences. Even if they have their personal matters to express,
many writers write about the Filipino customs, values, and traditions, bringing back to the
forefront the rich cultural heritage for the young readers to know and for them to understand
better their social environment.

overview

The Black Nazarene procession in Quiapo, Manila is a moving spectacle of raw faith. The image
goes out in procession on January 9, and then again in Holy Week. Thousands of male devotees
join the procession in fulfillment of a vow to help carry the image as Christ carried the cross,
in thanksgiving for favors granted, in offering for a petition, or in atonement for past sins. By
taking turns for a few minutes on the long rope attached to the image, penitents hope to fulfill
their vows. As the image emerges from the church, determined penitents surge forward to grab

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  239


at the ropes, while marshals attempt to maintain order. Soon the ropes are fully played out,
with thousands of bearers in place and in step. Squeezed tight and pressed by others mightily
trying to force their way in, most can stand the ordeal only a minute or so, long enough for
compliance with their promises.
From Kasaysayan: The Story of the Filipino People, Vol.4, p.45

A. Reading 1: The Folk Devotion to the Black Nazarene by Ophelia A. Dimalanta, pp.
499-500
1. Pose EQ #1. Allow students to give and defend their answers. Tell students they will
explore the answer to this question through this lesson.
2. Ask the students if they have been to the celebration of the Black Nazarene. Ask them to
share what they know about the Black Nazarene. Finally, ask them if they ever wonder
why young and old alike, women and mostly men, huddle with the mob just to lay a
hand on the image of the Black Nazarene.
3. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Have the students name one traditional religious devotion as asked in Unveil What
You Know.
b. Add up to what the students know by making them read For Your Information.
Add also the test in the overview.
c. Have students use context clues to derive the meaning of the italicized vocabulary
expressions in Unlock the Meaning of Words.
d. Have them explore the biographical note of the author Ophelia Alcantara-Dimalanta
in Understand Author’s Profile.
e. Tell the students what to focus on by having them read the question in Underscore
a Motive for Reading.
4. Let students do a silent reading of the text.
In pairs, ask the students to share their understanding of the essay, so they could
answer those questions in the section Sharing Insights.
5. Have the students answer the comprehension questions on Sharing Insights.
Have them describe how devotees pay homage to the Black Nazarene, cite instances
in the essay to draw out traits of Filipino devotees of the Black Nazarene, make sup-
ported generalization, etc.
6. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students to reflect on the effects of the Catholic Filipinos’ devotion
to Black Nazarene and patron saints in general. Elicit EU #1. Lead them to realize that
our fervent religious devotion to our patron saints allows us Filipinos to fortify our
faith and beliefs. The devotions have become a good practice in showing the sacrifice
that we are willing to do to get closer to God.

240  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


  The culture of a society is the product of customs and
traditions of that society.

  What effects do customs and traditions have on the


present mode of living?

Answers to Sharing Insights


1. Every January 9, the Feast Day of the Black Nazarene, and every Friday devotion
are the occasions wherein Filipino Catholics exhibited ardent devotion to the
Black Nazarene.
2. a. religious fervor - This is shown through the hundreds of thousands of
participants during the Feast Day of the Black Nazarene.
b. tendency to depend on luck - Filipinos are active in attracting luck in their
lives. This is achieved through buying votive paraphernalia and other similar
amulets.
c. love for fiestas - This is evident through the number of participants during
the Black Nazarene’s Feast Day.
d. faith in God - The intense faith and trust to God by Filipinos through touching
the foot or the hem of the Black Nazarene’s clothes is enough to heal them.
e. superstitious - This could be illustrated through the vast number of vendors
selling amulets, votive paraphernalia, and fortune tellers beside the church.
3-5. Answers may vary.

B. Literary Skill 1: Kinds of Essay, pp. 501-502


1. Have them recall what an essay means.
2. Provide them review notes by making them read the section on pages 501-502.
3. Let them go back to the essay The Folk Devotion to the Black Nazarene. Let them do
the exercise on the same pages.
4. Process their answers. Focus on the sentence wherein the author persuades or presents
an argument. Ask students whether Dimalanta provides support for these statements.

C. Vocabulary: Using Vivid Expressions, pp. 503-504


1. Have the students study the section. Ask them what pictures come to their mind through
the expressions fever pitch, hundreds of thousands, mammoth, parade, completely
paralyzed traffic, squeezes itself.
2. Pose EQ #2. Entertain and process relevant answers.
3. Ask them how they can achieve vivid descriptions. Have them compare the following
paragraphs and let them tell which one is more vivid.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  241


Paragraph A
Look at your dirty room. There are so many things in it that a person can
hardly walk through. You must stop collecting junk. You can’t leave all the
things lying around like this. Now, get busy and clear these things out.
Paragraph B
Just look at this junk heap. Your room looks like a garbage dump. You’re
a regular park rat! Now, get busy and shovel this mess out.
Adapted from Language and How to Use It

4. Have the students work on the exercise on pages 503-504.


5. Return to EQ #2. Elicit EU #2. Make the students understand that vivid expressions
capture the imagination and give life to language, both oral and written.

  Vivid expressions capture imagination and give life to


speech and writing.

  Why use vivid expressions?

Answers to Exercises A and B may vary.

D. Listening: Listening or Viewing Well, p. 505


1. Review the students on the pointers for listening that they learned in earlier lessons.
2. Have the students read the section for more pointers. Then, let them summarize what
they have learned.
3. Have them work on the Exercises A and B.
a. Remind them to note the key ideas. Before having them listen to the literary selection
below, have them read the following questions written earlier on the blackboard.
• What is efficiency? How does it compare/contrast with the bahala na attitude?
• In what way does efficiency or lack of it affect economic life?
• What is the bahala na attitude?
• What situation that evolved in the essay would make us trust less in bahala na?
• Would you want this situation to come? Do you think it exists already? Explain.
• Does the bahala na attitude still exist today? Should this attitude be encour-
aged? Explain.

242  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Bahala Na
F. B. Icasiano
One of America’s gifts to us is efficiency, the scientific coordination
of planning and action, the philosophy of correct and timely execution.
Long schooled in our Oriental disrespect for Time and encouraged, though
unwittingly, to expect the Will that causes the palay to grow to also do
our work for us, we realize at last that Time is an element to reckon with,
that life here and now, being spread thinly over a limited period of years
must be economized and put to some profitable use.
Of special significance is this realization in the economic life of our
people. The bureaucratic system has impressed upon most of us that we
must observe punctuality or lose out; that our pay envelope comes to
many of us during stated periods of the month and not before or after,
although we may spend its contents in advance; that our efficiency at times
determines our income.
Strange as it may seem, this Western efficiency, which is supposed to
leave nothing to chance, has in many instances helped develop our native
love of chance-that gambling instinct in the race. Where before we might
be timid to borrow a ganta of rice from our neighbor purely on the strength
of good will, our salary now gives unreasonable assurance that the ganta
of rice, or a hundred pesos for that matter, would be paid for on time.
Bahala na! That little phrase sums up this national inclination to leave
our crucial moments to chance, trusting that Bathala would take care of
our needs and solve our problems for us.
Mang Doro goes to the cockpit this morning, caressing his talisain
gamecock, in his pocket several pesos representing his week’s wages and
a few additional pesos borrowed from Aling Iska, the salt seller. Suppose
he loses the money as he invariably does and returns home in the evening,
with his dead talisain dangling from his hand, where would the family’s
meal come from? And the debts just incurred, how would they be paid?
Bahala na! How would Aling Iska feel about it if she does not get back
the money she earned selling salt? Bahala na! Everything is left to Bahala
na; our inability to plow out fields in time, our colds and fevers, the leak
in our nipa huts, the camotes in the backyard, our poultry and hogs, the
rise and fall of prices, the future of our children...
Bahala na! and the classic, Pagsikat ng araw laganap ang awa ng Diyos.
(When the sun shines, God’s bounty will be shared alike by all His creatures.)
This awa ng Diyos comes in the form of gifts from charitable neighbors
who have encouraged laziness with their good nature, and the abundance
of life in our underpopulated tropic islands.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  243


These will come a day, most welcome to those desiring progress of a
kind to protect us from progress developed in other parts when we shall
increase and multiply to a point where Nature’s bounty shall not be too
much in excess and the means of livelihood may be had only by those who
fight systematically and efficiently for food, clothing and shelter. We shall
probably not be happier then, but we would trust less in chance.

b. For viewing activity, choose your own short documentary on Filipino customs
and traditions. Then, let students watch it. Give them comprehension questions
to answer.
4. Process their learning experiences. Revisit EQ #1. Ask students how the customs and
traditions in the selection listened to and in the documentary they watched affect the
present culture of Filipinos.

  What effects do customs and traditions have on the


present mode of living?

E. Speaking: Giving Interesting Talks, p. 506


1. Hook the students by asking them to recall any recent speech that they may have heard.
Have them describe how they find that experience. Ask them if they ever wished to
give a speech to a group of people.
2. Have the students read and study the pointers in the sidebars on page 506.
3. Group students into eight, and ask them to do the exercise.
4. Have the students deliver their talks as scheduled.
5. Revisit EQ #2. Ask students how the use of vivid expressions in their speech help them
capture their audience’s attention.

  Why use vivid expressions?

F. Study and Research: Exploring the Internet, pp. 507-508


1. Pose EQ #3. Allow students to express and support their opinions.
2. Segue to the discussion on how to explore the net on page 507. Instruct students to
note salient details.
3. Assign the exercise on page 508 one the day before the discussion of the topic. Allow
students to share their web sites list in class.
4. Process their learning experiences, and ask them how the use of Internet affects their
life, learning, and work. Lead them to realize EU #3.

244  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


  Effective use of Internet enables us to live, learn, and
work.

  What is the significance of using the Internet?

G. Grammar A: Recognizing Word Group Modifiers, pp. 509-511


1. Let the students study the sets of sentences on page 509. Ask them to read aloud the
italicized words in each pair of sentences. Ask them in what way the italicized words
in each pair differ.
2. Instruct the students to spot the difference between a prepositional phrase and a sub-
ordinate clause.
3. Give the students an exercise on differentiating the two.

Directions: Pick out the prepositional phrase.


1. in our house
2. that goes through the garden
3. among the leaves
4. without thought of anything else
5. which comes to mind etc.
4. Let the students copy the following list of other prepositions.

against between for the sake of notwithstanding


along beyond from of
amid but (except) in off
among by in addition on
around by means of in case of on account of
at concerning in front of outside
because of considering in spite of over

4. Lead the students to state the generalizations expressed in the sidebars on pages 509-
511. Then, have them work on the exercises on pages 510-511.

Answers to Exercise A, pp. 510-511


Word Group Modifier Modified Word Kind of Word Group Modifier

1. who has just arrived visitor Subordinate clause

2. among the rubbish kitten Prepositional phrase

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  245


3. behind the counter woman Prepositional phrase

4. which is in Makati library Subordinate clause

5. between the pages of money Prepositional phrase


the book pages Prepositional phrase

6. for you message Prepositional phrase

7. through the garden walk Prepositional phrase

8. that I found on the seashell Subordinate clause


shore found Prepositional phrase

Answers to Exercise B. p. 511

Answers vary. Suggestions follow.


1. in a red shirt
2. with the best-made project
3. whom we met yesterday
4. who was newly introduced to us
5. with a lot of stories
6. on air pollution
7. at the park
8. which grows in our yard

H. Grammar B: Using Word Group Modifiers as Adjectives or Adverbs, pp. 512-513


1. Have the students study the sets of sentences on page 512. Help them note that word
group modifiers may be used as adjectives (when they modify nouns) or as adverbs
(when they modify verbs).
2. Lead the students to state the generalization expressed in the sidebar on page 512. Then,
have them work on the exercise whose answers may vary. For interactive exercises,
advise your students to access i-learn.vibalpublishing.com.

I. Grammar C: Using Prepositions Correctly, pp. 514-515


1. Have the students read the sample sentences. Help them note the use of between and
among. Have them use the two prepositions in sentences.
2. Let the students study the rest of the section on pages 514-515. Have them use the
prepositions in sentences.
3. Let the students work on the exercise.
4. Process the students’ learnings regarding the grammar lessons discussed, and ask them
how these lessons can help them write a convincing argument or persuasive speech.

246  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise, p. 515
1. from 7. at
2. into 8. beside
3. / 9. beside
4. from 10. /
5. into 11. in
6. Among 12. /

J. Writing: Writing a Persuasive Essay, pp. 516-517


1. Ask the students about socio-economic issues that they are concerned with. Have them
tell what their stand is on gambling, smoking, drug addiction, graft and corruption,
poverty, etc.
2. Have the students read the section on page 516. Facilitate a guided instruction on the
structure of a persuasive essay and a model paragraph.
3. Have the students work on the exercises on pages 516-517. Let them follow the format
given in the example.
4. Revisit EQ #1. Ask the students to recall the essay, The Folk Devotion to the Black
Nazarene, and ask them how the Filipinos’ lives are shaped by their traditional religious
devotion to the Black Nazarene or saints in general. Allow students to share their
insights.

  What effects do customs and traditions have on the


present mode of living?

K. Performance Task: Writing a Persuasive Speech, pp. 518-519


1. Refer the students to the section on pages 518-519, and allow them sufficient time to
carry out their performance task. Let them do self-assessment of their work against
the rubric provided.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  247


Lesson 16 Exploring the Contemporary Scene

Stage 1:  Desired Results

Enduring Understandings Transfer Goal

Students will understand that: I want my students to:


Recognizing and exploring claims in Conduct a mock debate.
argument and using persuasive techniques
help one form steadfast opinions. Essential Questions

What essential questions will be asked?


What may be done to make opinions matter?

Knowledge Skills

Students will know: Students will be able to:

1. how to explain allusions and support 1. discuss Philippine literature in the


opinions. contemporary period and share insights
to the discussion questions.
2. how to describe a character by using
idiomatic expressions. 2. explain allusions and support opinions.

3. how to express reaction to an opinion 3. use idiomatic expressions to describe a


program. character.

4. what courteous expressions to use when 4. express reaction to an opinion program


expressing disagreement to statements on television or radio.
and observations.
5. use courteous expressions in expressing
5. the use of an outline in taking down disagreement to statements and observa-
notes. tions.

6. the correct use of simple past tense, 6. use an outline in taking down notes.
future tense, and the present perfect
7. use the simple past tense, the future
tense.
tense, and the present perfect tense in
7. the correct use of future possible action. sentences correctly.

8. how to write an opinion paragraph with 8. use future possible action in sentences
supporting reasons. correctly.

9. write an opinion paragraph with


supporting reasons.

248  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Stage 2: Assessment Evidence

Performance Task

Conducting a Mock Debate


Since you have been tasked to write your persuasive essay, and because you and your team
will be sent to the annual debate tournament sponsored by Task Force Hi-Tech Awareness
advocates, you will conduct a mock debate in your classroom. Each team will be assigned a
topic and a side. You will present your written persuasive speech and be ready for the rebuttal.
Support your rebuttal with facts, examples, or statistics, if possible.

Rubric

Rubric on Mock Debate

CRITERIA/
4 (Superior) 3 (Adequate) 2 (Minimal) 1 (Inadequate)
SCORE

Addresses Always Usually Rarely Did not


Issues addresses addresses topic addresses topic address topic
topic.

Support with Uses many Uses some Uses few facts Does not use
Facts facts that facts that that support facts that
support topic. support topic topic support topic

Persuasiveness Arguments Arguments are Arguments are Arguments


against the clear and sometime clear rarely clear are never clear
claim convincing and convincing and convincing and convincing

Teamwork Used team One member One member No one talks


member effec- does the does the
tively Equal talking 75% of talking 100%
timing the time of the time

Electrifies Grabs Introduces Does not


audience attention topic and introduce
in opening Brings closure brings some topic; no
Organization statement to the debate closure to the closure
Closure debate
convinces
audience

Source: http://pzweb.harvard.edu/Research/RubricSelfPE.htm

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  249


Other Evidence

1. Substantive discussion and quality of individual response based upon the ability to generate
and answer high-level questions about the prereading activities and Sharing Insights of
Busman’s Holiday
2. Answers to the exercises on allusions and supporting an opinion
3. Characterization of Eddie Blanco using idiomatic expressions
4. Report on the stand of a speaker on an opinion program
5. Practice exercise in using courteous expressions during discussions
6. Practice exercise in outlining
7. Grammar exercises on using the simple past tense, the future tense, the present perfect
tense, expressing future possible action, and using appropriate auxiliary and modal verbs

Stage 3:  Learning Plan


Introduction

➲ Ask the students who among them have computers and Internet connection at home. Ask
those who affirm whether they enjoy having these things. Ask the rest whether they would
like to have these things and why they would like to have them.
➲ Direct students’ attention to the illustration on page 520 and ask them what they think the
picture means. Ask them, too, what they think the title of the lesson means. Let them draw
connection between the two. Relate the illustration with the advertisement on TV and in
print media of a lola using the computer and the Internet to communicate with loved ones.
Let them debate the advantages and disadvantages of that advertisement.
➲ Inform students that by the end of the lesson, they will have a Performance Task which will
require them to debate on related topics about technology.
➲ Let the students explore the information in the Background:

Background

Philippine literature in English in the contemporary period is marked by great diversity in terms
of languages used, themes, and viewpoints. It is a far cry from the earliest literature- a mod-
ernized form which is a mixture of various influences from around the world and the Filipino
literature itself. There are new trends such as the “gender” writing which focuses on women and
even on gays. Regional writings are also gaining popularity, well as the use of many innovations.
Philippine literature is continuing to shape itself dynamically. As it is today, it is one of the
vibrant literature in Asia, if not in the world.

250  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


A. Reading 1: “Busman’s Holiday” (An Excerpt) by Jessie B. Garcia pp. 521-527
1. Pose EQ. Have students share and defend their answers. Have students share what they
think about the RH Bill, Freedom of Information Bill, etc. Provoke students to discern
first before taking a stand. Initiate the discussion on how dangerous a journalists’ life
is. Let them remember the Maguindanao massacre and other cases wherein radio
broadcasters, media personnel, and the like were killed because of their strong stance
to expose and to inform the public about the truth.
2. Let students do the activities on Prepare to Read.
a. Have the students answer Unveil What You Know. Ask them to read For Your In-
formation on page 522.
b. Let the students read aloud the phrases in Unlock the Meaning of Words. These
phrases should have been assigned a day prior to taking up the lesson.
c. Make the students aware that the author of the selection to be read is Jessie B.
Garcia. Have the students read the biographical note in Understand Author’s Pro-
file. Check on comprehension by asking what literary distinctions the author has
achieved.
d. Instruct the students to study the illustration and the title of the selection. Make
the students aware of the meaning of busman’s holiday (a vacation where one still
does the same things done when he or she is not on holiday). Let the students tell
what they think the story will be about, based on the illustration and the title. Then,
have the students read the question in Underscore a Motive for Reading.
3. Let the students do a reading of the play.
Assign the speaking roles. Have a narrator read the introduction (in parentheses and ital-
ics at the start of the play).
4. Using the think-pair-share strategy, ask students to answer the comprehension ques-
tions in the section Sharing Insights.
a. Allow them to give their opinion of Coloso’s reaction to the murder of Eddie
Blanco, justify the choice of the title of the play, explain if they consider Eddie as a
rare breed of a reporter or not, and discuss whether they would prefer to pursue
a career as a news reporter.
b. Remind the students to support their answers with details or examples. Elicit EU
#1. Let students relate how they can sound convincing to move people to their
stance.

EU   Recognizing and exploring claims in argument


and using persuasive techniques help one form steadfast
opinions.

EQ   What may be done to make opinions matter?

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  251


Answers to Sharing Insights
1. Eddie Blanco is called Scoops because of his exposé.
2. The staffers are actually divided. Some encourage him to stay but he must go
with the flow, while some silently admire him for wearing such bravery that is
called for a true journalist.
3. Raffy despised Eddie’s stubbornness maybe because Raffy lacked courage to fight
like a true journalist or Raffy hated that Eddie had the courage to fight like a
true journalist.
4. Answers may vary.
5. Answers may vary.
6. Answers may vary.

B. Literary SkilL 1: Understanding Allusions, p. 527


1. Tell the students to read the section on page 527. Check on comprehension by asking
them the following questions:
• What is an allusion?
• Who is alluded to in the quoted sentence? (Don Quixote)
• What is alluded to in the expression tilt at windmills?
2. Give students practice by having them interpret allusions to characters or events in
popular children’s stories, e.g.

• Don’t pay attention to him. He’s just sour graping. (An allusion to the
fable, The Fox and the Grapes, where a hungry fox who couldn’t reach the
grapes hanging on a trellis says, “The grapes are sour anyway.”)
• The suggestions are good, but who will bell the cat? (An allusion to Belling
the Cat, a fable in which the mice think of ways to warn them that the cat
is coming. One mouse suggests that they put a bell on the cat. Everybody
thinks that it is a wise solution until one mouse asks, “Who will bell the
cat?”

3. Have the students work on the exercise.

Answers to Exercise, p. 527


1. Cinderella is a poor girl who suddenly became a rich princess.
2. The wolf, huffing and puffing, is allusion to the story, the Three Little Pigs.
3. EDSA is the place in Metro Manila where people first staged a successful “people
power” in 1986.
4. Prompt the students to deliberate whether allusions could be used to frame a
strong argument or not. Let them defend their answers.

252  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


C. Literary SkilL 2: Supporting an Opinion, p. 528
1. Ask EQ again. Then, ask the question found in the sidebar on page 528. Let students
underscire the importance on how to make opinions valid.
2. Tell the students to read the important points in the sidebar. Then, ask them to recall
details in the play Busman's Holiday. Then, have them answer the exercises.
3. Process their answers, and let them reiterate EU.

EU   Recognizing and exploring claims in argument


and using persuasive techniques help one form steadfast
opinions.

EQ   What may be dove to make opinions matter?

D. Vocabulary: Learning More Idiomatic Expressions, pp. 529-530


1. Prompt: Can idiomatic expressions help in the wording of a valid opinion? Let the
students share and support their responses.
2. Instruct students to read the section on page 529. Check on comprehension of the
meanings of the italicized expressions by having them use in sentences the expressions
cited on the same page.
3. Cite other idiomatic expressions, e.g.:

Idiomatic Expressions Meaning


hear and soul completely
wear a long face look sad or depressed
in the clear free from guilt
eat one’s heart out to grieve or to be lost in sorrow
lay away to save

4. Have the students work on the exercise on page 530. Then, have them share their writ-
ten characterization of Eddie Blanco, and see whether idiomatic expressions help them
establish a strong characterization or not.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  253


E. Listening and Viewing: Identifying the Stand of a Speaker Based on Explicit
Statements Made, pp. 530-531
1. Ask the students what opinion programs they listen to on television or radio. Have
them explain their preferences. Revisit EQ. Ask them how such program can help them
make their own opinions matter.
2. Let the students read the section on page 530. Check on comprehension by having
them answer the following questions:
• What is the advantage of listening to opinion programs?
• How can you help yourself identify the stand of a speaker on an issue?
3. Have the students work on the exercise.

F. Speaking: Expressing Disagreement to Statements and Observations, p. 532


1. Present the following expressions, and let the students analyze them.

You’re nuts! I’ve had a different experience.


How stupid! Perhaps we need more facts.

2. Ask the students which of the expressions they would use to express their opinions.
Have them explain their choices. Let the students answer the question found in the
sidebar on page 532.
3. Have the students read the concept digest in the sidebar on the same page. Then, let
them work on the exercise.

G. Study and Research: Outlining, pp. 533-534


1. Instruct students to study the section on page 533, then ask them the question: How
does making an outline make the task of reporting or writing a report easier?
2. Have the students study the outline illustrated on pages 533-534.

Help them note the following:


• consistent use of phrases (not mixed with sentences)
• numbering of the items
• punctuation after each number/letter, but none after each phrase
• indention
• use of capital letters
• no topic divided into just one

3. For reinforcement, have the students copy into their notebooks the following format
of an outline.

254  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Topic:
Main Idea:
I. Heading
A. Subheading
1. Detail
2. Detail
a. Minor detail
b. Minor detail
II. Heading
A. Subheading
B. Subheading
1. Detail
2. Detail
Conclusion

4. If there is still enough time, you may present on the board an example of a sentence
outline. Make the students aware that they may opt for a sentence outline. In this case,
all the topics should be stated in sentences. There should be no mixture of sentences
and phrases.
5. Present to the students the following example of a sentence outline.

Hispanic Literature
Main Idea: The literature came in several forms.
I. The passion told the life and death of Jesus Christ.
A. It was chanted during the Lenten season.
B. It became known as cenaculo when staged dramatically.
II. The comedia or moro-moro depicted the struggle against the Moros.
A. It was an imitation of a drama which the Spaniards used to show in
their land long before they colonized the Philippines.
B. It always had the same plot.
1. The plot was always about a kidnapped Christian princess who
would be rescued after many difficulties.
2. Conversion of Mahammedans to Christianity was always a part
of the play.
3. The marriage between the newly converted Mohammedan noble
and the kidnapped princess was inevitable.
III. The first real poetry was said to be written by Phelipe de Jesus of San
Miguel, Bulacan.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  255


IV. The Marian Hymns are still sung in Maytime celebrations today.
A. They are now known as Flores de Mayo.
B. They were introduced by Fr. Mariano Sevilla.
V. The folk songs reflected the aspects of life and the customs of the people.
VI. The karagatan was used for entertainment during the ritual for the dead.
A. The game simulated the search for a lost ring.
1. A man and a woman took turns in reciting verses.
a. The man supposed to be looking for the ring assured the woman
of his skill, love, or dedication.
b. The woman supposed to have lost the ring expressed her doubt
of the man’s worthiness.
2. A winner was declared.
a. The contest ended when one of them could not give an answer.
b. The last to recite a verse was declared winner.
VII. The duplo was a dramatic debate held during a wake.
A. Usually the subject of the debate was a social question of the day.
B. The defeated debater had to recite a prayer called dalit for the deceased.
Conclusion: The forms and subject matter of Hispanic literature showed a
great European influence though some pre-hispanic forms and themes
were still retained.

6. Have the students work on the exercise on page 534.


7. Process their learning experiences, and ask them how an outline can help them prepare
them write their rebuttal speech in the course of a mock debate.

H. Grammar A: Using the Simple Past Tense, pp. 535-539


1. Let the students explore the section on pages 535-536. Conduct a recitation with them
by giving them regular and irregular verbs and asking them to give the simple past
tense. Ask the class to jot down notes.
2. Ask the students to read the generalizations stated in the sidebars.
3. Instruct students to answer the exercises on pages 536-539.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 536


1. wrote 5. left
2. made 6. brought
3. said 7. mistook
4. sent 8. rose

256  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise B, p. 537
1. refused 6. pretended
2. tried 7. thought
3. reminded 8. knew
4. said 9. made
5. grew 10. got

Answers to Exercise C, p. 537


1. died 6. takes
2. put 7. hold
3. write 8. is
4. are 9. is
5. deserve 10. have

Answers to Exercise D, p. 538

Answers may vary but sample answers are given below.


1. My sister graduated from high school last year.
2. I came from Davao.
3. My unforgettable experience last year was my trip to Thailand for the first time.
4. I came to this school because of my mom’s HS buddy.
5. Yes, my parents graduated from the same school.
6. My parents chose this school because it offers quality education.
7. Last year, I went to Macau and Malaysia.
8. I didn’t receive his peace offering because he might trivialize conflict.
9. Yes, I attended her 18th birthday.
10. I had to leave early last night because I still had to review for my exams the
next day.

Answers to Exercise E, p. 539 may vary.

I. Grammar B: The Future Tense, pp. 540-542


1. Ask the students to read the section on page 540. Check up on comprehension by giving
them a completion exercise which requires putting in a future time expression, e.g.

a. The test will be given ________________________.


b. Our visitor will arrive ________________________.

2. Then, give another exercise which completes a sentence by putting in a verb in the
future tense, e.g.

(bake) a. Our class _______________ a cake tomorrow.


(invite) b. We _______________ all our teachers.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  257


3. Help the students state the generalizations expressed in the sidebar on page 540.
4. Let the students work on the exercise on pages 540-542.

Answers to Exercises A, B, C, and D may vary.

J. Grammar C: The Present Perfect Tense, pp. 542-546


1. Have the students read the explanations about the present perfect tense on pages 542-
543.
2. Call the students’ attention to the form of the present perfect tense.

a. has/have + past participle


b. has/have + been + present participle

Conduct a fast drill on forming the perfect tense. Limit the class to just the verb form.
3. Emphasize the time expression used with the present perfect tense, e.g.

NOT last week


two days ago
BUT since last week
for two days

Stress also that sometimes the time expression is not expressed but is merely implied.
4. Emphasize the uses of the present perfect tense, e.g.:

• to tell of an action that started in the past but continues up to the time of
speaking
• to tell of an action that has just been finished at the time of speaking. Time
expression for this kind of action is already. Yet is used with the negative,
e.g.:
• I have not yet finished my work.

5. Help the students form the generalizations expressed in the sidebar on page 536. Then,
let them work on the exercises on pages 543-546.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 543


1. has or have made 6. has or have stood
2. has or have run 7. has or have read
3. has or have sent 8. has or have bought
4. has or have sold 9. has or have found
5. has or have forgotten 10. has or have drunk

258  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


Answers to Exercise B, p. 544
1. have decided 6. has encouraged
2. has agreed 7. has not said
3. have thought 8. have told
4. has been 9. has tried
5. have not told 10. has not succeeded

Answers to Exercise C, p. 544


1. have been 4. have won (received)
2. haven’t had 5. Have...been/gone
3. Have...won (received) 6. have been/gone

Answers to Exercise D, p. 545


1. The child (has been crying/ has cried) for five minutes.
2. The students (have been working/ have worked) on their report since last week.
3. We (have been reading/have read) the newspapers for two hours.
4. Myrna (has been writing/ has written) the letters since last night.
5. The boys (have been doing/ have done) their assignments since this morning.
6. The laborers (have been building/ have built) the tunnel for a year (or since last
year).
7. The class (has been planning/ has planned) to hold a reunion for one month.
8. He (has been running/has run) for mayor for two elections already.

Answers to Exercise E, p. 546


Answers may vary. Suggestions follow.
1. She has been... 5. We have prayed...
2. We have played... 6. I have not heard...
3. She has been... 7. The children have watched...
4. She has been... 8. The boy has read...

K. Grammar D: Expressing Future Possible Action, pp. 546-547


1. Have the students study the section on page 546. Make them note the way future
possible action is expressed. Emphasize that the actions expressed in the sentence are
possible.
2. Tell the students to note that the order of the subordinate clause and the main clause
may be interchanged but the tense of the verb remains the same in each clause.
3. Help the students state the generalization expressed in the sidebar on pages 546-547.
Then, have them work on the exercises.
4. Process their learning experiences. Ask students how their knowledge of the grammar
structures discussed in this lesson help them write a very good persuasive and rebuttal
speeches in the course of a mock debate. Lead them to the understanding that the time
expressions in tenses are very useful in establishing accurate time of events and and

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  259


the modal verbs are very good auxiliaries to making assertions and acknowledgments
in debates.

Answers to Exercise A, p. 547


1. rains 6. see
2. comes 7. rains
3. arrives 8. will wear
4. go 9. invite
5. call 10. gets

Answers to Exercise B, p. 547


Answers may vary. Suggestions follow.
1. ...we arrive. 6. ...you dismiss them.
2. ...he comes. 7. ...I have time.
3. ...after he finishes reading it. 8. ...you finish cooking.
4. ...the rain stops. 9. ...as soon as she finishes cooking.
5. ...you arrive home. 10. ...you give it to her.

L. Grammar E: Using Appropriate Auxiliary and Modal Verbs, pp. 548-549


1. Lead the students to the discussion of using auxiliary and modal verbs.
2. Instruct students to explore the section on page 548. Let them note the appropriate
use of auxiliary and modal verbs.
3. Make the students answer the exercises on pages 548-549.

Answers to Exercise A, pp. 548-549

Verb Phrases Kind of Auxiliary

1. was written be form

2. has given have form

3. had shown have form

4. is/ can’t afford be form/ modal auxiliary

5. is/ will have be form/ modal auxiliary

6. would persist modal auxiliary

7. must tilt modal auxiliary

8. would make modal auxiliary

260  |  Language in Literature • Grade 7


9. is settling be form

10. have done have form

Answers to Exercise B, p. 549


1. Be-is called 6. Modal-would want
2. Be-is meant 7. Be-is reporting
3. Be-are called 8. Be-was
4. Have-has occurred 9. Modal-will be hobnobbing
5. Be-is happening 10. Modal-can put

M. Writing: Supporting an Opinion, p. 550


1. Review students on the discussion about the life of journalists in the selection Busman’s
Holiday. Remind them, if not most of the time, sometimes they need to make a clear
stand on certain matters. Revisit EQ. Ask students how the main characters in the said
play support their opinions. Let them relate how this skill will help them make their
report or speech convincing.
2. Ask the students to read thoroughly the writing procedures on page 550. Let the stu-
dents choose the character whom they consider the best newsman in the play, Busman’s
Holiday. Then, ask them to defend their choice.
3. Lead them to write a composition that expresses a strong opinion. Inform them that
they must support their ideas with facts.

N. Performance Task: Conducting a Mock Debate, p. 551


1. Refer the students to the section on page 551, and allow them sufficient time to carry
out their performance task. Let them do self-assessment of their work against the rubric
provided.
2. For the mock debate, divide students into two groups. Let them do a debate on a topic
they chose for their persuasive speech writing in Lesson 15.

O. Unit Learning Assessment: pp. 552-553


1. Ask students to answer the worksheet on synthesis and reflection in the Unit Learn-
ing Assessment. Have them share in pairs. Conduct processing activity after by calling
volunteers randomly to share their learning experiences, and ask them what they will
do to be a better English student in the year ahead.

Unit IV: The Period of Contemporary Literature  |  261