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ENGINEERING COLLEGES
2017 – 18 Odd Semester
COMMON MINIMUM STUDY MATERIAL (MSM)
Department of ECE

SUBJECT CODE: EC6016


SUBJECT NAME: OPTO ELECTRONIC DEVICES

Regulation: 2013 Year and Semester: IV / VII

Prepared by

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Sl. S C
Name of the Faculty Designation Affiliating College
No.
1 Mrs.L.R.Priya AP/ECE FXEC

2 Mr.P.Kannan AP/ECE FXEC

Mr.M.Suresh AP/ECE
3 FXEC
Chinnathampy

Verified by DLI, CLI and Approved by the Centralized Monitoring Team dated
24.6.17.

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COURSE SYLLABUS
EC6016 OPTO ELECTRONIC DEVICES LTPC
3003
OBJECTIVES:
 To understand the basics of solid state physics.
 To understand the basics of display devices.
 To understand the optical detection devices.
 To understand the design of optoelectronic integrated circuits.
UNIT I ELEMENTS OF LIGHT AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS 9
Wave nature of light, Polarization, Interference, Diffraction, Light Source, review of
QuantumMechanical concept, Review of Solid State Physics, Review of Semiconductor
Physics and Semiconductor Junction Device.
UNIT II DISPLAY DEVICES AND LASERS 9
Introduction, Photo Luminescence, Cathode Luminescence, Electro Luminescence, Injection

A D
Luminescence, Injection Luminescence, LED, Plasma Display, Liquid Crystal Displays,
Numeric Displays, Laser Emission, Absorption, Radiation, Population Inversion, Optical

applications. C
Feedback, Threshold condition, Laser Modes, Classes of Lasers, Mode Locking, laser

S
UNIT III OPTICAL DETECTION DEVICES 9
Photo detector, Thermal detector, Photo Devices, Photo Conductors, Photo diodes ,Detector
Performance.
UNIT IV OPTOELECTRONIC MODULATOR 9
Introduction, Analog and Digital Modulation, Electro-optic modulators, Magneto Optic
Devices,Acoustoptic devices, Optical, Switching and Logic Devices.
UNIT V OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 9
Introduction, hybrid and Monolithic Integration, Application of Opto Electronic Integrated
Circuits, Integrated transmitters and Receivers, Guided wave devices.

TOTAL: 45 PERIODS

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TEXTBOOKS:
1. Pallab Bhattacharya “Semiconductor Opto Electronic Devices”, Prentice Hall of India
Pvt., Ltd.New Delhi, 2006.
2. Jasprit Singh, “Opto Electronics – As Introduction to Materials and Devices”, Mc Graw-
Hill International Edition, 1998
REFERENCES:
1. S C Gupta, Opto Electronic Devices and Systems, Prentice Hal of India, 2005.
2. J. Wilson and J.Haukes, “Opto Electronics – An Introduction”, Prentice Hall, 1995

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S C

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1. EC6016 OPTO ELECTRONIC DEVICES LTPC


3003
2. Aim and Objective of the Subject
The student should be made
 To understand the basics of solid state physics.
 To understand the basics of display devices.
 To understand the optical detection devices.
 To understand the design of optoelectronic integrated circuits

3. Need and Importance for Study of the Subject


The students will be able to:
 To design display devices.
 To design optoelectronic detection devices and modulators.

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 To design optoelectronic integrated circuits

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Industry Connectivity:
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4. Industry Connectivity and Latest Developments

 The following companies (Industries) are linked to Opto Eletronics Devices:


.CCL Opto electronics private Limited,Thane
Spark opto electronics company,Chennai
Latest Developments:
 Fiber Distribution Frames
 Metro Ethernet Network
 LED Products

4. Industrial Visit (Planned if any):


Planned to visit Spark Opto electronics company,Chennai at the end of August 2016.

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SCAD GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Detailed Lesson Plan
Name of the Subject& Code:EC6016 & OPTO ELECTRONIC DEVICES
Name of the Faculty:
1. Mrs.L.R.Priya AP/ECE -FXEC
2. Mr.P.Kannan AP/ECE -FXEC
3.Mr.M.Suresh Chinnathampy AP/ECE -FXEC

TEXTBOOKS:
1. Pallab Bhattacharya “Semiconductor Opto Electronic Devices”, Prentice Hall of India
Pvt., Ltd.New Delhi, 2006.
2. Jasprit Singh, “Opto Electronics – As Introduction to Materials and Devices”, Mc Graw-
Hill International Edition, 1998
REFERENCES:

A D
1. S C Gupta, Opto Electronic Devices and Systems, Prentice Hal of India, 2005.
2. J. Wilson and J.Haukes, “Opto Electronics – An Introduction”, Prentice Hall, 1995

S C No. of Page.
S.No Week Topics to be Covered Text
Hours No
UNIT I ELEMENTS OF LIGHT AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS
1 Wave nature of light 1 R2 3-7
2 Polarization 1 R2 7-14
3 Interference 1 R2 14-19
4 Diffraction 1 R2 19-22
1
5 Light Source 1 R2 23-28
31-36
Review of
6 1 R2
QuantumMechanical concept,

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7 Review of Solid State Physics 1 R2 37-45


Review of Semiconductor
8 1 R2 45-60
2 Physics
Semiconductor Junction
9 1 R2 60-73
Device
UNIT II DISPLAY DEVICES AND LASERS
Introduction, Photo 113-
10 1 R2
Luminescence 115
115-
11 Cathode Luminescence 1 R2
122
122-
12 3 Electro Luminescence 1 R2
130
Injection 134-
13 1 R2
Luminescence,LED 141

14 Plasma Display

A D 1 R2
141-
412

15

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Numeric Displays

Laser Emission, Absorption,


1 R2
144-
148
149-
16 1 R2
Radiation 152
155-
17 Population Inversion 1 R2
161
4 161-
18 Optical Feedback 1 R2
165
165-
19 Threshold condition 1 R2
168
176-
Laser Modes, Classes of
20 1 R2 213
Lasers

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Mode Locking, laser 222-


21 5 1 R2
applications. 226
UNIT III OPTICAL DETECTION DEVICES
344-
22 Photo detector 2 T1
347
254-
23 Thermal detector 2 R2
261
261-
24 Photo Devices 2 R2
273
5
347-
25 Photo Conductors 2 T1
357
280-
26 Photo diodes 2 R2
300
300-
27 DetectorPerformance. 1 R2

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UNIT IV OPTOELECTRONIC MODULATOR
302

28

29
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Introduction,
Analog and Digital
Modulation
1

1
T1

T2
449

451

30 Electro-optic modulators 2 R2 83-97


6
31 Magneto Optic Devices 2 R2 97-99
32 Acoustoptic devices 2 R2 99-104
Optical, Switching and Logic 469-
33 1 T1
Devices 479
UNIT V OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
49 Introduction, 1 T1 484
484-
7 hybrid and Monolithic
50 2 T1 486
Integration

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Application of Opto 487-


51 2 T1
Electronic Integrated Circuits 489
Integrated transmitters and 491-
52 2 T1
Receivers 506
510-
53 Guided wave devices 2 T1
517

A D
S C

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TABLE OF CONTENT
S.No TITLE PAGE NO
UNIT I ELEMENTS OF LIGHT AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS

PART A 11
PART B
1 Schrodinger equation 14
2 Intrinsic semiconductor 18
3 Nature of Light and principle of superposition 20
4 Excess carriers in semiconductors 27
5 Drift and diffusion of carriers 29
UNIT II DISPLAY DEVICES AND LASERS
PART A 32

6 CRT
PART B

A D 35
7
8
9
Electro Luminescence
Operation of LED
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Construction and operation of LCD
39
44
48
10 Population inversion and Threshold conditions 53
11 Mode locking of laser 57
UNIT III OPTICAL DETECTION DEVICES
PART A 61
PART B
12 Thermal detector and photo conductive detector 64
13 Pyro-electric detector 68
14 Photo transistor 71
15 Vidicon 73
16 PIN photodiode 76

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17 Noice sources in photo multiplier tube 77


UNIT IV OPTOELECTRONIC MODULATOR
PART A 81
PART B
Compare external and direct modulation, Analog
18 and digital modulation 84
19 Uniaxial crystal, electro optic effect 86
Self electro optic device, Bipolar controller
20 modulator 91
21 Electro-Optic Modulator 98
22 Magneto-Optic Devices, Acoustic optic effect 107
UNIT V OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
PART A 113
PART B

D
23 Applications of OEIC 115
Monolithic and hybrid integration OEIC
24 fabrication

C A 116

25 receiver S
PIN diode and HBT integrated front end photo

noise performance in Integrated photo receivers,


118

26 photoreceiver bandwidth cosideration 125


27 opto electronic integrated transmitter circuit 130
28 Waveguide coupler 136

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UNIT I
ELEMENTS OF LIGHT AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS
PART-A
1.Define optoelectronics.
Optoelectronics is the branch of technology concerned with combined use of
electronics and light. It can be defined as the study and application of electronic devices that
source, detect, and control light. Optoelectronics can be considered as the subfield of
photonics. Photonics includes the generation, emission, transmission, modulation, signal
processing, amplification, detection, and sensing of light.

2.What is called as auger recombination


The Auger effect is a physical phenomenon in which the filling of an inner-
shell vacancy of an atom is accompanied by the emission of an electron from the same
atom. When a core electron is removed, leaving a vacancy, an electron from a higher energy

A D
level may fall into the vacancy, resulting in a release of energy. Although most often this
energy is released in the form of an emitted photon, the energy can also be transferred to

S C
another electron, which is ejected from the atom; this second ejected electron is called
an Auger electron or auger recombination

3.What is meant by Polarization and what are the two methods of polarization
If the electric field vector of an EM wave propagation in free space vibrates in a
specified plane, the wave is said to be plane polarized. Any real beam of light comprises
many individual waves and in general the plane vibration of their electric fields will be
randomly oriented. Such beam of light is un polarized and the resultant electric field vector
changes orientation randomly in time. The light beams characterized by highly oriented
electric fields and such light is referred as being polarized.
Polarization Methods:
1.Reflection 2.Absorption

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4.What do you meant by interference? [NOV/DEC 2016]


It can be defined as the superimposition or mixing up of 2 or more waves which
results in forming another new wave. Interference is denoted as I.

5.State Malus Law


Malus stated that the intensity of polarized light transmitted through the analyser varies as
the square of cosine of the angle between the plane of transmission of the analyser and the
plane of polarizer 𝐼1 = 𝐼0 𝑐𝑜𝑠2θ

6.Distinguish fresnel and fraunhofer diffractions

S.No Fresnel Diffractions


Fraunhofer Diffractions
1 Either point source or an Extended source at infinite distance is
illuminated narrow slit is used used
2 Wavefront undergoing
diffractions is either spherical or D
Wavefront undergoing diffractions is a

A
plane wavefront

3
cylindrical

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Source and the screen are at finite Source and the screen are at infinite
distances from the obstacle distances from the obstacle producing
producing diffraction diffraction
4 No lens is used to focus the rays Converging lens is used to focus the
parallel rays

7.Define radiative recombination and non-radiative recombination process.


When temperature rises up, if a photon is released then that type of process is known
as radiative recombination. If no emission of photon occurs, then that type of process is
known as non-radiative process.

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8.Differentiate diffraction and scattering


 Diffraction is a phenomenon observed only in waves, but scattering is phenomenon
observed in both waves and particles
 Diffraction is a property of propagation of waves ,where as scattering is a property of
wave interactions
 Diffraction can be taken as evidence for the wave nature of light. Some forms of
scattering (Compton scattering) can be taken as evidence for the particle nature of
light.

9.Differentiate between coherent and incoherent light


Coherent light is light in which the photons are all in 'step' – other words the change
of phase within the beam occurs for all the photons at the same time. There are no abrupt
phase changes within the beam. Light produced by lasers is both coherent and
monochromatic (of one 'colour').

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Coherent light In Coherent light
Incoherent sources emit light with frequent and random changes of phase between the
photons. (Tungsten filament lamps and 'ordinary' fluorescent tubes emit incoherent light).

10.What is meant by Primitive cell?


A primitive cell is a unit cell constructed so that it contains only one lattice point
(each vertex of the cell sits on a lattice point which is shared with the surrounding cells, each
lattice point is said to contribute 1/n to the total number of lattice points in the cell where n is
the number of cells sharing the lattice point).] A primitive cell is built on the primitive basis
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of the direct lattice, namely a crystallographic basis of the vector lattice L such that every
lattice vector t of L may be obtained as an integral linear combination of the basis vectors, a,
b, c.

PART-B
1. From the Schrodinger equation, explain the formation of energy bands in solids.
[May/June-2013] [NOV/DEC-2016]
In general the Schrodinger equation includes both space and time dependencies and is
of the form.

ℎ2 𝜕 2 𝜑 𝜕 2 𝜑 𝜕 2 𝜑 𝜕𝜑
( 2 + 2 + 2 ) − 𝑉𝜑 − 𝑖ℎ
2𝑚 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑡

Where i=√−1.
V-Potential energy
𝜑 - Wave function

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Both of which depend on position and time, that is we have 𝜑 = 𝜑(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧, 𝑡) and
V=V(x,y,z,t).

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The above equation is often referred to as the time-dependent Schrodinger equation, it is
sufficient to consider situations in which the potential energy of the particle does not
depend on time. The forces that act upon it, and hence Then vary only with the position of
the particle. In this case the above equation reduces to the time-independent
form,which,in one dimension, may be written as
𝑑 2 𝜑(𝑥) 2𝑚
+ 2 (𝐸 − 𝑉 (𝑥))𝜑(𝑥) = 0
𝑑𝑥 2 ℎ
Where 𝜑 is the time-independent wave equation
E is the total energy of the particle.
Energy bands in solids:
In a solid many atoms are brought together so that the split energy levels form a set of
bands of very closely spaced levels with forbidden energy gaps between them.

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Fig:(i).Schematic representation of how the energy levels of interacting atoms form


energy bands in solids

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The lower energy bands are occupied by electrons first; those energy bands which are
completely occupied are not important, in general, in determining the electrical properties
of the solid.

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Conductors, Semiconductors and insulators
On the other hand the electrons in higher energy bands of the solid are important in
determining many of the physical properties of the solid.In particular the two highest
energy bands, called the valence and conduction bands, are of crucial important in this
respect, as is the forbidden energy region between them which is referred to as the energy
gap Eg.
In a different solids the valence band completely might be filled, nearly filled or only
half filled with electrons, while the conduction band is never more than slightly filled.To
extent to which these bands are occupied and the size of the energy gap determines the
nature of a given solid.

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S C
Fig:ii.Reduced zone representation of the E-K Relationship shown in fig (iii),this
representation is constructed by translating the segments of the E-K curve so that they
all lie between k=-𝝅/a and k=+𝝅/a which comprises the first brillouin zone.
By considering an ideal crystalline solid the atoms are arranged in a periodic array. The
potential experienced by electron in a solid is correspondingly spatially periodic, so that,
after a distance in the crystal equal to the lattice spacing, the potential V repeats itself, that is
V=V(x+a)=V(x+2a)=…
Where ‘a’ is the periodicity of the lattice.

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We find that there are ranges of allowed energies separated by ranges of disallowed
energies, that is, the electrons in a solid can occupy certain bands of energy levels which are
separated by forbidden energy gaps.
The discontinuities between allowed and forbidden energy values occur at values of the
wave vector k given by k=±nπ/a where n is an integer.

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Fig:iii. Relationship of E-K for electrons subjected to the potential distribution of the
kronig-penney model and the corresponding energy band structure. The E-K
relationship for free electrons is shown for comparison
The region in figure for which - π/a<k< π/a is called the first brillouin zone.it is often
convenient to redraw figure by translating the segments of the E-K Curve so that they all
lie within this range.

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Fig:iv-Schematic representation of energy bands in various materials :(a). a metal

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with partially filled valence band e.g:Mono valent metals (b).A metal with two
overlapping partially filled bands e.g:Di-Valent metals (c).An Insulator (d).An
intrinsic semi conductor.

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2. Derive the expression for concentration of electrons and holes in an
intrinsic semiconductor, with relevant diagrams. [May/June-2013] [APR/MAY
2017]
A perfect semiconductors crystal containing no impurities or lattice defects is called an
intrinsic semiconductor. In such a material, there are no charge carriers at absolute zero
but as the temperature rises electron-hole pairs are generated. As the carriers are
generated in pairs the concentration n of electron in the conduction band equals the
concentration p of holes in the valence band, Thus we have
n=p=ni
Where ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration

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The value of ni varies exponentially with temperature, but at room temperature it is


usually not very large. For example in silicon ni=1.61*1016m-3 at room temperature,
whereas there are about 1029 free electrons per cubic metre in a typical metal. Consequently
the conductivity of the metals is very much greater than that of intrinsic semiconductors.
As at a given temperature there is a steady state carrier concentration. There must be a
recombination of electron-hole pairs as the same rate as that at which the thermal generation
occurs.
Recombination takes place when an electron in the conduction band makes a transition
into a vacant state in the valence band.
The energy released in the recombination which is equal to Eg , ma be emitted as a photon
or give up as heat to the crystal lattice in the form of quantised lattice vibrations, which are
called phonons, depending on the nature of the recombination mechanism. When a photon is
released, the process is called radiative recombination.

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Fig: a).Illustration of band-band recombination


b).Recombination via a detect centre
b)i).Trapping of electron
b)ii).Hole capture
b)iii).If the thermal generation rate is g1 and the
recombination rate is r1 then in equilibrium
g 1 = r1
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Both rates are temperature dependent so that if the temperature is raised, g1 increases
and the ni is established.
At any temperature the probability of an electron recombining is proportional to the
number of holes present: thus electrons will disappear at a rate proportional to the product
of the electron and hole concentrations. Therefore
ri=Bnp=gi
B – Constant of proportionality
For intrinsic material n=p=ni
ri = Bn12

3. Explain
i).Wave nature of light and the principle of superposition [Nov/Dec-2013]
[Nov/Dec 2016]
ii).With a neat diagram explain the interference effects in a thin film of refractive index
“n”
Wave nature of light
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The term ‘light’ is taken to include the ultraviolet and near-infrared regions as well as

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the visible region of the spectrum. Light as an electromagnetic wave is characterised by a
combination of time-varying electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields propagating through
space. Maxwell showed that both these fields satisfy the same partial differential
equation.

2(
1 𝜕2
∇ 𝐸, 𝐻 ) = 2 2 (𝐸, 𝐻 )
𝐶 𝜕𝑡
This is called wave equation.
C=V 𝜆0
In any other medium the speed of propagation is given by
𝐶 𝜆0
V= =V 𝜆 = V
𝑛 𝑛

Where n is the refractive index of the medium and 𝜆 is the wavelength in the medium, ‘n’ is
given by
𝑛 = √𝜇𝑟 𝜀𝑟
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Where 𝜇𝑟 , 𝜀𝑟 are the relative permeability and relative permittivity of the medium.
The electric and magnetic fields vibrate perpendicular to one another and perpendicular
to the direction of propagation as shown in figure.

Fig: The Electro Magnetic Wave : The electric vector (E) and magnetic vector (H)
vibrate in orthogonal planes and perpendicularly to the direction of propagation.
Light waves are transverse waves. In describing optical phenomena we often omit the

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magnetic field vector. This simplifies diagrams and mathematical descriptions but we should
always remember that there is also a magnetic field component which behaves in a similar

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way to the electric field component.
The simplest waves are sinusoidal waves , which can be expressed mathematically by
the equation
𝜀(𝑥, 𝑡 ) = 𝜀0 cos(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥 + 𝜙)
Where 𝜀 is the value of the electric field at the point x at time t,𝜀0 is the amplitude of the
wave , 𝜔 is the angular frequency (𝜔 = 2𝜋𝑣) , k is the wave number (k=2𝜋/𝜆) and 𝜙 is the
phase constant. The term cos(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥 + 𝜙) is the phase of the wave.
If as a representative time , we take t equal to zero , then the spatial variation of the
electric field is given by,
𝜀 = 𝜀0 cos 𝑘𝑥
If we take x equal to zero then the temporal variation of electric field is given by
𝜀 = 𝜀0 cos 𝜔𝑡
We also note that the time for one cycle is the period T (T =1/v) as shown below.

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Fig: Electric field (E) of an EM wave plotted as a function of the time t.

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Fig:Electric field (E) of an EM wave plotted as a function of the spatial coordinate x
The group velocity is given by
𝜕𝜔
𝑣𝑔 =
𝜕𝑘
The wave can be characterized by a vector k where |k| = 2𝜋/𝜆 therefore
𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧, 𝑡 ) = 𝜀0 cos( 𝜔𝑡 − 𝑘𝑟 + 𝜙)
Principle of superposition:
It states that ‘ The resultant electric field at a given place and time due to the
simultaneous action of two or more sinusoidal waves is the algebraic sum of the electric
fields of the individual waves’. That is ,
E=E1+E2+E3+…

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Where E1,E2,E3 are the electric fields of the individual waves at the specified time and
place. Let us consider the simple case of the superposition of two waves of the same
frequency propagating in the same direction given by
𝜀1 = 𝜀01 sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥 + 𝜙1
𝜀2 = 𝜀02 sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥 + 𝜙2
The resultant is 𝜀 = 𝜀1 +𝜀2
𝜀 = 𝜀01 sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥 + 𝜙1 ) + 𝜀02 sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥 + 𝜙2 )
Which may be written as
𝜀 = 𝜀01 cos 𝜙1 + 𝜀02 cos 𝜙2 ) sin(𝜔 𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥) + 𝜀01 sin 𝜙1 + 𝜀02 sin 𝜙2 ) cos(𝜔 𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥)
This is identical with
𝜀 = 𝜀0 sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑘𝑥 + 𝜙)
Provided that
𝜀0 2 = (𝜀01 cos 𝜙1 +𝜀02 cos 𝜙2 )2 +(𝜀01 sin 𝜙1 +𝜀02 sin 𝜙2 )2
ii). Interference:

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The basic mathematical description of ‘two-beam’ interference is given by,
𝐼 = 𝜀0 2 = 𝜀01 2 +𝜀02 2 +2𝜀01 𝜀02 cos(𝜙2− 𝜙1 )
If 𝜀01 =𝜀02 then

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𝐼 = 2𝜀01 2 [1 + cos(𝜙2− 𝜙1 )]
This shows the irradiance distribution of the fringes is given by cosine function.
If the contributions from the coherent sources are equal the irradiance of the fringes
varies from 4𝜖0 2 to zero as ( 𝜙2− 𝜙1 ) varies between 0 and 𝜋 .
If If 𝜀01 ≠ 𝜀02 , the resultant irradiance between (𝜀01 +𝜀02 )2 and (𝜀01 -𝜀02 )2
To obtain the coherent wave trains required for the observation of interference before
the advent of lasers one had to ensure that:
1.The sets of wave trains were derived from the same small source of light and then
brought together by different paths.
2.The differences in path were short enough to ensure at least partial coherence of the
wave trains.

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The basic ways of satisfying these requirements and demonstrating interference can
be classified into two groups, namely ‘division of wavefront’ and ‘division of
amplitude’.
Interference effects involving amplitude division can be observed in thin films or
plates as illustrated in figure below.here the interference occurs between the light
reflected at A on the front surface of the plate and at B on the rear surface. If the plate
has parallel faces then the two sets of waves from A and C are parallel and a lens must
be used to bring them together to interfere.
Using elementary geometry and snell’s law the reader may show that the optical path
difference (AB+BC)n-AD is equal to 2nl cos𝜃2 where 𝜃2 is the angle of refraction and L
2𝜋
is the plate thickness.The phase difference is then ( )( 2nl cos𝜃2 ) and therefore bright
𝜆0

fringes occur when


4𝜋𝑛𝑙 cos 𝜃2
= 2p𝜋
𝜆0

That is

D
p𝜆0 =2nl cos𝜃2

A
Where again 𝜆0 is the wavelength of the radiation in vaccum, likewise dark fringes occur

S Cwhen (2p+1)𝜆0 /2= 2nl cos𝜃2


If the plate is optically denser than the surrounding medium,there is a phase change of 𝜋
on reflection at the upper surface , thereby causing the above conditions to be
interchanged.

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A D
Fig:Schematic diagram of interference effects in a thin film or plate of refractive
index n.

S C
For a given fringe p,𝜆0 ,L and n are constant and therefore 𝜃2 must be constant: the
fringes are known as ‘fringes of equal inclination’.if the angle of incidence is not too
large and an extended monochromatic source is used then the fringes are seen as a set of
concentric circular rings in the focal plane of the observing lens.
When the optical thickness of the plate is not constant and the optical system is such
that 𝜃2 is almost constant, the fringes are contours of equal optics thickness nL, The
situation ma be illustrated by considering a small angled wedge.If the wedge is uniform
the fringes are approximately straight lines parallel to the apex of the wedge. Again it is
left to the reader to show that the apex angle 𝛼 is given by
𝜆0
𝛼 = tan 𝛼 =
2𝑆

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Young’s double slit interference experiment:

Fig:Schematic laout and geometr for a Youngs double slit interference experiment

A D
In this experiment, a monochromatic light is passed through a pinhole S so as to
illuminate a screen containing two further identical pinholes or narrow slits placed close
together.

S C
The presence of the single pinhole S provides the necessar mutual coherence between
the light beams emerging from the slits S1 and S2 .
The wavefronts from S intersect S1 and S2 simultaneously so that the light
contributions emerging from S1 and S2 are derived from the same original wavefront and
are therefore coherent.
These contributions spread out from S1 and S2 as ‘cylindrical’ wavefronts and
interfere in the region beyond the screen.
If a second screen is placed as shown then an interference pattern consisting of
straight line fringes parallel to the slits is observed on it.
To find the irradiance at a given point P it is necessary to find the phase difference 𝜑 -
between the two sets of waves arriving at P from S1 and S2. This in turn depends on the path
2𝜋
difference (D2-D1) as in general,Phase difference = (Optical path difference)
𝜆0

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4.Explain in detail about the excess carriers in semiconductors and hence derive an
expression for the variation of excess carriers concentration with distance and time.
In calculating semiconductor properties and in analysing device behaviour it is often
necessary to know the carrier concentrations.
In metals we can make a fairly good estimate of the free electron concentration by
number of atoms per unit volume and multiplying b the valency.
To calculate the carrier concentration in each energy band we need to know the following
parameters:
1. The distribution of energy states or levels as a function of energy with in the energy band.
2. The probability of each of these states being occupied by an electron.

The first of these parameters is given by the density of states function Z(E) which
may be defined as the number of energy states per unit energy per unit volume. The form
of Z(E) which gives the energy levels in a potential well. It is given by,

D 4𝜋 3
𝑍 (𝐸 ) = (2𝑚𝑒 ∗ )2 E1/2
ℎ3

A
Where E is the measured relative to the bottom of the band.

C
S

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Fig: Graphical representation of a).the density of states, b).the fermi-Dirac distribution

D
and c).Carrier densities for an intrinsic semiconductor.

A
S C

Fig: Graphical representation of (a).the density of states b).the fermi-Dirac distribution


and c).Carrier densities for an n-type semiconductor.

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5. Discuss about drift and diffusion of carriers with relevant mathematical expressions.
Diffusion of carriers
Let us suppose that a concentration gradient of excess minority carriers is created in a
rod of n-type semiconductor by injecting holes into one end of the rod via a suitable
contact as shown in figure.
Owing to the random thermal motion of the holes at an given location it is probable
that more holes will move to the right than to the left in a given time interval, and there
will be a net movement or diffusion of holes along the rod down the concentration
gradient. The net rate of flow of holes across unit area due to diffusion is found to be
proportional to the concentration gradient, that is

A D
S C
Fig 1:Minority carrier injection and diffusion
𝑑𝑝(𝑥)
Hole flux = -Dh
𝑑𝑥

Similarly for electrons we have


𝑑𝑛(𝑥)
Electron flux = -De
𝑑𝑥

Dh and De are the hole and electron diffusion coefficients. These parameters are
related to the motilities in that they are a measure of the ease of carrier motion through the

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crystal lattice. In fact the so-called Einstein relationships give the diffusion coefficients in
terms of the mobilities.
𝑘𝑇
𝐷𝑒,ℎ =𝜇𝑒,ℎ
𝑒

As the holes diffuse along the rod the will eventually recombine, before recombining,
the holes travel a characteristic distance called the diffusion length Lh.
Let us consider a length Δ𝑥 of the rod situated a distance x from the injecting contact
as shown in figure 1, then if the cross sectional area of the rod is A the flow rate of holes
into the left-hand face of the element is
𝑑
-Dh( Δp(𝑥))A
𝑑𝑥

Similarly the flow rate of the right hand face is,


𝑑 𝑑 𝑑
−𝐷ℎ [( Δ𝑝(𝑥))+ ( Δ𝑝(𝑥)) Δ𝑥]𝐴
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

The difference of these two terms is the net rate at which the element gains holes,
which in the steady state must equal the rate of recombination of excess holes, therefore

−𝐷ℎ

A D
𝑑2 (Δ𝑝(𝑥))
𝑑𝑥 2

𝑑2 Δ𝑝(𝑥)
Δ𝑥𝐴= -

-
Δ𝑝(𝑥)
Δ𝑝(𝑥) Δ𝑥𝐴

=0
𝜏ℎ

S C 𝑑𝑥 2 𝜏ℎ 𝐷ℎ

The solution to this equation, which is often said called the steady state diffusion
equation, is
Δ𝑝(𝑥) = B1 exp(x/Lh) + B2 exp(-x/Lh)
Where Lh=√𝐷ℎ 𝜏ℎ is the hole diffusion length , hence we have
Δ𝑝(𝑥)=Δ𝑝(0)exp(-x/Ln)
Thus we see that excess minority carrier concentration decreases exponentially with
distance.
The diffusion of charge carriers will obviously give rise to a current flow, the electron and
hole diffusion current densities as
𝑑𝑛
𝐽𝑒 (diff) = 𝑒𝐷𝑒
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑝
𝐽𝑒 (diff) = −𝑒𝐷ℎ
𝑑𝑥

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If an electric field is present in addition to a concentration gradient, we can use


equation Je to write with current densities for electrons and holes as
𝑑𝑛
𝐽𝑒 =e𝜇𝑒 n𝜀 + eDe
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑝
𝐽ℎ =e𝜇ℎ p𝜀 – eDh
𝑑𝑥

And the total current density is the sum of these contributions, that is
J=Je+Jh

A D
S C

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UNIT II
DISPLAY DEVICES AND LASERS
PART-A
1.What is Photoluminescence [NOV/DEC 2016]
In Photoluminescence energy is transferred to the crystal by the absorption of a
photon.
2.What are the different Luminescence Process
Luminescence is the general term used to describe the emission of radiation from a
solidwhen it is supplied with some form of energy. We may distinguish between the various
types of luminescence by the method of excitation. For example:
Photoluminescence: excitation arises from the absorption of photons
Cathode luminescence: excitation is by bombardment with a beam of electrons
Electroluminescence:excitation results from the application of an electric field (which may
be either a.c. or d.c.)

A D
3. How is Population Inversion is achieved in Lasers
Population inversion occurs when a system suchasagroupofatomsormoleculesexistsin

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statewithmoremembersinanexcitedstatethaninlowerenergystates.Theconceptisof fundamental
importance in lasersciencebecausetheproductionofapopulationinversionisa necessarystepin
the workings ofa standard laser.
4.How is mode locking is achieved in Laser medium. [NOV/DEC2016]
Mode locking is a technique for producing periodic ,high power, short duration laser
pulses. Normally laser cavity supports many nodes simultaneously in such lasers output
depends on phases ,freuencies, and amplitude of the nodes.
5.Differentiate between characteristic and non characteristic energy level system in
phosphors
Some of the more commonly used phosphors are zinc sulphide doped with silver:
ZnS:Ag (blue); zinc cadmium sulphide doped with copper:ZnxCd1_ xS:Cu (green); and
yttrium oxysulfide doped with europium and terbium:Y2O2S:Eu,Tb (red).The first two
materials are non characteristics materials and latter is characteristic materials.

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6.What is meant by Injection Luminescence


The basic structure giving rise to injection luminescence is that of a p-n junction
diode operated under forward bias which. Under forward bias majority carriers from both
sides of the junction cross the depletion layer and enter the material at the other side, where
they are then the minority type of carrier and cause the local minority carrier population to
be larger than normal. This situation is described as minority carrier injection. The excess
minority carriers diffuse away from the junction recombining with majority carriers as they
do so.
7.What is meant by stokes shift? [NOV/DEC2013]
 Stokes shift is the difference between positions of the band maxima of the
absorption and emission spectra (fluorescence and Raman being two examples) of the
same electronic transition. It is named after Irish physicist George G. Stokes.
 When a system (be it a molecule or atom) absorbs a photon, it gains energy and enters

A D
an excited state. One way for the system to relax is to emit a photon, thus losing its
energy (another method would be the loss of energy as heat). When the emitted

shift.
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photon has less energy than the absorbed photon, this energy difference is the Stokes

 The Stokes shift is the result of two actions: Vibrational relaxation or dissipation and
solvent reorganisation. A fluorophore is a dipole, surrounded by water molecules.
When a fluorophore enters an excited state, its dipole moment will change, but water
molecules will not be able to adapt this quickly. Only after vibrational relaxation,
there will be a realignment of their dipole moments.

8. What do you understand by threshold condition in laser


It was explained above that a steady state level of oscillation is reached when the rate
of amplification is balanced by the rate of loss. This is the situation in continuous output
(CW)lasers; it is a little different in pulse lasers. Thus, while a population inversion is a
necessary condition for laser action. it is not a sufficient one because the minimum (i.e.
threshold value) of the gain coefficient must be large enough to overcome the losses and
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sustain oscillations. The threshold gain. in turn, through eq. (5.15) specifies the minimum
population inversion required.

9.What is meant by threshold condition for laser oscillations?


There should be a minimum amount of population inversion from which laser
oscillation starts. This is called threshold condition for laser oscillations. Therefore to start
the laser oscillation the gain coefficient should exceed the threshold value.

10.What are the type of lasers


 Doped insulator lasers
 Semi conductor lasers
 Gas lasers
 Liquid dye lasers

A D
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PART-B
1.Explain the construction and operation of CRT screen. Also explain the principal of
obtaining colour display in CRT with relevant diagram
 The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a display device that uses electrons fired at phosphors
to create images. The CRT takes input from an external source and displays it,
making other devices, such as computers useful.

A D
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Fig.1 Schematic diagram of a CRT
 Figure 1 shows the basic construction of CRT. Electrons arc generated by thermionic
emission by heating a specially Impregnated cathode surface (usually bused on oxides
of barium and strontium) and then focused onto the viewing screen by a series of
metal electrodes held at various potentials. The whole assembly is known as an
'electron gun'.
 The electron beam is scanned across the viewing screen in it series of lines; when one
line scan is completed the beam is rapidly switched to the star! of the line below.
Beam deflection is controlled by electrostatic or electromagnetic fields acting at right
angles to the beam direction.
 Electrostatic deflection enables the highest beam deflection rates to he achieved,
while electromagnetic deflection enables higher beam accelerating potentials to be
employed, which results in a smaller spot size and higher screen brightness, When the
beam strikes the viewing screen, radiation is generated by cathode luminescence.
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 The screen consists of a thin layer of small (dimensions ≈ 5 µm) phosphor granules.
with a layer of aluminium(≈0.1 µm thick) evaporated onto the gun side. This layer
serves two purposes:
1.It prevents charge build-up on the phosphor granules (which generally have low
conductivities)
2. It helps to reflect light emitted in a direction away from the observer back
towards him

A D
S C
Fig 2 Cross section of CRT Tube

 A layer of phosphor is sandwiched between a glass faceplate and an evaporated


aluminum layer. High energy electrons penetrate the aluminum and excite cathode
luminescence in the phosphor particles. The aluminum layer reduces charge build-up
and helps to reflect light back out through the faceplate.
 The thicknesses of both the aluminum and phosphor layers are fairly critical. Ifthe
aluminum is too thick, an appreciable fraction of the electron beam energy will he
absorbed within it. while if it is too thin its reflectivity will be poor.
 If the phosphor layer is too thick, scattering and absorption reduce the light output
and it is too thin a layer incomplete coverage of the screen are will occur

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 For normal display operations (e.g. television) the beam is scanned line by line over
the viewing area. In video applications the display consists of some 625 lines in
Europe and525 in North America.
 To avoid an image that 'flickers' the picture must be renewed at a rate greater than
about 45 Hz. However, it is possible to avoid having to renew the entire picture at this
rate by using a raster scan that splits the picture up into two interlaced halves.
 Thus if a complete picture scan takes ts, seconds then we may arrange that during the
first ts/2 seconds lines 1, 3, 5, 7, etc., are scanned, while during the second ,)2 seconds
lines 2,4,6, 8, etc., are scanned.
 Because the two images are effectively superimposed, the eye treats the picture
repetition rate as if it were 2/ ts, Hz rather than 1/ ts Hz. This reduction in the rate at
which picture information is required before flicker becomes very useful because it
halves the transmission frequency bandwidth that would otherwise be required.
 Varying light irradiances are obtained by varying the beam current. Ideally. the

time.
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phosphor used should have a luminescent decay time shorter than the picture cycle

 CRT displays can be made sufficiently bright for them to be visible under nearly all

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ambient lighting conditions. The brightness limits are usually reached when the
phosphor screen rapidly deteriorates under high beam currents.
 Colour displays for home video viewing are obtained using the 'shadow mask'
principle, in which three electron guns are used that are slightly inclined to each other
so that their beams coincide at the plane of the shadow mask.
 The latter is a metal screen, with holes in it, placed just in front of the phosphor
screen. Having passed through one of the holes in the shadow mask the three beams
diverge and on striking the phosphor screen are again physically distinct. The
phosphor screen consists of groups of three phosphor dots placed so that when the
three beams pass through a hole in the shadow mask they each hit a different dot.
 Figure 3 illustrates the basic geometry.

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Fig 3 .Use of the shadow mask for obtaining color displays


 Three separate guns are used these are inclined slightly to each other so that their
beams will pass through a single hole in the shadow mask. After passing through the

A D
hole, the beams diverge so that each falls on one of the three circular areas composed
of phosphors, each of which emits one of the three primary colors.
 Some of the more commonly used phosphors are zinc sulfide doped with silver:

S C
ZnS:Ag (blue); zinc cadmium sulfide doped with copper:ZnxCd1_ xS:Cu (green); and
yttrium oxysulfide doped with europium and terbium:Y2O2S:Eu,Tb (red).The first
two materials are non characteristics materials and latter is characteristic materials
 The alignment of the shadow mask with the guns and the phosphor screen is critical,
and can be failed by fairly harsh environmental conditions such as stray magnetic
fields. Several modifications have been made to the basic shadow mask principle to
try and rectify some of these disadvantages.
 To overcome these disadvantages, different method can be developed and named it as
"penetration Phosphor".
 For example a two colour display may obtained by using a mixture of 2 different kind
of phosphor particles. One is red (ordinary phosphor particles )other is green non-
luminescent particle.

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 At low beam voltage the display shows only the red,since the electrons not have
sufficient energy to penetrate non luminescence coat. At high beam voltage the
display shows both the red, and green emission.
 Further necessary changes in beam potential cannot be achieved for video
applications. For a static display it requires fixed colours ,however this technique
offers good resolution and freedom from magnetic interference.
2.Explain the mechanism of electro luminescence with neat diagram and also explain
about operation of ac electroluminescence device. NOV/DEC 2013 NOV/DEC2016
 The other name of electroluminescence is named as 'classical electroluminescence' as
opposed to 'injection electroluminescence, which uses fabricated p- n junctions
 Four main types of device may be distinguished. depending on the type of drive (a.c.
or d.c.) and the character of the active layer (powder or thin film).
 In this a phosphor powder (usually ZnS:Cu) is suspended in a transparent insulating
binding medium of high dielectric constant and is sandwiched between two

D
electrodes(one of which is transparent) as shown in Fig. 4.

A
S C

Fig 4 Construction of a a.c electro luminescence device


 The construction of a d.c. electroluminescent device. The phosphor particles have a
coating of CuxS This coating it removed from the anode side of the particles in
contact with the anode by the application of an initial high current pulse. Under
normal conditions, light is emitted only from the CuxS depleted partcicles.

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Fig 5 Construction of a d.c electro luminescence device

 Usually there is no complete conducting path between the electrodes, so that d.c.
excitation is not possible.

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 When an alternating voltage, Vo cos(2πft), is applied across the cell, however. light is

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emitted in the form of short bursts which last about 10-3 s and occur once every half
cycle. It is found that the integrated light output power P can be written in the form
𝑉
𝑃 = 𝑃0 𝑒𝑥𝑝 (√ 1 )
𝑉)

 where V1 is a constant and Po(f) is a function of frequency.


 The strongest emission from within the phosphor grain is found to take place from the
side temporarily facing the cathode.
 Several possible emission mechanisms have been proposed however. that there will
be a high electric field within the phosphor particle. It is then possible that this field is
sufficiently strong to enable electrons from occupied acceptor levels to 'tunnel' to
states of the same energy in the conduction band, as illustrated in Fig. 6a and other
electrons in conduction band are fall into vacant levels and emit radiations. This
shows in fig 6 b.

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(a) (b)
Fig 6. Possible mechanism for electroluminescence emission involving quantum
mechanical tunneling.
 In (a) an electron in an acceptor state 'tunnels' through the forbidden gap region into
states of the same energy. It is only able to do this if there is a considerable electric

A D
field present, thus causing the energy bands to be tilted. An electron in the conduction
band may now fall into the vacated level resulting in radiative emission (b).
 Another possibility is that an electron moving in the electric field may acquire

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sufficient energy to enable it to excite an electron from the valence band to the
conduction band. The resulting hole quickly becomes trapped at an impurity acceptor
site, thereby effectively emptying it of an electron. An electron in the conduction
band can then make a radiative transition by falling into the empty acceptor level. The
sequence of events is illustrated in Fig.7.

 Figure 7 explains the Possible mechanism for electroluminescence emission


involving an avalanche process. In (a) an electron moving in the high electric fields
present may acquire sufficient energy to excite an electron from the valence band into
the conduction band. The hole left behind then moves up into an acceptor state
effectively emptying it of an electron (b). Finally, an electron in the conduction band
,may then make a radiative transfer into the empty acceptor level (c)

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(a) (b) (c)


Fig 7 Possible mechanism for electroluminescence emission involving ,an avalanche
process
 In phosphors containing manganese, there is evidence that the Mn2+ ions themselves
may be directly excited by the high energy electrons radiation being emitted when the

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ion subsequently undergoes de-excitation.
 A.C. powder devices usually require several hundred volts (r.m.s.) to drive them.

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They exhibit luminance's of about 40 units have power efficiences (i.e. the ratio of
optical power out to electrical power in) of about 1% and life times of about 1000
hours. By using different phosphor powders, red, green, yellow and blue displays are
possible.
 The D.C power display basically similar to that of the a.c, device. However. the
phosphor particles (ZnS:Cu.Mn ) are coated with a conducting layer of Cu xS.
Provided the phosphor particles are not too widely dispersed within the binder there
will be a conducting path from the anode to the cathode.
 Before normal operation. the cell must be 'formed' by applying a high voltage across
it fora short time. This causes copper ions to migrate away from the phosphor
surfaces next to the anode.
 A thin high resistance layer of ZnS is then created next to the anode across which
most of the applied voltage appears, and from which light emission takes place liming
subsequent operation at lower voltages.
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 Luminance of about 300 nits are possible at voltages of around 100 V d.c., although
the power conversion efficiencies are low at approximately 0.1 %. The luminance
versus drive voltage characteristics for both a.c, and d.c. powder electroluminescent
devices are shown in Fig. 8

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Fig 8:Typical luminance obtained for a.c and d.c. electroluminescent powder device
as a function of the applied voltage (r.m.s. volts in the case of the a.c. device).
 Inaddition, a.c. and d.c. devices have been made where the active layer is a vacuum
deposited thin film of phosphor material (usually based on ZnS). but both types tend
to have rather poor lifetimes. Although a considerable amount of research effort has
been put into the development of electroluminescent displays. they have yet to make
any significant commercial impact.

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3.Explain the operation of LED and also derive an expression for the frequency
response and modulation bandwidth of an LED [APR/MAY 2017]
LED construction
 A typical LED construction is shown in Fig. 9 6. We assume that, as in Fig. 9, the surface
layer is p-type. It is obviously advantageous if most of the radiative recombination take
place from the side of the
junction nearest the
surface. We may
ensure this by arranging

A D
S C
Fig 9: Construction of LED

that most of the current flowing across the diode is carried by those carriers that are
injected into the surface layer.
 The fraction of the total diode current that is carried by electrons being injected into
the p side of the junction (ɳe) is then given by
𝐷𝑒 𝑛𝑝
𝐿𝑒
ɳ𝑒 = 𝐷𝑒 𝑛𝑝 𝐷𝑛 𝑝𝑛 (1)
+
𝐿𝑒 𝐿ℎ

By using the Einstein relation Dc,h = (kT/e)µc,h and the relation np pp = nn pn= n2i
−1
𝐿𝑒 𝑃𝑝 µḣ
equation 1 becomes ɳ𝑒 = (1 + ) (2)
𝐿ḣ 𝑃𝑝 µ𝑒

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 InIII- V compounds µ𝑒 ≫ µḣ and so, assuming that𝐿𝑒 ≈ 𝐿ḣ soɳ𝑒 is closed to


unity.Although the internal quantum efficiencies of some LED materials can
approach 100%.the external efficiencies are much lower.
 The main reason for this is that most of the emitted radiation strikes the material
interface at an angle greater than the critical angle and so remains trapped.
Unfortunately, the high refractive indices of the 1Il- V materials discussed here give
rise to small critical angles.
 Consider, for example. radiation from a point source within a medium of refractive
index III impinging on a plane interface with another medium of refractive index n2,
where n2< n1 as shown in Fig. 10. Only those rays (e.g. beam I) that have an angle to
the normal less than the critical angle (θc) enter the second medium. Those with
angles greater than θc (e.g. beam 3) are reflected back into the first medium.

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Fig 10: Phenomenon of total internal reflection


From eq. (2). we have that the critical angle θc, is given by
𝑛2
𝜃𝑐 = sin−1 (3)
𝑛1

 Light originating at recombination centres near the p-n junction will he radiated
isotropically, whereas only that within a cone of semi angle 𝜃𝑐 will escape.

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The fraction F of the total generated radiation that is actually transmitted into the second
1 𝑛 −1 𝑛1 −𝑛2 2
medium is 𝐹 ≈ ( 2) [1 + ( ) ] (4)
4 𝑛1 𝑛1 +𝑛2

 There are two ways to increase F, the first is to ensure that most rays strike the
surface at less than the critical angle. This may be achieved by shaping the
semiconductor/air interface into a hemisphere, as shown in Fig. 11 (a). This technique
isused occasionally in high power diodes, it is too difficult and expensive for most
situations.

A D
S C

Fig 11: Two methods used to reduce reflection losses in LEDs


 The second, (Fig 11.b) technique is to encapsulate the junction in a transparent
medium of high refractive index. This is usually a plastic material with a refractive
index of about 1.5. Using eq. (4) with n1 = 3.6 and n2 = 1.5 we obtain F = 0.036,
giving a nearly threefold increase in light output over the simple semiconductor/air

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interface of course there will be some losses at the plastic/air interface, but these are
easily minimized by molding the plastic into an approximately hemispherical shape
 Frequency Response of LEDs
𝑅(0)
𝑅 (𝑓 ) = (5)
1+4𝜋 2 𝑓2 𝜏𝑒2

Here,𝑅(𝑓) is frequency response of LED f and τe is the minority carrier life time
provided for low level injection.
Modulation circuits
 These two circuits provide for continuous 'on' operation. If it is desired to switch the
diodeon or off, or to modulate the output, then the circuits shown in Figs 12(a) and
(b) respectively may be used.
 In Fig. 12 (a) the transistor is used as a simple switch. With no voltage applied to the
base, the transistor has a very high impedance between the collector and emitter and
hence no current flows through the LED. If a large enough base voltage is then
applied so that the emitter-base junction becomes heavily forward biased. the

A D
transistor has a relatively low impedance between emitter and collector and a
substantial current can flow, resulting in the LED being turned on

S C

Fig 12: LED modulation circuits


 In Fig. 12(b) the transistor is biased so that the quiescent diode current is about half
its peak value and both the transistor and the LED are biased well into their linear
regions. Changes in the current flowing through the LED are then directly
proportional to changes in the input voltage.

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4.Explain the construction and operation of LCD [MAY/JUNE 2013]


 Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are the 'passive' types of display . There are two basic
types of LCD available
 LCD devices is a cell formed between two glass plates each with a conductive
coating. The cell has a thickness of about 10 µm (some time less) and is filled with a
liquid crystal material.
 The liquid crystal state is a phase of matter which is exhibited by a large number of
organicmaterials over a restricted temperature range. At the lower end of the
temperature range. the material becomes a crystalline solid. whilst at the upper end it
changes into a clear liquid.
 Within this range it has a milky yellowish appearance and combines some of the
optical properties of solids with the fluidity of liquids. A major characteristic of all
liquid crystal compounds is the rod-like shape of their molecules.
 When they are in the liquid crystal phase, these molecules can take lip certain

A D
orientations relative both to each other and to the liquid crystal surface.
 It is usual to describe this orientation in terms of a director that is a unit vector

volume.
S C
pointing along the time-averaged preferred orientation of the molecules in any small

 There are three basic types of ordering in liquid crystals. which are termed nematic,
cholesteric and smtectic. Only the first two of these are of importance in display
devices at presentand are illustrated in Fig.13

Fig.13 a)Nematic display b)cholesteric display

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 In nematic ordering. the molecules (or. rather. the directors)are aligned parallel to
each other. but apart from remaining parallel the molecules are free to move relative
to each other so that the phase has liquid properties. A nematic liquid crystal
molecule usually consists of two benzene rings linked with a central group.
 A typical example is 4-rnethoxybenzylidene-4-butylanaline (MBBA), shows liquid
crystal behaviour over the temperature range 20°C to 47°C.
 In the cholesteric phase the material as being made up from a large number of
planes each having a nematic-like structure, but with each plane showing a
progressive change in the director direction from the one below. The director
directions thus display a helical twist through the material. The distance between
planes having the same director direction is called the pitch ,p, Cholesteric liquid
crystals exhibit some interesting colour effects.

 For example, light of wavelength λ is incident normally on the director planes. then

A D
strong Bragg reflection will occur when p = n λ (ns i an integer) but not otherwise.
Thus if white light is shone onto a cholesteric liquid crystal it can appear strongly
coloured.

S C
 Furthermore, the pitch is usually temperature dependent. So that the colour of the
reflected light will also be temperature dependent. Obviously this can form the basis
of a thermometer. Most liquid displays, are twisted nematic type.
 When a nematic liquid crystal material comes into contact with a solid surface, the
directors often become aligned either perpendicular to the surface ( hemotropic
ordering) or parallel to the surface (homogeneous ordering). These two forms can be
produced by suitable treatment of the surface.
 In the case of homogeneous ordering, this can often be achieved by rubbing the
surface once or twice along a particular direction with a soft fabric (e.g. cotton)
before it comes into contact with the liquid crystal material. The liquid crystal
directors then take up an orientation parallel to the direction of rubbing.
 One of the most important electrical characteristics of liquid crystal materials is that
they show different dielectric constants εǁ and ε┴ depending on whether the external
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field is parallel to, or perpendicular to, the molecular axis. If εǁ> ε┴ it is a positive
material. The application of an external electric field to a positive material will tend
to make the molecules lie along the electric field, since this will tend to minimize
their energy.
 To change the homogeneous type into a homeotropic type by apply the field
perpendicular to the surface (assuming a positive material). This transition is found to
take place above a critical field and is illustrated in Fig. 13

A D
S C
Fig: 14 Behavior of molecules in an initially homogeneous ordered liquid crystal
material as an increasing electric field
 The most common liquid crystal display uses a 'twisted nematic' cell. In this, the
opposite walls of the cell are treated to produce a homogeneous arrangement in which
the molecular alignment directions at the walls are at right angles to each other. Thus
the molecules undergo a 90° rotation across the cell as shown in Fig. 15(a).
 When a beam of polarized light is incident on the cell the strong optical anisotropy of
the liquid causes the polarization to undergo a 90° rotation. With a strong enough
electric field across the cell, however (i.e. E>> Ec )the molecular alignments will

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become as shown in Fig. 15(b) and in this state the molecular alignments will have no
effect on an incident polarized light beam.

Fig Behavior of molecules in a liquid with thickness D


 In operation, the cell is sandwiched between two pieces of polaroid whose polarizing

A D
directions correspond to the director ordering direction of the particular cell surfaces
they are next In the reflective mode a reflector is placed behind the back sheet of

S C
polaroid. Figure 16 shows the arrangement and traces the behaviour of a polarized
beam as it traverses the system.

Fig 16the arrangement and traces the behaviour of a polarized beam


 With no applied voltage, the incident light is first polarized then has its polarization
direction rotated by 90° as it traverses the cell, then passes through the second
polarizer and is then reflected back along its path where the same process is repeated.
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 With no field applied therefore, the device reflects incident radiation and appears
bright. When a field is applied the direction of polarization of light traversing the ceIl
is not rotated and hence cannot pass through the second polarizer. Little light will
then be reflected from the device and it will appear dark.
 The amount of light reflected from an LCD as a function of applied voltage is shown
schematically in Fig. 14. The reflectance. initially constant. falls rapidly beyond a
critical voltage) and again becomes constant beyond a voltage VsatA typical value for
Vsat is :1 3. V.D.c. operation tends to shorten the operating lifetime of the device
owing to electromechanical reactions taking place. and hence a.c. waveforms
areinvariably used. The cell responds to the r.m.s. value of the voltage waveform.
 A square waveform which has a frequency of between 25 Hz and I kHz is often used.
Transmission LCD displays do not have the reflector and must he provided with rear
illumination, but otherwise they operate in a very similar fashion to the reflective
displays. Colour displays are possible by incorporating a colour filter. The use of

light that can he reflected from it.


A D
polarizer's in the twisted nematic cell substantially reduces the maximum amount of

S C
5.Discuss the theory of population inversion and threshold condition in two layer laser
system and also explain the various transition involved in a four level system
Population inversion [MAY/JUNE 2013] [NOV DEC 2016] [APR/MAY 2017]
 The population inversion condition required for light amplification is a non-
equilibrium distribution of atoms among the various energy levels of the atomic
system
 The Boltzmann distribution which applies to a system in thermal equilibrium is given
by eq (1) and is illustrated in Fig.15(a).
𝑔𝑖 𝑁0 exp(−𝐸𝑖 ⁄𝑘𝑇)
𝑁𝑗 = ∑ 𝑔𝑖 exp(−𝐸𝑖 ⁄𝑘𝑇)
(1)

 Where Nj, is the population density of the jth energy level and clearly as Ej increases
Nj, decreases for a constant temperature. We note that if the energy difference

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between E1and E2 were nearly equal to kT (≈0.025 eV at room temperature) then the
population of the upper level would be 0.37 of that of the lower level. For an energy
difference large enough to give visible radiation (≈2.0 e V), however. the population
of the upper level is almost negligible .

population inversion has been produced


A D
Fig 17 Populations of a two-level energy system: a) in thermal equilibrium; b)in after a

S C
 If we are to create a population inversion, illustrated in Fig. 17 (b), we must supply a
large amount of energy to excite atoms into the upper level E2 This excitation process
is called pumping and much of the technology of lasers is concerned with how the
pumping energy can be supplied to a given laser system. Pumping produces it non-
thermal equilibrium situation.
Attainment of a population inversion
 One of the methods used for pumping is stimulated absorption that is the energy
levels which one hopes to use for laser action are pumped by intense irradiation of the
system. Now as B 12 and B21are equal (assuming g 1= g 2) once atoms are excited into
the upper level the probabilities of further stimulated absorption or emission are equal
so that even with very intense pumping the best that can be achieved with the two-
level system. considered hither to, is equality of the populations of the two levels.
 As a consequence we must look for materials with either three or four energy level
systems this is not really a disadvantage as atomic systems generally have a large
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number of energy levels.The three-level system first proposed by Bloembergen is


illustrated in Fig18.

Fig.18 population of the energy levels by pumping in a three-level system: (a)

transitions Involved.
A D
Boltzmann distribution before pumping and (b) distribution after pumping and the

S C
 Initially the distribution obeys Boltzmann's law. If the collection of atoms is intensely
illuminated the electrons can be excited (i.e. pumped) into the level E2from the
ground state Eo. From E2the electrons decay by non-radiative processes to the level E1
and a population inversion may be created between E1 and Eo·
 Ideally, the transition from level E2to E1should be very rapid, thereby ensuring that
there are always vacant states at E2, while that from E 1 to Eoshould be very slow, that
is E 1 should be a metastable state.
 This allows a large build up in the number of atoms in level E 1 as the probability of
spontaneous emission is relatively small. Eventually N 1 may become greater than
Noand then population inversion will have been achieved.
 The level E2should preferably consist of a large number of closely spaced levels so
that pumping uses as wide a part of the spectral range of the pumping radiation as
possible. thereby increasing the pumping efficiency.
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 Even so, three-level lasers, for example ruby, require very high pump powers because
the terminal level of the laser transition is the ground state. This means that rather
more than half of the ground state atoms (this number is usually very nearly equal to
the total number of atoms in the collection) have to be pumped to the upper state to
achieve a population inversion.

A D
S C
Fig. 19 The four-level system

 The four-level system shown in Fig. 19 has much lower pumping requirements.
 If (E1 - Eo) is rather large compared with kT (the thermal energy at the temperature of
operation). then the populations of the levels E1, E2 and E3are all very small in
conditions of thermal equilibrium.
 Thus, if atoms are pumped from the ground state to the level E1from which they
decay very rapidly to the metastable level E2 a population inversion is quickly created
between levels E2 and E 1 .Again the upper level E3should preferably consist of a large
number of levels for greatest pumping efficiency.

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 If the lifetimes of the transitions E1 to E 2 and E1 toE0are short the population


inversion between E2and E1 can be maintained with moderate pumping and
continuous laser action can be achieved more readily.
 In the Nd:Y AG laser. for example, τ21≈0.5 ms while τ10≈0.530 ns and, although
there are many upper levels used for pumping, each has a lifetime of about 10-8 s (i.e
τ32≈10-8 s).
 The details of the mechanisms used for pumping lasers can be quite complicated and,
in addition to optical pumping, pumping can occur in an electrical discharge or by
electron bombardment, the release of chemical energy, the passage of a current. etc.
The energy level schemes of the media used in lasers are often complex, but they can
usually be approximated by either three- or four-level schemes.

6.Describe the concept of producing high power short duration pulses from laser.What
are the various methods to accomplish this? Explain them [NOV/DEC 2013]
Explain Mode locking of laser

A D
Mode locking is a technique for producing periodic high power short duration laser pulses

C
.The output of such a laser as a function of time depends on the relative phases, frequencies

S
and amplitudes of modes. the total electric fields function of time can be written as,
E(t) = ∑N−1
n=0 (E0 )n exp{i(ωn t + δn )} (1)
Where(E0 )n is amplitude of nth mode
δn is Phase of nth mode
ωn is angular frequency of nth mode .Usually 3 parameters are time varying, so the
modes are in coherent and the total irradiations is simply the sum of the irradiations of the
individual modes .

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Fig :20 Comparison a) Non mode locked b)Mode locked laser output

𝐼 = 𝑁𝐸02 (2)
We assume that all N modes have the same amplitude E0.The irradiation may exhibit small
fluctuations if 2 or 3 of modes happen to be in phase at any time. Suppose that we mow
force the various modes maintain the same relative phase δ to one another i.e mode lock
laser such that δn=δ. The total irradiation must now by found adding the individual electric

as
A D
fields rather than the irradiations. using eq(1) the resultant electric field can be now written

E(t) = E0 exp(iδ) ∑ (iωn t)


For simplicity write ωn = ω − nδω
S C (3)

c
where δω is the angular frequency separation between nodes δω = π
L

eq (3 )becomes E(t) = E0 exp(iδ) ∑N−1


n=0 i(ω − nδω)t
iπnct
=E0 exp i(ωt + δ) ∑N−1
n=0 exp − L

E(t)=E0 expi(ωt + δ) (1 + exp(iϕ) + exp(2iϕ) + ⋯ + exp(−(𝑁 − 1)iϕ)) (4)


𝜋𝑐𝑡
where ϕ =
𝐿

sin
2
E(t) = E0 exp i(ωt + δ) ϕ
sin
2

The Irradiation I is then I=E(t).E*(t)



𝑠𝑖𝑛2
I(t) = 𝐸02 2
2
ϕ
𝑠𝑖𝑛
2

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Here I(t) is periodic in the time interval t= 2L/c,Which is equals to the round trip transit time
with in cavity.The maximum value of the irradiation is N2 E02.This occurs for values of ϕ =0
or pπ.
Active Mode Locking
Mode locking is achieved by forcing the longitudinal modes to maintained fixed
phase relationships. This can be accomplished by modulating the loss(gain) of the laser
cavity at a frequency equal to the internodes frequency separation δv=c/2L(or δω=πc/L).
Let us imagine that the loss modulation is provided by a shutter placed near one of the
mirrors. The shutter is closed most of the time and its is only opened every 2L/c sec. Now if
the wave packet is exactly as long in time as shutter opens it will be un affected by the
presence of the shutter Any parts of the packets that arrive before the shutter opens or after it
closes will be eliminated. Thus the phase relationship of the oscillating modes are
continuously restores by the periodic operation of the shutter,.

A D
S C
Fig :21 Packet of energy resulting from mode locking of N modes bouncing in between
the laser mirrors
Passive mode locking
Mode locking can also accomblished by using certain dyes whose absorption decreases with
increasing in irradiation. Materials exhibiting this behaviour is called saturable absorber.

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Fig:22 Absorption as a function of incident light irradiance for a saturable absorber


 A dye is chosen which has an absorption band at the lasing transition frequency.
Initially at low light levels the dye is opaque owing to the large number of unexcited
molecules which can absorb the light.

A D
 As the irradiation increases more of the excited states are populated until eventually
all of them are filled so that the dye becomes transparent. The dye is now said to be
bleached.

S C
 The growth of the mode locked pulses can be envisaged as follows.
 initially, the laser medium emits spontaneous radiation which gives rise to incoherent
fluctuations in the energy density within the cavity.
 Some of these fluctuations, which can be of short duration may be amplified by the
laser medium and grow in irradiance to such an extent that the peak part of the
fluctuation is transmitted by the saturable absorber with little attenuation.
 The low power parts of the fluctuations are much strongly attenuated and thus a high
power pulses can grow within the cavity providing the dye can recover in a time short
compared with the duration of the pulses.
 Because of the non-linear behaviour of the dye the shortest and most intense
fluctuations grow at the expense of the weaker ones. With careful adjustment of the
concentration of the dye within the cavity an initial fluctuation may grow into a

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narrow pulse 'bouncing' to and fro within the cavity producing a periodic train of
mode-locked pulses.
 Saturable absorbers provide a simple, inexpensive and rugged method of mode
locking high power lasers such as Nd:glass and ruby; the so-called 9740 or 9R60 dye
solutions and cryptocyanine may be used as the saturable absorber for Nd:glass and
ruby respectively.

 When saturable absorber is used to mode-lock a laser the laser is simultaneously Q-


switched The result is the production of a series of narrow (≈10ps) mode-locked
pulses contained within an envelope which may be several hundred nanoseconds
long. The peak power within the individual pulses may be enormous because of their
very short duration.

A D
S C

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UNIT – III
OPTICAL DETECTION DEVICES
PART A

1. Explain thermal detectors.


Thermal detectors are devices that work by absorbing the incident photon. It consists
of a sensing element and an heat sink connected to it. The sensing element will absorb the
photon, which results in production of heat. This heat produced will increases the
temperature of heat sink connected to it.

2. What is the internal quantum efficiency of photodetector?


efficiency is also known as responsivity. It is defined as the ratio of the number of
photo generated carriers to incident photons and thus a unit less quantity.
η= Number of corresponding electrons in the external circuit/ Number of incident photons

3. Explain photoconductors.
A D
S C
It is the simplest optical detector. It exhibits an internal gain mechanism. It also
clearly demonstrates the gain-bandwidth limitations. Its operation is based on the increase in
conductivity of specific region with photon excitation. The generated electrons and holes
arecollected at opposite end and results in photocurrent.

4. What do you mean by Kerr effect?


Magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) is one of the magneto-optic effects. It describes
the changes of light reflected from magnetized media. The light that is reflected from a
magnetized surface can change in both polarization and reflected intensity. The effect is
identical to the Faraday effect except that the magneto-optical Kerr effect is a measurement
of the reflected light, while the Faraday effect is a measurement of the transmitted light.

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5. What are the different types of photodetectors?


The different types of photodetectors are,
 Photoconductors
 Pin diodes
 Avalanche photodiode
 Intrinsic photodetectors
 Extrinsic photodetectors

6. What are the factors that limit the response time of photodiodes? NOV/DEC2016
The factors that limit the response time of photodiodes are,
- Diffusion time of carriers to the depletion region
- Drift time of carriers to the depletion region
- Junction capacitance effects

7. Define noise equivalent power.

A D
It is defined as the power of sinusoidally modulated chromatic radiation, which would

S C
result in the same root mean square output signal in an ideal noise free detector as the noise
signal encountered in the real detector. If we assume that noise power generated in a detector
is proportional to its sensitive area A, then the noise current will vary as A1/2. Here we
define a new unit NEP* and it can be written as
NEP*= NEP/(AΔf)1/2
The reciprocal of this is known as specific detectivity D* and it is written as
D*=(AΔf)1/2/NEP

8. Discuss briefly about pin photodiode.


A PIN diode is a diode with a wide, lightly doped 'near' intrinsic semiconductor
region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region. The p-type and
n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for ohmic contacts.
.

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9. Define Pockels effect.


The Pockels effect or Pockels electro-optic effect, produces birefringence in an
optical medium induced by a constant or varying electric field. It is distinguished from the
Kerr effect by the fact that the birefringence is proportional to the electric field, whereas in
the Kerr effect it is quadratic in the field. The Pockels effect occurs only in crystals that
lack inversion symmetry, such as lithium niobate or gallium arsenide and in other concentre
symmetric media such as electric-field poled polymers or glasses.

10. What is the working principle of thermal detectors?


Thermal detectors are devices that work by absorbing the incident photon. It consists
of a sensing element and an heat sink connected to it. The sensing element will absorb the
photon, which results in production of heat. This heat produced will increases the
temperature of heat sink connected to it.

A D
S C

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PART - B
1. Explain in detail the principle, construction, working and of a thermal detector
and a photo conductive detector. [May/June-2013] NOV/DEC 2016
Thermal detector
To gain and insight into the performance characteristics of thermal detectors, we
consider the behaviour of the simple model shown below.

A D
S C
Fig: Model of a thermal detector used to derive the frequency response characteristics.
The incoming radiation causes the instantaneous temperature of the sensing element
to be TS + ∆𝑻. The element is connected via a conducting link (of conductance G) to a
heat sink which remains at the temperature TS.
The incoming radiation is absorbed within the sensing element of heat capacity H,
this is connected to a heat sink, at constant temperature TS , via a heat conducting link
which has a thermal conductance G.
If the instantaneous rate of heat absorption is given by W, then during a small time
interval 𝛿𝑡 , the heat absorbed is W𝛿𝑡 .If we let the temperature of the element be TS + ∆𝑇
, then during the same time interval the amount of heat lost through the thermal link is
G∆𝑇 𝛿𝑡.
The difference between these two represents the amount of heat available to raise the
temperature of the element. Hence we may write:
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𝑊𝛿𝑡- G∆𝑇 𝛿𝑡=H 𝛿(∆𝑡)


If we take the limit 𝛿𝑡 → 0 we obtain
𝑑(∆𝑡)
W=H + G∆𝑇
𝑑𝑡

Now suppose that W has a time dependence given by W =W0+Wf cos(2𝜋𝑓𝑡)


where W0≮Wf and also that ∆𝑇 can similarly be written ∆𝑇 = ∆𝑇0+ ∆𝑇f cos(2𝜋𝑓𝑡 + 𝜑f).
By substituting these relations into W, it ma be verified by the reader that ∆𝑇f is given by
𝑊𝑓
∆𝑇f =
(𝐺 2 +4𝜋𝑓2 ℎ 2 )12

Looking at the frequency characteristics we ma rewrite the above equation


𝑊𝑓
∆𝑇f =
𝐺(1+4𝜋𝑓2 𝜏𝐻 2 )12

Where 𝜏𝐻 , the thermal time constant , is given by:


𝐻
𝜏𝐻 =
𝐺
For good response at a frequency f we require :

A D
𝜏𝐻 ≪
1
2𝜋𝑓
Thus once H has been fixed then G cannot be made too small, otherwise the response

S C
time may become long. Typical values for 𝜏𝐻 found in practice usually range from 10-3
upwards, although smaller values can be achieved.
The limiting sensitivity of thermal detectors is governed by temperature fluctuations
with in the detector, which arise from random fluctuations in the energy flow rate out of
the element. It may be shown that the root mean square (r.m.s) fluctuations in the power
(∆Wf ) flowing through a thermal link, which have frequencies between f and f + ∆f can
be written
1
∆Wf = (4kT2G)2 ∆𝑓
The smallest value of G obtainable is when energy exchange takes place by means of
radiative exchange only, When very large amount of radiation are encountered , more
massive detector elements are used; these are often in the form of stainless steel disks or
cones.

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Photo conductive detector


An electron may be raised from the valence band to the conduction band in a
semiconductor where the energy gap is Eg b the absorption of a photon of frequency v
provided that
hv≥ Eg
or in terms of wavelength
ℎ𝑐
𝜆≤
𝐸𝑔
We define the bandgap wavelength 𝜆g, to be the largest value of wavelength that can
cause this transition, so that
ℎ𝑐
𝜆g =
𝐸𝑔

As long as the electron remains in the conduction band, the conductivity of the
semiconductor will be increased. This is the phenomenon of photoconductivity, which is the
basic mechanism operative in photoconductive detectors. For convenience we suppose the

A D
semi-conductor material to be in the form of a slab of width W, length L, and thickness D
with electrodes on opposite ends, as shown in figure below

S C

Fig:Geometry of slab of photoconductive material , the slab of length L, width W , and


thickness D has electrodes on opposite faces, radiation falls onto the upper surface.

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An external potential across the electrodes is usually provided by the simple circuit.

Fig: Photoconductor bias circuit, the photoconductor is placed in series circuit


comprising a voltage source, a load resistor RL and the photoconductor itself. Changes
in the resistance of the photoconductor cause changes in the voltage appearing R L. If
only the a.c component of this voltage is required , then a blocking capacitor C may be
placed.

A D
Any change in the conductivity of the detector results in an increased flow of current
round the circuit which will increase the potential across the load resistor RL . this may then

S C
be detected using a high impedance volt meter. If we are only interested in the time-varying
part of the incident radiation, then a blocking capacitor C may be inserted in the output line
to remove any d.c. component. The optimum size for RL in a particular situation is
determined by the fractional change in the resistance of the photodetector when under
maximum illumination.
The reflection coefficient (assuming no antireflection layer is present) is given by ‘r’
where r is given by
(𝑛 − 1)2
𝑟=
(𝑛 + 1)2
The irradiance just inside the surface of the slab is thus
I(O)=IO(1-r)
Now the irradiance at a point a distance x into the semiconductor, I(x), can be written
as
I(x)=I(0) exp(-𝛼x)
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The fraction of the incident irradiance which is actually absorbed in the


semiconductor can thus be written (1-r) * 𝜂 abs
Where 𝜂 abs = 1-exp (𝛼𝐷)
If we write 𝜂= (1-r) * 𝜂 abs the total number of electron-hole pairs generated within the
slab per second is 𝜂𝐼 0WL / hv. The average generation rate rg of carriers per unit volume is
then given by
rg= 𝜂𝐼0WL / hvWLD

2.Explain the principle, construction and working of pyro-electric detector.


NOV/DEC2016
Pyroelectric detectors are a more recent development, and while the do not have the
same sensitivity as the golay cell they can be made with very rapid responses time and are
very robust. The incident radiation is absorbed in a ferroelectric material which has
molecules.

A D
S C

Fig: Schematic diagram of a Golay cell detector. A beam of light originating from a
source S passes through a grating. It is then reflected from a flexible mirror which
forms part of the wall of a pneumatic chamber. The beam subsequently repasses
through the grating and is directed onto a light detector D. Radiation absorbed with
in the chamber causes pressure fluctuations which in turn cause the curvature of the
flexible mirror to change.
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With a permanent electrical dipole moment. Below a critical temperature, the curie
temperature Tc, the dipoles are partially aligned along a particular crystallographic axis
giving rise to a net electrical polarization of the crystal as a whole. When the material is
heated, the increased thermal agitation of the dipoles decreases the net polarization, which
eventually becomes zero above Tc as shown in figure.

Fig: Spontaneous electrical polarization versus temperature for a ferroelectric material


(Schematic diagram). The polarization falls to zero at the curie temperature Tc

A D
S C

Fig 1 :A Pyro electric detector


A slab of ferroelectric material is sandwiched between two electrodes (one being
transparent). The electrodes are connected by a load resistor RL. Radiation
absorbed with in the ferroelectric material causes it to change its polarization. The
induced charge on the electrodes changes and current flows through RL causing a
voltage signal to appear across RL.

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Fig ii: Equivalent circuit and typical impedance matching circuitry for a
pyroelectric detector. The varying amounts of charge stored on the electrodes are
equivalent to a current generator feeding into the electrode capacitance C. The
resistor RL is in parallel with C. since RL is usually very high (about 109Ω or more),
an impedance matching circuit is often employed to reduce signal sourceimpedance.
A typical circuit using a JFET is shown here; the output impedance in this case is
then R (≈ 𝟏𝑲Ω).

A D
S C
As the voltage output is proportional to RL,there is a trade-off between sensitivity and
frequency response. Typically, a detector with a frequency bandwidth of 1 Hz at an
operating frequency of 100 Hz can detect radiation powers of about10-8W.
Because of the comparatively large values of the load resistor encountered in
pyroelectric detectors, an impedance matching circuit is usually built into the detector. A
source follower circuit using a JFET is commonly used as shown in figure ii.
Pyroelectric detectors can be made with response times in the nano second region and
with a wavelength response extending out to 100𝜇𝑚. They have proved very useful as low
cost, robust IR detectors in such uses as fire detection and intruder alarms.

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2. Explain the principle and operation of photo transistors


The photo transistor is another device, like the avalanche photodiode, where the
current flow from a p-n junction detector is internally amplified. The construction is
basically that of a junction transistor, with the base region exposed to the incident
radiation.
Normally no external connection is made to the base (see fig:a) . To understand the
operation of the device, we consider the external currents to be as shown in (see fig:b).
The base current ib will be supplied by the photo generated current.

A D
S C
Fig: External connetions made to an n-p-n photo transistor (a).Light absorbed with in
the base region causes an emitter current to flow through the load resistor RL and
thus a signal voltage will appear across it . (b).The currents assumed to be flowing in
the photo transistor.

Whereic and ie are the collector and emitter currents respectively. The collector
currents has two components: (a) The normal diode reverse saturation current i co and (b)
the part of the emitter current that manages to cross to the collector .(The current is
carried by minority carrier diffusion across the base, and not all the minority carriers
leaving the emitter will reach the collector.) We write this latter current as ∝ 𝑖 e , where ∝
is slightly less than unity.
ico+ ∝ 𝑖 e = ie - ib

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𝑖𝑏+ 𝑖𝑐0
𝑖𝑐 =
1−∝
𝛼
= (𝑖𝑏+ 𝑖𝑐0 )( +1)
1−𝛼

= (𝑖𝑏+ 𝑖𝑐0 ) (hfe + 1)


Where hfe = 𝛼/1 − 𝛼 is known as the common emitter current gain of the
transistor.typical dark values for hfe in phototransistors are about 100. With no incident
radiation 𝑖𝑏 =0 and the current flowing , 𝑖𝑐0 (hfe + 1), is the dark current of the device. This
is obviously larger than for comparable p-n junction devices when the dark current in this
notation is just ico.
When illuminated there will be a base current of magnitude 𝑖𝜆 ,where 𝑖𝜆 =𝜂(𝐼0 Ae 𝜆0
/hc).The external current flowing is now (𝑖𝜆 +𝑖𝑐0 ) (hfe + 1) which , if 𝑖𝜆 ≫ 𝑖𝑐0 , is equal to
𝑖𝜆 (hfe + 1). Thus the device gives us internal gain, and has a responsivity lying between
that of a p-i-n photodiode and an avalanche photodiode.
Silicon based photo-transistors are readily available at low cost; a typical device
structure is shown below. Such detectors usually suffer from a poor frequency bandwidth,

A D
often being limited to a few hundred kilohertz. This arises both from the high capacitance
of the base-collector junction and the long carrier transit times across the base region.

S C
However the presence of internal gain can greatly simplify detection circuitry where the
small bandwidth is not a problem (e.g. in remote control devices for TVs and videos).

Fig: Structure of a silicon phototransistor.

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Fig: Structure of an n-p-n photo transistor based on an InGaAsP/InP


heterojunction

3. Discuss and construct the working of a vidicon type imaging tube.

A D
The vidicon is a generic name for a family of devices that relies on the phenomenon
of photoconductivity to convert an optical image into an electrical signal.The below

C
figure shows the typical structure.

Fig i: Basic Construction of vidicon tube


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The optical image is formed on a thin target of semiconducting material (antimony


trisulfide is commonly used) that has a transparent conducting layer (usually SnO2) on the
side facing the incident radiation. This conducting layer is connected to a potential of
some +50V above ground via a bias resistor. The other side of the semi-conductor target
is scanned with an electron beam in the same way as in a CRT. In operation the target acts
rather like a ‘leaky’ capacitor. When not illuminated its resistance will be high, and
charge will accumulate on opposite faces. The electron beam side will charge up to
around cathode potential (0 V), Whilst the other will charge up to around +50 V. Under
illumination , however , the resistivity of the target material will be much reduced and the
charge on the ‘capacitor’ will leak away (i.e. the capacitor will discharge itself) whenever
the scanning beam is not incident on the area in question, when the beam does return to
the ‘discharged’ area it will recharge the beam side and a corresponding amount of
opposite charge must be supplied via the bias resistor and external bias supply circuit to
the other side of the target. The amount of charge flowing will be dependent on how

A D
discharged the ‘capacitor’ has become, which in turn, is directly related to the amount of
light falling on the target. The output voltage signal is obtained by taking the voltage
across the bias resistor.

S C
One of the problems with the vidicon is its relatively high dark current, which gives
rise to poor S/N ratio’s at low light irradiances. A device which exhibits very low dark
currents is the plumbicon.
This is essentially identical to the vidicon except for the nature of the photosensitive
layer.In the plumbicon, this consists of a thin film p-i-n structure formed from lead oxide,
PbO. The transparent SnO2 layer acts as the n-type contact while the other surface has an
excess of oxygen, which causes it to be p-type. The region in between (typically 15 𝜇𝑚
thick) is effectively an intrinsic semiconductor. The plumbicon is widely used in colour
TV studio cameras. The energy gap of PbO is about 2 Ev so that the red sensitivity of the
device is poor; this can be improved by adding a thin layer of PbS

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Fig :ii: A lead oxide based p-i-n structure (The Plumbicon)

A D
S C
Fig iii: A discrete array of silicon p-n junction diodes
A further development has been the replacement of the lead oxide target layer by an
array of silicon diodes. Dark currents are very small, and the devices exhibit very uniform
sensitivities over the wavelength range 0.45-0.85 𝜇m with a good tolerance to high light
levels.

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4. With an equivalent circuit, explain the factors affecting the bandwidth of a PIN
photodiode. [May/June-2013] APR/MAY 2017
The P-I-N Photo diode
A structure that results in a good long wavelength response with only relatively modest
bias levels is the so called p-i-n structure here the intrinsic region has a high resistivity so
that only a few volts of reverse bias are needed to cause the depletion region to extend all
the way through to the n region and thus provide a large sensitive volume.

A D
C
Fig: Electric field distribution with in a p-n structure

S
In practice, the bias is maintained at a considerably higher voltage than the minimum
value and the intrinsic region then remains fully depleted of carriers even at high light
levels. The depletion region width in a p-i-n structure is then practically independent of
applied voltage and thus much better delineated than in a p-n structure where the
depletion region width will vary appreciably with applied voltage. For this reason most
simple photodiode structures are of the p-i-n rather than p-n type.
For efficient detection of photos we require that as many as possible are absorbed
with in the intrinsic region(p-i-n), If the thickness of the p and i regions are wp and wi
respectively, and assuming a surface reactance of R, then the fraction F1 of the incident
power that is absorbed within the i layer is given by
𝐹𝑖 = (1 − 𝑅){exp(−𝛼𝑊𝑝 ) − exp[−𝛼(𝑊𝑝 + 𝑊𝑖 )]}
Assuming that wp≪ 𝛼 −1 , so that absorbtion within the surface p+ layer may be
neglected, we may ensure that most of the incident radiation is absorbed in the i layer by
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requiring that wi≪ 𝛼 −1 . To be more specific , if wi= 2𝛼 −1 then some 86% of the radiation
entering the device will be absorbed . silicon p-i-n photodiodes can achieve quantum
efficiencies of 80% in the wavelength range 0.8-0.9 𝜇𝑚 . A typical spectral response of a
p-i-n silicon photodiode is shown below.
The problem of low detector efficiencies at wavelengths close to the bandgap
wavelength can also be addressed by using detectors that are illuminated from the side
(parallel to the junction) although these are not commonly available.

A D
S C
Fig: Typical current responsivity of a silicon photodiode. Also shown is the responsivity
of an ideal photodiode with unit quantum efficiency.

5. Brief about the various noise sources in a photo multiplier tube.[May/June-2013]


In the photomultiplier , the photoelectrons are accelerated towards a series of
electrodes (called dynodes) which are maintained at successively higher potentials with
respect to the cathode. On striking a dynode surface, each electron causes the emission of
several secondary electrons which in turn are accelerated towards the next dynode and
continue the multiplication process.
Thus, if on average 𝛿 secondary electrons are emitted at each dynode surface for each
incident electron and if there are N dynodes overall, then the total current amplification
factor between the cathode and anode is given by

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G= 𝛿 N
Considerable amplification is possible: if we take, for example 𝛿 = 5 and N=9 we
obtain a gain 2*106 , Four of the most common photomultiplier dynode configurations are
illustrated in figure below. Three of them (venetian blind, box and grid, and linear
focussed) are used in ‘end-on’ tubes , these have a semi transparent cathode evaporated
onto the inside surface of one end of the tube envelope. The photoelectrons are emitted
from the opposite side of the cathode layer to that of the incident radiation. Obviously , in
this arrangement the thickness of the photocathode is very critical, if it is too thick , few
photos will penetrate to the electron emitting side , whilst if it is too thin few photos will
be absorbed.

A D
S C

Fig: Dynode structures of four common types of photomultiplier: (a).Venetian blind


(b).box and grid (c).Linear focussed and (d).Circular cage focussed, typical
trajectories of an electron through the systems are also shown.

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In the venetian blind type, electrons strike a set of obliquely placed dynode slats at
each dynode stage; the electrons are attracted to the next set of slats b means of the inter
dynode potential applied between a thin wire grid placed in front of the slats. This
arrangement is compact, relatively inexpensive to manufacture and is very suitable for
large area cathodes. The box and grid type (b) is somewhat similar in performance. In
both of these, very little attempt is made to focus the electrons, which is in contrast to the
linear focused and circular cage focused types (c&d), where some degree of electron
focussing is obtained by careful shaping and positioning of the dynodes.
The focussed type have somewhat higher electron collection efficiencies and a much
better response to high signal modulation frequencies. The circular cage focussed type is
very compact and usually used in conjunction with a side window geometry. In this, the
photocathode material is deposited on a metal substrate within the glass envelope and the
photoelectrons are emitted from the same side of the cathode as that struck by the incident
radiation.

A D
The dynode potentials are usually provided by means of the circuit shown in figure
below. Care must be taken to ensure that the voltage between cathode and the first dynode

S C
is large enough to maintain proportionality between cathode current and cathode
illumination. Usually a voltage value is recommended for a particular tube, and in some
circumstances it may be preferable to use a Zener diode in place of the fixed resistor R k to
keep the voltage at this value.

Fig: Dynode biasing circuit using a linear resistor chain

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If high anode current are likely, then the last few stages may also be biased using
Zener diodes. The photomultiplier responds to light input by delivering charge to the
anode. This charge may be allowed to flow through a resistor RL or to charge a capacitor:
the corresponding voltage signal then provides the measure of the input optical signal. If
individual pulses need to be examined, then it is important to ensure that the response
time of the external circuitry is less than that of the pulse rise time. This usually implies a
low value for the load resistor.
Traditionally photomultipliers have been relatively bulky devices with photocathode
diameters of 25mm or more, recent much smaller devices have become available
contained in small metal cans with photocathode diameters of 8mm or so.

A D
S C

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UNIT – IV
OPTOELECTRONIC MODULATOR
Part-A

1. Compare Analog Modulation Digital Modulation NOV/DEC 2016


S.No Analog Modulation Digital Modulation
1 Both message and carrier waves Message signal will be in continuous
are continuous. form and carrier will be digital
2 Requires higher SNR Requires low SNR

3 Good for only low frequency and Good for high frequency and high
low bandwidth signals. bandwidth signals

4 High current levels are needed for Lower current levels is needed for
modulating higher bandwidth modulating higher bandwidth signals
signals

A D
2. Define electro-optic modulators and electro-optic effect.

S C
Electro-optic modulators is an optical device in which a signal controlling element
displays electro-optic effect to modulate a beam of light. The modulation can be done by
changing phase, frequency, amplitude, or polarization of the modulated beam. Electro-optic
effect refers to change in refractive index of the material resulting from application of a d.c.
or low frequency electric field.

3. Define the term birefringence.


Birefringence refers, for a linearly polarized wave that is propagating in z-direction,
itspolarization vector will depend on the direction of electric field. Due to this effect, the
amplification of electric field in one direction will not be same in opposite direction.

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5. What are magneto-optic devices? APR/MAY 2017


These are devices which work under magneto-optic effect. A magneto-optic effect is
aphenomena in which an electromagnetic wave propagates through a medium that has been
altered by the presence of a quasistatic magnetic field. In such a material, which is also
called gyrotropic or gyromagnetic, left- and right-rotating elliptical polarizations can
propagate at different speeds, leading to a number of important phenomena

6 . What are acoustoptic devices?


Acoustoptic devices are devices which work under acoustoptic effect. Acoustoptic
effect refers to there will be a change in material permittivity ‘e’ due to mechanical strain
‘a’.

7. What do you mean by SEED?


This is a device exhibiting nonlinear absorption or reflection of an optical signal,

A D
photonic switching, bistability, and optically induced oscillations. It is a combination of a
detector self biasing a n electro-absorption modulator. The working is based upon multiple

S
8. What are acoustoptic modulators?
C
quantum well (MQW)-III V technology.

These devices will vary the acoustic wave properties such as amplitude, phase,
frequency, or polarization to modulate acoustic wave. These properties can be varied by
making the optical wave travelled through acoustic field.

9. What are the limitations of acoustoptic modulators?


The limitations of acoustoptic modulators are,
 The design is complex and should be carefully designed
 Switching speed is limited
 Light cannot be fully switched ON and OFF

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10. Define acoustoptic filter.


The principle of operation of acoustoptic filter is based upon the wavelength of
diffracted light. Wavelength depends on frequency. By tuning the frequency of acoustic
wave, desired wavelength of optical wave can be diffracted.

A D
S C

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PART –B

1.i) Explain the concept of external modulation and compare with direct modulation.
 In the external modulator scheme, the light output passes through a material whose
optical properties can be modified by an external means.
 Depending upon the means used, one can have electro-optic, acousto-optic or magneto-
optic modulator.
 The elctro-optic effect is most widely used for high speed applications and compatible
with modern electronics.
Direct Modulation External Modulation
Circuit is relatively simple and Circuit is big by microelectronic
compact standards.
Cumbersome arrangement.
Difficult to fine tune.
Device speed is controlled by
processes internal to the laser,
A D Device speed is controlled by modulator
properties and can be quite fast, if

cavity length, etc.


S C
i.e., e-h recombination times,

Emission frequency can be alter as


new technologies are used.

Emission frequency is unaffected.


drive current is altered.
Only the output intensity is altered Phase content can be altered.
with easy. For phase, amplitude
and frequency modulation,
additional care is needed in circuit
design.

1.ii) Briefly explain about the Analog and Digital Modulation


 Modulation is the process by which the waveform of a high frequency carrier wave is
modified suitably to transmit information.

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 Modulation is classified into two types they are


i)Analog
ii)Digital
 Thus these two classifications of modulation were identified according to the final shape
of carrier waveform. This carrier waveform is usually a sinusoidal waveform (i.e.)
continuous waveform.
 In Analog modulation, the information signal or waves varies the light from the source,
or the high frequency signal in the continuous manner. Thus, both could be sinusoidal.
There is always a one to one correspondence between the information signal and the
magnitude of the modulated carrier.
 In Digital modulation, discrete changes in the intensity of the carrier caused by the
information signal. Information is then transmitted by the high frequency signal as a
series of discrete pulses.
 Trough simpler in concept and implementation, analog modulation suffer few practical

A D
drawbacks. It requires higher signal to noise ratio at the receiver.
 Analog modulation may be more suitable for low modulation frequencies. Digital

S C
modulation is more suited for large bandwidth optical transmission and reception.
 These can be described in the basic forms of modulation to described the devices
basically amplitude and phase modulator. Continuous wave light can be used as external
modulator in those both digital and analog schemes.

(a). Analog signal

(b).Digital signal

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2.i) Explain the concept of birefringence in Uniaxial crystal with necessary diagrams.
[May/June-2013]
 The simplest way of demonstrating birefringence is to allow a narrow band of
unpolarized light to fall normally to a parallel sided calcite plate shown in fig.

Fig: Double refraction by a birefringent crystal.


 The beam is found to divide into two parts. One the so called ordinary or O ray, passes
straight through the crystal and is found to obey Snell’s law.
 The other so called extraordinary or E ray, diverges as it passes through the crystal and
then emerges parallel to its original direction.
 The ordinary and
polarization.

A D
extraordinary rays are found to have orthogonal direction of

 We can explain the above and other observation on the propagation of light through the

S C
anisotropic crystal quite simply using Huygens construction. Consider a point source of
light radiating uniformly inside the crystal. Then for the case of uniaxial crystal, when a
short time has elapsed there will be two wave surfaces shown in fig.

Fig:Huygen’s constructions for the E- and O-wave surface for a) positive and b) a
negative uniaxial crystal

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 In each case one of the wave surface is a sphere. It is found that the light contributing to
this wave surface is polarized with its electric vector perpendicular to the optic axis and
the principle section.
 The principle section is a plane containing the direction of propagation and optic axis.
Thus for light with this polarization the velocity of propagation of wave is the same in
all directions.
 Such light gives rise to ordinary rays mentioned above and crystal has an ordinary
refractive index Ƞ0 .
 The other wave surface is ellipsoid of revolution which has one of its axes parallel to the
optic axis. This wave surface is comprised of light which are polarized orthogonally to
the ordinary wave and hence parallel to the principle section, and which give rise to the
extraordinary rays.
 At right angles to the optic axis the extraordinary ray velocity is either a maximum, as in
negative crystals. The refractive index Ƞ𝑐 ,of the crystal for the extraoridinary ray is such

A D
that Ƞ𝑜 ≤ Ƞ𝑐 for positive crystal and Ƞ𝑜 ≥ Ƞ𝑐 for negative crystals.
 As the distance from point C to the wave surface are proportional to the velocities of the

S C
E and O rays, the wave surface are often called ray velocity surface.
Fig : Double refraction by a negative crystal plate in which a)the optic axis is parallel to
the crystal surface and the plane of incidence b) the optic axis is perpendicular to the
crystal surface and parallel to the plane of incidence.

 The above figure shows two special cases plane polarized light incident on the surface
of a plane parallel plate cut a) with its optical axis parallel to the surface b) with its
optical axis perpendicular to the surface.
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 We see that for non-normal incidence there will be two diverging rays, the O ray and the
E ray.

2.ii) Explain with neat diagram, the construction of electro optic effect based
external modulator. Also deduce the expression of modulated light.
[Nov/Dec - 2015]
 When an electric field is applied across, an optical medium the distributon of electrons
within it is distorted so that the polarizability and hence the refractive index of the
medium changes anisotropically.
 The result of this elecro-optic effect may be to introduce new optic axes into naturally
doubly refracting crystal.
 The change in refractive index as a function of the applied field can be obtained from an
equation of the form,
1
Δ ( 2 ) = 𝑟𝛿 + 𝑃𝛿 2
𝑛
D
 Where 𝑟 is the linear electro optic coefficient and 𝑃 is the quadratic electro optic
coefficient. A
S C
 In the case of the pocket effect, the precise effects of the applied electric field depends
on the crystal structure and symmetry of the material under consideration.
𝑛03
𝑛𝑥 ′ = 𝑛 0 + 𝑟 𝛿
2 63 𝑥
and
𝑛03
𝑛𝑦 ′ = 𝑛0 − 𝑟 𝛿
2 63 𝑧
 Assuming that the Kerr constant p is very small , i.e)
1 2𝛥𝑛
Δ ( 2 ) = _ 3 = 𝑟63 𝛿𝑧
𝑛 𝑛
 Where 𝑟63 id the appropriate electro optic coefficient for KDP. In general the change in
refractive index is of this form and we shall therefore drop the subscript from 𝑟.

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 let us consider a beam of plane polarized light propagating in the Z-dirextion through a
crystal such as KDP with its plane of polarization at 45o to the induced axes 𝑥 ′ and 𝑦 ′
shown in fig.

Fig : Beam of plane polarized light incident on an electro optic crystal plane subjected to
a voltage V will be resolved into components along 𝑥 ′ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 ′ the induced principle

D
direction
𝛿0

and
C
𝛿𝑥′ =
A √2
𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡 − 𝐾𝑍)

S 𝛿𝑦 ′ =
𝛿0
√2
𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡 − 𝐾𝑍)

 thus if the crystal is of thickness L the phase change of the two componenets will be,
2𝜋
𝜑𝑥′ = 𝑛 ′𝐿
𝜆 𝑥
and
2𝜋
𝜑𝑦 ′ = 𝑛 ′𝐿
𝜆 𝑦
2𝜋 1
 sub 𝑛𝑦 ′ value in the above eqn, 𝜑𝑥′ = 𝑛0 𝐿(1 + 𝑟𝑛02 𝛿𝑧 )
𝜆 2

or
𝜑𝑥′ = 𝜑0 + 𝛥𝜑
2𝜋 1
and 𝜑𝑦 ′ = 𝑛0 𝐿(1 − 𝑟𝑛02 𝛿𝑧 ) or
𝜆 2

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𝜑𝑦 ′ = 𝜑0 − 𝛥𝜑
𝜋 𝜋
 Where 𝛥𝜑 = 𝐿𝑟𝑛03 𝛿𝑧 = 𝑟𝑛03 𝑉
𝜆 𝜆

 The net phase shift or total retardation, between the two waves resulting from the
application of the voltage V is seen to be,
2𝜋
𝜑 = 𝜑𝑥′ − 𝜑𝑦 ′ = 2𝛥𝜑 = 𝑟𝑛03 𝑉
𝜆
and the emergent light will be in general be elliptically polarized.
 The componenet of the wave emerging from the electro – optic crystal can now be
written as,
𝛿0
𝛿𝑥 ′ = 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛥𝜑)
√2
and
𝛿0
𝛿𝑦 ′ = 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛥𝜑)
√2
 The phase shift 𝛥𝜑 for each component depends directly on the applied voltage V. so

D
that we can vary the phase shift by varying the voltage applied to the given crystal.

A
 From the fig the transmitted electric field components will be −
𝛿 𝑥′ 𝛿𝑦′

S C
can write the transmitted electric field as,
𝛿0 𝛿0
√2
and
√2
that is we

𝛿= [𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛥𝜑) − 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛥𝜑)]


√2 √2
or 𝛿 = −𝛿0 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛥𝜑 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡
 Thus the irradiance of the transmitted beam, which is given by averaging 𝛿 2 over a
2𝜋
complete period 𝑇 = can be written as,
𝜔
2𝜋⁄
𝜔
𝜔
𝐼= ∫ 𝛿 2 𝑑𝑡
2𝜋
0
𝜑
Or 𝐼 = 𝐼0 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 𝛥𝜑 = 𝐼0 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 ( )
2

 Where 𝐼0 is the irradiance of the light incident on the electro-optic crystal. Sub 𝜑 value
in the above eqn then the transmittance as a function of applied voltage is given by,

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𝐼 𝜋
= 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 ( 𝑟𝑛03 𝑉)
𝐼0 𝜆

𝐼 𝜋 𝑉
Which can be written as, = 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 ( )
𝐼0 𝜆 𝑉𝜋
𝜆
 Where 𝑉𝜋 = is the voltage required for the maximum transmission . i.e) 𝐼 = 𝐼0 .
2𝜋𝑛03

𝑉𝜋 is often called the half wave voltage.

3.i) Discuss in detail the principle and operation of a photonic switch based on self
electro optic Device (SEED). [Nov/Dec - 2015]
 Since the QCSE involves a quadratic Stark effect, large electric field are necessary for
any useful shift of the absorption edge.
 At the correspondingly large bias values, the MQW diode also behaves as an optical
detector.
 Optical detection in a MQW involves
i) absorption of the incident photons.

A D
ii) recombination of some of the photo-excited electron-hole pairs.
iii) tunneling and thermionic emission of electron and hole through the barriers in

external photocurrent.
S C
opposite direction and their collection at the contact regions to generate the

 At low field the tunneling rate is small and the recombination process dominates, result
in very small photocurrent.
 At higher fields, the tunneling rate is enhanced and the photocurrent follows the
absorption spectra of the MQW.
𝑄 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑐 𝛼(𝑉)𝑊
 The photocurrent is given by, 𝐼𝑃ℎ =
ℎ𝑣

 Where, V is the applied bias, ℎ𝑣 is the incident photon energy, 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑐 is the incident
optical power
 It is easy to see that the bias dependence of the photocurrent follows that of absorption
coefficient. The internal quantum efficiency of a MQW structure has been shown to be
approximately unity at field above 10 kv/cm at room temperature.

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 At appropriate wavelength a strong negative differential resistance (NDR) region is


observed in the photocurrent versus bias voltage relationship of a p-i(MQW)-n structure.
 This arise because the photocurrent results from the change in absorption coefficient of
the MQW due to QCSE.
 The NDR occurs where the Heavy Hole (HH) and Light Hole (LH) peaks cross the
photon energy of the input light. As long as electron and hole densities in the quantum
well are less than 1011 𝑐𝑚2 .
 To develop a number of photonic switching and logic devices, the first and most
important of these is called the Self Electro optic Effect Device (SEED).
 This device exhibit photonic switching, bistability, and optically induced oscillations
due to negative differential resistance in the photocurrent. The basic SEED circuit with
series resistor shown in fig.

A D
S C
Fig:a) SEED circuit with feedback resistor b) its excitonic switching property
 The switching action is demonstrated in fig. the light intensity changes from I2 to I1 . the
voltage across device shift from V1 to V2, causing a transmittance change from T1 to T2.
 The general principle of the SEED is that the photocurrent flowing through the circuit,
including the series resistor, change the voltage across the modulator, which in turns
influences its absorption and transmission. As a consequence the photocurrent is
changed.
 For low-input power, most of the light is transmitted and the output power increases in
proportional to the input power.

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 As the light intensity increases, the photocurrent increases and voltage drop across the
series resistance will increase. Since the bias voltage remains constant, the reverse bias
across the diode decreases, which shift the HH absorption peak to higher energies and
transmission drops.
 As the input power increases further, the output power will increase again. Such the
photonic switching can also be illustrated with two beams, one for transmission and one
for control.

3.ii) Explain the concept of Bipolar controller Modulator. [Nov/Dec - 2015]


 In the SEED, the path and effect of the signal and control beam are the same and are
therefore indistinguishable in their internal effects.
 Inorder to make the SEED more compatible with the optical power level available in
optoelctronic integrated circuit (OEIC) technology, it is important to have gain in the
circuit.

A
phototransistor in series with the SEED. D
 One scheme that can be implemented to achieve gain is to correct a bipolar

S C
 The control or switching beam is incident on the transistor, while the signal is incident
upon the transmitted through the SEED, which function as a modulator.
 Gain can also be realized by using a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with a
MQW in the base collector region. This device provides a number of advantages.
 Since a transistor operates vertically, a large uniform transverse electric field can be
applied to the collector base junction to cause the QCSE.
 Incorporate of the MQW in the collector region effectively allows the realization of a
𝑃+ − 𝑖 (𝑀𝑄𝑊 ) − 𝑛+ modulator by selective etching of the emitter and so the control
signal on the HBT and the information signal on the modulator can be physically
separated.
 More importantly the entire structure of the 𝑛 − 𝑃+ − 𝑖 (𝑀𝑄𝑊 ) − 𝑛+ MQW_HBT and
the 𝑃+ − 𝑖 (𝑀𝑄𝑊 ) − 𝑛+ modulator can be realized by single-step epitaxy.

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 The schematic of the integrated MQW-HBT along with its equivalent circuit is shown in
fig.

Fig:Schematic illustration of integrated controller-modulator


 The transisitor amplifies the photocurrent generated in the MQW and provides a voltage
feedback to the MQW-HBT by changing its collector-base voltage.
 The modulator and controller are connected in parallel and the load is connected in

A D
series with the modulator and controller. the parallel connection of the controller and the
modulator allows the sum of the input signals in these devices to control the modulation
of light.

S C
 The structure is therefore very compatible with OEIC application. An important point to
realize is that amplification of the photocurrent by transistor action allows low-power
photonic switching.

Fig : Equivalent Circuit

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 The fig shows the measured output characteristics for two different switching
conditions. In the figure the load lines are shown also.
 In one application the change in light input in the controller would alter the light passing
through the modulator. The modulated light would then be a light input to the next
controller stage and the process could be continued. It would be very useful for special
optical computing architectures.
 Another class of application would involve an on-off optical signal to simply change the
optical state of one or more modulator connected to it.
Optoelectronic Amplification:
 In the use of the controller-modulator (C-M) circuit for amplification of an optical
signal, a photon energy approximately 15 meV below the excitation peak at zero bias is
usually choosen.
 The transmittance voltage curve for this choice is shown in fig.

A D
S C

Fig : Demonstration of optoelecrtonic amplification : circuit configuration.


 The large gain of the controller will allow a small change in the controller input
intensity to produce a large change in the modulator output.
 The improved gain resulting frim the large base current allow a larger amplification.
Such opto electronic amplification can find important application in optical system.

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Programmable Memory Device:


 The MQW-HBT can be operated in a single flip flop programmable memory element.
 The controller-modulator, consists of a single memory cell, can be conceived to form an
element of a larger two-dimensionalarray.
 The operation principle of the device are schematically shown in fig below
 The high voltage point 𝑉𝐻 also corresponds to high transmittance through the MQW
region, and the low voltage stable point at 𝑉𝐿 corresponds to a low transmittance.
 If the base current is made non-zero the load line has only one stable point A and when
the base current is restored to 𝐼𝐵0 , the stable point at base 𝑉𝐻 is set.
 If the base current is made higher 𝐼𝐵1 , there is again only one stable operating point at B.
now when the holding base current 𝐼𝐵0 is restored the low voltage point 𝑉𝐿 is choosen.
 This device is fully compatible with HBT digital technology and only requires a
constant uniform optical illumination. Also it is very simple in that it requires only one
transistor.

of a GaAs/AlGaAs MQW device


A D
 The bistable flip flop characteristics, demonstrating the switching and holding behavior

.
S C
Tunable Thershold Logic Gates:

Fig :Circuit diagram of thresholding gate with 3 controller and a modulator


 The fig shows the circuit diagram of an MQW-HBT threshold gate. For operation of the
gate the wavelength of the light should be above the excitonic peak, so that the complete
heavy-hole response appears in the photocurrent spectrum of the MQW-HBTs.

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 The p-i(MQW)-n diodes or modulator in parallel with the MQW-HBTs are used to
modulate light of the same wavelength.
 The photocurrent of the modulator also passes through the load, but the electronic gain
of MQW-HBTs ensures that this photocurrent is much smaller than that of the MQW-
HBT.
 Fig shows the experimental output characteristics for 3-input threshold gate.

A D
S C
Fig : Output Characteristics of gate
 The Zener diode connected in parallel with the MQW-HBT prevents damage from
accidental high voltages. A tunable laser is used as the light source.
 When none of the MQW-HBT are illuminated the output voltage increases linearly with
the supply voltage, as there is no current in the circuit and hence no potential drop
across the load.
 from the figure it is seen that for a 12 V supply the output is 1 when none of the input
are 1, but become 0 when any of them is 1. This is the NOR function.
 For the supply voltage of 18.7V, the circuit is an INVERSE CARRY gate as the output
is 0 when output is 0 when two or more of the input are 1, and otherwise the output is 1.

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 When supply voltage is about 27V the gate output is 0 whenever all of the input are
1. Hence the gate now perform the NAND operation.

4. Explain the Electro-Optic Modulator NOV/DEC2016 APR/MAY 2017


1. BIREFRINGENCE AND THE ELECTRO-OPTIC EFFECT:
APPLICATION TO PHASE MODULATION
 The constitutive relations in material media are
𝐷 =∈0 𝐸 + 𝑃
𝐵 = 𝜇0 𝐻 + 𝑀
 Where P and M are the electric and magnetic polarization vectors.
 In anisotropic media, the induced polarization due to the change in the distribution of
electron within it will depend, in magnitude and direction, on the direction of the
applied field. Thus,

𝑃𝑖 =∈0 ∑ 𝑋𝑖𝑗𝑒 𝐸𝑗

A D 𝑗

 Where 𝑋𝑖𝑗𝑒 is known as the susceptibility tensor and P and E are usually complex

C
amplitudes of harmonic, time varying quantities. The choice of axes with respect to

S
the crystal structure becomes very important in defining 𝑋𝑖𝑗𝑒 .
𝑒 𝑒 𝑒
𝑃𝑥 𝑋11 𝑋12 𝑋13 𝐸𝑥
𝑒
𝑃𝑦 = ∈0 [𝑋21 𝑒 𝑒
𝑋22 𝑋23 ] [𝐸𝑦 ]
𝑒 𝑒 𝑒
𝑃𝑧 𝑋31 𝑋32 𝑋33 𝐸𝑧
 It is also used to keep in mind the corresponding relation
∈𝑖𝑗 =∈0 (1 + 𝑋𝑖𝑗𝑒 )
 If the coordinate axes are chosen in such a way that the off-diagonal elements of the
susceptibility tensor vanish, then these directions define the principal dielectric axes
of the crystal.
𝑒
𝑃𝑥 =∈0 𝑋11 𝐸𝑥
𝑒
∈11 =∈0 (1 + 𝑋11 )
 The phase velocity of the propagating beam will depend on the direction of the
polarization of the electric field. This phenomenon is known as birefringerence. This
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is the basis of electro – optic modulation and the phenomenon can be used to make
efficient field induced phase modulator with appropriate crystals.
 The phenomenon of birefringerence and two resulting polarizations are very
convenient described by what is called the index ellipsoid and it is expressed as,
𝑥2 𝑦2 𝑧2
2
+ 2 + 2 =1
𝑛𝑟𝑥 𝑛𝑟𝑦 𝑛𝑟𝑧

 Where 𝑛𝑟𝑥 , 𝑛𝑟𝑦 , 𝑛𝑟𝑧 are the indices in the direction of the major axes of the ellipsoid.
 The direction of the major and minor axes of the ellipse is the two polarization
direction. The wave propagating in the two directions are sometimes called as
ordinary and extraordinary rays.
 This induced birefringence is the electro-optic effect, which is the change in the
refractive index of the crystal in the direction of the ordinary and extraordinary rays
due to the application of an electric field.

D
 The field dependent change in the refractive index can be expressed by the equation,

A
S C 1
𝛥 ( 2 ) = 𝑟1 + 𝑠 𝑞 𝐸 2
𝑛𝑟
 Here 𝑟 is called the linear electro-optic coefficient and 𝑠 𝑞 is called the quadratic
1

electro-optic coefficient.
 If 𝑟1 is very large, the corresponding electro-optic effect is called the pockels effect.
If 𝑠 𝑞
is large and makes the quadratic term dominant. The pockels effect is accurately
defined by the equation,
3
1
𝛥 ( 2 ) = ∑ 𝑟𝑖𝑗1 𝐸𝑗
𝑛𝑟
𝑗=1

 First we will discuss the operation on the linear electro optic modulator. A possible
experimental configuration is shown in fig.

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Fig:Electro optic phase modulation

A D
S C
Fig :Electro optic amplitude Modulation.
 If the wave incident at z=0 is described by 𝐸 = 𝐴0 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 , then the polarized
componenet along the two principle axes x and y are each,
𝐴0 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡
𝐸𝑥 = 𝐸𝑦 =
√2
 When the electric field is applied in the Z-direction, the pockels effect in the limit of
a small refractive index change can be expressed as,
3
1 2𝛥𝑛𝑟
𝛥 ( 2 ) = − 3 ∑ 𝑟𝑖𝑗1 𝐸𝑧
𝑛𝑟 𝑛𝑟
𝑗=1

 Where 𝐸𝑧 is the applied electric field in the z-direction. The refractive index change
along the principle axes and be written as,
3
𝑛𝑟0
𝑛𝑟𝑥 = 𝑛𝑟0 + 𝑟𝑖𝑗1 𝐸𝑧
2
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3
𝑛𝑟0
𝑛𝑟𝑦 = 𝑛𝑟0 − 𝑟1 𝐸
2 𝑖𝑗 𝑧
𝑛𝑟𝑧 = 𝑛𝑟𝐸
 The two different refractive indices along the privileged direction (x and y) cause
the two wave to travel with different propagation constant, which are described by,
𝐴0 𝑗(𝜔𝑡−
2𝜋
𝑛 𝑧)
𝐸𝑥 = 𝑒 𝛾 𝑟𝑥
√2
𝐴0 𝑗(𝜔𝑡−
2𝜋
𝑛 𝑧)
𝐸𝑦 = 𝑒 𝛾 𝑟𝑦
√2
 In the sample of length l, the phase difference at the output plane between the two
component is given by,
2𝜋
𝛥∅(𝑙) = (𝑛𝑟𝑥 − 𝑛𝑟𝑦 )𝑙
𝜆
2𝜋 1 3
= 𝑟 𝑛 𝑉
𝜆 𝑖𝑗 𝑟0
Electro – optic amplitude modulation:

A D 𝜋
 If the phase shift between the two component at the output is , then the linearly
2

polarized wave is changed to a circularly polarized wave at the output.

S C 𝐸𝑥 =
𝐴0
√2
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑡

𝐴0 𝜋 𝐴0
𝐸𝑦 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝜔𝑡 − ) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡
√2 2 √2
 Similarly if the phase change is 𝛥∅ = 𝜋, then the component of the output are,
𝐴0
𝐸𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑡
√2
𝐴0
𝐸𝑦 = − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑡
√2
 It can be easily shown that the ratio of the input and output intensities. Or the
modulator index is given by,
𝐼𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝛥∅
= 𝑆𝑖𝑛2
𝐼𝑖𝑛 2

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𝜋𝑉
= 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 ( )
2 𝑉𝜋
 This eqn forms the basis of the pockels electro optic amplitude modulator. The
variation of the transmission with voltage is shown in fig.
Fig pg 461
 for small signal modulation ,the modulator is usually biased at some point, say S, and
a small signal modulating voltage is superimposed.
 The total phase difference between the componenet at the output of the output
polarizer is,
𝜋
𝛥∅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = + 𝛥∅
2
 The transmission in this case is given by,
𝐼𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝜋 𝜋𝑉
= 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 [ + ]
𝐼𝑖𝑛 4 2 𝑉𝜋

A D 1
2
𝜋𝑉
[1 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ]
𝑉𝜋
 Thus if a modulating voltage 𝑉0 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡is applied to a modulator around the bias point
𝑉𝑚
2

by,
S C
determined by a quarter wave plate, the transmitted intensity intensity is given

𝐼𝑜𝑢𝑡 1 𝜋𝑉0
= + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡
𝐼𝑖𝑛 2 2𝑉𝜋
𝜋𝑉0 𝜋𝑉0
 Where should be ≪ 1. if the condition ≪ 1 is not fulfilled, the output will
𝑉𝜋 𝑉𝜋

contain higher order harmonics of 𝜔.


 The electro optic modulators that we have considered until now are called
longitudinal electro optic modulator, since the electric field is applied in the same
direction as the optic beam.
 Practical modulators are therefore operated as transverse electro optic modulators in
which the electric field is applied normal to the direction of propagation. The field
applied in the z-direction, the phase differencr is given by,

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𝛥∅ = ∅𝑦 − ∅𝑧
2𝜋𝑙 3
𝑛𝑟0 𝑉
Or 𝛥∅ = [(𝑛𝑟0 − 𝑛𝑟𝐸 ) − 𝑟𝑖𝑗1 ]
𝜆 2 𝑑

 Where d is the thickness of the crystal. In isotropic crystal such as GaAs 𝑛𝑟0 =
𝑛𝑟𝐸 and
𝜋𝑙 3 1
|𝛥∅| = 𝑛 𝑟 𝑉
𝜆𝑑 𝑟0 41
 A typical GaAs electro optic modulator is shown in fig.

A D
S C

Fig : a) Geometry of transverse electro-optic modulator and b)schematic of a


GaAs waveguide modulator.

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 Such rigid waveguide structure are fabricated by lithiography, wet and dry etching
and appropriate contact formation after first cleaving the sample along the 011
direction. The bias is applied by means of a reverse biased p-n junction or schottky
diode along (001) direction.
 The external limitation is imposed by the capacitance and series resistance of the
device. Therefore the device area has to be small and the series resistance resulting
from the contact has to be minimized.
 The problem is alleviated by using a circuit as shown in the fig.

A D
 The value of the inductance L is choosen to satify the condition,

S C 𝜔2 = 4𝜋 2 𝑓02 =
1
𝐿𝐶
 Such that at resonance (𝑓 − 𝑓0 )the impedance is equal to the load resistance 𝑅𝐿, which
is choosen to be much larger than 𝑅𝑠 .

The quadratic Electro-optic Effect: Quantum well Modulators


 In the quantum wells, the elecro-optic is different from that in bulk semiconductors,
where the linear term is dominant.
 In a quantum well hetrostructure, there will be a strong interaction of the electric field
with the optical wave.
 This was described as the quantum confined strack effect (QCSE). Which is a
quadratic effect with respect to electric field. In other words the transition energies
vary quadratically with electric field.

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 As a result the absorption coefficient and refractive indices will vary quadratically
with electric field. Thus it is expected that the quadratic electro optic effect will be
pronounced in quantum well.
 The refractive indices in the directions of ordinary and extraordinary rays can be
written as,
1 3 𝑞 2
𝑛𝑟𝑥 = 𝑛𝑟0 − 𝑛𝑟0 𝑠12 𝐸𝑧
2
1 3 𝑞 2
𝑛𝑟𝑦 = 𝑛𝑟0 − 𝑛𝑟0 𝑠11 𝐸𝑧
2
𝑞 𝑞
 Where 𝑠12 and 𝑠11 are the quadratic elecro optic coefficients. Accordingly the phase
shift is given by,
𝜋
3 ( 𝑞 𝑞
𝛥∅= 𝑛𝑟0 𝑠12 − 𝑠11 )𝐸𝑧𝑙
𝜆

 If the linear electro optic effect is also present, the total phase change is given by,
𝜋𝑙
3 [ 𝑙 𝑞 𝑞
𝛥∅= 𝑛𝑟0 𝑟41 𝐸𝑧 (𝑠12 − 𝑠11 )𝐸𝑧2 ]
𝜆

 Here
𝑞
𝑠12 𝑎𝑛𝑑
𝑞
𝑠11
the quadratic effect. D
are the electro optic coefficients describing the index ellipsoid for

A
S C
Modulation by carrier injection : The BRAQWET modulator
 In these device the injection of free carriers change the refractive index. This effect
can be quite pronounced if the junction current is of the order of a few tens of
milliamperes.
 Carrier injection can also be used in a quantum well to quench the band-edge
absorption. This id done in a device called the Blockaded Reservoir and Quantum
well Electron Transfer (BRAQWET) modulator.
 Carrier injection into the quantum well is usually done by transfer or modulator-
doping from an adjacent large bandgap doped semiconductor with the help of an
applied bias across a n-i-n structure.

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 It is important to note that while the QCSE modulator the oscillator strength is only
moved spectrally, in this device the existing oscillator strength is switched on and off
completely.
 The band diagram of the active region of a BRAQWET modulator at zero applied
bias shown in fig.
Fig: Transmission-voltage characteristics of BRAQWET modulator

A D
S C
 Since the electron transfer across the spacer is a very fast process, very high
modulation speeds are expected with the device. It has been found that BRAQWET
modulators are free from the speed limitations imposed by recombination times and
other carrier dynamics that are typically present in current injection band filling
device.
 The carrier population in the quantum well, when the bond state 𝜀1 is below the Fermi
level is given by,
𝑚∗
𝑛 = 2 (𝜀1 − 𝜀𝐹 )
𝜋ℎ
 Due to the nature of the planar doped barrier which is used to shift the height of the
quantum well relative to the electron reservoir, the offset in energy levels (𝜀1 −

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𝜀𝐹 )and consequently, the electron density 𝑛 will show linear relationship to the
applied voltage.
 It can be shown that a linear relationship between the applied voltage bias voltage and
the optical absorption coefficient results.
𝛼(𝑉 ) = 𝛼0 + 𝐵𝑉
 Where 𝛼0 is the zero-bias absorption coefficient and B is a constant.
 The transmitted power of a BRAQWET amplitude modulator is given by,
𝑇 = 𝑒 −𝛼0𝐿 𝑒 −𝐵𝐿𝑉

5. i) Explain the Magneto-Optic Devices:


 The presence of magnetic field may also affect the optical properties of some substances
thereby giving rise to number of useful devices.
 In general however an electric field are easier to generate than magnetic fields, electro-
optic devices are usually preferred to magneto optic effect.
Faraday Effect:

A D
 This is the simplest magneto-optic effect and the only one of real interest for optical

magnetic field.
S C
modulators, it concerns the change in refractive index of a material subjected to a steady

 When a beam of plane polarized light passes through a substance subjected to a


magnetic field, its plane of polarization is observed to rotate by an amount proportional
to the magnetic field component parallel to the direction of propagation.
 This is very similar to optical activity which results from certain material having
different refractive indices Ƞ𝑟 and Ƞ𝑙 for right and left circularly polarized light.
 In the faraday effect the sense of rotation of the plane of polarization is independent of
the direction of propagation. This is in contrast to optical activity where the sense of
rotation is related to the direction of propagation.
 The rotation of the plane of polarization is given by,
𝜃 = 𝑉𝐵𝐿

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 Where V is verdet constant, B is the magnetic flux parallel to the direction of


propagation and L id the path length in the material.
 We can also express 𝜃 in terms of the refractive indices Ƞ𝑟 and Ƞ𝑙 ,
2𝜋
𝜃= ( Ƞ𝑟 − Ƞ𝑙 ) 𝐿
𝜆
 A faraday rotator used in conjunction with a pair of polarizers acts as an optical isolator
which allows a light beam to travel through it in one direction but not in opposite one.
 It may therefore be used in laser amplifying chains to eliminate reflected, backward
travelling waves, which are potentially damaging. The construction of a typical isolator
is shown in fig.

A D
S C
Fig: optical isolator based on the Faraday effect.
 Light passing from left to right is polarized in the vertical plane by polarizer 𝑃1 . The
faraday rotator is adjusted to produce a rotation of 450 in the clockwise sense.
 The second polarizer 𝑃2 is set as 450 to 𝑃1 , so that it will transmit light emerging from
the rotator.
 One potential application of magneto-optic currently receiving attention is large
capacity computer memories. Such memories must be capable of storing very large
amounts of information in a relatively small area and permit very rapid readout and
preferably random access.

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 The magneto-optic memories developed so far are read via the faraday effect or the
magnetic Kerr effect, which relates to the rotation of a beam of plane polarized light
reflected from the surface of a material subjected to a magnetic field.
 Writing may be achieved by heating the memory elements on the storage medium to a
temperature above the curie point using a laser beam. To read the information the
irradiance of the laser beam is reduced and tehn directed to the memory elements.

5.i) Explain about Acoustic optic effect: [Nov/Dec 2013]


 The acousto-optic effect is the change in the refractive index of a medium caused by the
mechanical strains accompanying the passage of an acoustic (strain) wave through the
medium.
 The strain and hence the refractive index varies periodically with a wavelength 𝝀 equal
to that of the acoustic wave. The refractive index changes are caused by the
photoeleastic effect which occurs in all materials on the application of mechanical
stress.

A D
 We consider the monochromatic light wave , wavelength 𝝀 incident upon a medium in

refractive index.
S C
which an acoustic wave wave has produced sinusoidal variation of wavelength Ʌ in the

 The situation is shown in fig where the solid horizontal lines represent acoustic wave
peaks(pressure maxima) and the dashed horizontal line represent acoustic wave
throughs (pressure minima).

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A D
Fig:Schematic illustration of acousto-optic modulation.
 The wavefront in the medium therefore soon acquires the wavy appearance shown by

S C
the dashed curve. The acoustic wave velocity is very much less than the light wave
velocity, so we may consider the variation in the refractive index to be stationary in the
medium.
 As element of the light wave propagate in a direction normal to the local wavefront,
almost all the wave element will suffer a change in direction leading to a re-distribution
of the light flux, which tends concentrate near the regions of compression.
 There are two main cases of interest namely i) the Raman-Nath regime ii) the Bragg
regime.
 In Raman-Nath regime the acoustic diffraction grating is so thin that the diffracted light
suffers no further redistribution before leaving the modulator. The light is diffracted as
from a simple plane grating such that
𝑚𝜆0 = Ʌ 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝑚

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 Where m=0,±1, ±2, … is the order and 𝜃𝑚 in the correspondence angle of diffraction as
shown in fig.

Fig:Geometry for Raman-Nath acousto-optic diffraction grating modulation.

A D
 The irradiance I of the light in these orders depends on the ruling depth of the acoustic
grating, whichis related to the amplitude of the acoustic grating.

C
 The fraction of light removed from the zero order beam is

S Ƞ=
𝐼0 − 𝐼
⁄𝐼
0

 Where 𝐼0 is the transmitted irradiance in the absence of the acoustic wave. Thus
amplitude variations of the acoustic wave are transformed into irradiance variation of
the optical beam.
 Consider a plane wave front incident on the grating planes at an angle of incidence 𝜃𝑖 as
shown in fig. significant amounts of light will emerge only in those direction in which
constructive interference occurs.
 The conditions to be satisfied are i) light scattered from a given grating plane must
arrive in phase at the new wavefront and ii)light scattered from successive grating
planes must be an integral number of wavelengths.

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 The first of these conditions is satisfied when 𝜃𝑑 = 𝜃𝑖 , where 𝜃𝑑 is the angle of


diffraction. The second condition requires that,
𝑚𝜆
sin 𝜃𝑖 + sin 𝜃𝑑 =
Ʌ
 Where 𝑚 = 0,1,2 … the two conditions are simultaneously fulfilled when.
𝑚𝜆
sin 𝜃𝑖 = sin 𝜃𝑑 =

 The diffraction is similar to that obtained with a plane grating, but only for special
angles of incidence; the angle of incidence must equal the angle of diffraction.

A D
S C

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UNIT V
OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
PART A

1. What are optoelectronic integrated circuits?


Optoelectronic integrated circuits refers to the integration of electric and optical
components and optical interconnection. Optoelectronic devices makes electrons and
photons to perform single function. These devices are capable of converting optical to
electric form and vice versa.

2. What are active guided wave devices and give examples?


Active guided wave devices refers to the active components present in the guided
wave. These devices can be integrated with OEIC with active optoelectronic devices.

A D
3. Mention the applications of optoelectronic integrated circuits
 It is applicable in the field of telecommunication and radar applications.

S C
4. List out the advantages of optoelectronic integrated circuits. NOV/DEC2016
 Low cost
 Large scale integration
 Photonic devices and circuits can serve unique functions
 New functional capabilities can be emerge by integrating electronic and photonic
devices and circuits

5. What are the disadvantages of hybrid integration?


 Design is complex
 Damage in any of the device will affect the entire working

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6. Distinguish between hybrid and monolithic integration.

Hybrid Integration Monolithic Integration


1. As the name suggests discrete 1. In monolithic integration all active
devices on separate functional block and passive components are
or chips are connected using fabricated on the same chip.
electronic or optical interconnections
2. No planarity 2. Planarity is high
3. Complex design 3. Less complex

7. Define waveguide.
A waveguide is a dielectric region through which light is propagated. These regions
were alsosurrounded by dielectric regions or air having smaller dielectric medium.

8. Mention the types of waveguides.


The different types of waveguide are,
A D
 Ridge waveguide

S C
 Buried channel waveguide
 Strip-loaded waveguide

9. Explain briefly about directional coupler.


This is simplest coupler formed by the integration of optical circuit. This is useful in
transferring energy from one waveguide to another. It consists of 2 parallel waveguides.
Transfer of optical energy takes place between these 2 waveguides.

10. What is the objective of OEIC?


The objective of OEICs is to bring fiber systems to home and individual subscribers
in the form of telephone links and broadcast cable TV. In order to extend optoelectronic
technologies to subscriber, the systems need the development of lasers with precise
frequency control and tenability and wavelength-selective detectors and receivers. Data
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transmission rates of several tens of gigabits/sec will be attained by these circuits and
systems.

PART-B
1. i) Explain any two applications of OEIC in detail. [May/June-2013]
[NOV/DEC 2016]
 One of the primary areas where photonic devices and OEICs will make an impact is
telecommunications, driven by the large bandwidth and light weight of optical fiber
.The object is to bring fiber system to the home and individual subscribers in the form of
telephone link and broadcast cable TV.
 This implies that optoelectronic technologies have to be extended to the subscriber loop.
These systems will necessitate the development of lasers with precise frequency control
and tenability and wavelength-selective detectors and receivers.
 Similar requirements also hold for optical computing system. However, since link over

A D
shorter distances are needed for this application.
 Optoelectronic integration is also important for radar application .The schematic of a

C
microwave or millimeter wave phased-array radar system shown in fig.

Fig: Schematic block diagram of an optoelectronic phased array antenna sysytem

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 In principle, a phase-shifted and modulated (high frequency) optical signal is injection


locked to a free-running microwave, or millimeter-wave oscillator, which forms one
element of phased-array radar.
 Beam steering in such radars is achieved by incorporating a progressive phase shift ∆Ф
between successive elements.
 The modulated and phase-shifted signal is couple by injection locking to a microwave
oscillator, which forms a single element of the phased array.
 Each element of the phased array therefore consists of a source, a modulator, a phase-
shifter, a waveguide, and a oscillator. These devices can be combined by hybrid
integration, but for the sake of compactness,(since the phased array will contain many
radiating elements) and ruggedness, it is more desirable to realize the array by
monolithic integration. The resulting OEIC chip, even for a single element, is extremely
complex .Such radar will be used on the ground on aircrafts(“smart skins”),and in
satellites.

A D
1. ii) Write a note on Monolithic and hybrid integration OEIC fabrication.
(or)

S C
Explain the importance of Optoelectronic Integration
[May/June-2013]
[Nov/Dec-2103]
 An optoelectronic device is an good example of the complementary and collaborative
role of electrons and photons to perform a single function – emission or detection.
 Electrons and photons interact effectively in a direct bandgap semiconductor to produce
optoelectronic conversion.
 As in any optoelectronic devices where electrons and photons are involved in producing
the device characteristics ,it is possible to envision ,in a large sense ,an optoelectronic
system in which multiple function are separately performed by electronic and
optoelectronic devices. Such a system, by analogy with the integrated circuit(IC), can be
called an OEIC.
 Electronic function such as switching or amplification can be combined with detection
and also light transmission in such an integrated chip.

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 The need for integration arises from a variety of need speed and bandwidth,
functionality and multifunction capabilities, compactness, low parasitic, to name few.
 There are two principal forms of optoelectronic integration—hybrid and monolithic. In
hybrid integration , as the name suggests ,discrete devices on separate functional block
or chip are connected using electronic(lead) or optical(fiber) interconnects
 An advantage of such hybrid integration is the possibility of using high-performance
discrete devices as component.
 The disadvantages are lack of compactness and enhanced parasitic effects in terms of
interconnects, bonding and lead wires.
 In monolithic integration all active and passive components are fabricated on the same
chip. However unlike silicon ICs in which almost all the parts are made with the same
material and some processing steps, the hetrostructure and processing steps of the
different components of OEIC can be different.
 This make the realization of high performance monolithic OEICs a real challenge.

A D
 Monolithic integration can be achieved in either vertical or a horizontal configuration. In
the vertical scheme, electronic and optical device structure is epitaxially grown

C
sequentially with an isolation layer in between shown in Fig(a).

Fig: Schematic of Monolithic Integration; (a) Vertical Integration.


 The Horizontal scheme of monolithic integration can be classified into the planar
compatible type shown in fig(b),

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Fig: (b) Planar Compatible Schame


 where both devices are made from the same hetrostructure or planar regrown shown in
fig (c).

A D
Fig: (c) Planar scheme using regrowth
 where one of the device is selectively regrown after growthof the first device. Although

S C
this technique provide a large freedom in the choice of device hetrostructures, the grown
interface can have a large density of traps and other electrically active defects that can
affect the performance of the regrown device.

2. Draw the diagram of a PIN diode and HBT integrated front end photo receiver and
explain its operation. [May/June-2013]
 Depending on the compatibility of material used and desired device and circuit
characteristics, there are other possible combinations of photodetectors and amplifiers
which can form a monolithically integrated front end photoreceiver circuit.
 The important point to realize is that the integration involved a single step epitaxy of the
HBT, from which the p-i-n modulator was selectivey defined by processing.
 The collector region of the HBT also serves as the i-region of the diode.

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 The two devices were then monolithically integrated with the addition of the required
passive elements.
 The same scheme can be conveniently used to realize a front-end photoreceiver and the
HBT is the preamplifier.
 Another compelling reason for using a PIN-HBT combination stems from noise and
sensitivity considerations.
 The sensitivity of the HBT based photoreceiver is better than a FET-based photoreceiver
at high frequencies.
 This is because the sensitivity of a PIN-FET receiver is proportional to B3 where B is
the bit rate while the sensitivity of a PIN-HBT is proportional to B2.
 The epitaxial layer structure, equivalent circuit of a transimpedance amplifier design and
the photomicrograph of a fabricated circuit with the active and passive element shown in
fig.

A D
S C

Fig:The PIN-HBT front-end photoreceiver – epitaxial heterostructure


 A valuable technique to enhance photoreceiver response at high frequencies is inductive
peaking, where an inductor is placed in series after the photodiode at the input of the
amplifier or in other circuit locations.

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Fig: The PIN-HBT front-end photoreceiver – Equivalent Circuit.


 Digital optical communication systems require optical time domain measurements to
characterize system pulse performance.
 These measurements include both single and multi-valued waveforms.

A D
 Multi-valued waveform measurements, commonly called eye diagrams, include pulse
parameter mask, extinction ratio an jitter.

S C
 Eye diagrams are formed by overlaying multiple single-valued pseudo-random binary
sequence (PRBS) waveforms on the displayed an oscilloscope or eye diagram analyzer.
 In general , the more open the eye is, the lower the likelihood that the system may
mistake a “1” bit for a “0” bit, or vice versa .
 The eye diagram opening width, the time between the zero-to-one/one-to-zero crossings,
shows the time interval over which the signal may be sampled without error due to
intersymbol interference.
 The eye diagram measurement is illustrated schematically is shown in fig.

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Fig:Measurement of the eye diagram of a photoreceiver.


 The optical transmitter sends a pseudo-random equence of binary digits to the receiver
via the optical link.

A D
S C

 The received signal, and a clock waveform generated by the receiver from the received
signal are fed to the sampling oscilloscope. Two parameters that define the eye diagram
are eye closure and jitter.
𝑉
Percentage eye closure = (1 − 1) ∗ 100
𝑉2
𝛥𝑡
Percentage jitter = ∗ 100
𝑡𝑐

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 The central open region of the eye diagram of the eye diagram is a measure of the BER
of the circuit.
 It gives a probability of the circuit in making correct decisions regarding incoming zeros
and ones.
 In conclusion, the PIN-HBT photo receiver is a simple and versatile OEIC which is
capable of demonstrating to note that the dominant noise sources are the base current
and the feedback resistor.

Front-end photo receivers


 In the design of an optical-fiber communication system ,whether for use in long-distance
communication or for bussing ata over short distances, and operating at low or high data
rates, a key element is the receiver.
 The basic purpose of the receiver is to detect the incident light and convert in to
electrical signal containing the information impressed on the light at the transmitting
end.

A D
 Sensitivity plays a vital role in deciding the number of repeaters needed in long-haul
communication system.

S C
 The receiver sensitivity is defined as the minimum amount of optical power level
needed at the receiver input so that the signal –to-noise ratio is greater than a given
value.
 The block diagram of photoreceiver circuit is shown in fig.

Fig : Block diagram of a photoreceiver circuit.

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 The first two blocks consisting of the photo detector and the low-noise preamplifier are
considered the front end of the photo receiver.
 While the rest of the circuit performance equalization, pulse shaping and gain control
functions.
 Also, in most photo receiver circuits multiple stages of amplification are included to
increase the gain of the signal.
 The overall performance of the circuit is mostly dictated by the front end,which consists
of a photodiode and a single-stage amplifier.
 Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes,and metal-semiconductor-metal(MSM)
photodetectors are among the mostcommonly used photodetectors for this application.
 For the preamplifier circuit, low noise with high output gain are very important because
it is the first stage of amplification.
 Both field-effect transistors (FETs) and bipolar transistors have been used in the
preamplifier circuit.

A D
S C

Fig: Photoreceiver circuit diagram for a) low,high b) transimpedance design


 Three types of integration are commonly used and are shown in fig, the low-input
impedance design, the high input impedance design, and the transimpedance design.
 The high-input impedance design requires the addition of an equalization circuit to
extend the value of the bandwidth due to the large RC time constant.
 The transimpedance design is probably the most popular because no equalization is
usually required.
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 A field-effect transistor can also be used as an active feedback element , replacing the
passive resistor and increasing the impedance value to as high as 80K. This significantly
reduces the overall themal noise.

D
Fig: InP-basedfront-end photoreceiver utilizing MBE regrowth

A
S C

Fig: Equivalent circuit of PIN-FET photo receiver

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 The above Figure schematically illustrates the monolithic integration of an In0,53


Ga0,47 As photodiode with a In0,53Ga0,47As/In0,52Al0,48As modulation doped FET
(MODFET) by regrowth on InP.
 The MODFET consists of a layer of undoped low-bandgap material forming a
heterojunction with a highly doped high-bandgap material.
 Due to the difference in the electron affinities of the two layers , electrons are
transferred from the high-bandgap material to the low-bandgap material to form a quasi
two-dimensional electron gas(2DEG).
 The main advantage of such a structure is that the electrons are separated from their
parent donors and the coulombic scattering is greatly reduced. This results in higher
carrier mobility and drift velocity.
 Typically a high-bandgap undoped spacer layer is added between the highly doped
high bandgap layer and the undoped low-bandgap layer to further separate the
electrons from their parent donors.

than other FETs.


A D
 Furthermore ,the noise figures and noise temperature exhibited by MODFET are lower

S C
 The InGaAs/InAlAs/InP heterostructure system is a superior candidate compared to the
GaAs/AlGaAs system for the MODFET.

3. Discuss the noise performance in Integrated photo receivers. [May/June-2013]


 Noise and bandwidth are important parameters of a photo receiver circuit.
 For simplicity, we will consider the integration of a FET with a PIN diode.
 The front end noise current of the FET can be expressed as
4𝐾𝐵 𝑇 4𝐾𝐵 𝑇𝜃𝑚
𝑖𝑁2 = 2𝑞𝐼𝑝ℎ 𝐼𝑝1 𝐵 + 𝐼𝑝2 𝐵 + 2𝑞(𝐼𝑔 + 𝐼𝐷 )𝐼𝑃2 𝐵 + (2𝜋𝐶𝑟 )2 𝑓𝑜 𝐼𝑓 𝐵2
𝑅𝐿 𝑔𝑚
𝑛
4𝐾𝐵 𝑇𝜃𝑚 4𝐾 𝑇𝜃 𝐼𝐴
+ (2𝜋𝐶𝑟 )2 𝐼𝑃3 𝐵3 + 𝐵 𝑚 (2𝜋𝐶𝑟 )2 (∑ 𝑟 𝑇 ) 𝐵2
𝑔𝑚 𝑔𝑚 𝜏𝑇
𝑟=1

 The first term is the signal noise associated with the photocurrent.

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 𝐼𝑝ℎ ,the second term is the thermal noise due to the load resistance in the transimpedance
design, the third term represents the shot noise due to the leakage current in the gate 𝐼𝑔
and the dark current in the photodiode 𝐼𝐷 .
 The fourth term represents the i/f noise in the FET device, where 𝑓0 is the noise corner
frequency.
 The fifth term represents the noise associated with the channel conductance of the FET.
 The sixth term is due to noiseresulting from traps in the channel or buffer regions.
𝐼𝑝1 ,𝐼𝑝2 and 𝐼𝑝3 are known as the personick integrals and 𝐼𝑓 and 𝐼𝑟 are the I/f noise
integral and trap integral respectively.
 𝜃𝑚 is a materials related parameter , 𝑔𝑚 is the FET transconductance `
 𝜏 𝑇 is trap emission time constant and 𝐴 𝑇 is a constant dependent on trap density and
transistor parameters.
 This term is proportional to the cube of the bandwidth of the circuit and the square of
the total capacitance ,𝐶𝑇 is given by

A D
𝐶𝑇 = 𝐶𝑔𝑠 + 𝐶𝑗 + 𝐶𝑝
 Where the terms on the right-hand side represent the gate-source capacitance in the

S C
FET, the PIN diode capacitance and the parasitic capacitance .
 At high frequencies, taking the dominant noise sources in to account, the input noise
current of the FET preamplifier is given by
𝐼𝑃2 𝐶𝑇2
𝑖𝑁2 2 2
= [4𝐾𝐵 𝑇 ( + 4𝜋 𝜃𝑚 𝐵 𝐼𝑃3 )] 𝐵
𝑅𝐿 𝑔𝑚

 For low-noise performance ,𝐶𝑇 should be small and 𝑔𝑚 large.


 It may be noted that both 𝐶𝑔𝑠 and 𝑔𝑚 are related to the gate length 𝐿𝑔 of the transistor.
 With increase of 𝐿𝑔 ,𝐶𝑔𝑠 decreases and 𝑔𝑚 increases. It has been shown that the
condition for minimum photoreceiver noise yields
𝐶𝑔𝑠 = 𝐶𝑗 + 𝐶𝑝
 The cutoff frequency 𝑓𝑟 of the transistor is given by

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𝑔𝑚
𝑓𝑟 =
2𝜋𝐶𝑔𝑠
 If the input light power is expressed as
𝑃(𝑡 ) = 𝑃0 (1 + 𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡))
 Where 𝑚 represents the modulation index and 𝑃0 is the cw light input power ,then the
signal to noise ratio is
𝑆 𝑚2 𝐼0
=
𝑁
2√𝑖𝑁2

 Where 𝐼0 represents the dc photocurrent level from the cw light signal,𝑃0 . the equations
given above can be used to evaluate the noise performance of practical photoreceiver
circuits.

A D
S C

Fig : Calculated noise spectral density vs Bit rate.

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Fig : Calculated sensitivities vs Bit rate.

A
3.ii) Photoreceiver bandwidth considerationsD
 The most important parameters that determine the bandwidth of the receiver are the

S C
transit time of the generated carriers in the diode and the RC time constant of the circuit.
 The frequency response of the PIN photodiode, J(𝜔) limited by transit time
consideration .
 The electrical frequency response, H(𝜔) of the overall circuit includes the diode
capacitance and resistances.
 The frequency response for the complete receiver can then be expressed as
𝐽0 (𝜔) = 𝐽(𝜔)𝐻(𝜔)
 The thickness of the absorption and transit layer of the photodiode should be optimally
designed.
 For thicknesses of 1 um or less of this layer the electrical circuit frequency response
typically determines the overall frequency response of the photoreceiver .

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 In many designs, he noise is the main concern because equalization can be used in later
stages of the photoreceiver, thereby increasing the effective bandwidth of the
photoreceiver.
 The calculated and measured electrical frequency response of a PIN-MODFET front end
photoreceiver circuit is shown in fig.

D
Fig:Equivalent circuit model for a low input impedance PIN-MODFET.

A
S C

Fig:Calculated and measured frequency response of the circuit.

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4. Describe the fabrication process of an opto electronic integrated transmitter circuit


by molecular beam epitaxy regrowth. [May/June 2012]
 A transmitter circuits includes a light source such as a high-power LED or a laser.
 Integration of the laser with the associated electronics particularly the driver circuitry in
the form of a transistor is more complicated than the fabrication of a photoreceiver.
 This is because the laser has more stringent materials and processing requirements than
a photodetector.
 First,the laser structure is nearly 4µm high,which makes the processing steps for
integration with an incompatible heterostructure for the electronic device very difficult.
 Second, the optical cavity in edge-emitting laser needs to be defined by two end mirrors.
Third, electrical and optical confinement needs to be achieved in the lateral dimension.
Finally, the operation of the laser necessitates efficient heat sinking of the whole chip.
 In spite of these disadvantages it is worthwhile to integrate the component devices to
ensure a higher modulation bandwidth.

transistor is shown in fig.


A D
 An OEIC transmitter using the same heterostructure for the laser and the driver

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Fig:Schematic cross-sectional diagram of double hetrojunction bipolar transistor


which also function as a transverse-injection laser.
 Early, transmitter circuits consisted of a single edge-emitting laser, whose facet was
created by cleaving, integrated with a single transistor.

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 More recently, laser facets are formed on-chip by microcleaving or by using dry-etching
techniques such as ion beam etching.

A D
S C
Fig:Cross section integrated transmitter circuit with monitoring photodidode
formed by 2-step MBE. Ion beam etching.
 Figure shows the cross section of a simple transistor circuit fabricated by using these
techniques.
 The circuit also contains a photodiode for monitoring the laser output power. The laser
is a SQW GRIN-SCH device.

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Fig:Circuit diagram of single channel laser-MESFET transmitter.


 The figure 12.22 shows the corresponding equivalent circuit, which includes three FETs
and a 50 ohm input load resistance.

A D
 The identical FETs labeled Q1 and Q2 form a differential amplifier or current source to
provides the advantages of common mode rejection and noise reduction. The inputs at

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the respective gates are VG1 and VG2.
 The FET labeled Q3 acts as a constant current source and provides the drive current.
 The current source IS is a dc source to bias the laser at threshold, remembering that the
input at VG1 and VG2 are small-signal modulated signals.
 If the transconductance of the two FETs is gm and the slope in the lasing portion of the
light-current characteristics is S the output power, Pout of the laser can be simply
𝑔𝑚 𝑆
expressed as, 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = (𝑉𝐺1 − 𝑉𝐺2 )
2

Equivalent circuit of integrated transmitter


 The internal limit to the modulation bandwidth of a laser is set by the relaxation
oscillation frequency, fr.
 The modulation bandwidth can be increased by a large photon density in the cavity and
a short photons lifetime.
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 The power dissipation in a laser can be expressed as,


𝑃𝑑 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛 − 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
ℎ𝑣 ℎ𝑣
= 𝐼𝑏 ( + 𝐼𝐵 𝑅𝑠 ) − (𝐼 − 𝐼𝑡ℎ )Ƞ𝑝
𝑞 𝑞 𝐵
 Here Ƞ𝑝 is the power efficiency, 𝐼𝐵 is the drive current and 𝑅𝑠 series resistance in the
circuit.
 It is clear that the power dissipation can be kept small, even for a large drive current, if
the series resistance and threshold current are small and Ƞ𝑝 is large.
 Noise sources, due to the shot noise of electrons and photons, are also incorporated in
this equivalent circuit. However, in practice, the combined impedance of this RLC
circuit is smaller than those of parasitic circuit element.
 The extrinsic limit to the internal modulation frequency is set by these parasitic element.
 The most important parasitic element are the series resistance of the diode, Rs, the
bondwire induction Lb, and the parasitic capacitance Cp between the bonding pad and
ground plane.

A D
 This capacitance is drastically reduced by fabricating the laser diode on a semi-
insulating substrate.

S C
 The equivalent circuit of a laser monolithically integrated with a FET.

Fig:Equivalent circuit of a junction laser monolithically integrated with a FET drive

 An advantage of having the FET in the circuit is that of impedance matching.

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Optical control of microwave oscillators


 The photoelectronic phased array antenna system is an example of the application of
optical of high-speed electronic circuits.
 The use of optical signal to control high speed electronic circuits is advantages due to
the wide bandwidth of the optical control signals and their inherent isolation from radio
frequency signals.
 Optical signals can be routed via lightweight fibers or monolithically integrated optical
waveguide without affecting signals transmitted on microwave waveguides.
 Microwave-optical links also allow remote control of antennas.
 This scheme can become extremely useful in cellular telephone transmission or even
cable television where a transmitting antenna is located in remote or inconvenient
locations.
 The optical control of microwave oscillators can be realized in one or more of three

D
basic forms: optical switching, optical tuning, and optical injection locking.

A
S C

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Fig : Optical control of microwave oscillators. a) optical switching b) optical tuning


c) optical injection locking.
 With optical switching, the intensity of the input light controls the output power of the
oscillator primarily applied in a non-linear fashion for turning on and off the controlled
oscillator.
 With optical tuning, the intensity of the input light controls the output frequency of the
oscillator.
 Optical injection locking refers to the use of the high-frequency modulated optical

A D
control signal to fix the frequency of a free-running oscillator.When in locking
condition, the oscillator will oscillate at the same frequency as the injection locking
signal.

S C
 There will be a phase offset Φ between the oscillator’s output signal and the injected
signals.
 The phase offset varies by ± 90º over the injection locking bandwidth Wmax.
 The injection locking bandwidth and phase error are given by,

𝜔0 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑗
𝜔𝑚𝑎𝑥 = √
2𝑄 𝑃0
𝜔𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 −𝜔0
and ∅ = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 ( )
𝜔𝑚𝑎𝑥

 Where 𝜔0 is the free running oscillator frequency, 𝜔𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 is the injection locking
frequency, 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑗 and P0 are the injected power and oscillator output power and Q is the
quality factor of the oscillator.
 Q provides a measure for loss in the resonant circuit and is defined as,

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𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑


𝑄=𝜔∗
𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠⁄𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑
 The tuning and injection locking characteristics of an HBT-based oscillator circuit are
depicted in above eqn.

5. Explain the principles and operation of [Nov/Dec-2013] [NOV/DEC 2016]


i) Waveguide Coupler
ii) Waveguide interferometer
iii) Active directional coupler switch

 It should be evident by now that in complex OEICs it would be advantageous to have


optical waveguide and other passive or quasi-passive optical components monolithically
integrated with the active components: source, detectors, modulators and electronic
devices.
 Conceivable one could use optical fibers, but the applications of these would be limited

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from both the point of view of integration, and that of functionality.
 Guided wave components are required for routing optical signals on a chip and also for

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the function of directional coupling, filtering, and modulation.
 The study of these devices made with suitable dielectric materials falls in the realm of
integrated optics, which has been discussed in detail in several texts.
 In this section, the properties of some simple and essential guided wave components that
are important for OEICs are briefly described.

Waveguides and couplers


 A waveguide is a region of dielectric through which lights is propagated, surrounded by
dielectric regions or air having a smaller dielectric constant.
 Therefore, to form a guide, it is essential to employ techniques that will effectively and
selectively create region of varying refractive index.
 The simplest technique of delineating a guiding region is by introducing free carriers.

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 This is because in a semiconductor material with a large density of free carriers the
refractive index is lowered from that in pure material due to the negative contribution of
the free-carrier plasma to the dielectric constant.
 The lowering of the refractive index due to free carrier is expressed by,
𝑛𝜆20 𝑞2
𝛥𝑛𝑟 = − 2
8𝜋 ∈0 𝑛𝑟 𝑚∗ 𝑐 2
 Where nr is the refractive index of the undoped semiconductor at a free-space wave
length ƛ0.
 This change in refractive index is large enough for light confinement. Based on this
principle waveguide can be product either by growth of an undoped epitaxial layer on a
highly doped substrate, or by implantation damage.
 In the second scheme, the waveguide-cladding layer interface is not well defined, since
the implantation profile is not rectangular, but Gaussian.
 Guiding is also achieved by compositional variation in the vertical direction, such as

A D
that by GaAs-AIGaAs heterojunctions, an the index difference and optical confinement
in this case are made possible by different bandgaps. Example were seen in the design

S C
of edge-emitting LEDs and lasers.
 In the first, the lateral waveguide dimension are delineated by wet-or dry-etching, or a
combination of both.
 A dry-etching process such as ion-million or reactive ion etching, which provides
control, is followed by wet-etching process, which smoothes the surface. Buried channel
wavelength can be created by variety of techniques
 The simplest one conceptually is by regrowth where, for example, a GaAs waveguide is
grown and delineated and higher-index AlGaAs confining layer is regrown by LPE or
MOCVD.
 It is then mask selectively and the regions adjacent to the guiding region are doped by
implantation and annealing or by diffusion.
 Either process converts the ordered MQW or superlattice structure into a disordered
random alloy, usually with a lower refractive index, providing lateral optical
confinement.
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 The last type of waveguide structure is the strip-loaded guide.The formation of a


dielectric or metal stripe on the guiding layer alters the refractive index of the
semiconductor underneath it and confines light.

A D
S C

Fig:Techniques for fabrication waveguide. a) rigid b)buried channel by implantation


c) strip loaded d) disordered MQW
 The strain fields in the semiconductor, below the stripe, penetrates to a depth of 2-3µm
and, therefore, is suitable for guiding.
 These strain fields have been calculated theoretically and observed experimentally.
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 For any application it is necessary to ensure that the guides provide low propagation
loss.
 If the guide are made of high-quality, defect-free epitaxial layer, then the major source
of loss are surface scattering and absorption.
 Therefore, etching and formation techniques become critical in the fabrication of low-
loss waveguide..
 The value of γ, which determines the insertion loss of a waveguide, is mainly determine
by free-carrier absorption and scattering at bulk and surface imperfections.
 Therefore, material quality and processing become important in determining γ.
Transmission of optical power in the guide is given by,
𝑃(𝑧) = 𝑃(0)𝑒 −𝛾𝑧
 The directional coupler consists of two parallel waveguide between which the transfer
of optical energy occurs due to the overlapping of waveguide modes.
 This energy exchange requires that the light propagation in both guides have nearly the
same velocity and propagation vector.

A D
 If these parameters in the two channels are exactly identical, then the power propagating
in the two guides is given by,

S C 𝑃1 (𝑧) = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 2 (𝑘𝑧)𝑒 −𝛾𝑧


𝑃2 (𝑧) = 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 (𝑘𝑧)𝑒 −𝛾𝑧
 Here z is the direction of propagation and k is the coupling constant given by
2𝛽𝑦2 𝑏𝑒 −𝑏𝑑
𝐾=
𝛽𝑧 𝑊(𝛽𝑦2 + 𝛽𝑧2 )

 where b is called the extinction coefficient, d is the separation between the guides, w is
the width of each guide, and βz and βy are the mode propagation constants in the
propagation and transverse direction, respectively.
 The coupling length of a directional coupler, lc, defined as the length at which total
transfer of power takes place, is given by
1 𝜋
𝐼𝑐 = (𝑚 + ) , 𝑚 = 0,1,2 …
2 𝑘
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 It should be remembered that in real couplers the two guides may not be identical, and
the propagation constants may differ by a small amount Δβz.
 The coupling constant is then given by
𝛥𝛽𝑧 2
𝐾𝑟2 2
=𝐾 +( )
2
 The photomicrograph of a straight ridge waveguide dual-channel coupler is shown in

Fig:Photomicrograph of a GaAs dual channel single mode rigid waveguide coupler


with w=2𝝁𝒎 and d=1.5 𝝁𝒎.

A D
 For the bends to be nearly loss-free the radius of curvature at the bend must be much
larger then ƛ, the wavelength of the light propagating in the guide.

S C
 Finally, there are various forms of leaky guides and couplers where the index of the
coupling region is so adjusted that most of the radiation leaks out into an optical detector
or other such device.
 Other passive components that are required in integrated optics are lenses, mirrors, and
gratings, for the purposes of beam focusing, reflection, and filtering.
 Branching networks divide optical power among two or more outputs or combine power
from two are more inputs.
 An important commonly used branching networks is the waveguide γ-structure, shown
in fig, which can be used as a symmetric power divider or combiner.
 The mode at various points of propagation are also illustrated for the symmetric
combiner in fig.

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Fig:Symmetric waveguide Y-combiner.


 At point l1, the two arms are uncoupled and behave as independent single mode guides,
supporting the lowest order mode.
 Near the taper, the structure transition from a single waveguide of width 2w (at l2) to a
waveguide of width w. At l2, therefore, both the symmetric and antisymmetric modes
are supported.

A D
 As these propagated towards point l3 the antisymmetric mode is cut off and its energy is

S C
radiated into the substrate. At l3, single mode characteristics are again restored.
 Foe equal inputs intensities in the two arms, the Y-combiner essentially behaves like the
3-db direction coupler.
 More complex various of directional couplers and Y-structures are shown in fig.

Fig:Power splitter based on directional couplers and Y-structure.

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Active guided wave devices


(or)
Describe about the guided wave Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
 The integrated optical components describes in the previous section are essentially
passive, and are used for routing optical signals.
 There are also quasi-passive or active guided wave components that can be integrated in
OEICs with active optoelectronic devices.
 Example of active guided wave devices that we have already learned about are the laser
and the electro-optic modulator.
 There are other active guided wave devices that are used as modulators, interferometers,
and filters.
 These have been traditionally designed with materials with a large electro-optic
coefficient, such as lithium niobate.
 A simple guided-wave modulations/switching devices based on the electro-optic effects

D
is the mach-zehnder interferometer, shown in figure.

A
S C

Fig: Schematic of guided wave Mach-Zehnder interferometer with input and


output 3-dB couplers.
 The incoming optical beam is split equally between the two branches of the input
coupler and then recombined at the coupler at the other end.
 Care must be taken in material growth and processing such that the tapers are very
gradual to reduce bend losses, and that there is spatial uniformity.

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 It is assumed that the electric field of the input to one arm has unity amplitude and zero
phase.
 Then according to coupled-mode theory, the field at point a are given by,
𝜋 𝑗
𝐸1𝑎 = 0 + 𝑗𝑆𝑖𝑛 =
4 √2
𝜋 1
𝐸2𝑎 = 0 + 𝑗𝑐𝑜𝑠 =
4 √2

 At point b, the field is phased shifted due to propagation over then length La and
𝑗
𝐸1𝑏 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝{𝑗𝑘𝑛𝑟 𝑙1 }
√2
1 𝜕𝑛𝑟
𝐸2𝑏 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 {𝑗𝑘 [𝑛𝑟 𝑙2 + 𝑙𝑉]}
√2 𝜕𝑉
 Therefore, unequal length l1 and l2 will introduced a phase difference
𝛥∅𝑙 = 𝑘𝑛𝑟 (𝑙2 − 𝑙1 )

𝛥∅𝐸0 = 𝑘𝑙
A D
 Between E1 and E2, while the electro-optic effect introduces an additional phase shift
𝜕𝑛𝑟
𝑉=
𝜋𝑙 3 1
𝑛 𝑟 𝑉

S C 𝜕𝑉 𝜆𝑑 𝑟0 𝑖𝑗
 The output coupler recombines the fields E1b and E2b to give the field at output of arm 1
as
𝑗
𝐸01 = − 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑗𝑘𝑛𝑟 𝑙1 )[1 + 𝑒𝑥𝑝{𝑗(𝛥∅1 + 𝛥∅𝐸0 )}]
2
 Taking the square of the magnitude of the field yields the output intensity from arm 1 as
1
𝐼01 = [1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝛥∅1 + 𝛥∅𝐸0 )]
2
 Similarly, it can be shown that the output from arm 2 is
1
𝐼02 = [1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝛥∅1 + 𝛥∅𝐸0 )]
2

 If the devices is lossless, then the sum of Io1 and Io2 is equal to the input intensity
regardless of the relative phase shift between arms 1 and 2.
 If l1 = l2 and no bias is applied, then I01 = 1 and IO2 = 0.
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 If, on the other hand, the phase shift produced by the application of a bias is π and ΔΦ t
= 0, then I01 = 0 and I02 = 1.
 The modulation index in this case is unity and the corresponding bias is given by
𝜆𝑑
𝑉𝜋 = 3 1
𝑙𝑛𝑟0 𝑟𝑖𝑗

 The subscript π denotes a half-wave phase shift and Vπ is also called the half-wave
voltage.
1
 The corresponding switching energy of the devices is given by 𝜀𝑠 = 𝐶𝑉𝜋2 where C is
2

the capacitance of the schonttky diode.


 The switching speed is limited by the RC time constant of the electrode structure.
 Thus the output power can be controlled in a tunable manner by varying the voltage.

A D
S C

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B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2013


SEVENTH SEMESTER
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
EC 6016 – OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES
PART- A
1.Differentiate between diffraction and scattering.
2.The average electric field in a particular 2.0 µm GaAs device is 5kV/cm. calculate
the average velocity of electron, if its mobility value is 8000 cm2/V –s.
3.Why cathode luminescence is less efficiency than photo luminescence?
4.Find the Q-factor of a laser cavity oscillating at 650nm and having a line width of 1Mhz.
5.What are the advantages of photoconductive detector?
6.Calculate the photo current density in a 1cm length silicon PIN detector, due to a photon
flux of 4.37 x 1018CM-2 S-1
7.Define electro optic effect.
8.What is the principle of quantum confined stark effect (QCSE) based optical modulation?
9.What are the major differences in characteristic of opto electronic IC’s when compared to
conventional electronic IC’s?
10.Give the condition for complete power transfer from one guide to another in an optical

D
waveguide directional coupler?
PART - B

(pg.no 14)
C A
11.a.From the Schrodinger equation, explain the formation of energy bands in solids.

S (or)
11.b.Derive the expression for concentration of electrons and holes in an intrinsic
semiconductor, with relevant diagrams. (pg.no 18 )

12.a.Explain with the necessary diagrams, the principle, construction and working of a liquid
crystal display. (pg.no 48)

(or)
12.b.Discuss the theory of population inversion and threshold condition in two level laser
system. Also explain with diagram the various transitions involved in a four level
system.(pg.no 53)
13.a.Compare the principle, construction, working and of a thermal detector and a photo
conductive detector.(pg.no 64 )
(or)
13.b.i.Brief about the various noise sources in a photo multiplier tube.13.b.ii.With an
equivalent circuit, explain the factors affecting the bandwidth of a PIN photodiode.
(pg.no 76)
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14.a.i.Explain the concept of birefringence in Uniaxial crystal with necessary diagrams.


(pg.no 86)
(or)
14.a.ii.Derive the expression for retardation between two waves due to applied voltage in
electro optic material. (pg.no 97)
(or)
14.b.i.Discuss in detail the principle and operation of QCSE based optical switching.
14.b.ii.Explain the significance for Multiple Quantum Wells in opto electronic devices.
15.a.i.Explain any two applications of OEIC in detail. (pg.no 115)
15.a.ii.Write a note on hybrid integration OEIC fabrication. (pg.no 116)
(or)
15.b.i.Draw the diagram of a PIN diode and HBT integrated front end photo receiver and
explain its operation. (pg.no 118)
15.b.ii.Discuss the noise performance in Integrated photo receivers. (pg.no 125)

A D
S C

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B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOV/DEC 2013


SEVENTH SEMESTER
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
EC 6016 – OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES
PART - A
1.What do you understand by wave-particle duality of light?
2.Estimate the energy required to excite electrons from the donor levels to the conduction
band in silicon, given that mc =0.26m and the relative permittivity of 11.8
3.What is meant by stokes shift?
4.Calculate the maximum frequency of operation of a thermal detector with thermal time
constant of 1Ms.
5.A typical He-Ne laser operates with a current of 10 mA at a dc voltage of 2500V and
gives an output of 5Mw.Determine the overall power efficiency.
6.What are the limitations of Germanium based photo diodes?
7.Determine the change in refractive index due to pockel’s effect in a 10mm wide KD*P
crystal,for an applied voltage of 4Kv.The electro optic coefficient and refractive index of
the material are 26.4 x 10-12 m/V and 1.51 respectively.
8.What is Quantum confined stark effect?

D
9.What are the disadvantages of Hybrid Opto electronic Integration?
10.List the factors that dictate the half wave voltage in an active wave guide device.

C
PART - B A
S
11.a.i.Explain the principle of superposition and hence derive an expression for maximum
irradiance resulting from four coherent sources.(pg.no 20)
11.a.ii.With a neat diagram explain the interference effects in a thin film of refractive index
“n”(pg.no 20)
(or)
11.b.i.Explain in detail about the excess carriers in semiconductors and hence derive an
expression for the variation of excess carriers concentration with distance and time.(pg.no
27)
11.b.ii.Discuss about drift and diffusion of carriers with relevant mathematical
expressions.(pg.no 29)
12.a. Explain the principle, construction and working of an Electro Luminance device with
necessary diagrams.(pg.no 39)
(or)
12.b.i.Discuss the theory of mode locking in laser, with neat diagrams and hence derive an
expression for irradiance in a mode locked laser.(pg.no 57)
12.b.ii.Explain active and passive mode locking.(pg.no 57)
13.a.i.Explain the principle, construction and working of pyro-electric detector.(pg.no68 )
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13.a.ii.Briefly about photo emissive devices.(pg.no 68)


(or)
13.b.i.Explain the principle and operation of photo transistors(pg.no 71)
13.b.ii.Discuss and construct the working of a vidicon type imaging tube.(pg.no 73)
14.a.i.Explain the concept of external modulation and compare with direct
modulation.(pg.no 84)
14.a.ii. Explain with neat diagram, the construction of electro optic effect based external
modulator. Also deduce the expression of modulated light.(pg.no 84)
(or)
14.b.i Discuss in detail operation of Self electro optic Device (SEED)(pg.no 91)
14.b.ii Exlain concept of Bipolar controller modulator. (pg.no 91)
15.a.i Explain the importance of optoelectronic integration.(pg.no 130)
15.a.ii Explain principle form of optoelectronic integration with relative merits &
demerits.(pg.no 130 )
(or)
15.b.Explain the principle and operation of (pg.no 130 )
i. Waveguide coupler
ii. Waveguide interferometer(pg.no )

D
iii. Active directional coupler switch

C A
S

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B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOV/DEC 2016


Seventh Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC 6016 OPTO ELECTRONIC DEVICES
(Regulation 2013)
Answer all the questions.
PART A-(10 x 2 =20 marks)
PART A
1. Define diffraction and interference (Pg no 12)
2. What are the black body sources?
3. Mention some important LED materials.
4. What do you meant by mode locking in lasers? (P.no 32)
5. What is bolometer?
6. What are the various modes involved in charge separation of photodiodes? (P.no 62)
7. Define Bragg cell.
8. Compare analog and digital modulators. (P.no 81)
9. What is meant by Plasma etching.
D
10. What are the advantages of Monolithic opto-electronic integration?

A
(P.no 113)

S C PART B
11. (a)Derive expression wave nature of light starting with the Maxwell equation (16)
(Pg no 20)
Or
(b) (i).Explain the formation of energy bands in various materials (8) (Pg no 14)
(ii)Derive expressions for electrical conductivity in solids (8)
12. (a) Explain the following terms
(i)Photo luminescence (P.no 43)
(ii)Cathode luminescence
(iii)Electro luminescence (P.no 39)
(iv)Injection luminescence (16)
Or
(b)(i)Discuss the theory of laser emission and population inversion (12) (P.no 52)
(ii)Write applications of laser (4)
13. (a) Explain principle , construction and operation of various thermal detectors
(P.no 64) (16)
Or
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(b)Discuss the various parameters used to access the performance of a detector. (16)
(P.no 68)
14. (a)(i) Explain the operation of a three input threshold logic gate output characteristics
curve. (10)
(ii)Write short notes on optical cross bar switch. (6)
Or
(b)Explain with a neat diagram, the construction of electro optic effect based modulator
(16) (P.no 98)
15. (a)(i)What is the need for integration of opto-electronic devices and also draw the block
diagram of essential elements of an OEIC. (P.no 115)
(8)
(ii)Explain the application of Opto electronic integrated circuits. (P.no 115)
(8)
Or
(b)Explain the principle and operation of wave guides and couplers in detail
(P.no 136) (16)

A D
S C

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B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APR/MAY 2017


Seventh Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC 6016 OPTO ELECTRONIC DEVICES
(Regulation 2013)
Answer all the questions.
PART A-(10 x 2 =20 marks)
PART A
1. Identify the following as intrinsic or extrinsic semiconductor.
(a) p-Si
(b)Ge
(c)GaAs
(d)pn junction
2. Give the expression for the electrical activity of a semiconductor.
3. What is meant by modulation bandwidth of LED.
4. What is Frank-Keldysh effect?

A D
5. Calculate the thermal noise current of a photo receiver circuit with a bandwidth of 1 GHz
connected to a load resistance of 1k ohm.
6. Write any two example for magneto optic devices. (P.no 81)

S C
7. Define the external quantum efficiency of a photo detector.
8.Calculate Vs for a GaAs amplitude modulator operating at 1.1µm if the wave guide is
1.5mm long,1pm thick, refractive index of 3.6 and linear electro-optic coefficient of
1.6×10-12m/V.
9. What are the different types of optical interconnections?
10. Define eye closure.
PART B
11. (a)(i)Derive expression for the product(np) for a degenerate n type semiconductor (8)
(P.no 18)
(ii)Show that the Dirac distribution function is symmetrical about E=Er at any
temperature (8)
Or
(b) (i).Find the packing fraction of BCC unit cell having spherical atomic shells (8)
(ii).Explain the Hall experimental set up to measure the Hall parameters (8)

12. (a).Derive the expression for the total photon flux emitting by a LED due to forward bias
injection (16) (P.no 44)
Or
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(b)(i).Explain the classes of laser with examples (6) (P.no 57)


(ii).Derive an expression for gain in a semi conducting medium (10)
13.(a).Discuss the characteristics of p-i-n photodiode with its energy band diagram under
biased condition and arrive at the expression for its quantum efficiency. (16) (P.no 76)

Or
(b).Derive an expression for the gain of a photoconductor with dc excitation at different
levels of increasing applied bias n the device has one ohmic contact for electron flow and the
other blocking holes. (16)

14(a) Describe an Electro optic phase modulator with neat diagram and explain how the
phase shift determine the output wave (16) (P.no 98)
Or
(b)Write notes on:
(i)Quantum confined stark effect (QCSE) (P.no104) (8)
(ii)BRAQWET modulator (P.no 105) (8)

15.(a).Describe about the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with input and output 3dB coupler

D
and arrive at the expressions for half wave voltage. (16)
Or

C A
(b)Describe the operation of a PIN-HBT front end photo receiver and explain how to
evaluate the noise performance of a practical photo receiver circuit. (16)

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