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466 Chapter 7 Flow Past Immersed Bodies

0.014
200
Fully rough
Eq. (7.48b) L
= 300
0.012

500
0.010

1000
0.008
2000
CD

0.006 5000

104
2 × 104
0.004 5 × 104
Turbulent
smooth
Eq. (7.45) 2 × 105

0.002 Transition 106

Fig. 7.6 Drag coefficient of laminar Laminar: Eq. (7.49)


Eq. (7.27)
and turbulent boundary layers on
smooth and rough flat plates. This 0
chart is the flat-plate analog of the 105 106 107 108 109
Moody diagram of Fig. 6.13. ReL

Equation (7.48b) is plotted to the right of the dashed line in Fig. 7.6. The figure also
shows the behavior of the drag coefficient in the transition region 5 3 105 , ReL ,
8 3 107, where the laminar drag at the leading edge is an appreciable fraction of the
total drag. Schlichting [1] suggests the following curve fits for these transition drag
curves, depending on the Reynolds number Retrans where transition begins:

CD < µ L
0.031 1440
1/7
2   Retrans 5 5 3 105 (7.49a)
Re ReL
0.031 8700
1/7
2   Retrans 5 3 3 106 (7.49b)
ReL ReL

EXAMPLE 7.4
A hydrofoil 1.2 ft long and 6 ft wide is placed in a seawater flow of 40 ft/s, with ρ 5 1.99
slugs/ft3 and ν 5 0.000011 ft2/s. (a) Estimate the boundary layer thickness at the end of
the plate. Estimate the friction drag for (b) turbulent smooth-wall flow from the leading