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SEM. & CLASS: 03 & II MECHANICAL DATE: 31.07.2018

DURATION: 1 Hr & 30 Mins MAX. MARKS: 50

PART A - (6 X 2 = 12 marks)
Draw the basic block diagram of electric drive.

1. 2 CO-1 K -2

Define heating time and cooling time constant.

It can also be defined as the time taken by the machine to reach its final steady state
2. temperature rise if the initial rate of change of temperature is maintained. 2 CO-1 K -2
Cooling time constant is defined as the time taken by the machine for its temperature
rise to fall to 0.368 of its initial value.

Define the term short time rating.

In these motors, the time of operation is very low and the heating time is much lower
than the cooling time. So, the motor cooks off to ambient temperature before operating
again. These motors are used in crane drives, drives for house hold appliances, valve
drives etc.

3. 2 CO-1 K -1

Why series motor is never started on No- load?
Φ α Ia (or) Flux( Φ) is directly proportional to armature Current( Ia).
On No load as Ia is small hence flux produced is also very small.
4. 2 CO-2 K -2
According to speed equation, N α 1/Φ as Eb is almost constant.
So, on a very light load or No load condition as flux is very small, the motor tries to
run at dangerously high speed which may damage the motor mechanically.
Compare Slip ring and squirrel cage motor.

5. 2 CO-2 K -2

Why Single Phase Induction motor is not self starting?

In a single phase motor, the magnetic field in the stator is the result of only one phase.
6. Thus the magnetic field produced is pulsating. The field is not rotating. Hence, the 2 CO-2 K -2
single phase motor needs an auxiliary winding which produces two magnetic fields
displaced in time which provides a magnetic field.

PART B - (2 X 12 = 24 marks)

The enclosure of 10kW motor is equivalent to a cylinder of 70cm 12 CO-1 K -3

diameter and 100cm length. The motor weighs 500kg assuming that
the specific heat is 700 J/kg/oC and that the peripheral surface of the
enclosure of the motor alone is capable of heat dissipation of 12.5
W/m2/oC. Calculate the heating time constant of motor and its final
temperature rise. Assume the efficiency of the motor as 90%.

7. a)

b) Illustrate the different types of classes of duty for an electric motor 12 CO-1 K -2
with suitable diagrams.
1. Now a days, in almost every applications, electric motors are used, and
to control them electrical drives are employed. But the operating time
for all motors are not the same. Some of the motors runs all the time,
and some of the motor's run time is shorter than the rest period.
Depending on this, concept of motor duty class is introduced and on
the basis of this duty cycles of the motor can be divided in eight
categories such as
2. Continuous duty
3. Short time duty
4. Intermittent periodic duty
5. Intermittent periodic duty with starting
6. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking
7. Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading
8. Continuous duty with starting and braking
9. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes

Continuous Duty This duty denotes that, the motor is running long
enough and the electric motor temperature reaches the steady state
value. These motors are used in paper mill drives, compressors,
conveyors etc.


Short Time Duty In these motors, the time of operation is very low and
the heating time is much lower than the cooling time. So, the motor
cooks off to ambient temperature before operating again. These motors
are used in crane drives, drives for house hold appliances, valve drives

Intermittent Periodic Duty Here the motor operates for some time and
then there is rest period. In both cases, the time is insufficient to raise
the temperature to steady state value or cool it off to ambient
temperature. This is seen at press and drilling machine drives.


Intermittent Period Duty with Starting In this type of duty, there is a

period of starting, which cannot be ignored and there is a heat loss at
that time. After that there is running period and rest period which are
not adequate to attain the steady state temperatures. This motor duty
class is widely used in metal cutting and drilling tool drives, mine hoist

Intermittent Periodic Duty with Starting and Braking In this type of

drives, heat loss during starting and braking cannot be ignored. So, the
corresponding periods are starting period, operating period, braking
period and resting period, but all the periods are too short to attain the
respective steady state temperatures, these techniques are used in billet
mill drive, manipulator drive, mine hoist etc.

• Continuous Duty with Intermittent Periodic Loading In this type

of motor duty, everything is same as the periodic duty but here a no
load running period is occurred instead of the rest period. Pressing,
cutting are the examples of this system.
• Continuous Duty with Starting and Braking
It is also a period of starting, running and braking and there is no
resting period. The main drive of a blooming mill is an example.
Continuous Duty with Periodic Speed Changes In this type of motor
duty, there are different running periods at different loads and speeds.
But there is no rest period and all the periods are too short to attain the
steady state temperatures.


8. a) Explain the Torque–Speed characteristics for DC Shunt motor. 12 CO-2 K -2

Torque Vs. Armature Current (Ta-Ia)

 In case of DC shunt motors, we can assume the field flux
ɸ to be constant. Though at heavy loads, ɸ decreases in
a small amount due to increased armature reaction.
 the change in the flux ɸ is neglected, torque is
proportional to armature current. Hence, the Ta-Ia
characteristic for a dc shunt motor will be a straight line
through the origin.
 Since heavy starting load needs heavy starting
current, shunt motor should never be started on a
heavy load.

Speed Vs. Armature Current (N-Ia)

 As flux ɸ is assumed to be constant, we can say N ∝ Eb.
 But, as back emf is also almost constant, the speed
should remain constant.
 But practically, ɸ as well as Eb decreases with increase
in load.
 Back emf Eb decreases slightly more than ɸ, therefore,
the speed decreases slightly.
 Generally, the speed decreases only by 5 to 15% of full
load speed.
 Therefore, a shunt motor can be assumed as a
constant speed motor.
 In speed vs. armature current characteristic in the
following figure, the straight horizontal line represents the
ideal characteristic and the actual characteristic is shown
by the dotted line.

8. b) i) Explain about the quadrant diagram of speed-torque characteristics for 6 CO-2 K -2
a motor driving hoist load.
 A DC motor may operate in one or more modes (or quadrant) in
variable speed applications.
 The major advantage of using DC motor is that the ease of its

• A motor operate in 2 modes – Motoring and braking
Motoring - electrical energy to mechanical energy, support its motion.
(generator) braking – mechanical energy to electrical energy, oppose the
• Motor can provide motoring & braking for both forward & reverse
Power developed by a motor is given by the product of speed & torque.

• A hoist consists of a rope wound on a drum coupled to a motor shaft.

• One end of a rope is tied to a cage which is used for transporting
material. Other end of the rope has a counter weight.
• Weight of the counter weight chosen higher than the weight of an
empty case but lower than a fully loaded cage.
Empty Cage weight<Counter Weight < Fully loaded cage
b) i) For a 4 pole induction motor the supply frequency is 50 Hz and it is 6 CO-2 K -3
rotating at a speed of 1440 rpm.Find its percentage slip and slip speed.
Ns=120f/p = 1500
Slip speed=Ns-N=1500-1440=60rpm
%slip=s=(Ns-N)/Ns*100 = 4

PART C ( 1 X 14 = 14 marks)

9. a) A 400 V, 750 rpm, 70 A dc shunt motor has an armature of 0.3 ohm. 14 CO-2 K -3
When running under rated conditions, the motor is to be braked by
plugging with armature current limited to 90A. What external
resistance should be connected in series with the armature? Calculate
the initial braking torque and its value when the speed has fallen to
300 rpm. Neglect saturation.