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# CONFIDENTIAL 1 EC/JAN 2017/CES512/513

## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FINAL EXAMINATION

## COURSE : COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR

ENGINEERS
COURSE CODE : CES512/513
EXAMINATION : JAN 2017
TIME : 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

## 1. This question paper consists of four (4) questions.

2. Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

3. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator.

## i) the Question Paper

ii) an Answer Booklet – provided by the Faculty
iii) one pieces of graph paper

## DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

This examination paper consists of 6 printed pages

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 2 EC/JAN 2017/CES512/513

QUESTION 1

## a) The growth of a bacteria colony, k, is being studied by an environmental engineer with

the concentration of oxygen, c. The relationship between the bacteria growth and the
oxygen concentration is described by the following equation;

𝑘𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑐 2
𝑘=
𝑐𝑘 + 𝑐 2
where
ck and kmax is the coefficient of the experiment

Table Q1(a) shows the data collected during the study conducted by the environmental
engineer.

Table Q1(a)

c, k,
(mg/L) per day

0.50 1.1
0.80 2.35
1.45 5.3
2.51 7.6
4 8.9

i) Using suitable linear transformation on the given relationship, formulate the way how
to compute the kmax and ck value.
(7 marks)

ii) Determine the value of kmax and ck using the graph paper.
(8 marks)

iii) Determine the growth rate of the bacteria if the oxygen concentration is 3 mg/L.

(4 marks)

b) A plane truss structure, with a pin and a roller support at A and B, has been statically
analysed to obtain the reaction forces as shown in Figure Q1(b). By choosing any truss
joint and considering the statically force equilibrium over the joint and considering the
axial forces values in Table Q1(b), determine all unknown member axial force values
attached at the selected joint using the Gauss-Jordan Elimination method.

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 3 EC/JAN 2017/CES512/513

20 kN

30 kN D

0.5 m

30 kN C

0.4 m
20 kN
A B
60 kN

61.11 kN
21.11 kN
0.3 m 0.2 m 0.4 m

Figure Q1(b)

Table Q1(b)

## Member Forces (kN)

CD -3.82
CB -38.25
CA 5.60

Note that negative force values denote members in the compression state.
(6 marks)

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 4 EC/JAN 2017/CES512/513

QUESTION 2

## a) The ordinary differential equation of a cantilever column of length, L, is given as

𝑑𝑦
𝐸𝐼 = 𝑀𝑥
𝑑𝑥
where
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑥
is the slope of the column.

## y is the column deflection

x is the horizontal distance along the column measured from the fixed support
M is the bending moment equation
E is the Young Modulus of the column
I is the moment of inertia of the column

i) Solve the column deflection, y, at x = 0.5 meter from the fixed support as shown
in Figure Q2a using the Heuns method. Use a constant step size of 0.25 m and
the Young Modulus of column is 205 GPa with a moment of inertia of 1 x 10-6 m4.
(8marks)

ii) Propose a suitable dimension of square column to ensure that the deflection, y,
at 0.5 m from the fixed support satisfies the following range as 0.0025 m < y <
0.004 m. The Young Modulus of the column is 205 GPa.

10 kN/m
1m
x

Figure Q2(a)
(6 marks)

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 5 EC/JAN 2017/CES512/513

b) The compressive stress that induced in a mild steel column which is subjected to an
eccentric load is given by the secant formula as

𝑃 𝑆𝑦𝑐
=
𝐴 𝑒𝑐 1 𝑃
1 + ( 2 ) sec ( √𝐴𝐸 )
𝐾 2𝑘
where
P is the compressive axial load
A is the cross sectional areas of the column
𝑆𝑦𝑐 is the yield stress of the column in compression = 205 GPa
e is the column eccentrity = 20 mm
E is the Young Modulus of the column = 205 GPa
1
K is the column constant = 25
c is the constant = 0.016
𝑃
Using the Bisection method, determine the value of compressive stress, 𝐴. Perform the
iteration until the approximate absolute relative error, εa falls below 1%. Use the lower guess
𝑃
and upper guess of 𝐴 as 2.70 GPa and 3.10 GPa respectively.

(11 marks)

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 6 EC/JAN 2017/CES512/513

QUESTION 3

a) A manufacturer produces two products, (A and B), using lathe, milling machines, and
grinding machines. The amount of machining time required for each product and the
corresponding profit are given in Table Q3.

Table Q3

## Product On lathe On milling On grinding Profit per unit (RM)

machine machine
(hours) (hours) (hours)
A 16 8 10 90
B 8 14 9 110

The maximum machining times available on lathes, milling machines, and grinding machines
are 128, 112, and 90 hours respectively.

## i) Formulate the problem solution in order to maximize the profit.

(6 marks)

ii) Solve the number of units of products A and B to be manufactured per hour for
achieving the maximum profit using the Graphical Method.

(6 marks)

b) The soil vertical stresses below the center of a circular footing, 𝜎𝑧 , can be estimated by
integrating the Bousineq equation over the circular domain as

𝑟=𝑎
𝑟 𝑑𝑟
𝜎𝑧 = 3𝑞𝑧 3 ∫ 5
𝑟=0 (𝑟 2 + 𝑧 2 )2

where
z is the depth of soil below the circular footing
q is the load per unit circular area
r is the radius of the circular footing

The soil engineer needs to investigate the vertical stresses of two types of footing with
diameter of 2m under 0.6 kPa pressure over the circular area.

i) Using the Simpson 1/3 rule and the suitable number of equal divisions, evaluate the
vertical stresses at the soil depth of 2 meter under the footing.
(7 marks)

ii) Compute the vertical stresses of footing at the same soil depth using the single
trapezoidal method.
(6 marks)

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 7 EC/JAN 2017/CES512/513

QUESTION 4

Figure Q4 shows a frame structure subjected to a point load of 1200 kN at joint B. The
segments AB and BC have a rectangular cross-section of 50 mm (width) x 60 mm (height)
and are made of steel with elastic modulus of 200 GPa. Joint A and C are constrained by the
fixed connections system. Consider that the cross sectional of each member is 600 mm2 and
moment inertia is 60 x 106 mm4.

a) Using the basic principles of Finite Element method, describe the general steps used to
solve the given problem.
(10 marks)

(2 marks)

## c) Assemble the element stiffness matrix equation established in Q4(b) as a structural

global equation.

(4 marks)

d) Using the structural global equation established in Q4(c), determine the nodal
displacements of the frame.
(9 marks)

A 1200 kN
B
EI, EA
EI, EA

6m

6m

Figure Q4

## END OF QUESTION PAPER

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL