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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Strength The measurement of how much load a material can withstand before
failure. The more load a material can bear, the more strength it has
Brittleness Brittleness is when a material breaks suddenly under stress, without
exhibiting much elastic deformation or changes in dimension.
Stiffness A material’s ability to resist significant elastic deformation while
loading. The less deformation a material exhibits during loading, the
stiffer it is.
Hardness Hardness is defined by a material’s ability to resist various forms of
deformation, indentation and penetration. Also refers to its resistance
to scratching, scraping, drilling, chipping and wear and tear.
Toughness Toughness is defined by the material’s capacity to withstand elastic
and plastic deformation without failure. Typically measured by the
amount of energy a material can absorb before fracturing.
TENSILE TEST
Aim used to determine the mechanical behavior of materials
under static, axial tensile, or stretch loading.

Concept Tensile loads are those that tend to pull the specimen apart,
putting the specimen in tension. They can be performed on
any specimen of known cross-sectional area and gage length
to which a uniform tensile load can be applied.
TENSILE TEST - APPARATUS

Clamps for Holding


Dial Gauge to Measure Specimen
Extension of Specimen

Simple Tensile Testing Machine


TENSILE TEST - SPECIMEN
TENSILE TEST – STRESS STRAIN CURVE
TENSILE TEST – DEFINITIONS
• Ultimate tensile strength - the maximum tensile stress that a material is capable of
developing during a test.
• Load- applied force either pounds or newtons
• Stress - the intensity of the internally-distributed forces or components of forces that
resist a change in the form of a body. Commonly measured in units dealing with force
per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (PSI or lb/in2) or megapascals (MPa). The
three basic types of stress are tension, compression, and shear. The first two, tension
and compression, are called direct stresses.
• Elastic limit - the greatest amount of stress a material can develop without taking a
permanent set.
• Percent elongation - the total percent strain that a specimen develops during testing.
IMPACT TEST
• TOUGHNESS: energy to break. (Joules)
• Charpy impact test measures energy absorbed by impact
and breaking of specimen.
• A brittle material will hardly slow down the hammer, a tough
material will almost halt it.
• Toughness usually decreases at lower temperatures.
• Toughness usually decreases with higher impact speed.
IMPACT TEST - PRINCIPLE
• In the notched-bar impact test, a pendulum hammer falls down from a
maximum height. At its lowest point, the hammer strikes the rear of a
notched specimen according to charpy's principle. If the abutment
penetrates or passes through the specimen, the hammer dissipates its
impact energy to the specimen. The residual energy of the hammer is
reduced when swinging through the lowest possible point (zero point)
and the hammer decelerates. When the hammer swings through the
zero point, the trailing pointer is dragged along and the applied
work for the notched-bar impact is displayed on a scale.
IMPACT TEST - CONDITIONS
• The impact data are sensitive to test conditions. Increasingly sharp notches can give lower
impact-energy values due to the stress concentration effect at the notch tip
• The FCC alloys generally ductile fracture mode
• The HCP alloys generally brittle fracture mode
• temperature is important
• the BCC alloys brittle modes at relatively low temperatures and ductile mode at
relatively high temperature
• As temperature decreases a ductile material can become brittle. So, there is a ductile-to-
brittle transition temperature also called DBTT
• The ABSORBED ENERGY vs. TEMPERATURE curves for many materials will show a sharp
decrease when the temperature is lowered to the ductile to brittle transition temperature
(DBTT) .
IMPACT TEST - APPARATUS