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A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the

requirements for the award of the degree of
Master of Science (Construction Management)

Faculty of Civil Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

November 2008

To my beloved mother and father



This study would not have been possible without the assistance and support
of those who have been actively involved in this research. First, the author would
like to thank GOD Almighty ALLLAH for his grace and mercy throughout this
research. It is by his hands and wisdom in guiding the author to finish in this study.

Second, the author would like to thank the honorable supervisor, Assoc Prof.
Dr. Abdul Kadir Marsono, for his support, encouragement, and academic guidance
during the study. The author would like to thank specially for his patience and
tolerance. His diligence, dedication and working attitudes are good example to

Third, the author would like to thank the co-supervisor Assoc Prof. Dr.
Masine bt. Md. Tap for her ideas and valuable suggestions which allowed the author
to gain a broader understanding and improvement for the research.

Last but not least, the author is grateful to his family members for their love,
support and encouragement, special thanks to my brother shu‘ab abdullatif bashir for
his support and encouragement during my study.


Construction is one of the most hazardous industries due to its unique nature.
Measured by international standards, construction site safety records in construction
are poor. Many construction companies around the world are implementing safety,
health, and environmental management systems to reduce injuries, eliminate illness,
and to provide a safe work environment in their construction sites. The increase in
both insurance costs and workers‘ compensation makes it necessary to reduce
eliminate worksite accidents. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 were
established to provide guidelines for safe worksite practices and to ensure the safety
of the workers. One of the best ways to avoid injuries and minimize costs is through
good planning and co-ordination – both before and on the job. On-site working
conditions, lack of proper training, and improper use of safety equipment often lead
to serious injury and even death. The involvement of scaffolds, ladders, heavy
equipment and in some cases dangerous chemicals, greatly increase the risk of
construction accidents.


Industri pembinaan adalah merupakan salah satu industri paling merbahaya

kerana sifatnya unik. Pengukuran dengan menggunakan piawaian antarabangsa
mendapati rekod keselamatan di tapak bina adalah teruk. Banyak syarikat
pembinaan di seluruh dunia mengimplementasi sistem pengurusan keselamatan,
kesihatan dan alam sekitar bagi mengurangkan kecederaan, mengelakkan sebarang
penyakit dan menyediakan suasana kerja yang selamat di tapak-tapak pembinaan.
Peningkatan kos insuran dan kos pembayaran pampasan pekerja menyebabkan
perlunya kepada penghapusan kemalangan di tapak bina. Akta Keselamatan dan
Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1970 ditubuhkan untuk menyediakan garis panduan bagi
pengamalan cara kerja yang selamat di tapak bina dan menjamin keselamatan
pekerja. Salah satu kaedah terbaik untuk mengelakkan kecederaan dan meminima
kos adalah melalui perancangan dan koordinasi yang baik sebelum dan selepas
sesuatu kerja. Keadaan tempat kerja di tapak pembinaan, kurangnya latihan yang
sempurna dan penggunaan peralatan keselamatan yang tidak betul sering membawa
kepada kecederaan serius dan kemungkinan berlakunya kematian. Penggunaan
peranca, tangga, jentera berat dan di dalam sesetengah kes melibatkan bahan-bahan
kimia merbahaya meningkatkan risiko berlakunya kemalangan ketika pembinaan.




1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Construction Fatality Rates in Europe 5
1.3 Problem statement 6
1.4 Aims and Objective of study 7
1.5 Significance of the Study 8
1.6 Research Methodology 8

2.1 Industrialized Building System (IBS) 9
2.2 Steel Framed and Precast Concrete Building 11
2.3 Benefits of IBS Component 12

2.3.1 High Quality and Aesthetical Value of 12

2.3.2 Cleaner and Safer Construction Site 13
Faster Construction 13
2.3.4 Greater Unobstructed Span 14
2.3.5 Lower Total Construction Costs 14
2.4 Why IBS in Malaysia 14
2.5 Why Safety and Health Should Be Well Managed? 15
2.5.1 Humanitarian Consideration 16
2.5.2 Financial Cost 16
2.5.3 Legal Sanction 17
2.6 OSH Management System of the Construction 17
2.7 Safety and Health Culture 18
2.8 OSH Management System in Malaysia 19
2.9 Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) 20
2.91 Elements of the OHS Management System 21
2.10 How Accidents Occur 24
2.11 Safety Practices 24
2.12 Safety Improvement 25
2.13 Safety and Health Management Systems 26
2.13.1 Management Commitment and Employee 26
2.13.2 Worksite Analysis 28
2.13.3 Hazard Prevention and Control 29
2.13.4 Safety and Health Training 30

3.1 Introduction 32
3.2 Conceptualization 33
3.3 Identification of Research Focus and Scope of Study 33
3.4 Data Collection 34
3.4.1 Study of Documents 35

3.4.2 Selecting A Case Study 35

3.5 Modeling and Simulation 36
3.5.1 Using Witness Software Data 37
3.5.2 Benefits of Simulation 38
3.6 Data Analysis and Discussion 39


4.1 Introduction 40
4.2 Causes of Accidents 40
4.2.1 Unsafe Acts/Practices 41
4.2.2 Unsafe Conditions 42
4.2.3 Secondary Cause of Accident 43 Management System Pressure 44 Social Pressure 44
4.3 Most Common Types of Construction Accidents 45
4.3.1 Construction Site Falls 46
4.3.2 Crane Accidents 46
4.3.3 Scaffolding Accidents 47
4.3.4 Defective Scaffolding 47
4.3.5 Improperly Assembled Scaffolding 48
4.3.6 Run Over by Operating Equipment 48
4.3.7 Electrical Accidents on Construction Sites 48
4.3.8 Trench Collapses 49
4.3.9 Fires and Explosions in Construction Site 50
4.3.10 Welding Accidents on a Construction Site 50
4.3.11 Arc Burn Accidents 50
4.3.12 Unsafe/Dangerous Construction Equipment 51
4.3.13 Unsafe/Faulty Ladders 51
4.3.14 Defective power tools 51
4.3.15 Defective Derricks 52
4.3.16 Defective Hoists 52
4.3.17 Defective Conveyors 53

4.3.18 Defective Winches 53

4.3.19 Defective Graters 53
4.3.20 Defective scrapers 54
4.3.21 Defective Tractors 54
4.3.22 Defective Bulldozers 55
4.3.23 Defective Forklifts 55
4.3.24 Defective Backhoes 56
4.3.25 Defective Boilers 56
4.3.26 Defective Pressure Vessels 57
4.3.27 Logging Accidents 57
4.3.28 Brazing Accidents 58
4.3.29 Cutting Accidents 58
4.3.30 Elevator Accidents on construction site 59
4.3.31 Structure Failure on construction site 59
4.3.32 Building Collapse on construction site 59
4.3.33 Construction Site Supervisor Negligence 60
4.3.34 Compressor Accidents 60
4.3.35 Exploding Compressor 61
4.3.36 Gas Explosions on a construction site 61
4.4 Conclusions 62


5.1 Safety and Health Requirements 63
5.2 Case study 65


6.1 Conclusion 70
6.2 Recommendation 71




1.1 Fatality rates for selected EU member states 6

4.1 Primary cause of accidents 43
4.2 Secondary cause of accidents 45
5.1 Safety and Health Requirements in pre-cast construction 64



1.1 Injury rate of construction and all private industry 3

1.2 Total Industrial Accidents in Malaysia 4
1.3 Flow chart of the research methodology 9
2.1 Structural construction system in IBS 11
2.2 OHS management system elements of the BS 8800: 24
3.1 Stages in Research Methodology 32
3.2 Flow chart of the research methodology 34
3.3 Model for semi-pre cast concrete houses 35
3.4 Witness 2001 Software Start Up Window 37
3.5 Elements used to build the models: Machine (activity); 38
Buffers (queues); and Part (house)
5.1 Simulation Model For one hundred unit houses 66
5.2 Effects of accidents to overall completion time 67
5.3 Simulation model for one hundred unit houses 68
5.4 Effects of accidents to overall completion time 68


CIDB - Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia

HSE - Health and Safety Executive
IBS - Industrialized Building System
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Act
OSHMS - Occupational Safety and Health Management System
SOCSO - Social Security Organization


1.1 Introduction

Construction accidents causes many human tragedies, de-motivate workers,

disrupt site activities, delay project progress and adversely affect the overall cost,
productivity and reputation of the construction industry. Although project safety
management is very much a traditional concern for the construction industry, the
industry seems to suffer from a general inability to manage workplace health and
safety to a level where a pro-active zero-accident culture prevails. Many construction
workers are killed or injured every year as a result of construction operations. Others
suffer ill health. The hazards are not restricted to those working on site. Children and
members of the general public are also killed or injured due to inadequate control of
construction activities. The construction industry‘s performance has improved over
the years but the rates of death, serious injury and ill health are still too high.
Accident rates in the construction industry today are one-quarter of those reported in
the 1960s and half those reported in the 1970s. A construction site is more dangerous
than other places of work—according to the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE),
those who spend their working lives on construction sites have a 1 in 300 chance of
being killed at work.There is still great potential to improve the health and safety.

It is argued that construction management must have a prime concern for

safety and therefore should have a moral, economic, and legal commitment to ensure
workplace safety on sites. However the responsibility for safety must commence
upstream of the construction phase of a project; architects and engineers must have
the technical knowledge to design buildings which can be safely constructed, as well
as a commitment to safe working conditions for site workers.

Accident data prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov)

show that the construction industry has performed much worse than the average of
all industries (Figure 1.1). Although the safety performance of the construction
industry has improved dramatically in the 1990s, injury rates in the construction
industry are still 50% higher than that of all industries, lagging all industries by about
10 years. With an average employment of approximately 7% of the industrial
workforce, the construction industry has regularly accounted for over 1,100
construction worker deaths per year or nearly 20% of all industrial worker fatalities
(www.bls.gov). A more recent, but unpublished, research study by Coble and Hinze
(2000) showed that the average workers‘ compensation insurance costs could be
conservatively estimated as constituting 3.5% of the total project costs. In order to
reduce and eventually eliminate construction accidents, researchers have explored
techniques implemented by different construction parties to realize the ―zero-injury
objective.‖ By doing so, it will indirectly increase the productivity and profitability
for contractors involved in construction industry.

Many accidents in the construction industry are due to bad planning, lack of
organization and poor co-ordination on construction sites. According to the European
Agency for Safety and Health at Work, in the European Union, construction work
leads to most serious accidents at places of work, with more than 1300 people being
killed in construction accidents every year. Worldwide, construction workers are
three times more likely to be killed and twice as likely to be injured as workers in
other occupations. As is evident in this Code of Practice, the costs of these accidents
are not borne by workers and employers only, but are also usually shouldered by the
owner or owners of the project, legally known as the ―client‖. These costs can
amount to a considerable share of the contract price.

Graph Injury Rate vs Year

Figure 1.1: Injury rate of construction and all private industry

In Malta, most occupational fatalities occur in construction sites, and most of

these fatalities are due to falls from heights. Moreover, the construction sector claims
the second highest rate of occupational accidents each year, reaching 16.5% of all
reported accidents in 2005. Eliminating or reducing accidents and injuries at the
place of work will not only save a great deal of pain and suffering to workers but will
also help to reduce the many direct and indirect financial costs related to these
accidents and injuries. Furthermore, owners of projects (clients), client appointed
supervisors, employers, directors, managers and other supervisors can be held
responsible for failing to have effective occupational health and safety control
measures in place.

It is noted that 50% of the construction workers in Malaysia are working

under unsatisfactory conditions. The condition includes failure to wear safety hats
and boots, construction sites failing to adhere to pre-requisite safety requirements,
and using unauthorized heavy machinery. According to the Ministry of Human
Resource, the accident workplace in Malaysia has decreased from 21.2 to 10.3 per
1000 workers. Figure 1.2 below shows the recorded industrial accidents in Malaysia.

The numbers of cases recorded are high, but they are decreasing year by year, partly
due to better awareness of safety.

Figure 1.2: Total Industrial Accidents in Malaysia

The construction industry is currently being recognized as a major economic

force in Malaysia. It is also one of the most hazardous industry. Based on the Social
Security Organization (SOCSO) report in 2000, the fatality rate in the construction
industry in Malaysia was of more than 3 times of all workplaces. Whereas,
compensation costs paid out by SOCSO for industrial accidents and diseases
accounted for almost RM650 Million. As the hidden or indirect cost of an accident is
eight to 33 times more than direct costs, the total cost of accident can run into
billions of ringgit.

In the field of occupational safety and health, Malaysia is now moving away
from the traditional approach whereby it is believed that all occupational hazards can
be controlled through detailed regulations. On 25 February 1994, Occupational
Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA) came in force providing protection on safety
and health for work activities in all economic sectors including public services and
statutory authorities, except those subjected to Merchant Shipping Ordinance and the
armed forces. Under Section 15 (1) and (2) Occupational Safety and Health Act

1994, employers have a duty to ensure, as far as practicable, that employees are not
exposed to any hazard at the workplace.

Even though there has been a marked reduction in the number of industrial
accidents and the rate of accidents per 1,000 workers since the introduction of the
OSHA 1994, there has not been a credible improvement over the last five years. The
rate per 1,000 workers has been at a pleateau of 9.5 to 10.5 persons, while for
developed nations, it is three to four persons per 1,000 workers. Even though
regulations on occupational safety and health in Malaysia are quite comprehensive,
the level of awareness and practicability of such regulations within the society of
construction industry are generally lower than what supposed to come in force.

1.2 Construction Fatality Rates in Europe

The HSE (2001) reports that the European average fatality rate in
construction was 13.3 per 100,000 workers in 1996. In contrast with that figure, the
HSA (1999) has reported a rate of 8 fatalities for 100,000 workers for the Republic
of Ireland in 1996. Although under the European average of fatalities, Ireland still
shows a higher incidence than countries as France, the United Kingdom or Spain
(Table 1.1).

Table 1.1: Fatality rates for selected EU Member States

Fatality Rate per 100,000
Country Year
Europe 1996 13.3
Germany 1996 15.4
Italy 1996 14.4
France 1996 12.1
RoI 1996 8.0
UK 1996 5.6
Spain 1996 4.2

1.3 Problem statement

Construction can be a hazardous business. This is widely recognized by OSH,

and everyone in the construction industry. When accidents happen, the costs are high
– in people, profits and productivity. One of the best ways to avoid injuries and
minimize costs is through good planning and co-ordination – both before and on the
job. To many managers, who have been brought up to the importance of construction
scheduling, and controlling costs, the economic aspect of safety is the most forceful.
For material losses in which no injury occurs the accounting of loss can be easily
assessed; but where human loss is concerned, the costing becomes more difficult
since life or a physical facility cannot crudely be financially evaluated, yet it has
been widely recognized that monetary compensation to either the injured party or
relatives in the event of fatality has to be paid. Most compensation payments are paid
by the contractor's insurance company. Insurance companies will base their
premiums upon historical evidence and a poor safety record will inevitably be
reflected in insurance premiums. However, the loss to a company by an accident can
be broken into:

 Lost working hours of an injured employee.

 Cost of repair or replacement of property damage, whether it is equipment
or an element of the permanent construction.
 Insurance premiums increase.

The problem statement of study can be summarized as the following

 The statistics of accidents occurred in the construction sector have not

been well organized and maintained.
 Proper Safety and Health Management Systems to prevent employee‘s
accidents on construction worksite.
 Cost saving could not be justified on increase level of site safety.

1.4 Aims and Objective of Study

Projects require effective management from inception to completion if they

are to be carried out safely, at minimum cost, completed on time, and subsequently to
perform their functions efficiently

 To address and highlights the hazards that are most commonly found at
our construction sites today.
 To identify significantly the potential for construction accidents in the
individual's working practices, both the unsafe acts committed and the
unsafe conditions created.
 To identify the requirements of the safety and health regulations in IBS
 To simulate the construction process by Witness 2001 to study the time
effect on safety

1.5 Significance of the Study

The construction industry now is facing challenges in four aspects; time, cost,
quality and safety. Actually, safety is one of the most important factors in
construction industry where it will effect the time, cost and quality of any
construction project If safety to be breach.

Thus, this study will help to measure the safety management construction.
Moreover, the compliance of the safety regulations coupled with the knowledge of
safety management provides advantages to the construction companies. It decreases
the accidents and the project can be completed with high quality within the given

1.6 Research Methodology

The research methodology has been carried out to fulfill the objectives of the
study; which include the method of data collection such as the documents study, case
studies, and simulation by Witness 2001. It covers the procedure such as shown in
Figure 1.3

Identify the objective and

scope of the study
Literature Review

Develop a process of IBS

Identify safety practices on IBS

` construction

Scheduling Simulated with Verification of

safety and without simulated data

Completion time analysis against


Conclusion & Recommendations

Figure 1.3: Flow chart of the research methodology



2.1 Industrialized Building System (IBS)

Industrialized building system (IBS), according to the definition by

Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB), is building systems in
which structural components are manufactured in a factory, on or off site,
transported, and assembled into a structure with minimal additional site works.

Industrialized building system (IBS) is a construction system that is built

using pre fabricated components. The manufacturing of the components is
systematically done using machine, formworks and other forms of mechanical
equipment. The components are manufactured offsite and once completed will be
delivered to construction sites for assembly and erection.

Figure 2.1: Structural construction system in IBS

In Malaysia, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) has classified

the IBS system into 5 categories as follows:

 Precast concrete framed buildings

 Precast concrete wall buildings
 Reinforced concrete buildings with precast concrete slab
 Steel formwork system
 Steel framed buildings and roof trusses.

2.2 Steel Framed and Precast Concrete Building

The frames system is very popular in many modern countries such as Japan,
United Kingdom, Australia and Germany. The construction system is more
mechanized and involving structural components and eventually less manual works.
The structural components are normally built using a combination of steel and
concrete materials such as steel beams, steel columns and concrete slabs. The two

materials are so compatible in many ways to the extent that they can provide good
composite action and corrosion protection, which eventually can increase the
performance of the over all structure. The skeletal frame mainly consists steel beam
and column components. Steel beams and columns are normally manufactured in
form of I and H cross sections in order to achieve large strength to weight ratio.
Structural steel is excellent for tall and slender buildings.

The beams and columns are joined using bolted or welded connection or
combination of both. There are numerous types of structural connections that can be
used for joining the components. The construction process involved the
transportation of steel components from fabrication yards to site, and then assembled
and erected on site to form a complete structure.

2.3 Benefits of IBS Component

Most of the industry players fail to realize that IBS offers better alternative to
the traditional and labour intensive in-situ construction. The main benefits offered by
the usage of IBS elements are:

2.3.1 High Quality and Aesthetical Value of Products

IBS products are manufactured in a casting area where critical factors including
temperature, mix design and stripping time can be closely checked and controlled;
and this will ensure that the quality of IBS products are better than cast-in-situ
concrete. A huge sum of money will be saved by not having to do rectification
works. Also due to factory-controlled prefabrication environment, many

combinations of colours and textures can be applied easily to the architectural or

structural pieces. A vast range of sizes and shapes of IBS components can be
produced, providing a great deal of flexibility and offer fresher looks to the

2.3.2 Cleaner and Safer Construction Site

Usage of IBS elements eliminates or greatly reduces conventional formworks

and props. IBS construction also lessens the problem of site wastages and the related
environmental problems. The prefabricated products also provide a safe working
platform for workers to work on. Workers and materials are also greatly reduced at
the construction sites. Also, as elements are produced in the plant and mostly
designed to be repetitive, minimal wastage will be experienced at both factory and
construction sites.

2.3.3 Faster Construction

IBS construction will save valuable time and helps to reduce the risk of
project delay and possible monetary losses. IBS design and production of elements
can be started while the construction site is under survey or earthworks. Production
are also unaffected by weather conditions due to the controlled environment of the
casting area. Also, the usage of large IBS panels will reduce the time taken to
complete the structural works. Therefore, other trades such as painting and electrical
wiring can begin work sooner.

2.3.4 Greater Unobstructed Span

The usage of prestressed precast solutions such as the Hollow Core slabs and
Double-T beams offer greater unobstructed span than the conventional reinforced
concrete elements. With having the lesser beams and columns in any structure, it will
provide larger open space. It is very ideal for the construction of places of worship,
warehouses, halls, car parks, shops and offices.

2.3.5 Lower Total Construction Costs

All of the above simplify the construction processes and increase

productivity, quality and safety. As a result, the total costs of construction are

2.4 Why IBS in Malaysia

Prosperity and high economic growth in Malaysia has created a high demand
for construction activities. As a consequence, this has attracted huge number of
foreign workers into this country to take up employment on site as an unskilled
labour doing manual jobs. Despite their contributions, the country is in a quagmire
with a host of problems such low quality works, delays, wastages, social problems,
diseases. Currently it is the right time now for some form of government

Industrialization of the construction industry is seen as the only feasible way

forward .As such the government has laid out a comprehensive national
industrialized building system (IBS) road map for the construction industry players
to adopt in the industrialization programme of the construction industry. Essentially
the road map evolves on the policy of phased reduction of dependency on foreign
labour and encouragement policy on the investment in technologies, techniques, and
processes of construction. It lays out definite action plans which when successfully
implemented shall ensure a successful upgrading of our construction industry. (CIDB
Malaysia, 2001)

The six characteristics of IBS are:

 Industrial production of components though prefabrication; or highly

mechanized in-situ processes such as slip-forms, post-tensioning, and
tunnel shutters.
 Reduced labour during prefabrication of components and site works.
 Modern design and manufacturing methods such as involvement of
computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing.
 Systematic quality control in ISO 9000 principles.
 Open building concept at permitting hybrid applications, adaptable to.
 Standardization and modular coordination.

Systems to be accepted as part of IBS need to possess all of the above, as all
of the five characteristics are equally important to ensure the achievement of the
claimed benefits, (CIDB Malaysia 2001).

2.5 Why Safety and Health Should Be Well Managed?

The reasons why health and safety should be well managed fall under the
three main following headings (Bateman, King and Lewis, 1994): humanitarian,
financial, and legal.

2.5.1 Humanitarian Consideration

A lot of people are killed in workplace accidents or suffer major injuries due
to occupational illness. Beside this, there are still a number of uncountable people
who suffer from long term health problems due to their work. The economic costs
are considered later but it is clear that this scale of human suffering should be
acceptable in an advanced, civilized society. Fortunately, the picture is improving,
partly due to gradual raising of health and safety standards. However, the contraction
of the country‘s manufacturing and industrial base has also played a part.

2.5.2 Financial Costs

The financial costs of accidents serve as the second reason of the

implementation of effective management of health and safety. Some of these costs
are potentially measurable whilst others are hidden. Measurable costs refer to the
compensation paid to employees in the form of damages and are sometimes the
related legal and administrative costs. Although these Payment paid are made by the
insurance company, in the long run the insurance premium paid will inevitably
reflect the claims history of the employer. So, senior managers or safety specialists

may be unaware of the size of the premium being paid. While the hidden costs of
accidents are either impossible to quantify or their quantification would be totally
impracticable. However, the hidden costs are usually far greater than the measurable
costs, especially when the large numbers of minor injuries and non-injury accidents
are taken into account.

2.5.3 Legal Sanction

Occupational safety and health is under the legislation, in terms of general or

specific application. Much of it can give rise to claims for damages, but all could
result in action by the relevant enforcing authority. Often the most damaging effect
of legal sanctions can be on the organization‘s own image of itself. Legal fees also
often match or even exceed the normal size of fines meted out.

2.6 OSH Management System of the Construction Industry

Health and safety risks are needed to identify, assess, and take certain action
to eliminate or minimize the probability of occurrence. In order to reduce the
accident or incident level and subsequently cut losses, it is important to ensure that
safe working practice is being observed (Radhlinah, 2000). Safe operation and
accident prevention form a good business practice.

OSH management system (OSHMS) in the context of construction is the

discipline of preserving the health of those who build, operate, maintain and
demolish engineering works and of others affected by those works. It is also

primarily designed to protect the health and safety of individual workers or members
of the public. Traditionally, the responsibility of safety falls on the individual.

The implementation of OSHMS by the main parties involved in the

construction process (owners, designers, supervising companies, contractors) must
also require adaptations. We need to take the perspective and the contribution of each
of these parties to the OSH into account. The implementation of the OSHMS must be
applicable to all levels of organizations. It must conform to the existing laws and
regulations related with safety and health at the workplace. Hinze (1997) claimed
that managing safety essentially involves four levels: the company policy level,
project management level, site management level, and individual level. Failure at
each level is the reason for the occurrence of accidents. Failure at the first level will
increase the probability of failures at the second level and so on. Improper OSH
management leads to poor safety records. It is hard to achieve the aim of ‗zero
accident‘ due to the rough and tough nature of the industry. Overall, OSHMS mainly
rely on continual monitoring of indicators of performance of the relevant processes,
and continuous improvements in these processes. In the industrialized nations of the
world, accidents now cause more deaths than all infects diseases and more than any
single illness except those related to heart disease and cancer (Biggs et al, 2005).
Safety should be a major concern in any industry. In the construction industry, the
need for such concern may be greater than in most other industries. This is caused by
the disproportionately high number of industrial injuries incurred by construction

2.7 Safety and Health Culture

Safety and health culture within a company is closely linked to the

workforce‘s attitudes in respect to safety. They share the company‘s risk, accidents
and incidents. According to Glendon and McKenna (1995), effective safety
management is both functional (involving management control, monitoring,

executive and communication sub systems) and humanizes (involving leadership,

political and safety culture sub-systems paramount to safety culture).The role of
management and the involvement of all employees as important key players in safety
and health culture are important in order to cultivate the positive beliefs, practices,
norms and attitudes among all in the company.

Building a safety culture on so many diversities is not an easy task. But it had
been proven that companies with good safety and health cultures have employees
with positive patterns of attitude towards safety and health practices. Companies
need to gather safety related information, measure safety performance and bring
people together to learn how to work more safely. Glendon and McKenna (1995);
Caborn (2005) also identified four critical indicators of safety culture. They are:

 Effective communication, it leads to commonly understood goals and

means to achieve them at all levels.
 Good organizational learning, whereby organizations are able to identify
and respond appropriately to
 Organizational focus upon health and safety, how much time and
attention is essentially paid to health and safety.
 External factors, including the financial health of the organization, the
prevailing economic climate and impact of regulation and how well these
are managed.

2.8 OSH Management System in Malaysia

Malaysia put a special emphasis on OSH issues due to its speed of economic
development. There is a growing concern about safety and health at work. Until
1994, Malaysia still did not have adequate provisions to sure safety and health of
employees at the workplace. They were merely the traditional approach legislation

meant for technical aspects and lacked the human aspects of ensuring safety and
health at workplaces. Thus, the promulgation of the Occupational Safety and Health
Act 1994 has made further provisions for securing the safety, health and welfare of
any connection with the activities of the person at work. It is based on the concept of
self-regulation whereby the Act places certain duties on employers, employees, self-
employed persons, manufacturers, designers and suppliers.

It also places emphasis on the prevention of accidents, ill health and injury.
This is the main Act, which we hope can help to reduce occupational incidents and
accidents in the Malaysia.

2.9 Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514)

The Occupational Safety and Health Act (hereinafter referred to as ―OSHA‖

or the ―Act‖) came into force on 25th February 1994. It is an Act to make further
provisions for securing the safety, health and welfare of person at work. It protects
others against risks to safety or health in connection with the activities of persons at
work. Act 514 is an enabling Act which is superimposed over existing safety and
health legislation such as the Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (Act 139).
Regulations would normally be formulated on the basis of proposals submitted by
the National workdays, fewer accidents and medical claims, recognition by insurers
and regulators and improved worker‘s retention and satisfaction. Organizations with
effective OSH management system earn positive returns and benefits on their health
and safety investment by:

 Operational cost savings through OSH management system.

 Reducing work-related accidents and ill health and the costs associated
with them.
 Improving performance through heightened employee morale and
adherence to policies and procedures.

 Increased control of regulator issue.

 Reinforcing a responsible and well-managed reputation with customers,
stakeholders and communities.
 Clear demonstration of legal and regulatory compliance to regulatory
authorities, customers and employees.
 Better management of health and safety risks on a planned and ongoing
 Increased access to new customers and business partners through an
improved corporate image.

2.9.1 Elements of the OHS Management System

The elements of the successful occupational safety and health management

system are as follows;

a) Policy and Commitment

Requirements of the safety and health policy reflect the management

commitment towards the organization‘s safety and health.

b) Planning and Implementing

The organization should formulate a plan to fulfill its safety and health policy
as set out in the Safety Statement. An effective management structure and
arrangements should be put in place for delivering the policy. Safety and health
objectives and targets should be set for all managers and employees.

c) Organizing

Organizing is the process of allocating the responsibilities and the necessary

arrangements to be taken. HSE (1991) describe the four C‘s of organizing as control,
cooperation, communication and competence. Organizing also outlines the needs for
proper OHS documentation.

d) Measuring Performance

The organization should measure, monitor and evaluate its safety and health
Performance. Performance can be measured against agreed standards to reveal when
and where improvement is needed. Active self-monitoring reveals how effectively
the health and safety management system is functioning.

If controls fail, reactive monitoring should find out why they failed, by
investigating the accidents, ill-health or incidents that could have caused harm or
loss. The objectives of active and reactive monitoring are:

 To determine the immediate causes of substandard performance;

 To identify any underlying causes and implications for the design and
operation of the safety and health management system

e) Auditing and Reviewing Performance

The organization should review and improve its safety and health
management system continuously, so that it‘s overall safety and health performance
improves constantly. The organization can learn from relevant experience and apply
the lessons. There should be a systematic review of performance based on data from
monitoring and from independent audits of the whole safety and health management
system. Understanding the concept of the OSH management system will help us to
understand the application of OSH management system and legislation needs to
follow by industry. The rules and legislation are always protecting the worker safety
and ensuring healthy workplaces. The main purpose of the rules and legislation is to

prevent accidents, ill health and injury at workplaces towards development of safety
culture. Many companies who have implemented OSH management system have
reported benefited from increased operational efficiencies, reduction in lost
workdays, fewer accidents and medical claims, recognition by insurers and
regulators and improved worker‘s retention and satisfaction. Organizations with
effective OSH management system earn positive returns and benefits on their health
and safety investment.

a) Recognition of integral part of business performance.

Policy b) Compliance to legal requirements.
c) Continual cost-effective improvement in performance.
d) Adequate & appropriate resources.
e) Setting & appropriate OHS objective.
f) OHS management as prime responsibility of line
g) Understanding, implementation, and maintenance at all
h) Employee involvement and consultation.
i) Periodic review.
j) Training for employees

Organizing a) Responsibilities
b) Organization arrangements
c) OHS documents

a) General
Planning and
b) Risk assessment
c) Legal and other requirements
d) OHS management arrangements

Measuring a) Qualitative and quantitative measure

Performance b) Proactive and reactive performance measurement

a) Conduct by competent persons periodically

b) Result communicated to all relevant personnel.

a) Overall performance of OSHMS

Initial and
b) Performance of individual elements
c) Audit findings
d) Identify action to remedy any deficiencies.

Figure 2.2: OHS management system elements of the BS 8800: 1996


2.10 How Accidents Occur

Based on research conducted by ILO (1979), construction accidents may

occur in various ways as given below:

 Collapse wall, part of a building , pile of material or earth;

 Collapse due to unstable ladder or unsecured scaffolding;
 Falling objects and building materials;
 Fall off ladder or scaffolding;
 Injuries due to lifting or moving large and heavy objects;
 Operating high revolution or high speed equipment;
 Welding and cutting;
 Working with high pressure pneumatic devices;
 Working with volatile gas or liquid;
 Blasting or particle reduction machines;
 Traffic in construction site; and
 Risk during entering or leaving construction site.

2.11 Safety Practices

The safety practices encountered on construction sites are as varied as the sites
themselves. All construction sites have their own unique aspects of safety, which
must be considered. Larger construction projects generally are better organized from
a safety standpoint. These types of projects are often high profile. The companies
involved in such visible construction projects have reputations to uphold as well as
safety records to maintain; they are generally better prepared to manage the safety
aspects of a project. Almost all of the larger construction firms have a full-time
safety director or at least one person who is responsible for the company‘s safety

program. Having full-time safety personnel relieves the pressure, somewhat, on the
onsite construction project team. This may be accomplished by keeping the team
members informed of possible safety problems, by making sure that subcontractors
are implementing their safety programs adequately, and by assisting in the routine
day-to-day aspects of safety management. This allows the project personnel to focus
their efforts on the project itself.

2.12 Safety Improvement

Theoretically, we can see that safety performance can be affected by good

management practices. Therefore, with the implementation of the safety management
system, it is expected that construction projects can be well managed and thus can
reduce the occurrence of accidents on construction site. There are certain factors that
may improve safety practices in order to comply with safety management. Clough
(1986) stated that safe system of construction was achieved by the application of
effective management techniques together with the safety facilities and motivations.

In order to give the management team confidence that its construction sites
are properly organized, it is useful to have a standard system for setting up site safety
organization and for monitoring its effectiveness. This may be affected by certain
factors such as recruitment of competent person, certification and rewards, and
others, which are explained in detail regarding improvements. As mentioned by
Toole (2002), safety on a jobsite can be effectively enforced by putting several key
factors in place. The first factor to be concerned is to set a unit that is able to monitor
work on a frequent basis.

Second, the entity should know the relevant safety standards for the task that
would be performed. Third, the entity should have a formal or informal authority to
direct the actions of the workers. The implementation, operation, and monitoring
responsibility of the program, according to Hislop (1991), should be clearly defined

at the beginning of construction activities. The program must include aspects of

comprehensive safety policy statement, and a safety review of pre construction and
during the construction time. The on-site inspection and good house keeping are also
part of the aspects that need to be considered. However, the screening system to
position reliable contractor is also one of the starting points that need to be included
within the program.

2.13 Safety and Health Management Systems

An effective safety and health management system includes the following

four main elements: management commitment and employee involvement, worksite
analysis, hazard prevention and control, and safety and health training.

2.13.1 Management Commitment and Employee Involvement

The elements of management commitment and employee involvement are

complementary and form the core of any occupational safety and health program.
Management‘s commitment provides the motivating force and the resources for
organizing and controlling activities within an organization. In an effective program,
management regards worker safety and health as a fundamental value of the
organization and applies its commitment to safety and health protection with as much
vigor as to other organizational goals. Employee involvement provides the means by
which workers develop and express their own commitment to safety and health
protection for themselves and for their fellow workers.

In implementing a safety and health management system, there are various

ways to provide commitment and support by management and employees. Some
recommended actions are described briefly as follows:

 State clearly a worksite policy on safe and healthful work and working
conditions, so that everyone with responsibility at the site (and those at
other locations with responsibility for the site) fully understands the
priority and importance of safety and health protection in the

 Establish and communicate a clear goal for the safety and health program
and define objectives for meeting that goal so all members of the
organization understand the results desired and measures planned for
achieving them.

 Provide visible top management involvement in implementing the

program so all employees understand that management‘s commitment is

 Arrange for and encourage employee involvement in the structure and

operation of the program and in decisions that affect their safety and
health so they will commit their insight and energy to achieving the safety
and health program‘s goal and objectives.

 Assign and communicate responsibility for all aspects of the program so

that managers, supervisors, and employees in all parts of the organization
know what performance is expected of them.

 Provide adequate authority and resources to responsible parties so

assigned responsibilities can be met.

 Hold managers, supervisors, and employees accountable for meeting their

responsibilities so essential tasks will be performed.

 Review program operations at least annually to evaluate their success in

meeting the goals and objectives to identify deficiencies and revise the
program and/or objectives if they do not meet the goal of effective safety
and health protection.

2.13.2 Worksite Analysis

A practical analysis of the work environment involves a variety of worksite

examinations to identify existing hazards and conditions and operations in which
changes might occur to create new hazards. Lack of awareness of a hazard stemming
from failure to examine the worksite is a sign that safety and health policies and/or
practices are ineffective. Effective management actively analyzes the work and
worksite to anticipate and prevent harmful occurrences.

OSHA recommends the following measures to identify all existing and

potential hazards.

 Conduct a comprehensive baseline worksite survey for safety and health

and periodic comprehensive update surveys and involve employees in this
 Analyze planned and new facilities, processes, materials, and equipment.
 Perform routine job hazard analyses.
 Assess risk factors of ergonomics applications to workers‘ tasks.
 Conduct regular site safety and health inspections to identify new or
previously missed hazards and failures in hazard controls.
 Provide a reliable system for employees to notify management personnel
about conditions that appear hazardous and to receive timely and
appropriate responses and encourage employees to use the system without
fear of reprisal. This system uses employee insight and experience in

safety and health protection and allows employers to address employee

 Investigate accidents and ―near miss‖ incidents to identify their causes
and means of prevention.
 Analyze injury and illness trends over time to identify and prevent
patterns with common causes.

2.13.3 Hazard Prevention and Control

Workplace hazards often can be eliminated by redesigning the jobsite or job.

Where it is not feasible to eliminate such hazards, employers must control them to
prevent unsafe and unhealthful exposure. Employers must eliminate or control the
hazard in a timely manner once it becomes apparent. Specifically, as part of the
program, employers should establish procedures to correct or control present or
potential hazards in a timely manner. These procedures should include measures
such as the following:

 Use engineering techniques where feasible and appropriate.

 Establish, at the earliest time, safe work practices and procedures that all
affected parties can understand and follow. Understanding and
compliance are a result of training, positive reinforcement, correction of
unsafe performance, and if necessary, enforcement through a clearly
communicated disciplinary system.
 Provide personal protective equipment when engineering controls are
 Use administrative controls such as reducing the duration of exposure.
 Maintain the facility and equipment to prevent equipment breakdowns.

2.13.4 Safety and Health Training

Training is an essential component of an effective safety and health program.

Training helps identify the safety and health responsibilities of both management and
employees at the site. Training often is most effective when incorporated into other
education or performance requirements and job practices. The type of training
depends on the size and complexity of the worksite as well as the characteristics of
the hazards and potential hazards at the site. And can be divided as follows:

a) Employee Training.

Design employee training programs to ensure all employees understand and

are aware of the hazards to which they may be exposed and the proper methods for
avoiding them.

b) Supervisory Training.

Train supervisors to understand the key role they play in jobsite safety and to
enable them to carry out their safety and health responsibilities effectively. Training
programs for supervisors should include the following topics:

 Analyze the work under their supervision to anticipate and identify

potential hazards.
 Maintain physical protection in their work areas.
 Reinforce employee training on the nature of potential hazards in their
work and on needed protective measures through continual performance
feedback and, if necessary, through enforcement of safe work practices.
 Understand their safety and health responsibilities.


3.1 Introduction

The research methodology has been carried out to fulfill the objectives of the
study; which include the method of data collection such as the documents study, case
studies, and simulation by Witness 2001. It covers the procedures such as shown in
Figure 3.2


Literature Review

Documents Study

Case Study

Safety practices on IBS construction

Data Analysis Using Witness 2001

Conclusion & Recommendation

Figure 3.1: Stages in Research Methodology

As mentioned earlier, the research methodology of this study is divided into

four main stages as follow:

a. Identify topic and scopes of study.

b. Data collection.
c. Results and Discussion.
d. Conclusion.

3.2 Conceptualization

Conceptualization is aimed to understanding the importance and basics of the

work carried out. In this stage, the objectives of the project were being set and the
problem was being stated. After that, the literature review was being undertaken.

3.3 Identification of Research Focus and Scope of Study

This stage, involved the identification and further understanding of the

research topic, which consists of problem statement, research objectives and scope of
studies. Literature review is an important part of the study in terms of gathering
secondary data. Important and resourceful information were obtained to gain
understanding of the study. The literature review has been done on several
references, either from electronic and published journals, books, articles and so on to
further enhance the understanding on the study of safety cost in pre-cast construction.
Based on the objectives and scopes of the study, the research focused on the process
to solve and to achieve the objectives of this study.

Identify the objective and

scope of the study
Literature Review

Author’s full name : Books

Develop a process of IBS
Identify safety practices on IBS
Date of birth : 15

Scheduling Simulated with Verification of

and : simulated data
without safety

Completion time analysis

against safety

Conclusion &

Figure 3.2: Flow chart of the research methodology

Academic Session: 2008

I declare that this thesis is

classified as :

3.4 Data Collection

Data were collected by using the following methods:

 Documents study using construction companies' safety manuals.
 Case Study of pre-cast construction projects.

I acknowledged that
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia reserves
the right as follows:

3.4.1 Study of Documents

Two different construction companies‘ safety manuals had been studied in

order to achieve the first objective of the study. Construction companies are normally
required to prepare this safety manual before the project start and get the approval
from DOSH for their safety plan and programme. The safety manual contains details
of the company‘s safety policy, safety programme, and safety equipments that will
be used in the project and etc. In this study the safety and health requirements in each
company were extracted from these documents.

3.4.2 Selecting A Case Study

By selecting a suitable case study an adequate understanding of both the

problem statement and the system to be studied could be provided. In fact the
selected case cover all parameter which is needed in this study like systematically
scheduled sequence of IBS construction starting from civil work activities up to
finishes .The collected data is based on case study of a 100 unit‘s multi-storey on
Semi Precast Concrete Project of TAMAN EHSAN JAYA. The main purpose of
gathering data is to build a simulation model by using Witness 2001 software .Two
simulation models have been programmed in Witness 2001 to reveal the completion
time at increase level of safety .The first model is one hundred houses (100)
simulation while the second model is two hundred houses (200). The model of semi-
pre cast concrete houses is shown in Figure 3.3

Figure 3.3: Model for semi-pre cast concrete houses

3.5 Modeling and Simulation

With the collected data of the activities‘ duration, a model is made using
Witness 2001 software. Witness 2001 is simulation software with a simple icon base
set up and the start up window of the software is shown in Figure 3.4.The main
objective of the simulation is to find out the optimum time and resources for Single
storey link house construction Therefore, time and resources are the main concern in
the simulation

Figure 3.4: Witness 2001 Software Start Up Window

3.5.1 Using Witness Software Data

In Witness (2001) there are many elements can be used to build the suggested
models. In order to build the models related to this research, some of the elements
from the program have been used. The first element, and the most important one, is
Machine (activity), which represents a task or an activity that needs to be fulfilled at
the construction project. For example, civil engineering works, foundation, flooring
etc. all are activities or machines in Witness 2001. Second elements are Parts
(entities); in fact, parts are used to represent those items (100 houses) that move
around the model. The can be used to represent small components, large components.
Witness creates parts (entities) and introduces them into the simulation at the time
dictated by the model. Furthermore, it explains the flow of activities through the

model and represents the 100 houses that needed to achieve at the end of this project.
The third element is Buffers (queues) that are places where Parts can be held for
some time. In instance, the storage area for the parts (100 houses) and pushed out to
the next activities. Figure 3.5 shows the three elements that are used in building the
research models:

Figure 3.5: Elements used to build the models: Machine (activity); Buffers (queues);
and Part (house).

3.5.2 Benefits of Simulation

Using simulation, designers can see the impact of a time and change resource
that affect on an entire process. In complex systems with many interrelated activity, a
change in one process may affecting on another process. For example, reducing or
increasing activities time such as civil works, foundation, flooring time of activity
time may result in fluctuation times for other activities such as stairs, first floor
beam, roof and etc. By simulating complex processes, systems designers can see the
impact of changes of time made before implementing them. This in turn further
optimizes the process in the improved framework.

Simulation can benefit construction of pre-cast concrete building elements by

allowing the analysis of the following variables:
 Efficient workers (skilled, unskilled) at construction site.
 Scheduling strategies for fluctuation activity at any processes.
 Alternative crew scheduling.
 Resources distribution, layout, and material flow for an alternative
 Equipments utilization at fluctuate activity.

3.6 Data Analysis and Discussion

From the results of the simulation, it is interpreted to show the time needed to
complete the over all activities of multi story building from start of civil work up to
finishing the building with safety and without safety procedure.

The main purpose of gathering data is to build a simulation model by using

Witness 2001 software. After the completion of the models, statistical process
analyses will be carried out to check the fluctuation of time.


4.1 Introduction

The aim of this chapter is to identify hazards which are caused by both unsafe
acts and conditions that are most commonly found at construction site

4.2 Causes of Accidents

Accidents occur due to primary causes which are unsafe acts and unsafe
condition and secondary causes which are Management system pressure and Social
Pressure as follows;

4.2.1 Unsafe Acts/Practices

―Unsafe act is a departure from an accepted, normal or correct procedure or

practice; an unnecessary exposure to hazard; or conduct minimizing the degree of
safety normally present.‖ (DeReamer, 1980).

Generally, unsafe act is a violation of a known or accepted safe procedure

which could permit the occurrence of an accident .Unsafe practices or acts are often
seen in every construction project all over the world

Some examples of common unsafe practices are given below:

 Working without authority;

 Failure to warn others of danger;
 Using equipment inadequately;
 Disconnecting safety devices such as guards;
 Using defective equipment;
 Smoking in areas where this is not allowed; and
 Failure to use or wear personal protective equipment.
 Operating or working at unsafe speed (too slow, too fast, throwing
material, etc).
 Unsafe loading, placing, mixing, fixing, combining and so on.
 Distracting, teasing, abusing, startling, quarrelling, horseplay and so forth.
 Taking unsafe position or posture (under suspended loads, top rung of
ladder and etc).

4.2.2 Unsafe Conditions

―Any physical condition that if left uncorrected may lead to accident.‖

(DeReamer, 1980)

Conforming to policies and safety procedure sometimes does not eliminate

accidents but unsafe conditions could be the one that trigger accidents to occur such

 Inadequate or missing guardrails;

 Defective tools , equipment or machines;
 inadequate fire warning system;
 Ineffective housekeeping;
 Improper illumination (insufficient or excessive lighting, glare and etc);
 Defective agencies (rough, slippery, sharp, inferior composition and etc);
 Hazardous environmental condition (gases, dusts, smokes, fumes, vapors,
high noise level, extreme temperature and etc).

The primary causes of accidents in construction industry have been the target
of safety law for many years. But, addressing secondary cause of accident should be
made priority as well.

The above examples are the most common practices which do not conform to
policies and procedures of safety.

Table 4.1: Primary cause of accidents

Direct result of unsafe acts or conditions

Unsafe Acts Unsafe conditions

• Working without authority; • Inadequate or missing guardrails;

• Failure to warn others of danger; • Defective tools, equipment or machines;
• Using equipment inadequately; • inadequate fire warning system;
• Disconnecting safety devices such as • Ineffective housekeeping;
guards; • Improper illumination (insufficient or
• Using defective equipment; excessive lighting, glare and etc);
• Smoking in areas where this is not • Defective agencies (rough, slippery,
allowed; and sharp, inferior composition and etc);
• Failure to use or wear personal • Hazardous environmental condition
protective equipment. (gases, dusts, smokes, fumes, vapors,
• Operating or working at unsafe speed high noise level, extreme temperature and
(too slow, too fast, throwing material, etc).
• Unsafe loading, placing, mixing,
fixing, combining and so on.

4.2.3 Secondary Cause of Accident

Unsafe practices and unsafe conditions are deviation from required safe
practices, but they must be seen as symptoms or more basic underlying indirect or
secondary cause which allow these deviations to exist and persist. Secondary causes
can be described as follows:
45 Management system pressure

 Financial restriction
 Lack of commitment
 Lack of policy
 Lack of standard
 Lack of knowledge and information
 Restricted training
 Poor quality control system Social Pressure

 Group attitudes
 Industry tradition
 Society attitudes to risk taking
 Acceptable behavior in work site
 Commercial/financial pressure between contractors

Table 4.2: Secondary cause of accidents

Management system pressure Social Pressure

• Financial restriction • Group attitudes

• Lack of commitment • Industry tradition
• Lack of policy • Society attitudes to risk taking
• Lack of standard • Acceptable behavior in work site
• Lack of knowledge and • Commercial/financial pressure between
information contractors
• Restricted training
• Poor quality control system

4.3 Most Common Types of Construction Accidents.

Some of the most common types of construction accidents include

construction site falls, crane accidents, scaffolding accidents, workers being run-over
by operating equipment, electrical accidents, trench collapses, fires and explosions,
and welding accidents. Each of these mishaps can be equally tragic and equally
deadly, and each of these accidents can be completely avoided through effective
safety measures.

4.3.1 Construction Site Falls

Statistics indicate that nearly 1,000 construction workers are killed each year
while on the job. Of these, one-third or over 300 deaths will result from construction
site falls. Many of the deaths or injuries that result from these falls can and should be

Common construction site falls include roof related falls, crane falls,
scaffolding falls, elevator shaft falls, falls resulting from holes in flooring, and falling
objects. Proper protection equipment and safety precautions are necessary to protect
the lives of workers.

4.3.2 Crane Accidents

Cranes are everywhere and are relied upon to create residential and
commercial buildings. Although cranes have improved along with technology over
the years, crane accidents still occur that can result in injury or death.

There were over 140 crane accident deaths in 2004. Crane accident deaths
can arise from a number of factors, including lightning, high winds, defective cranes,
falls, electrocution, and other hazards associated with construction at heights. Many
crane accidents can be avoided with proper training and safety procedures. During
construction, the well-being of workers must be more important than other

4.3.3 Scaffolding Accidents

It is estimated that 65 percent of the construction industry works on scaffolds

frequently. This accounts for 2.3 million construction workers who are at risk for
scaffolding accidents to directly affect them and their families. The use of
scaffolding is pervasive and necessary in the construction industry. Some of the most
dramatic structures that have been built by humans relied on scaffolds to get the job

A recent study found that 72 percent of construction workers injured in

scaffold accidents connected the event with planking or supports giving way or the
employee slipping or being struck by a falling object. These are circumstances that
should not occur when sites follow OSHA standards. Most scaffolding accidents can
be avoided through proper training and preventative measures.

4.3.4 Defective Scaffolding

When scaffold planking or supports give way, the lives of construction

workers using the scaffolding are endangered. Defective scaffolding is by its very
nature a completely preventable construction accident.

4.3.5 Improperly Assembled Scaffolding

Safety should be the number one priority of contractors. Improperly

assembled scaffolding may result from laziness, hastiness, incompetence, or innocent
mistakes. When these factors go unnoticed the safety and lives of everyone on a
construction site are endangered. The sad fact is that improperly assembled
scaffolding accidents are entirely preventable when contractors follow simple OSHA

4.3.6 Run Over by Operating Equipment

The construction site is an extremely busy work environment. With

movement by workers and vehicles, everyone has a responsibility to look out for
each other's safety. Supervisors and foremen have the additional duty of promoting
effective safety procedures and practices at the construction site to ensure the well-
being of all employees.

Tragically, there are circumstances when construction workers are run-over

or injured by operating equipment.

4.3.7 Electrical Accidents on Construction Sites

It is estimated by OSHA that nearly 350 construction workers die every year
from electrical accidents. A few causes of these fatalities include electric shock,
electrocutions, steam accidents, and power line contact. The risks of these hazards

are heightened for workers who perform their jobs on scaffolding or in cranes near
overhead power lines.

In addition to the aforementioned injuries one may suffer from electrical

accidents, other risks include burns and falls caused by contact with electrical
energy. Because working with electrical current is unavoidable and necessary,
OSHA has created specific guidelines for construction workers to follow when
dealing with hazardous situations. Unfortunately, there are times when these
standards are not adhered to or situations where they are overlooked.

Electric shock occurs when the body comes into contact with electric current.
The harmfulness of an electric shock is dependent upon the voltage, current, and
duration of exposure. Construction workers are at risk of experiencing electric shock
whenever they are exposed to cables or machines carrying electric current. Specific
safety procedures should always be followed to avoid complications including
internal injury, muscular spasm, respiratory arrest, and cardiac arrest.

4.3.8 Trench Collapses

The building of trenches is necessary for many construction tasks. They are
present wherever buried utilities are constructed or repaired. It is absolutely
imperative that appropriate safety measures are taken during the building process to
ensure the safety of all workers involved.

A trench is narrow in length with its depth greater than its width. When
trenches are constructed they must have safeguards in place to protect workers inside
the trench from a collapse. When a trench collapses workers may easily become
crushed under the weight of heavy soil from above.

4.3.9 Fires and Explosions in Construction Site

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration have determined that

workplace fires and explosions kill 200 and injure more than 5,000 workers each
year. For these reasons, special safety guidelines have been established to prevent
construction accidents arising from fires and explosions.

4.3.10 Welding Accidents on a Construction Site

Welding is a hazardous activity that requires experience and a strict

adherence to safety guidelines. Welding accidents can arise from welding fumes, UV
light, sparks, noise, or skin injury. Due to the wide range of accidents that may occur,
healing times and other circumstances are extremely dependent upon the individual.

4.3.11 Arc Burn Accidents

Welding takes advantage of extremely high temperatures, and there is a very

serious risk of welders receiving severe arc burns. Special safety precautions must be
taken to avoid arc burn accidents, including special protective clothing that avoids
exposure to heat. Additionally, welders must wear special goggles and helmets to
protect their faces, heads, and eyes from damage.

4.3.12 Unsafe/Dangerous Construction Equipment Accidents

The size and power of the machines and equipment used in the construction
industry can be responsible for some of the most grievous injuries if not used
carefully and professionally. Construction equipment, like every other type of
machinery, can experience mishap and failure - particularly if it is overused or
improperly maintained.

4.3.13 Unsafe/Faulty Ladders

A ladder is one of the most important types of construction equipment, but

one that is often taken for granted. Ladders helped build the pyramids of Egypt,
construct the aqueducts of Rome, and helped build the Sears Tower. Ladders remain
a simple way to move from one level to another, and these simple wooden or steel
frames are the bedrock upon which the construction industry is built.

4.3.14 Defective power tools

Power tools have come a long way since the first hydraulic drills and steam
pumps. Modern power tools are driven by powerful electric motors and precisely
controlled by sophisticated computers in order to deliver the most efficient and
accurate performance.

Unfortunately with increased sophistication comes increased risk of serious

injury. Defective power tools can claim the lives of hundreds of construction workers
each year if not properly maintained or repaired.

4.3.15 Defective Derricks

Derricks are some of the most complicated but important pieces of machinery
on any construction site. These large, obtrusive, and complex lifting devices are
easily recognizable by anyone who has ever been by an oil field, dockyard, or
anyplace where workers need to move heavy loads or drill deep into the earth.

These rigs are by nature dangerous and hazardous, but are more so without
proper oversight and maintenance. Poorly built derricks cannot only endanger the
lives of those who work with them but also the projects and livelihoods of those who
depend of their lifting and weight-bearing capacity.

4.3.16 Defective Hoists

Hoists have been around for centuries as a way to lift or lower loads into a
precise location on a construction site. These simple devices consist merely of a
drum or pulley to allow movement or a rope or chain, and a driver to provide force
and strength for lifting.

Even though hoists are some of the most common and simple pieces of
construction equipment, they can be responsible for some of the most devastating

injuries on a worksite. Because they are designed to help lift heavy loads, any failure
in the chain, driver, or pulley itself can result in tragic and sometimes fatal accidents.

4.3.17 Defective Conveyors

Industrial and construction use conveyor belts differ little from the common
supermarket check out lane in that both are used to transport materials from one end
to another, albeit construction conveyors are far larger, more sophisticated, and
complex. Whether they move raw materials or building equipment, conveyers are a
vital part of any construction site.

Even these simple machines can have serious mishaps with dramatic
consequences if not properly assembled or maintained. The loads they are designed
to move can cause serious damage over time when used frequently, and although
relatively simple machines, lack of maintenance can cause serious and deadly

4.3.18 Defective winches

Winches are a vital component of so many construction applications in

addition to simple tools in their own right. These simple machines wind rope, lines,
cables, and other lanyards, but as they are generally the weakest link in a chain of
pulleys and hoists, winches often suffer the most catastrophic failures.

4.3.19 Defective Graters

Industrial and construction grade graters are a sight to behold. Combining

long lengths of conveyor belts, powerful hydraulic systems, and immense grinding
gears, graters can churn out tons of the gravel necessary for so many construction

These wonders of technology have a dark side, however. These machines

appear deceptively simple, but unfortunate is the fate of any construction worker who
happens to work on a defective grater.

4.3.20 Defective Scrapers

A wheel tractor scraper is one of the most common pieces of heavy

equipment on many construction sites. Scrapers cuts out large sections of earth in
order to smooth out imperfections. They have a large hopper where the dirt is
collected to move to the dump area.

These large pieces of heavy equipment are extremely dangerous, particularly

if hydraulically powered hopper or blade malfunctions. Construction workers must
exhibit extreme caution because even when these powerful machines are working
properly they are extremely dangerous.

4.3.21 Defective Tractors

Tractors are some of the most common vehicles on construction sites

throughout the world. These powerful vehicles use their enormous engines to tow,
drag, pull, and power a large variety of heavy loading, lifting, and transport machines
Unfortunately, these vehicles are as dangerous as they are useful. The large
number of heavy tractors on any given construction site mean that it is likely that one
if not more are defective. Tractors are prone to the same defects normal vehicles
suffer; more so if you consider the stress and workload of these machines.

4.3.22 Defective Bulldozers

Bulldozers are powerful construction equipment machines used to move large

amounts of dirt and rocks, remove trees or other obstructing plant life, and to
compress and smooth out uneven patches of ground or soil. Their wide body
structures and powerful tracks distribute their massive weight over a wide area,
making them the perfect machines for clearing low-lying brush, burnt out cars, and
positioning barricades.

These vehicles are easily identifiable by their large scoop-like blades on the
front and the long, pointed "ripper" in the rear. Unfortunately the same power and
weight that are key to the bulldozer's strength can work against it if the machine is
defective in its design or maintenance. Accidents with defective bulldozers can
include fall outs, crushing, or any number of hydraulic or electrical malfunctions.

4.3.23 Defective Forklifts

Ever since they were first invented in 1917, forklifts have become an
indispensable piece of warehouse, manufacturing, and construction industries.
Although they range in size and loading capacity, the premise of the forklift remains
the same throughout the world; move heavy objects from one location to another.
Even though they are powerful for their size, forklifts suffer a few serious
flaws. Loads must be perfectly situated so their center of gravity will not shift,
potentially causing serious injury to the operator and any unprotected people nearby.
This can sometimes cause server stability problems in poorly designed or maintained
forklifts, resulting in sometimes catastrophic injuries.

4.3.24 Defective Backhoes

Backhoes are one of the most vital earth moving machines used in modern
construction. Without these tremendously strong hydraulically powered digging
machines modern construction practices would be nearly impossible.
Unfortunately this great power can pose an enormous threat if defective
backhoes make it onto your construction site. Aside from the fact these machines can
weigh many tons, the amount of earth they move can become extremely hazardous if
the backhoe is defective.

4.3.25 Defective Boilers

Boilers are extremely useful on construction sites because they provide not
only hot water but the pressure to produce energy to power equipment and move
significant amounts of debris out of a given area. As their name entails, these vessels
contain large quantities of extraordinarily hot liquid that can cause significant injury
should an accident occur.

4.3.26 Defective Pressure Vessels

Pressure vessels are specially designed pieces of construction equipment that

allow workers to keep a certain fluid or gas at a certain pressure in order to safely use
it. These important yet delicate pieces of equipment boilers and other high pressure
vessels protect workers on construction from overloading boilers, gas mains, or any
other container used to contain gasses or fluids at high pressures.

Unfortunately, damaged or defective pressure vessels can cause serious

injury. A defective pressure vessel cannot regulate the chemicals it contains, and the
internal gasses and fluids held under great pressures can poison, suffocate, or burn
workers who are forced to labor in hazardous environments

4.3.27 Logging Accidents

Logging is a very dangerous occupation and can result in a variety of harmful

accidents. Logging accidents can be caused by the tools and equipment used by

loggers as well as the falling of massive trees. Chain saws, logging machines, and
enormous trees are just some of the hazards involved with contemporary logging

In addition to the obvious risks of working with logging tools, other factors
that make logging a hazardous profession include the rugged environment in which
work is performed, the use of additional vehicles such as helicopters, inclement
weather conditions, and other situational determinants. When the potential for
logging accidents to occur exists but is not addressed, any resulting injuries are
completely preventable.

4.3.28 Brazing Accidents

Brazing involves joining metals through heat and a filler metal. Brazing
creates permanent and strong metal-to-metal joints. The brazing process has many
advantages over other metal joining options, but brazing carries some inherent risks
as well. Dangerous fumes and gases may arise, and burns may occur if proper safety
procedures are not followed.

4.3.29 Cutting Accidents

During the construction process many materials need to be altered to fit

specific needs. It is very common for extensive cutting to take place at any worksite
to ensure the proper fit of building materials. Wood, concrete, glass, plastics, and
metals must all be manipulated and often the only tools that can perform this job are
very sharp and dangerous to handle.

Cutting accidents are common, though they are usually preventable when
effective safety procedures are established and followed. Managers and supervisors
have a responsibility to keep the workplace safe, and one of the most obvious areas
that require attention is cutting tools. In a hazardous environment, injuries resulting
in the loss of limbs or life may result.

4.3.30 Elevator Accidents on construction site

Every year, elevators and escalators kill about 30 people and seriously injure
over 17,000 Americans. There have been gruesome and tragic elevator accidents that
have resulted in severe injuries and even death. Elevator accidents can harm both
innocent passengers and the construction workers who service and build them.

Elevator manufacturers, owners, and service companies have a responsibility

to ensure the safety of passengers. The safety and well-being of many is
compromised when inspections and safety procedures are not abided by. Elevators
are essential for people who are unable to use stairs and in tall buildings where
stairwells are not a feasible route. Passengers should not have to question their safety
when they step inside an elevator.

4.3.31 Structure Failure on construction site

By definition, a structure failure takes place when a building or other

structure breaks in such a way that it cannot carry as great a load as it could before

failure. Structure failures can be catastrophic and result in major injury and loss of

4.3.32 Building Collapse on construction site

Building collapse can be caused by bad design, faulty construction,

foundation failure, extraordinary loads, unexpected failure, or any combination of
these causes. A construction worker's worst nightmares are realized if he or she is in
a building during its collapse. Victims may be injured, crushed or killed as debris and
materials fall down around them.

Most structures are built properly and to code, diminishing the possibility of
building collapse. However, when a collapse takes place it is a failure of many and a
manifestation of irresponsibility and incompetence. Architects and designers have an
obligation to the safety of the public, and when this obligation is not met
consequences can be tragic.

4.3.33 Construction Site Supervisor Negligence

Construction supervisors have a great deal of responsibility. In addition to

managing project constraints including deadlines, supervisors must also address the
safety of their co-workers. This includes the administration of safety procedures and
guidelines as well as the enforcement of these policies. Supervisor negligence can
result in serious injury and even death on the job.

4.3.34 Compressor Accidents

Compressors are used at construction sites to provide power for many of the
tools and utilities used by workers. Air compressors and gas compressors are very
common, and with their use is an accompanying increased risk to workers.
Employees must exercise special caution when working with or around compressors
of any kind.
OSHA has established guidelines for construction workers and supervisors to
follow when using compressors. Compressor accidents can result in serious injury
and even death. However, with proper care and attention these mishaps are entirely
preventable. When supervisors and workers lapse in their vigilance, compressor
accidents can be fatal.

4.3.35 Exploding Compressor

Compressor explosions can lead to disastrous consequences. A variety of

circumstances may lead to an exploding compressor. These include inadequate
training, faulty safety practices, and poor compressor quality. However, when all of
these factors are appropriately addressed compressor explosions are entirely

4.3.36 Gas Explosions on a construction site

Gas explosions are caused by an ignition source coming into contact with a
gas leak. Construction workers must always remain alert to the presence of gas leaks.
Gas can be a silent killer, filling an area with flammable toxins while going
unnoticed by most people. When a flame or other source of ignition is introduced to
a gaseous environment, the resulting gas explosion can be catastrophic.

4.4 Conclusions

The best ways to mitigate accident are good construction practices, utmost
care, effective inspection, and strict enforcement of high standards of care. However,
the above are the most common practices which do not conform to policies and
procedures of safety. Unsafe practices/conditions are often seen in every construction
project all over the world and would be impossible to eliminate as humans are not
perfect but by having strict regulation on safety such as in developed countries it can
be reduced the consequences of most common type of construction accidents.


5.1 Safety and Health Requirements

Three construction companies‘ safety manuals, the safety and health

requirements in pre-cast constructions were extracted. The Safety and Health
requirements can be divided into safety and health programme and Safety and Health
measures which include Physical Measures and Health Measures. Table 5.1 shows
these requirements. Based on the safety manuals all companies apply all safety and
health requirements according to OSHA1994 Act and FMA1967 Act regulations,
however site visit reveals that most companies did not comply with those regulations.
Thus, they prepared the safety manual in order to get the approval from the DOSH to
start the project. At the site they simply ignore the safety programme and health
measures and only applied the physical measures. Furthermore, they did not apply all
the physical measures needed in the project in order to minimize the safety cost as
less as they can. This practice makes the safety cost low but it does not provide good
safety standard and expose the labours and employees to risk of accidents.

Table 5.1: Safety and Health Requirements in pre-cast construction

I. Safety and Health programme:

1. Safety and Health Officer
2. Safety and Health Committee
3. Safety and health inspection
4. Safety and health reports
5. Labour training programme in the SH regulations
II. Safety and Health Measures
A. Physical Measures
1. Personal Protective Equipment cost
2. Fall Protection, Safety (Anti-Fall) Net
3. Scaffolding and Lift Safety
4. Overhead Shelters
5. Peripheral Overhead Shelters
6. Barricades to Lift Openings
7. Suspended Scaffolds
8. Enhanced Hoarding
9. Tower Cranes & Tall Equipment
10. Mobile Cranes
11. Access for Mobile Crane and Piling Machines
12.Lifting Gears
13. Temporary Chute for the Removal Debris
14. Warning Signs and Lights
15. Housekeeping
16. Temporary Staircases
17. Safety Signboard & Assembly Stage
18. Safety Reflective Apparel
19. Work in Confined Space
B. Health Measures
1. Noise Management
2. First-Aid
a) First-aid facilities
b) First-aid boxes
c) First-aid room
d) Training and re-training of first-aiders
e) First-aid treatment procedures
f) First aid exposure to toxic /corrosive substances

g) Standard procedures
h) Special procedures , e.g. for poisoning
i) Maintenance of first-aid facilities
j) employee as first-aiders

5.2 Case study

The collected data is based on case study of a 100 unit‘s multi-storey on Semi
Precast Concrete Project of TAMAN EHSAN JAYA. The main purpose of gathering
data is to build a simulation model by using Witness 2001 software .Two simulation
models have been programmed in Witness 2001 to reveal the completion time at
increase level of safety.The first model is one hundred houses (100) simulation while
the second model is two hundred houses (200). After the completion of the models,
statistical process analyses having been carried out with time reducing to get the
optimum completion time for each model. In fact, the optimization is to check the
simulation model, and to examine the time completion for each tested process. And
also to study affect of accidents to overall process completion time as shown in
Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1: Simulation Model For one hundred unit houses

The main outputs of this sequential model are: the completion period of the
project activities that are collected over time. The model yield of the completion time
of 19 months (478 working days). Further more its assumed that by occurrence of
accidents the overall project time have been increased by 505 working days as shown
in Figures 5.2.

The accidents bring loss to project which can be broken into:

• Lost working hours of an injured employee.
• Cost of repair or replacement of property damage, whether it is equipment
or an element of the permanent construction.
• Insurance premiums increase




































Figure 5.2: Effects of accidents to overall completion time

Whenever an injury occurs, the productivity rate decreased and the crew is
forced to work shorthanded. Obviously, this results in a crew that is not as productive
as the time prior to the accident. This often resulted in a crew of seven being reduced
to a crew of six. It was estimated that the crew productivity was approximately 90
percent of the pre-accident level and that this was sustained over a period of about 47
days. This equates to a loss of twenty eight (28) days of worker time (0.1 X47days X
6 workers). As shown in Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.3: Simulation model for one hundred unit houses

































Figure 5.4: Effects of accidents to overall completion time

The main outputs of this sequential model are: the completion period of the
project activities that are collected over time. The model yield of the completion time
of 19 months (680 working days). Further more its assumed that by occurrence of
accidents the overall project time have been increased by 705 working days as shown

in Figure 5.3.

Whenever an injury occurs, the productivity rate decreased and the crew is
forced to work shorthanded. Obviously, this results in a crew that is not as productive
as the time prior to the accident. This often resulted in a crew of seven being reduced
to a crew of six. It was estimated that the crew productivity was approximately 94
percent of the pre-accident level and that this was sustained over a period of about 68
days. This equates to a loss of twenty eight (25) days of worker time (0.06 X68 days
X 6 workers). As shown in Figure 5.4


6.1 Conclusion

As mentioned in chapter one that the aim of this research is to simulate time effect
on construction process by Witness 2001, documents study as well as safety
practices. Effort to facilitate the achievement of this aim, some conclusions for this
research will be drowned and recommendations to improve the safety in construction
industry will be highlighted.

From this study, there are four significant conclusions can be drawn. There are:

i. Collected data were 100 unites semi-precast concrete construction project

focuses on the completion time period needed of all activities and these data
have been used in building the simulation model in Witness (2001) software.
After the completion of the models, statistical process analyses having been
carried out to check the effect of safety to overall process completion time.
Actually, change of parameters of the model components can be performed
easily using such software

ii. The consequences of a time overrun are almost always serious and hard to

resolve failure to meet deadlines represents financial losses to the users and it
has a negative impact on the profitability of the project for promoters thus the
optimization of time and cost can only be achieved with compliance of standard
safety management system.

iii. Most contractors do not have a proper documented safety management system
laid down clearly in the safety manuals

iv. The best ways to mitigate accident are good construction practices, utmost care,
effective inspection, and strict enforcement of high standards of care. However,
the above are the most common practices which do not conform to policies and
procedures of safety. Unsafe practices/conditions are often seen in every
construction project all over the world and would be impossible to eliminate as
humans are not perfect but by having strict regulation on safety such as in
developed countries it can be reduced the consequences of most common type
of construction accidents.

6.2 Recommendation

a) High rates of injury are primarily due to inadequate or non-existence of

an OSH management system. Many occupational accidents and injuries
are due to a breakdown in the existing OSH management system.
Therefore, the application of an ‗effective‘ management can lead to safer
systems of construction and reduce incidence of injuries and work related

b) Future studies should compare accident rates of companies with their

safety program scores, to see if they correlate with one another.

c) The extracting the safety requirements in pre-cast construction by


studying construction companies‘ safety manuals should be done on more

than three safety manuals.

1. Abdul Kadir Marsono et al. (2006),―Simulation of Industrialized Building

System‖, APSEC, Kuala Lumpur

2. The maintenance of construction safety: riding on ISO 9000 quality

management Systems by Low Sui Pheng and Sua Chen Shiua National
University of Singapore

3. Rafiq M. Choudhry ASCE / JANUARY 2008 Safety Management in

Construction: Best Practices in Hong Kong

4. Owner‘s Role in Construction Safety (Xinyu Huang1 and Jimmie Hinze2)



6. OSHA 2202 - 2002 (Revised) Construction Industry Digest

7. Accident data prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov)

8. www.resource4constructionsiteaccidents.com/topics/typesofconstructionsitea

9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_family_homes

10. Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), Malaysia (2006),


―Industrialized building system in Malaysia‖ published by the Construction

Technology Development Division, P200.

11. Ng Soon Ching (2006), ―Simulation of Industrialized building System‖,

Master Thesis, UTM.

12. Wisam Mohamad S. Masod (2007), ―Simulation of Allocation Activities of

Logistic for Semi-Precast Concrete Construction Case Study‖, Master Thesis,

13. Mohammed Taher Alashwal(2007) ―Safety cost in pre-cast concrete

construction‖ Master Thesis, UTM