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Water supply 5

5.1 Introduction

Water supplement system is referring to the piped water network in the housing area. When the
users turn on the tap in bathroom or kitchen, they can instantly access to the clean water supply.
Water supplement system is designed to achieve the adequate water supply for the users of the
area. The amount of water supply should be known to specify the size of the water storage tank
and to determine the most economical size of the pipe used. Generally, water supply system is the
water distribution network that exist in a building. Water reticulation system design includes the
design of pipelines, diameter of pipe, size of water storage tank and water demand of residents.
Besides that, the scientific principles of pressure and the energy created during delivering the water
to its destination is applied in designing water reticulation system. Water Supply is designed to
satisfy the domestic, commercial and industrial water needs and firefighting purposes. Scopes of
the work inn water reticulation system involves:

i. Determination of the location of elevated water tank and suction tank.

ii. Purpose the type of pipe for water reticulation.
iii. Propose the connection to existing pipe.
The design and construction of water supply complies with the Malaysian Water Association
Design Guidelines for Water Supply System. Design based on the local government’s
requirements, Akta Industri Perkhidmatan Air 2006, JKR standard. Water demand of the quarters
is obtained for designing water reticulation.

5.2 System Evaluation and Design

The designing and evaluating of community water supply distribution systems has to consider
the amount of water for the commercial interests, governmental property, educational facilities,
and all classifications of residential property as presented above in a general relationship to
average and maximum daily consumption demand.
5.3 Basic Concepts in Determining Design Flow

The first step in evaluating or designing a water delivery system is to determine design flows for
all of the representative built-upon regions of the community and the community expansion plans.
The fundamentals of calculating water system design flow are as follows:

i. Determine the average daily demand.

ii. Determine the maximum daily demand or estimate it from the average daily demand.

iii. Determine the maximum hourly demand from consumption records or for new areas of
the community, estimate from the average daily rate.

iv. Determine the ISO needed fire flow. Actually, two methods of determining fire flow are
presented for evaluation but only the ISO method is used for establishing PPCs advisory
insurance rates used by most property and casualty underwriters.

v. Determine the required flow for sprinkler system requirements plus a supplemental
allowance for fire streams if a commercial property is protected by an automatic sprinkler

vi. Select an appropriate design flow for the community water system. This is the greater of
the following two conditions: either the sum of the required fire flow for the most
stringent situation which, not considering property protected by automatic sprinklers,
plus the maximum daily consumption demand; or the maximum hourly demand,
whichever is greater.

The community water supply planning group must exercise good judgment based on the
facts at this point. The following example makes this point very clear. It relates to
communities that have manufacturing plants or seasonal agricultural processing and
canning plants.
5.4 System Criteria

i. Normal minimum working pressure in the distribution system should be approximately

50 psi and not less than 35 psi during a maximum hour. A normal working pressure in
most systems will vary between 50 and 56 psi.

ii. System must be designed to maintain a minimum pressure of 20 psi at ground level at all
fire hydrants on the distribution system under required fire flow conditions.

iii. Maximum day demand is 1.5 times the average daily demand.

iv. Maximum hour demand is 2.25 times the average daily demand.

5.5 Design Factor

5.6 Types of Pipes Use In Water Supply

a) Asbestos Cement (AC).

b) Polyvinyl Chlorine (PVC).
c) Galvanized Iron (GI).
d) Mild Steel (MS).
e) Concrete Pipes.
f) Iron Pipes.
5.7 Proposed Water Supply

i. Water Demand

*Sources: Akta Industri Perkhidmatan Air 2006

Description: Commercial building
A = 3250 m2
Average: 1000 liters per 100 m2
Demand: 32500 liters / day
5.3 Estimation of Fire Flow Requirement

Table 14.18 – JKR Standards
ii. Distributer Pipe Network

The distribution and reticulation pipe network system shall be designed to convey water for
community and fire fighter purposes.

The design criteria are summarized as below:

1 Minimum pipe size : 300 mm diameter

2 Minimum residual pressure draw off : 15 m

3 Peak factor : 2.5 average flow spacing

at 100mm apart

4 Fire flow : 1 stream at 300 igpm

5 Minimum Pressure at hydrant : 8m

6 Type of pipe : Polyvinyl Chlorine

7 Average Total Flow : 2700 litre/minute (class B)

Fire Flow

Q peak = 32500 liter/day x 1day/ (24x60x60)s

= 0.38 liter/s

= 0.38 liter/s x 2.5

= 0.95 liter/s

Fire Flow = 0.95 liter/s x 1 Assume V=1 L/s

= 0.95
Water Flow and Diameter

A = π (0.3)2/ 4
= 70.69 x10-3 m2

Q = AV
V = Q/A
= 3.762 x 10-4/ 70.69 x 10-3
= 5.322 x 10-3 m/s
= 0.5322 x 10-4 m/s

Water Tank Design

Total demand per day is 0.38 litre/s = 32.5 m3 /day

Proposed size water tank:

Amount of water tank for building = 32500 liter / day
Free-board of water tank, x = 0.1m
Diameter, d = 7m
Height, h = 2.5 m
Geometry of water tank = cylindrical water tank

Volume of tank

V = d2(h-x)/4
= (7)2(2.5 – 0.1)/4
= 227.77 x 3 = 92.316 m3/day > 32.5m3/day (OK)
* Thus, the size of water tank chosen is 7.0 m
in diameter and 2.5.0 m in height. Thus, the type 2.5 m
of tank is steel water tank.
7.0 m

Class risk: B

Description: Congested areas with buildings up to 5 storey

Average total flow: 2700 litre per minute

Spannning: 90 metre

Maximum number of hydrant

outlets used simultaneously: 2 @ 1370 litre per minute

Demand: 2740 litre per minute = 3.95 x 106 litre per day

= 457 x 10-4 m3/sec

5.3 Flow Rate and Velocity of Water Supply

Water demand = demand for building + fire flow requirement

= 376+ x 10-4 + 457 x 10-4

= 83.3 x 10-3 m3/sec

Application Maximum Velocity (m/s)

Tap water (low noise) 0.5 – 0.7

Tap water 1 – 2.5

Cooling water 1.5 – 2.5

Suction boiler feed water 0.5 – 1.0

Discharge boiler feed water 1.5 – 2.5

Condensate 1.0 – 2.0

Heating circulation 1.0 – 3.0

As the table above shown the maximum velocity in a pipe is around 0.6 m/s, diameter of the pipe
can be proposed using formula

Q = AV

83.3 x 10-3 = (A) (0.6)

A = 0.0763 m2

A = 𝜋 r2

0.0763 = 𝜋 r2

r = 0.126 m

= 126mm

D(min) = 300 mm

Therefore, steel pipe with diameter of 300 mm is proposed.

Below shown the table of thickness of steel pipe.

*Sources: Syabas’ Standard Specification for Pipe Laying Woks