Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

Determination of parameters for hardening soil small strain model of Shanghai clay

and its application in deep excavations

Détermination des paramètres pour le modèle de dégradation de sols de petite taille de l'argile de
Shanghai et son application dans les fouilles profondes

W. D. Wang, Q. Li, Z. H. Xu,

Department of underground structures and geotechnical engineering, Shanghai underground space engineering design
and research institute, Arcplus group PLC, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Safety Control for Facilities Adjacent to Deep Excavations, Shanghai, People’s
Republic of China
J. Zhang.
Department of geotechnical engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

ABSTRACT: Investigation of the small strain stiffness of Shanghai clay layers is limited, although a great many underground projects
have been constructed over the past few decades. The strength and stiffness parameters of hardening soil small strain model (HSS) of
the clay layers have been determined from a comprehensive series of tests. Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, secant stiffness in
triaxial tests, tangent stiffness for oedometer primary loading, unloading/reloading stiffness and the power for stress-level dependency
of stiffness have been deduced. Shear stiffness at small strains has been investigated in laboratory using a resonant column apparatus
equipped with bender elements. The shear modulus at small strains G0 and the reference shear strain parameter 0.7 are determined.
Three-dimensional finite analysis using the obtained HSS parameters has been carried out on a deep excavation adjacent to existing
buildings. Finally, all results are compared with field monitoring data.

RÉSUMÉ : L'étude de la faible rigidité de la couche d'argile de Shanghai est limitée, bien qu'un grand nombre de projets souterrains
aient été construits au cours des dernières décennies. Les paramètres de résistance et de raideur du modèle de déformation à petites
contraintes du sol durci des couches d'argile ont été déterminés à partir d'une série complète de tests. On a déduit les paramètres de
résistance de Mohr-Coulomb, la rigidité sécante dans les essais triaxiaux, la régularité tangentielle pour le chargement primaire de
l'oedomètre, la rigidité du déchargement/rechargement et la puissance pour la dépendance au niveau du stress de la raideur. La rigidité
au cisaillement à de petites souches a été étudiée en laboratoire en utilisant un appareil de colonne résonante équipé d'éléments de
pliage. Le module de cisaillement aux petites souches G0 et le paramètre de contrainte de cisaillement de référence 0.7 sont
déterminés. Une analyse finie tridimensionnelle utilisant les paramètres HSS obtenus a été effectuée sur une excavation profonde
adjacente à des bâtiments existants. Enfin, tous les résultats sont comparés aux données de surveillance sur le terrain.
KEYWORDS: Shanghai clay, hardening soil small strain model, laboratory test, finite element analysis

parameters can be referred to Benz. A modified hyperbolic

lawis utilized to describe the sitffness degradation bevhaviour at
1 INTRODUCTION small strains in HSS model. Two addtional parameters, i.e.,
Shanghai is situated on Yangtze River delta where fairly maximum small strain stiffness G0 and reference shear strain 0.7
uniform soil layers are stratified. The uppermost 30 m of the are hecne required to govern the stiffness at a certain strain level.
t (kN/m ) w (%) e su (kPa)
soil deposits are generally encountered in engineering projects Profile 17 18 19 2021 15 35 55 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 0 20 40 6080
and typically categorized into six layers as indicated in Figure 1. 0

Investigation on basic properties of Shanghai clay has been ② Peak strength
widely carried out (Gao et al., 1986; Dassargues et al., 1991; 5

Gao et al., 2004; Sun et al., 2010). Rapid development of local
strain measurement equipment has made it possible to capture 10
Depth (m)

soil behaviour specifically stiffness at small strains. It has been ④

recognized that strains in the ground around underground 15
structures such excavations and tunnesl are small. Only if small
strain stiffness parameters are provided, can realistic predictions 20

of the ground movements associated with such construction be
made aprropriatedly (Clayton, 2011). Although a large number wn Residual
⑥ wL
of underground projects have been constructed over the past wP
few decades, reasearch on small strain stiffness of typical
Figure 1. Typical soil profile and properties in Shanghai (uppermost 30
Shanghai clay layers is rather limitted. m blow the surface). ①-Fill;②-Silty clay;③-Soft silty clay;④-Soft clay;
Nowadays, some commercial softwares incorporate small ⑤-Silty clay; ⑥-Stiff clay
strain soil models to to simulte non-linear soil beaviour at small In this paper, the HSS model parameters of typical Shanghai
strains and to investigate complex soil-structure interaction clay layers have been determined and assessed by using field
problems. PLAXIS (PLAXIS, 2015) is one of such softwares in and laboratory test data. Moreover, a finite element analysis to
which Hardening small strain soil model (HSS) is adopted. The predict the response of a deep excavation constructed adjacent
HSS model is a development of Hardeing soil model (HS), to historic buildings was carried out. Measured and computed
incoprating soil stiffness at small strains (Benz, 2007). As wall displacements and building settlements are compared and
tabulated in Table 1, a total of 10 paramters are requred in the the effect of small strain stiffness on the prediction results has
HS model. The details of formulation and verification of these been discussed.

- 2065 -
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Seoul 2017

Table 1 Parameters of Hardening soil small strain (HSS) model parameters E50ref and Eurref are determined based on the results of
Parameters Description and parameter determination drained triaxial tests. As shown in Figure 3(b), the E50ref / E oed
c' Cohesion-intercept of Mohr-Coulomb failure line ranges from 0.9 to 1.68, which is comparable to that of Lacustrine
' Friction angle-slope of Mohr-Coulomb failure line clay reported by Schweiger et al.(2009). It is also indicated in the
 Dilation angle- d p / d p
v s
figure that the E50ref / E oed
value is highly dependent on soil type. The
Rf Failure ratio-(1-3)f/(1-3)ult stiff Gault clay (Ng, 1992) is larger than relatively soft Bangkok
E oed Reference tangent stiffness - y intercept of log(1/pref)-log(oed) clay (Surarak et al., 2012). The Eurref / E50ref values at these two sites
E50ref Reference secant stiffness - y intercept of log(3/pref)-log(50) are scattered ranging from 3.6 to 9.3. According to the above
Eurref Reference un/reloading stiffness-y intercept of log(3/pref)-log(ur) relationship among different parameters, engineers can estimate the
m Exponential ratio-slope of trend line of log(3/pref)-log(50) stiffness parameters needed in the HS model based on Es1-2 value.
ur Poisson’s ratio- varied among different type of soil The failure ratio Rf of Layer ③ and ④ generally fall within the rage
 At rest earth pressure coefficient-(1-sin  ') of 0.5-0.7, while this value is larger (about 0.9-0.97) for Layer ②,
G0Ref Reference small strain shear modulus ⑤ and ⑥, which are stiffer.
 Shear strain at 0.7G0-deduced from G/G0-log 
Notes: pref=100kPa; 1、 are major and minor principal stresses 30
oed= 0.9Es1~2
Site A
Layer ②
6 Layer ③ (R2=0.97) 9.3 3.6
Layer ④

2.1 Sampling and testing programme

Site B

3 Layer ②
Layer ③
Soil samples were taken from two sites by using thin wall open- 2
Layer ④ 20

tube sampler. Each tube was 500 mm long with an inner

C la
1 Layer ⑤

Layer ⑥
diameter of 75 mm. To derive soil parameters of HS model,



oedometer tests, consolidated undrained and drained triaxial 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Eur (MPa)

Es1~2 (MPa) 15


tests and consolidated drained loading-unloading-reloading


C la

triaxial tests have been carried out. Shear stiffness at small



g, 19

strains has been investigated in laboratory using a resonant 0.9


u et

y (N

column apparatus equipped with bender elements.

y (O
lt Cla

5 lay

E50 (MPa)


Parameters of HS model

2.2 4 ft Ba
ei S



3 5
Figure 2 shows a summary of the Mohr-Coulomb strength
parameters of typical Shanghai clay layers obtained from 2

istropically consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests. The 1 Lacustrine clay (Schweiger et al., 2009)
friction angles of the clay layers are consistent, almost ranging from 0
Soft Bangkok clay (Surarak et al., 2012)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
27° to 30°. But it needs to be reminded that strength parameters ref )
E50 (MPa)
(b) Eoed (MPa)
should be carefully evaluated according to applied stress state and
stress path resulted from actual construction sequence. The failure
Figure 3. Relationship among E oed , E50ref , E urref and Es1-2
ratio shown in the figure will be discussed later on.
Friction angle 
Failure ratio Rf
2.3 Small strain parameters of HSS model
20 25 30 35 40 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 3000
0 Layer ②
① Fill Layer ③ Regression analysis
2500 ③
② Clay Layer ④ G0  p' 

5 ④ ④
Layer④⑤  S 
pr  pr 
③ Soft silty clay 2000 Layer ⑥

G 0/ p r
Depth (m)

④ Soft clay
15 1000

Layer ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥
20 500 S 742 484 467 677 1227
n 0.62 0.77 0.68 0.67 0.45
⑤ Silty clay R2 0.99 0.99 0.998 0.997 0.998
25 0 1 2 3 4 5
' '
Site A p /pr
⑥ Stiff clay
Site B Figure 4. Variation of G0/pr’ with p’/ pr’
Figure 2. Strength parameters for Shanghai clay Figure 4 summaries the maximum shear stiffness G0 from
The reference stiffness parameter E oed
derived from oedometer bender element test. It is found that maximum shear moduli of
tests is shown and compared with and Es1-2 in Figure 3(a). Es1-2 is each layer all increase with an increase of confining stress. The
referred to as compression modulus under vertical stresses from 100 relationship between normalized G0 and the stress state can be
to 200 kPa, which is an import engineering parameter provided in
G0  p' 
expressed as pr
 S  (Rampellp et al., 1997), where S, n are
geotechnical investigation report in mainland of China. The E oed ref  pr 

value generally increases with the depth of the clay layer except for empirical parameters associated with soil properties and can be
Layer ② , which is considered to be over-consolidated to some derived by regression analysis. It is shown that the relationship
between normalized G0/pr’ can be described pretty well by the
extent. By regression analysis, the E oed value is found to be
approximately 0.9 times Es1-2. The other two reference stiffness above empirical equation.

- 2066 -
Technical Committee 207 / Comité technique 207

120 model consists of 107746 elements and a total of 178937 nodes.

② (3m)
③ (5.5m) The movements in all directions and rotations are fixed at the
100 ③ (7.5m) bottom of the mesh. Roller boundaries are adopted for the
④ (10.5m) vertical faces of the mesh. As illustrated in Figure 7(b), the three
Shear modulus G (MPa)

④ (17.0m)
⑤ (19.0m) buildings adjacent to the excavation had been reinforced by 30
⑥ (25.5m) m-long steel encased concrete underpinning piles, which were
60 simulated by the embedded pile model. The input parameters of
HSS model is summarized in Table 2.
JZ38 Nor th building
(5-stor y)
20 CX11
Main building
JZ35 South building (5-stor y)
JZ34 (4-stor y)
0 JZ25

0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1

JZ32 JZ30 JZ28 JZ26 JZ23 JZ21 JZ17

(a) Shear strain  (%)


② (3m)
0.4 ③ (5.5m)
③ (7.5m)
④ (10.5m)
Figure 6. Plan view of the Dingding Bund site and instrumentations
0.2 ④ (17.0m)
⑤ (19.0m)
0.1 ⑥ (25.5m) 0.7≈2.7×10

0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1
(b) Shear strain  (%)
Figure 5. Variation of small strain shear stiffness G0 (G0/pr’) with shear strain 
A complete stiffness degradation curve is established by
combining the results of both bender element tests and resonant
column tests. As shown in Figure 5, the magnitude of shear
stiffness at small strains obtained from resonant column tests
agrees well with that from bender element tests, indicating the (a)
reliability of the laboratory tests carried out. The shear stiffness
is almost constant until =0.001%, beyond which the stiffness
keeps decreasing. Then, the degradation curve of each layer is
normalized by its maximum shear stiffness G0. It is found that
the normalized curves are almost overlapped, giving a value
of about 2.7×10-4, which fall in the lower range of the database
of 21 clays collected by Vardanega and Bolton (2013). ild i
g So in g
ui ld in u ild
in b rt hb
Ma No Under pinning
3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A CASE HISTRORY (steel cased concr ete piles )

The Dingding Bund project located in downtown Shanghai has


a four-story basement. Figure 6 shows the plan view of the site.

The construction of the basement involved an excavation of
20000m2 in area and 20.2m in depth supported by diaphragm (b)
walls. The environments in the proximity of the excavation are
complicated. There are three buildings, i.e., main building, Figure 7. (a) 3D model and mesh generation; (b) details of underpinning piles
south and north building, which were built in 1906 and have Lateral wall displacement (mm) Lateral wall displacement(mm)
been preserved as historical buildings on the northeast. The 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
main building is a 5-story composite structure, made of brick, 0 0

wood, steel and reinforced concrete, founded on isolated 5 Stage 2 5 Stage 2

reinforced concrete footing. The south and north buildings are 10
Stage 3
10 Stage 3
4-story reinforce concrete structure and 5-story steel and 15
Stage 4
Stage 4
Stage 5
concrete composite structure, respectively. Both are founded on Stage 6
Stage 5
Stage 6
20 20
isolated reinforced concrete footings as well. The closest
distance from the excavation to the buildings is only 3.0m. 25
Depth (m)

Depth (m)

Figure 7(a) shows a 3D view of the finite element mesh 30 30

generated in the Plaxis software (PLAXIS, 2015). The model 35 35 Excavate to -6.3m
consists of subsoil layers, retaining structures, struts, and 40 40
Excavate to -10.3m
Excavate to -13.9m
buildings. All soil layers were modeled using 10-node elements. Excavate to -17.3m
45 45
The buildings are modeled by 6-node triangular plate elements Excavate to -20.2m
(shell), while the struts are simulated by beam elements. The 50
length of the mesh in the lateral (x) direction is 438m. The 55 55

width (y) and depth (z) are 340m and 63m, respectively. The Figure 8. Measured and computed lateral wall displacements

- 2067 -
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Seoul 2017

Table 2 Input parameters of HSS model in numerical analysis

h γ ref
Eoed E50ref Eurref G0ref c' φ' ψ pref
Soil layer γ0.7 νur m Rinter Rf
(m) (kN/m3) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (kPa) (º) (º) (kPa)
Silty clay 1.3 18.2 3.4 4.1 23.7 94.8 1 28 0 2×10-4 0.2 100 0.8 0.65 0.9
Soft silty clay 5.6 17.5 2.8 3.4 19.8 79.1 1 26 0 2×10-4 0.2 100 0.8 0.65 0.6
Soft clay 8.9 16.8 1.9 2.2 13 52.2 1 23 0 2×10-4 0.2 100 0.8 0.65 0.6
Firm clay 3.0 18.0 4 4.8 28 111.9 1 29 0 2×10-4 0.2 100 0.8 0.65 0.9
Stiff silty clay 29 19.6 6.9 8.3 48.5 194 1 30 0 2×10-4 0.2 100 0.8 0.65 0.9
Fine sand 18 19.1 10.5 10.5 42 210 1 33 3 2×10-4 0.2 100 0.5 0.7 0.9
eestablished for ease of engineering application. Based on
Measured and computed lateral wall displacements arising resonant column tests equipped with bender elements, an
from stage 2 to stage 6 are compared and shown in Figure 8. empirical equation between small strain stiffness G0 and stress
The computed wall displacements agree fairly well with the states has been given. The good agreement between the
measured data, while the computed results yield a slight over- computed results of the three-dimensional finite element results
prediction of wall displacement near the toe of the wall. This is and the field monitoring data indicates the applicability of HSS
partly attributed to the fact that soil improvement beneath the model in numerical analysis on such complex excavation in
formation level was not simulated in finite element analysis Shanghai.

Building settlement (mm)

The work presented in this paper was sponsored by Science and
-30 Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality through the
JZ1-19 research grant - Shanghai Pujiang Program (No. 15PJ1433500).
JZ1-22 JZ1-28 JZ1-32 The authors would like to acknowledge contributions made by
-50 JZ1-17
JZ1-21 JZ1-23
JZ1-24 JZ1-26
Mr. Chen Chang and Mr. Li Jing from Shanghai underground
-60 JZ1-25 space engineering design and research institute for their help in
providing field monitoring and computed data.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
(a) Chainage (m)
-10 North Computed Benz, T. (2007). Small-strain stiffness of soils and its numerical
Building settlement (mm)

-20 Main consequence. PHD thesis, Institute of Geotechnical Engineering,

South University of Stuttgart, Germany,
Clayton, C. R. I. (2011). Stiffness at small strain: Research and practice.
Géotechnique, 61(1), 5-37.
Dassargues, A., Biver, P. and Monjoie, A. (1991). Geotechnical
JZ1-33 properties of the Quaternary sediments in Shanghai. Engineering
-60 JZ1-35 Geology, 31(1), 71-90.
Gao, D. Z., Wei, D. D. and Hu, Z, X. (1986). Geotechnical properties of
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Shanghai soils and engineering applications. ASTM Special
(b) Chainage (m) Technical Publication, 161-177.
Figure 9. Comparison of measured and computed building settlements Gao, Y. B., Zhu, H. H., B., Ye. G. and Xu, C. (2004). The investigation
of the coefficient of secondary compression C in oedometer tests.
Figure 9 shows the comparison of measured and computed Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 26(4), 459-463. (in
building settlements when the basement was excavated the Chinese)
formation level. It should be pointed out that the historical Li, Q., Wang, W. D. and Xu, Z. H. (2015). Design and behaviour of a
buildings had not been underpinned when diaphragm walls and deep large excavation adjacent to existing buildings and tunnels. In
piles were constructed. Therefore, the unreinforced buildings Proceedings of International Conference on Geotechnical
Engineering. Colombo, Sri Lanka, 455-458.
were weak and the settlements caused by the construction of Ng, C. W. W. (1992). An evaluation of soil-structure interaction
diaphragm walls were roughly 30mm. After completion of associated with a multi-propped excavation. Ph.D.
underpinning work, some additional settlement of around 20 to Thesis,University of Bristol, Bristol, UK,
30mm occurred as the excavation proceeded (Li et al., 2015). PLAXIS (2015). PLAXIS 3D aniversary edition-reference manual.
The computed results are in line with the monitoring data while Netherlands.
they are slightly less than the measured settlement at most Rampellp, S., B., Viggiani. G. M. and Amorosi, A. (1997). Small-strain
chainages. It is implied the input parameters of the HSS model stiffness of reconstituted clay compressed along contant triaxial
is applicable in finite element analysis on deep excavations with effective stress ratio paths. Geotechnique, 47(3), 475-489.
Schweiger, H. F., Scharinger, F. and Lüftenegger, R. (2009). 3D finite
such complex environments.
element analysis of a deep excavation and comparison with in-situ
measurements. Geotechnical aspects of Underground Construction
in Soft Ground, London, 193-199.
4 CONCLUSIONS Sun, D. A., Chen, B. and Zhou, K. (2010). Experimental study of
compression and shear deformation characteristics of remolded
The strength and stiffness parameters for hardening soil small Shanghai soft clay. Yantu Lixue/Rock and Soil Mechanics, 31(5),
strain model (HSS) of typical Shanghai clay layers have been 1389-1394. (in Chinese)
investigated and determined from a series of laboratory tests. Surarak, C., Likitlersuang, S., Wanatowski, D., Balasubramaniam, A.,
Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, secant stiffness in triaxial Oh, E. and Guan, H. (2012). Stiffness and strength parameters for
tests, tangent stiffness for oedometer primary loading, hardeing soil model of soft and stiff Bangkok clays. Soils and
unloading/reloading stiffness and the power for stress-level Foundations, 52(4), 682-697.
Vardanega, P. J. and Bolton, M. D. (2013). Stiffness of clays and silts:
dependency of stiffness have been deduced. An correlation
normalizing shear modulus and shear strain. Journal of Geotechnical
between stiffness parameters E oed , E50 , E ur and Es1-2 has been
ref ref

and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 139(9), 1575-1589.

- 2068 -